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Ryan G Price, Smith Apisarnthanarax, Stephanie K Schaub, Matthew J Nyflot, Tobias R Chapman, Manuela Matesan, Hubert J Vesselle, Stephen R Bowen
We report on patient-specific quantitative changes in longitudinal sulfur colloid SPECT/CT as a function of regional radiation dose distributions to normal liver in a cohort of hepatocellular carcinoma patients. Dose-response thresholds and slopes varied with baseline liver function metrics, and extreme values were found in patients with fatal hepatotoxicity. Dose-response modeling of normal liver in individual HCC patients has potential to characterize in vivo radiosensitivity, identify high risk subgroups, and personalize treatment planning dose constraints...
June 19, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Reiner A Veitia
The classical Hill equation is the simplest way to model sharp transcriptional responses (TR) to changing concentrations of a regulator. Such steep sigmoidal transitions of the TR are often involved in the creation of boundaries or domains during development. Here, I use the Hill function to explore the response of a promoter to a gradient of a transcription factor (TF). Specifically, I examine how various sources of nonlinearity (such as that imposed by the number of TF-binding sites) and the nonlinearity of the gradient itself influence TR and modulate its robustness to variations in the dosage of morphogen...
June 2018: Journal of Genetics
Zhipeng Liu, Silin Huang, Zhengyu Chen, Xinying Wang
Lymphoid follicular proctitis (LFP) is an uncommon inflammatory disease that is characterized by rectal bleeding, congested and granular mucosa without ulceration and abnormal and coalescing hyperplastic lymphoid follicles without acute inflammatory changes. The lesions are usually confined to the rectal mucosa. LFP therapy is not well defined. Herein, we present a case of LFP that was resolved with a rapid administration of mesalazine enemas. A 35-year-old male was admitted to our hospital due to intermittent rectal bleeding associated with stools...
June 22, 2018: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
Sina Schmidt, Tarek Ismail, Milo A Puhan, Christopher Soll, Stefan Breitenstein
PURPOSE: Surgical strategies for perforated diverticulitis (Hinchey stages III and IV) remain controversial. This systematic review aimed to compare the outcome of primary anastomosis, Hartmann procedure and laparoscopic lavage. METHODS: A systematic literature search was conducted through Medline, Embase, Cochrane Central Register and Health Technology Assessment Database to identify randomized and non-randomized controlled trials involving patients with perforated left-sided colonic diverticulitis comparing different surgical strategies...
June 2018: Langenbeck's Archives of Surgery
Eleftherios Neromyliotis, Dimitrios Giakoumettis, Evangelos Drosos, Ioannis Nikas, Alexios Blionas, George Sfakianos, Marios S Themistocleous
Background: Infratentorial subdural empyemas in children are extremely rare and potentially lethal intracranial infections. Delay in diagnosis and therapy is associated with increased morbidity and mortality. Case Description: A 4-year-old boy presented with cerebellar signs following a failed treatment of otitis media. Imaging studies revealed a subdural empyema and left transverse and sigmoid sinus thrombosis. The empyema was evacuated operatively and antibiotic treatment was initiated and administered for 6 weeks...
2018: Surgical Neurology International
Anne F Peery
The assumption that acute uncomplicated diverticulitis requires antibiotics has been challenged. In this issue, the Dutch Diverticular Disease Collaborative Study Group report the 2-year follow-up to their trial of observation vs. treatment with amoxicillin-clavulanic acid for acute uncomplicated diverticulitis. The new study provides useful insights on the natural history of acute uncomplicated diverticulitis. The most intriguing data compared rates of elective sigmoid resection between the groups. There was a trend toward more elective surgery in the observation group compared to those in the antibiotic group...
June 21, 2018: American Journal of Gastroenterology
José L Neira, María Belén López, Paz Sevilla, Bruno Rizzuti, Ana Cámara-Artigas, Miguel Vidal, Juan L Iovanna
NUPR1 is a protumoral multifunctional intrinsically disordered protein (IDP), which is activated during the acute phases of pancreatitis. It interacts with other IDPs such as prothymosin α, as well as with folded proteins such as the C-terminal region of RING1-B (C-RING1B) of the Polycomb complex; in all those interactions, residues around Ala33 and Thr68 (the "hot-spot" region) of NUPR1 intervene. Its paralogue, NUPR1L, is also expressed in response to DNA-damage, it is p53-regulated, and its expression down-regulates that of the NUPR1 gene...
June 20, 2018: Biochemical Journal
Devin R Halleran, Richard J Wood, Alejandra Vilanova-Sanchez, Rebecca M Rentea, Christopher Brown, Molly Fuchs, Venkata R Jayanthi, Christina Ching, Hira Ahmad, Alessandra C Gasior, Marc P Michalsky, Marc A Levitt, Daniel DaJusta
INTRODUCTION: Patients with neurogenic bladder frequently also have bowel dysfunction and a simultaneous urologic and colorectal reconstruction is possible. We present our experience with combined reconstructive procedures using robot-assisted laparoscopy, and demonstrate the utility of a minimally invasive approach that considers both the bowel and bladder management of these patients. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed all patients who underwent combined bowel and urologic reconstruction at our institution since the start of our multidisciplinary robotic program...
