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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646699/insulin-and-the-polycystic-ovary-syndrome
#1
REVIEW
Djuro Macut, Jelica Bjekić-Macut, Dario Rahelić, Mirjana Doknić
Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most prevalent endocrinopathy among women during reproductive age. PCOS is characterised by hyperandrogenaemia, hyperinsulinaemia, and deranged adipokines secretion from the adipose tissue. In addition to the reduced insulin sensitivity, PCOS women exhibit β-cell dysfunction as well. Low birth weight and foetal exposure to androgens may contribute to the development of the PCOS phenotype during life. Further metabolic complications lead to dyslipidaemia, worsening obesity and glucose tolerance, high prevalence of metabolic syndrome, and greater susceptibility to diabetes...
June 12, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28646019/functionally-null-rad51d-missense-mutation-associates-strongly-with-ovarian-carcinoma
#2
Barbara Rivera, Massimo Di Iorio, Jessica Frankum, Javad Nadaf, Somayyeh Fahiminiya, Suzanna L Arcand, David L Burk, Damien Grapton, Eva Tomiak, Valerie Hastings, Nancy Hamel, Rabea Wagener, Olga Aleynikova, Sylvie Giroux, Fadi F Hamdan, Alexandre Dionne-Laporte, George Zogopoulos, Francois Rousseau, Albert M Berghuis, Diane Provencher, Guy A Rouleau, Jacques L Michaud, Anne-Marie Mes-Masson, Jacek Majewski, Susanne Bens, Reiner Siebert, Steven A Narod, Mohammad R Akbari, Christopher J Lord, Patricia N Tonin, Alexandre Orthwein, William D Foulkes
RAD51D is a key player in DNA repair by homologous recombination (HR) and RAD51D truncating mutation carriers have an increased risk for ovarian cancer (OC). However, the contribution of non-truncating RAD51D variants to cancer predisposition remains uncertain. Using deep sequencing and case-control genotyping studies, we show that in French Canadians, the missense RAD51D variant c.620C>T;p.S207L is highly prevalent and is associated with a high risk for ovarian high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC) (3.8% cases vs 0...
June 23, 2017: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645863/toxicology-of-octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane-d4
#3
Allison Franzen, Tracy Greene, Cynthia Van Landingham, Robinan Gentry
Octamethylcyclotetrasiloxane (D4) is a volatile cyclic siloxane used primarily as a monomer or intermediate in the production of some silicon-based polymers widely used in industrial and consumer applications and may be present as a residual impurity in a variety of consumer products. A robust toxicological data set exists for D4. Treatment-related results from a chronic inhalation study conducted in rats are limited to mild effects on the respiratory tract, increases in liver weight, increases in the incidence of uterine endometrial epithelial hyperplasia, and a dose-related trend in the incidence of endometrial adenomas...
June 20, 2017: Toxicology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645791/large-labial-endometrioma-in-an-elderly-nulligesta
#4
Horace Roman, Aurélie Vallée, Antoine Scattarelli, Nolwenn Marouteau-Pasquier, Marie Pierre Queméré, Alexis Gromez
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 20, 2017: Journal of Minimally Invasive Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645564/immunotherapy-holds-the-key-to-cancer-treatment-and-prevention-in-constitutional-mismatch-repair-deficiency-cmmrd-syndrome
#5
Harm Westdorp, Sigrid Kolders, Nicoline Hoogerbrugge, I Jolanda M de Vries, Marjolijn C J Jongmans, Gerty Schreibelt
Monoallelic germline mutations in one of the DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes cause Lynch syndrome, with a high lifetime risks of colorectal and endometrial cancer at adult age. Less well known, is the constitutional mismatch repair deficiency (CMMRD) syndrome caused by biallelic germline mutations in MMR genes. This syndrome is characterized by the development of childhood cancer. Patients with CMMRD are at extremely high risk of developing multiple cancers including hematological, brain and intestinal tumors...
