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paediatric caudal anaesthesia

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790555/efficacy-and-safety-of-clonidine-as-an-adjuvant-to-bupivacaine-for-caudal-analgesia-in-paediatric-infra-umbilical-surgeries
#1
Samita Priolkar, Shirley Ann D'Souza
INTRODUCTION: Caudal analgesia, has gained popularity in paediatric intraoperative and postoperative pain management, more so with the use of adjuvants to prolong its duration, each of them having various results. Clonidine, an alpha2-adrenergic agonist is being used for its analgesic effects in various doses with 0.25% Bupivacaine. AIM: The study was conducted to compare the analgesic efficacy, haemodynamic safety and side effects of 1 μg/kg Clonidine added to 1 ml/kg of 0...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27746556/a-comparison-of-dexamethasone-and-clonidine-as-an-adjuvant-for-caudal-blocks-in-pediatric-urogenital-surgeries
#2
Chandni Sinha, Bindey Kumar, Umesh Kumar Bhadani, Ajeet Kumar, Amarjeet Kumar, Alok Ranjan
BACKGROUND: Caudal block is a reliable regional analgesic technique for pediatric urogenital surgeries. Various adjuvants have been tried to enhance the duration of action of bupivicaine. Though clonidine is extensively used as an adjuvant in caudal anaesthesia, it can have troublesome adverse effects like bradycardia, hypotension and sedation. Lately dexamethasone has become popular as an adjuvant in paediatric caudals due to its safety profile. AIM: The aim of this study was to compare dexamethasone and clonidine coadministered with bupivicaine caudally in paediatric patients undergoing urogenital surgeries in terms of analgesia and adverse effects...
September 2016: Anesthesia, Essays and Researches
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27330203/comparison-between-two-doses-of-dexmedetomidine-added-to-bupivacaine-for-caudal-analgesia-in-paediatric-infraumbilical-surgeries
#3
Niveditha Padma Meenakshi Karuppiah, Sumalatha R Shetty, Krishna Prasad Patla
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Caudal block (CB) with adjuvants is routinely used in children for anaesthesia. We evaluated the efficacy of the α2 adrenergic agonist, dexmedetomidine at two different doses as an adjuvant to bupivacaine in CB. METHODS: This study was conducted on ninety children. Control group BD0 received 0.25% bupivacaine 1 ml/kg, whereas, the study groups BD1 and BD2 received 1 μg/kg and 2 μg/kg dexmedetomidine, respectively, with 0.25% bupivacaine 1 ml/kg as a single shot CB...
June 2016: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26866181/the-incidence-and-risk-factors-for-intra-operative-hypothermia-among-paediatric-patients-undergoing-general-anaesthesia-at-the-kenyatta-national-hospital
#4
P M Kioko, P Olang, C Mwangi, T Chokwe
OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence and risk factors for intra-operative hypothermia in paediatric patients undergoing general anaesthesia at the Kenyatta National Hospital. DESIGN: A prospective observational study. SETTING: The Kenyatta National Hospital main operating theatres and affiliated satellite operating theatres. SUBJECTS: A total of 100 paediatric patients (range; three days to 12 years, mean; 4.1 ± 3...
August 2013: East African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26866110/the-incidence-and-risk-factors-for-intra-operative-hypothermia-among-paediatric-patients-undergoing-general-anaesthesia-at-the-kenyatta-national-hospital
#5
P M Kioko, P Olang, C Mwangi, T Chokwe
OBJECTIVE: To determine the incidence and risk factors for intra-operative hypothermia in paediatric patients undergoing general anaesthesia at the Kenyatta National Hospital. DESIGN: A prospective observational study. SETTING: The Kenyatta National Hospital main operating theatres and affiliated satellite operating theatres. SUBJECTS: A total of 100 paediatric patients (range; three days to 12 years, mean; 4.1 ± 3...
August 2013: East African Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25693139/regional-anaesthesia-in-neonates-infants-and-children-an-educational-review
#6
REVIEW
Martin Jöhr
Prophylactic analgesia with local anaesthesia is widely used in children and has a good safety record. Performing regional blocks in anaesthetised children is a safe and generally accepted practice. When compared with adults, lower concentrations of local anaesthetics are sufficient in children; the onset of a block occurs more rapidly but the duration is usually shorter. Local anaesthetics have a greater volume of distribution, a lower clearance and a higher free (non-protein-bound) fraction. The recommended maximum dose has to be calculated for every individual...
May 2015: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/25437692/-effects-of-ketamine-and-midazolam-on-emergence-agitation-after-sevoflurane-anaesthesia-in-children-receiving-caudal-block-a-randomized-trial
#7
Ayse Ozcan, Ayse Gunay Kaya, Namik Ozcan, Gul Meltem Karaaslan, Esen Er, Bulent Baltaci, Hulya Basar
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Emergence agitation is a common postanaesthetic problem in children after sevoflurane anaesthesia. We aimed to compare the effects of ketamine and midazolam administered intravenously, before the end of surgery, for prevention of emergence agitation in children who received caudal block for pain relief under sevoflurane anaesthesia. METHODS: 62 American Society of Anesthesiologists patient classification status I children, aged 2-7 years, scheduled for inguinal hernia repair, circumcision or orchidopexy were enrolled to the study...
