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chronic kidney injury

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737594/identifying-risk-for-acute-kidney-injury-in-infants-and-children-following-cardiac-arrest
#1
Tara M Neumayr, Jeff Gill, Julie C Fitzgerald, Avihu Z Gazit, Jose A Pineda, Robert A Berg, J Michael Dean, Frank W Moler, Allan Doctor
OBJECTIVES: Our goal was to identify risk factors for acute kidney injury in children surviving cardiac arrest. DESIGN: Retrospective analysis of a public access dataset. SETTING: Fifteen children's hospitals associated with the Pediatric Emergency Care Applied Research Network. PATIENTS: Two hundred ninety-six subjects between 1 day and 18 years old who experienced in-hospital or out-of-hospital cardiac arrest between July 1, 2003, and December 31, 2004...
July 21, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737266/nephrolithiasis-a-complication-of-pediatric-diabetic-ketoacidosis
#2
Sungeeta Agrawal, Robin Kremsdorf, Serife Uysal, Meghan E Fredette, Lisa Swartz Topor
OBJECTIVE: To determine the frequency of nephrolithiasis as a complication of diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in pediatrics. METHODS: We performed a retrospective chart review of patients with DKA admitted to a pediatric hospital between January 2009 and July 2016. We identified patients with nephrolithiasis during admission for DKA. RESULTS: We identified 395 episodes of DKA over 7.5 years. Nephrolithiasis developed as a complication of DKA in 3 of those admissions (0...
July 24, 2017: Pediatric Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736435/extracellular-vesicles-in-renal-disease
#3
REVIEW
Diana Karpman, Anne-Lie Ståhl, Ida Arvidsson
Extracellular vesicles, such as exosomes and microvesicles, are host cell-derived packages of information that allow cell-cell communication and enable cells to rid themselves of unwanted substances. The release and uptake of extracellular vesicles has important physiological functions and may also contribute to the development and propagation of inflammatory, vascular, malignant, infectious and neurodegenerative diseases. This Review describes the different types of extracellular vesicles, how they are detected and the mechanisms by which they communicate with cells and transfer information...
July 24, 2017: Nature Reviews. Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735502/regenerative-medicine-in-kidney-disease-where-we-stand-and-where-to-go
#4
REVIEW
Fernanda T Borges, Nestor Schor
The kidney is a complex organ with more than 20 types of specialized cells that play an important role in maintaining the body's homeostasis. The epithelial tubular cell is formed during embryonic development and has little proliferative capacity under physiological conditions, but after acute injury the kidney does have regenerative capacity. However, after repetitive or severe lesions, it may undergo a maladaptation process that predisposes it to chronic kidney injury. Regenerative medicine includes various repair and regeneration techniques, and these have gained increasing attention in the scientific literature...
July 22, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735420/role-of-albumin-and-its-modifications-in-glomerular-injury
#5
REVIEW
Shipra Agrawal, William E Smoyer
Albuminuria is both a characteristic hallmark and a known risk factor for progressive glomerular disease. Although the molecular basis for a potential causative role for albuminuria in progressive chronic kidney disease remains poorly understood, there have been several recent advances in our understanding of the role of albumin, and its molecular modifications, in the development and progression of glomerular disease. This review discusses recent findings related to the ability of albumin and its associated factors to directly induce podocyte and glomerular injury...
July 22, 2017: Pflügers Archiv: European Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729036/molecular-mechanisms-of-renal-aging
#6
REVIEW
Roland Schmitt, Anette Melk
Epidemiologic, clinical, and molecular evidence suggest that aging is a major contributor to the increasing incidence of acute kidney injury and chronic kidney disease. The aging kidney undergoes complex changes that predispose to renal pathology. The underlying molecular mechanisms could be the target of therapeutic strategies in the future. Here, we summarize recent insight into cellular and molecular processes that have been shown to contribute to the renal aging phenotype.The main clinical finding of renal aging is the decrease in glomerular filtration rate, and its structural correlate is the loss of functioning nephrons...
July 17, 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724794/apol1-variants-change-c-terminal-conformational-dynamics-and-binding-to-snare-protein-vamp8
#7
Sethu M Madhavan, John F O'Toole, Martha Konieczkowski, Laura Barisoni, David B Thomas, Santhi Ganesan, Leslie A Bruggeman, Matthias Buck, John R Sedor
APOL1 variants in African populations mediate resistance to trypanosomal infection but increase risk for kidney diseases through unknown mechanisms. APOL1 is expressed in glomerular podocytes and does not vary with underlying kidney disease diagnoses or APOL1 genotypes, suggesting that the kidney disease-associated variants dysregulate its function rather than its localization or abundance. Structural homology searches identified vesicle-associated membrane protein 8 (VAMP8) as an APOL1 protein interactor. VAMP8 colocalizes with APOL1 in the podocyte, and the APOL1:VAMP8 interaction was confirmed biochemically and with surface plasmon resonance...