June 20, 2017: Cancer Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645427/antidiabetic-medication-statins-and-the-risk-of-endometrioid-endometrial-cancer-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#6
Reetta Arima, Mikko Marttila, Ari Hautakoski, Martti Arffman, Reijo Sund, Pirjo Ilanne-Parikka, Jenni Kangaskokko, Esa Läärä, Ulla Puistola, Marianne Hinkula
OBJECTIVE: To gain further evidence of an association between the incidence of endometrial cancer (EC) and the use of metformin, other antidiabetic medication (ADM) and statins in women with type 2 diabetes (T2D). METHODS: A retrospective cohort of 92,366 women with newly diagnosed T2D was obtained from a diabetes register (FinDM). 590 endometrioid ECs were observed during the follow-up time. Poisson regression was utilized to estimate the hazard ratios (HRs) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CIs) of the endometrioid EC in relation to the use of metformin, other oral ADM, insulin and statins...
June 20, 2017: Gynecologic Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644686/cervical-adenocarcinoma-diagnosis-of-human-papillomavirus-positive-and-human-papillomavirus-negative-tumors
#7
Edyta C Pirog
CONTEXT: - Cervical adenocarcinomas span a diverse group of tumors with several distinct histologic tumor types, which include endocervical, endometrioid, intestinal, villoglandular, gastric, signet ring, serous, clear cell, and mesonephric. Diagnosis of cervical adenocarcinoma, especially early diagnosis, poses a significant challenge. OBJECTIVE: - To review the pathogenesis, diagnostic criteria, immunohistochemical markers, and differential diagnosis of various subtypes of human papillomavirus (HPV)-positive and HPV-negative cervical adenocarcinomas...
June 23, 2017: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643732/thrombocytosis-in-gynecological-cancers
#8
REVIEW
Deepti Sharma, Garima Singh
Thrombocytosis has been suggested to be a poor prognostic indicator in malignancies. Studies have shown that thrombocytosis is associated with a poor prognosis in various gynecological malignancies such as carcinoma ovary, cervical cancer, and endometrial cancer. The aim of this study is to analyze the impact of thrombocytosis on the prognosis of gynecological cancer. All the relevant data were retrieved by PubMed, MEDLINE, and Web of Science, and then studies were chosen in this analysis of association between thrombocytosis and gynecological malignancy...
April 2017: Journal of Cancer Research and Therapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643026/predictive-model-of-urinary-tract-infection-after-surgical-treatment-for-women-with-endometrial-cancer
#9
Hiroko Machida, Marianne S Hom, Anastasiya Shabalova, Brendan H Grubbs, Koji Matsuo
PURPOSE: The aim of the study was to identify risk factors associated with postoperative urinary tract infections (UTIs) following hysterectomy-based surgical staging in women with endometrial cancer. METHODS: This is a retrospective study utilizing an institutional database (2008-2016) of stage I-IV endometrial cancer cases that underwent hysterectomy-based surgery. UTIs occurring within a 30-day time period after surgery were examined and correlated to patient clinico-pathological demographics...
June 22, 2017: Archives of Gynecology and Obstetrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643016/screening-for-lynch-syndrome-in-young-saudi-colorectal-cancer-patients-using-microsatellite-instability-testing-and-next-generation-sequencing
#10
Masood Alqahtani, Caitlin Edwards, Natasha Buzzacott, Karen Carpenter, Khalid Alsaleh, Abdulmalik Alsheikh, Waleed Abozeed, Miral Mashhour, Afnan Almousa, Yousef Housawi, Shareefa Al Hawwaj, Barry Iacopetta
Individuals with Lynch syndrome (LS) have germline variants in DNA mismatch repair (MMR) genes that confer a greatly increased risk of colorectal cancer (CRC), often at a young age. Identification of these individuals has been shown to increase their survival through improved surveillance. We previously identified 33 high risk cases for LS in the Saudi population by screening for microsatellite instability (MSI) in the tumor DNA of 284 young CRC patients. The aim of the present study was to identify MMR gene variants in this cohort of patients...