November 2014: Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/24097767/midazolam-for-caudal-analgesia-in-children-comparison-with-caudal-bupivacaine
#8
B Pradhan, G R Bajracharya
Background: Caudal analgesia is the most popular and commonly used regional anaesthesia technique for post operative analgesia in children undergoing lower limb, anoperineal and abdominal surgical procedures. It is commonly applied in all the paediatric patients undergoing the above mentioned surgery, as the goal of balanced anaesthesia is not only limited to intraoperative period but also good analgesia in post operative period. Many drugs like morphine, Pethidine, Neostigmine etc have been used as analgesic agent via the caudal route but not without their side effects...
April 2008: Kathmandu University Medical Journal (KUMJ)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23434957/comparison-of-ketamine-fentanyl-and-clonidine-as-an-adjuvant-during-bupivacaine-caudal-anaesthesia-in-paediatric-patients
#9
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
J Singh, R S Shah, N Vaidya, P K Mahato, S Shrestha, B L Shrestha
BACKGROUND: Caudal epidural analgesia with bupivacaine is very popular in paediatric anaesthesia for providing intra- and postoperative analgesia. Several adjuvants have been used to prolong the action of bupivacaine. OBJECTIVES: To compare the efficacy of ketamine, fentanyl and clonidine in terms of quality and duration of analgesia they produce when added with caudal bupivacaine by single shot technique in children. METHODS: Eighty children, age one to ten years, undergoing sub-umbilical surgery, were prospectively randomized to one of four groups: caudal analgesia with 0...
July 2012: Kathmandu University Medical Journal (KUMJ)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23362898/a-survey-of-aseptic-precautions-and-needle-type-for-paediatric-caudal-block-in-australia-and-new-zealand
#10
C J Fahy, D A Costi, A M Cyna
This cross-sectional survey was designed to evaluate the current practice of anaesthetists in Australia and New Zealand with regard to aseptic technique and needle type during the performance of single-shot caudal blocks. Professional bodies suggest that full aseptic precautions be taken during the administration of caudal or epidural blocks. It has been suggested that using an intravenous cannula or a styletted needle may obviate the occurrence of epidermoid tumours. A total of 202 members of the Society for Paediatric Anaesthesia in New Zealand and Australia were invited to participate in this internet-based survey...
January 2013: Anaesthesia and Intensive Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/23293386/recent-developments-in-paediatric-neuraxial-blocks
#11
Vrushali Chandrashekhar Ponde
Paediatric anaesthesia and paediatric regional anaesthesia are intertwined. Almost all surgeries unless contradicted could be and should be supplemented with a regional block. The main objective of this review is to elaborate on the recent advances of the central neuraxial blocks, such as application of ultrasound guidance and electrical stimulation in the pursuit of safety and an objective end point. This review also takes account of the traditional technique and understand the benefits as well the risk of each as compared with the recent technique...
September 2012: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22966726/cardiocirculatory-intraoperative-assessment-during-single-shot-caudal-anaesthesia-in-children-comparison-between-levobupivacaine-and-ropivacaine
#12
COMPARATIVE STUDY
A Gentili, L Pasini, V Bachiocco, V Landuzzi, L Giuntoli, M Lima, S Baroncini
BACKGROUND: Caudal block with levobupivacaine or ropivacaine is the most commonly used regional anaesthesia in children. METHODS: The aim of study was to compare the cardiocirculatory profile induced in two matched groups of young patients, submitted to caudal anaesthesia with levobupivacaine or ropivacaine for an elective subumbilical surgery. Sixty children were enrolled: thirty received levopubivacaine 0.25% and thirty ropivacaine 0.2%. Intraoperative heart rate (HR), systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP) were monitored at following times: Ta0 (after anaesthesia induction), Tal (after caudal anaesthesia), Ta2 (five minutes later), Ta3 (ten minutes later), Ts1 (at surgical incision), Ts2, Ts3, Ts4, Ts5 (every 10 minutes during surgery), Taw (at the awakening)...
May 2012: La Pediatria Medica e Chirurgica: Medical and Surgical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22701207/comparative-evaluation-of-incidence-of-emergence-agitation-and-post-operative-recovery-profile-in-paediatric-patients-after-isoflurane-sevoflurane-and-desflurane-anaesthesia
#13
Rahil Singh, Meera Kharbanda, Nishant Sood, Vikram Mahajan, Chitra Chatterji
BACKGROUND: Emergence agitation (EA), although well documented in the clinical literature, still has uncertainties and confusion abound on this subject because of the absence of a clear definition and lack of reliable and valid assessment tools. AIM: To compare the incidence and severity of EA and recovery characteristics in paediatric patients under isoflurane, sevoflurane or desflurane anaesthesia and evaluate the effect of age and duration of anaesthesia on the incidence of EA...