July 20, 2017: JCI Insight
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724610/developing-better-mouse-models-to-study-cisplatin-induced-kidney-injury
#8
Cierra N Sharp, Leah J Siskind
Cisplatin is a potent chemotherapeutic used for the treatment of many types of cancer. However, its dose-limiting side effect is nephrotoxicity leading to acute kidney injury (AKI) (29, 30). Patients who develop AKI have an increased risk of mortality and are more likely to develop chronic kidney disease (CKD) (5, 14, 31). Unfortunately, there are no therapeutic interventions for the treatment of AKI. It has been suggested that the lack of therapies is due in part to the fact that the established mouse model used to study cisplatin-induced AKI does not recapitulate the cisplatin dosing regimen patients receive (41)...
July 19, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28724608/erbb4-deletion-accelerates-renal-fibrosis-following-renal-injury
#9
Fenghua Zeng, Tomoki Miyazawa, Lance A Kloepfer, Raymond C Harris
Tubulointerstitial fibrosis (TIF) is a prominent factor in the progression of chronic kidney disease (CKD) regardless of etiology. ErbB4 expression levels were inversely correlated to renal fibrosis in human fibrotic kidneys. In both unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO) and ischemia reperfusion injury followed by uninephrectomy (IRI/UNx) mouse models, expression levels of ErbB4 were elevated in the early stage of renal injury. Using mice with global ErbB4 deletion except for transgenic rescue in cardiac tissue (ErbB4-/-ht+), we determined that UUO induced similar injury in proximal tubules compared to wild-type mice but more severe injury in distal nephrons...
July 19, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723681/inhibition-of-necroptosis-attenuates-kidney-inflammation-and-interstitial-fibrosis-induced-by-unilateral-ureteral-obstruction
#10
Xia Xiao, Chunyang Du, Zhe Yan, Yonghong Shi, Huijun Duan, Yunzhuo Ren
BACKGROUND: Inflammation plays a crucial role in renal interstitial fibrosis, the pathway of chronic kidney diseases. Necroptosis is a novel form of regulated cell death, which plays a potential role in inflammation and renal diseases. The small molecule necrostatin-1 (Nec-1) is a specific inhibitor of necroptosis. This study was aimed at determining the role of necroptosis, RIP1/RIP3/mixed lineage kinase domain-like (MLKL) signaling pathway, in renal inflammation and interstitial fibrosis related to primitive tubulointerstitial injury...
July 20, 2017: American Journal of Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723490/renal-preservation-and-partial-nephrectomy-patient-and-surgical-factors
#11
REVIEW
Lorenzo Marconi, Mihir M Desai, Vincenzo Ficarra, Francesco Porpiglia, Hendrik Van Poppel
CONTEXT: Optimization of the partial nephrectomy (PN) procedure in terms of preservation of functional outcomes is of special importance. OBJECTIVE: To review the most important patient and surgical factors that may influence the three elements that ultimately define the preservation of renal function (RF) after PN: preoperative RF, quantity of parenchyma preserved, and nephron recovery from ischemic insult. EVIDENCE ACQUISITION: A nonsystematic review of the literature was conducted...
December 15, 2016: European Urology Focus
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722618/clinical-evidence-of-acute-mesoamerican-nephropathy
#12
Rebecca S B Fischer, Sreedhar Mandayam, Denis Chavarria, Chandan Vangala, Melissa N Garcia, Linda L Garcia, Lesbia Palma, Felix Garcia, Ramón García-Trabanino, Kristy O Murray
Mesoamerican nephropathy (MeN), an epidemic of unexplained kidney disease in Central America, affects mostly young, healthy individuals. Its etiology is a mystery that requires urgent investigation. Largely described as a chronic kidney disease (CKD), no acute clinical scenario has been characterized. An understanding of the early disease process could elucidate an etiology and guide treatment and prevention efforts. We sought to document the earliest clinical signs in patients with suspected MeN in a high-risk population in Nicaragua...
July 17, 2017: American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721513/does-pyuria-always-suggest-urinary-tract-infection-with-common-microorganisms-questions
#13
Mehmet Taşdemir, Hüseyin Kaya, Zeynep Atam Taşdemir
Genitourinary system tuberculosis (GUTB) is a chronic granulomatous infection in which tuberculous bacilli affect one or more organs in the genitourinary system. In this report, an unusual presentation of miliary tuberculosis was presented as GUTB. A 15-year-old girl presented with complaints of severe abdominal pain and dysuria. Abdominal examination showed tenderness and defense. Pyuria and microscopic hematuria were observed. Acute abdominal causes could not be excluded through abdominal ultrasound. On abdominal computed tomography, a necrotic lesion was detected in the right kidney...
July 18, 2017: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720296/urinary-heat-shock-protein-72-as-a-biomarker-of-acute-kidney-injury-in-dogs
#14
Yaron Bruchim, Yochai Avital, Michal Horowitz, Michal Mazaki-Tovi, Itamar Aroch, Gilad Segev
Early recognition of acute kidney injury (AKI) is important, as therapy is potentially more efficacious if instituted early in the course of disease. Urinary heat shock protein-72 to urinary creatinine ratio (uHSP72/uCr) was assessed as a diagnostic and prognostic marker in AKI in dogs. Fifty-three dogs were enrolled in five groups: healthy controls (n=11), urinary tract infection (n=10), chronic kidney disease (CKD; n=11), AKI (n=13), and acute decompensating CKD (n=8). Urinary heat shock protein-72 to urinary creatinine ratio was highest in the AKI group (P<0...