June 22, 2017: Familial Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643014/neuron-navigator-2-and-cyclin-d2-are-new-candidate-prognostic-markers-in-uterine-sarcoma
#11
Ben Davidson, Ellen Hellesylt, Arild Holth, Håvard Emil Danielsen, Tone Skeie-Jensen, Betina Katz
The objective of this study was to validate the diagnostic and clinical role of four protein products of genes previously found to be differentially expressed in uterine low-grade endometrial stromal sarcoma (LG-ESS) compared to uterine leiomyosarcoma (LMS). Protein expression by immunohistochemistry of transgelin (TGLN), neuron navigator-2 (NAV2), fatty acid binding protein-3 (FABP3), and cyclin D2 (CCND2) was analyzed in 305 uterine sarcomas (231 LMS, 74 LG-ESS). Expression was analyzed for association with clinicopathologic parameters and survival...
June 22, 2017: Virchows Archiv: An International Journal of Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640224/nomegestrol-acetate-suppresses-human-endometrial-cancer-rl95-2-cells-proliferation-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-possibly-related-to-upregulating-expression-of-sufu-and-wnt7a
#12
A-Ying Ma, Shu-Wu Xie, Jie-Yun Zhou, Yan Zhu
Nomegestrol acetate (NOMAC) has been successfully used for the treatment of some gynecological disorders, and as a combined oral contraceptive with approval in many countries. In this study, we investigated the effects of NOMAC on human endometrial cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. The proliferation of human endometrial cancer cells (RL95-2 and KLE) were assessed using CCK-8 and EdU incorporation assays. Whole-genome cDNA microarray analysis was used to identify the effects of NOMAC on gene expression profiles in RL95-2 cells...
June 22, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639461/hormonal-contraception-and-breast-cancer-what-more-do-we-need-to-know
#13
Jo Marsden
Most women use hormonal contraception for more than 30 years and for many, this may involve exposure in their older reproductive years when baseline breast cancer risk rises steeply. Overall, the risk of breast cancer diagnosis with exposure to hormonal contraception is very small and outweighed by its contraceptive benefits but despite this, there are still outstanding questions for all methods used in clinical practice due to paucity of available evidence, lack of which should not be taken to imply safety...
January 1, 2017: Post Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639334/uterine-natural-killer-cells-in-patients-with-idiopathic-recurrent-miscarriage
#14
Ruben-J Kuon, Maja Weber, Julia Heger, Isabel Santillán, Kilian Vomstein, Christin Bär, Thomas Strowitzki, Udo R Markert, Bettina Toth
PROBLEM: Uterine natural killer (uNK) cells are major players during implantation and early pregnancy. The aim of our study was to analyze uNK cell concentration in the endometrium of idiopathic recurrent miscarriage (iRM) patients and fertile controls. METHOD OF STUDY: Out of n=130 couples with ≥3 consecutive, clinical RM screened according to a standardized diagnostic protocol, n=58 patients with iRM were identified. Endometrial biopsies were investigated in patients and n=17 fertile women (controls) via immunohistochemistry...
June 21, 2017: American Journal of Reproductive Immunology: AJRI
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638475/tamoxifen-activates-nrf2-dependent-sqstm1-transcription-to-promote-endometrial-hyperplasia
#15
Lifeng Feng, Jiaqiu Li, Lixian Yang, Libo Zhu, Xiufeng Huang, Shuzheng Zhang, Likang Luo, Zhinong Jiang, Tingting Jiang, Wenxia Xu, Xian Wang, Hongchuan Jin
Long-term application of Tamoxifen (TAM) is usually recommended for hormone receptor positive breast cancer patients. Unfortunately, TAM will inevitably increase the incidence of endometrial hyperplasia even endometrial cancer. Despite of substantial investigations, no effective approaches to prevent TAM-induced endometrial carcinogenesis have been acknowledged. In this study, we found that inhibition of Nrf2 could be valuable to prevent TAM-induced endometrial hyperplasia. Upon TAM treatment, the mRNA and protein expression of autophagy adaptor SQSTM1 was specifically increased in endometrial cells but not breast cancer cells...