March 2012: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22356002/regional-anaesthesia-in-paediatric-surgery-results-of-2200-children
#14
Serbülent Gökhan Beyaz, Orhan Tokgöz, Adnan Tüfek
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate paediatric regional anaesthesia applications in 2200 children at Diyarbakir Children's Hosptial, Turkey. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional study done from January 2005 and October 2009. Paediatric regional anaesthesia applications in 2200 children were retrospectively analysed and included in this study. Demographic data, operation type, choice of regional anaesthesia, local anaesthetics, adjuvant drugs, side effects and complications were recorded...
August 2011: JPMA. the Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/22013248/effects-of-dexmedetomidine-added-to-caudal-ropivacaine-in-paediatric-lower-abdominal-surgeries
#15
Vijay G Anand, M Kannan, A Thavamani, Merlin J Bridgit
PURPOSE: The objectives of this study were to compare the effects of caudal dexmedetomidine combined with ropivacaine to provide postoperative analgesia in children and also to establish its safety in the paediatric population. METHODS: In a randomised, prospective, parallel group, double-blinded study, 60 children were recruited and allocated into two groups: Group RD (n=30) received 0.25% ropivacaine 1 ml/kg with dexmedetomidine 2 μg/kg, making the volume to 0...
July 2011: Indian Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21846679/efficacy-and-adverse-effects-of-ketamine-as-an-additive-for-paediatric-caudal-anaesthesia-a-quantitative-systematic-review-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#16
REVIEW
A Schnabel, D M Poepping, P Kranke, P K Zahn, E M Pogatzki-Zahn
BACKGROUND: The aim of this quantitative systematic review was to assess the efficacy and adverse effects of ketamine added to caudal local anaesthetics in comparison with local anaesthetics alone in children undergoing urological, lower abdominal, or lower limb surgery. METHODS: The systematic search, data extraction, critical appraisal, and pooled data analysis were performed according to the PRISMA statement. All randomized controlled trials (RCTs) were included in this meta-analysis and relative risk (RR), mean difference (MD), and the corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated using the Revman(®) statistical software for dichotomous and continuous outcomes...
October 2011: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21822077/effects-of-hydroxyzine-midazolam-premedication-on-sevoflurane-induced-paediatric-emergence-agitation-a-prospective-randomised-clinical-trial
#17
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Ozge Köner, Hatice Türe, Arzu Mercan, Ferdi Menda, Selami Sözübir
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Anaesthesia with sevoflurane leads to a high prevalence of emergence agitation in paediatric patients. This study investigates the effects of combining hydroxyzine and midazolam on sevoflurane-induced emergence agitation in paediatric patients undergoing infraumbilical surgery with a caudal block. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eighty-four children 1-7 years of age undergoing general anaesthesia with sevoflurane and caudal block were assigned to two groups...
September 2011: European Journal of Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21772142/blocks-for-pain-management-in-children-undergoing-ambulatory-surgery
#18
REVIEW
Per-Arne Lönnqvist
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Data from the USA show that the number of paediatric outpatient procedures has increased by almost 50% during the time period 1996-2006. Despite this increasing trend with regards to ambulatory surgery in children postoperative analgesia is still often suboptimal. The aim of this review is to give an overview of different regional anaesthesia techniques that successfully can be used in paediatric ambulatory surgery. RECENT FINDINGS: Regional anaesthesia, especially the increasing use of ultrasound-guided peripheral nerve blocking techniques, provide maybe the best way of achieving high-quality early postoperative pain relief and the use of continuous peripheral catheters appear very promising in order to extend analgesia after the return home...
December 2011: Current Opinion in Anaesthesiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21693469/population-pharmacokinetic-analysis-of-ropivacaine-and-its-metabolite-2-6-pipecoloxylidide-from-pooled-data-in-neonates-infants-and-children
#19
L Aarons, B Sadler, M Pitsiu, J Sjövall, J Henriksson, V Molnár
BACKGROUND: The aim was to characterize ropivacaine and 2',6'-pipecoloxylidide (PPX) pharmacokinetics and factors affecting them in paediatric anaesthesia. METHODS: Population pharmacokinetics of ropivacaine and its active metabolite PPX were estimated after single and continuous ropivacaine blocks in 192 patients aged 0-12 yr from six pooled published studies. Unbound and total ropivacaine and PPX plasma concentration and PPX urinary excretion data were used for non-linear mixed-effects modelling by NONMEM...
September 2011: British Journal of Anaesthesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/21519081/day-surgery-for-major-paediatric-foot-and-ankle-procedures
#20
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Nikolas Alan Jagodzinski, Rubena Gul, Samia Khanum, Hari Prem
PURPOSE: To review outcomes in 19 children who underwent major foot and ankle procedures as day cases. METHODS: A consecutive series of 24 major foot and ankle procedures in 19 children performed as day cases by a single surgeon were reviewed in terms of the immediate postoperative pain relief, severe swelling (necessitating cast removal), and complications. Parental satisfaction was assessed using a telephone survey with respect to pain relief of the patients, and their views on management as day cases...
April 2011: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery
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