July 2017: Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718614/emergency-management-of-renal-and-genitourinary-trauma-best-practices-update
#15
Whitney K. Bryant, Sanjay Shewakramani
In up to 10% of patients who experience abdominal trauma, renal and urogenital systems will be involved. In polytrauma patients with other potentially life-threatening injuries, renal and genitourinary trauma may be overlooked initially, but a delayed or missed diagnosis of these injuries may result in preventable complications. This review provides a best-practice approach to the diagnosis and management of renal and genitourinary injuries, with an emphasis on the systematic approach needed to identify subtle injuries and avoid long-term urinary sequelae such as hypertension, incontinence, erectile dysfunction, chronic kidney disease, and nephrectomy...
August 2017: Emergency Medicine Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28717377/appropriate-blood-component-therapy-can-reduce-postcardiac-surgery-acute-kidney-injury-through-packed-cell-transfusion-reduction
#16
Kianoush Saberi, Mehrdad Salehi, Mehrzad Rahmanian, Ali Reza Bakhshandeh, Gholam Reza Massoumi
BACKGROUND: Acute kidney injury (AKI) can happen due to different factors such as anemia. Packed cell (PC) transfusion is an important cause of AKI occurrence. The aim of the study is to investigate whether appropriate blood component (BC) therapy can reduce blood transfusion and it would result in AKI decreasing. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We conducted a cohort study of 1388 patients who underwent cardiac surgery in one university hospital. A serum creatinine higher than 2 mg/dl, renal disease history, renal replacement therapy (chronic dialysis) were our exclusion criteria...
2017: Journal of Research in Medical Sciences: the Official Journal of Isfahan University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715949/contrast-enhanced-ultrasound-for-assessing-renal-perfusion-impairment-and-predicting-acute-kidney-injury-to-chronic-kidney-disease-progression
#17
Wei Cao, Shuang Cui, Li Yang, Chunyi Wu, Jian Liu, Fang Yang, Youhua Liu, Jianping Bin, Fan Fan Hou
AIMS: Acute kidney injury (AKI) is increasingly recognized as a major risk factor leading to progression to chronic kidney disease (CKD). However, the diagnostic tools for predicting AKI to CKD progression are particularly lacking. Here, we tested the utility of contrast enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) for predicting progression to CKD after AKI by using both mild (20-minute) and severe (45-minute) bilateral renal ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) mice. RESULTS: Renal perfusion measured by CEUS reduced to 25%±7% and 14%±6% of the pre-ischemic levels in mild and severe AKI 1 hour after ischemia (P<0...
July 17, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711779/hyperactive-foxo1-results-in-lack-of-tip-stalk-identity-and-deficient-microvascular-regeneration-during-kidney-injury
#18
Lan T H Dang, Takahide Aburatani, Graham A Marsh, Bryce G Johnson, Stella Alimperti, Christine J Yoon, Angela Huang, Suzanne Szak, Naoki Nakagawa, Ivan Gomez, Shuyu Ren, Sarah K Read, Chris Sparages, Alfred C Aplin, Roberto F Nicosia, Chris Chen, Giovanni Ligresti, Jeremy S Duffield
Loss of the microvascular (MV) network results in tissue ischemia, loss of tissue function, and is a hallmark of chronic diseases. The incorporation of a functional vascular network with that of the host remains a challenge to utilizing engineered tissues in clinically relevant therapies. We showed that vascular-bed-specific endothelial cells (ECs) exhibit differing angiogenic capacities, with kidney microvascular endothelial cells (MVECs) being the most deficient, and sought to explore the underlying mechanism...
July 7, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711075/diabetic-nephropathy-and-pregnancy
#19
Kate Bramham
Women with diabetic nephropathy have challenging pregnancies, with pregnancy outcomes far worse than expected for the stage of chronic kidney disease. The underlying mechanisms that cause the adverse events remain poorly understood, but it is a widely held belief that substantial endothelial injury in these women likely contributes. Maternal hypertension, preeclampsia, and cesarean section rates are high, and offspring are often preterm and of low birth weight, with additional neonatal complications associated with glycemic control...
July 2017: Seminars in Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711069/preterm-birth-and-its-impact-on-renal-health
#20
Valerie A Luyckx
Preterm birth occurs in approximately 10% of all births worldwide. Preterm infants have reduced nephron numbers at birth in proportion to gestational age, and are at increased risk of neonatal acute kidney injury as well as higher blood pressure, proteinuria, and chronic kidney disease later in life. Rapid catch-up growth in preterm infants, especially if resulting in obesity, is a risk factor for end-stage kidney disease among children with proteinuric renal disease. Preterm birth, however, is a risk factor not only for the infant because mothers who deliver preterm have an increased risk of having subsequent preterm deliveries as well as hypertension, cardiovascular disease, and renal disease later in life...
July 2017: Seminars in Nephrology
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