2017: Theranostics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638413/uterine-cavity-abnormalities-in-patients-with-endometriosis-in-alexandria-a-diagnostic-test-accuracy-study
#16
Eman Aly Abd El Fattah
Endometriosis is strongly associated with infertility. Endometrial polyps are prevalent in infertile women and they have similar pathological characteristics to endometriosis, suggesting a possible association. Uterine malformations as uterine septum and hypoplastic uterus are also linked to endometriosis. Hysterosalpingogram and transvaginal ultrasonography are used to diagnose endometrial lesions. Hysteroscopy can detect small lesions that might be missed. Recently, 4D ultrasonography is being used, but which is superior has not been established yet...
2017: Obstetrics and Gynecology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638366/gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-and-its-role-in-the-enteric-nervous-system
#17
REVIEW
Bodil Ohlsson
Gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH), follicle-stimulating hormone, and luteinizing hormone orchestrate the reproduction cycle and regulate the sex steroid secretion from the gonads. In mammals, GnRH1 is secreted as a hormone from the hypothalamus, whereas both GnRH1 and GnRH2 are present as neurotransmitters/peptides in various tissues, where the peptides exert many different effects. mRNA coding for GnRH1 and GnRH2 have been described in the human gastrointestinal tract, and GnRH has been found in both submucosal and myenteric neurons...
2017: Frontiers in Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638271/proex-c-as-diagnostic-marker-for-detection-of-urothelial-carcinoma-in-urinary-samples-a-review
#18
REVIEW
Gerardo Botti, Maria Gabriella Malzone, Elvira La Mantia, Micaela Montanari, Daniela Vanacore, Sabrina Rossetti, Vincenzo Quagliariello, Carla Cavaliere, Rossella Di Franco, Luigi Castaldo, Gianluca Ametrano, Francesca Cappuccio, Francesco Jacopo Romano, Raffaele Piscitelli, Maria Filomena Pepe, Carmine D'Aniello, Gaetano Facchini
The gold standard for the detection of urothelial carcinoma is represented by urethro-cystoscopy and biopsy. Both procedures are invasive and expensive and therefore cytology is often used as first approach to investigate on a possible neoplasia, being a safe and cost-effective diagnostic modality of evaluation. Because cytology alone is not highly sensitive for detection of low grade urothelial carcinoma and recurrence of the disease, several adjunct markers and urine based tests for urothelial carcinoma have been developed, which can help in the final diagnosis...
2017: International Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638252/evaluation-of-the-ki-67-proliferation-index-and-urocortin-expression-in-women-with-ovarian-endometriomas
#19
Serenat Eris Yalcin, Irfan Ocal, Yakup Yalcin, Halime Sen Selim, Melike Demir Caltekin, Huseyin Aydogmus, Sefa Kelekci
OBJECTIVE: The reasons why endometriosis is more aggressive and invasive in some patients are unknown. Despite the importance of population-based clinically defined risk factors in the prediction of recurrence, biochemical markers obtained from the patient are more valuable for prediction on an individual basis. Therefore, the discovery of significant potential biomarkers could be useful to clinicians for shedding light on the pathogenesis of endometriosis and in the monitoring recurrence...
June 2017: Eurasian Journal of Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28638075/mycobacterial-heat-shock-protein-65-mediated-metabolic-shift-in-decidualization-of-human-endometrial-stromal-cells
#20
Elavarasan Subramani, Arun Prabhu Rameshbabu, Manivannan Jothiramajayam, Bhuvaneshwaran Subramanian, Debangana Chakravorty, Gunja Bose, Mamata Joshi, Chaitali Datta Ray, Indrani Lodh, Ratna Chattopadhyay, Sudipto Saha, Anita Mukherjee, Santanu Dhara, Baidyanath Chakravarty, Koel Chaudhury
Successful implantation is dependent on the appropriate decidualization of endometrial stromal cells for the establishment of pregnancy in women. Mycobacterial heat shock protein 65 (HSP65) is involved in pathogenesis of the genital tuberculosis (GTB), one of the common causes of infertility in emerging countries. Though implantation failure appears to be the major cause, understanding the status of decidualizaiton process in women diagnosed with GTB has not been thoroughly addressed. We, therefore, explored the effect of HSP65 protein on the endometrial cell metabolism during in vitro decidualization...
June 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
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