June 20, 2018: Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. Part A
Cristina O Mǎrginean, Lorena E Meliţ, Maria O Mǎrginean
Segmental colitis associated with diverticulosis (SCAD) is manifested by active chronic inflammation of the colonic segments affected by diverticulosis, luminal-mucosal inflammation, independent of the presence of inflammation within and/or around the diverticula, and it usually spares the rectum. We present the case of a 15-year-old female admitted to our clinic due to lower digestive hemorrhage and abdominal pain in the previous week, associated with fever 1 day prior to admission. The patient had pallor, painful abdomen upon palpation, accelerated bowel movements, and macroscopic evidence of blood in the stools...
2018: Frontiers in Pediatrics
González-Urquijo Mauricio, Hinojosa-Gonzalez David Eugenio, Quevedo-Fernandez Enrique
Introduction: A cholecystocolonic fistula (CCF) is a late complication following repeated episodes of chronic inflammation of the gallbladder in contact with the hepatic flexure, and it might cause a biliary ileus in the colon, causing an intestinal obstruction, and if left untreated, a life threatening disease. Presentation of case: a 49-year-old female patient presented with abdominal pain and bowel obstruction due to a gallstone impaction on the sigmoid colon as consequence of a cholecystocolonic fistula...
July 2018: Annals of Medicine and Surgery
Srikanth R Boddu, Pierre Gobin, Cristiano Oliveria, Marc Dinkin, Athos Patsalides
Purpose: To evaluate the alteration of pressure characteristics in the cerebral venous sinuses before and after venous sinus stenting (VSS) using mean sinus pressures (MSPs), sinus pressure gradient (SPG), and sinus pressure pulsatility (SPP) parameters among the idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH) patients. Materials and Methods: Prospective evaluation of 45 consecutive IIH patients who underwent VSS at our institution. A written informed consent approved by the Weill Cornell Institutional Review Board was signed by the study participants...
June 2018: Journal of Vascular and Interventional Neurology
Adriana Huerta-Viga, Linh-Lan Nguyen, Saeed Amirjalayer, Jamie H N Sim, Zhengyang Zhang, Howe-Siang Tan
Despite their extensive industrial usage, glass-forming liquids are not fully understood, and methods to investigate their dynamical heterogeneity are sought after. Here we show how the appearance of a second component in the visible absorption spectrum of a photosynthetic pigment upon cooling can be used to probe the glass transition of a dimethylsulfoxide-water mixture. The changes in the relative ratio of the two components with respect to temperature follow a sigmoid curve, and we show that the second component arises due to protonation of the pigment at low temperatures...
June 19, 2018: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Zubair Khan, Nauman Siddiqui, Muhammad Wasif Saif
Mostly Streptococcus bovis ( S. bovis ) bacteremia and endocarditis (60%) has been found to be associated with underlying colorectal cancer (CRC). Enterococcus faecalis ( E. faecalis ) bacteremia and endocarditis has no identifiable source in most of the cases. E. faecalis is part of normal gut flora that can translocate through the intestine and cause the systemic infection. With any intestinal lesion or tumor, the barrier is breached and the gut flora like E. faecalis can translocate and cause infection. A 55-years-old male known to have non-ischemic cardiomyopathy with implantation of automated implantable cardioverter defibrillator (AICD) and atrial fibrillation presented with weight loss, fever and back pain...
June 2018: Gastroenterology Research
Adnan Qureshi, Saira BiBi, Ravi Madhotra
Aim: The aim of this study was to determine common factors leading to incomplete colonoscopy with a special interest in patient body mass index (BMI), and also to determine most common second line investigation, its pick up rates for cancer and the success rate of re-scoping. Background: Wide availability of scope guide in all procedures may decrease failure rate. Methods: We retrospectively reviewed 2891 colonoscopies performed at our institution from August 2015 to July 2016...
2018: Gastroenterology and Hepatology From Bed to Bench
Sriram Venigalla, Amit K Chowdhry, Andrzej P Wojcieszynski, John Nicholas Lukens, John P Plastaras, James M Metz, Edgar Ben-Josef, Najjia N Mahmoud, Kim A Reiss, Jacob E Shabason
INTRODUCTION: The optimal management of locally advanced recto-sigmoid cancer is unclear. Although some experts advocate for upfront surgery, others recommend neoadjuvant chemoradiation followed by surgery. We used the National Cancer Database to characterize patterns-of-care and overall survival (OS) associated with these treatment strategies. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients with clinical stage II or III recto-sigmoid cancer who underwent surgery with or without adjunctive chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy from 2006 to 2014 were identified, and dichotomized into: (1) upfront surgery, and (2) neoadjuvant chemoradiation cohorts...
May 17, 2018: Clinical Colorectal Cancer
Konstantinos Laios
Professor William Wayne Babcock (1872-1963) is considered as a leading figure of American surgery during early 20th century. He introduced many innovative surgical techniques such as Babcock operation for the treatment of varicose veins, the Babcock-Bacon operation for the treatment of cancer of the rectum and sigmoid colon preserving anal sphincters, the "soup bone" cranioplasty technique, and the nerve disassociation technique for the relief of certain forms of paralysis or parasthesia due to injury or inflammation...
June 1, 2018: Surgical Innovation
Shinban Liu, Nicholas Morin, George Ferzli
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 15, 2018: BMJ Case Reports
Kazushige Kawai, Keisuke Hata, Toshiaki Tanaka, Takeshi Nishikawa, Kensuke Otani, Koji Murono, Kazuhito Sasaki, Manabu Kaneko, Shigenobu Emoto, Hiroaki Nozawa
OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to assess the learning curve of robotic rectal surgery, a procedure that has gained increasing focus in recent years because it is expected that the advanced devices used in this approach provide advantages resulting in a shorter learning curve than that of laparoscopic surgery. However, no studies have assessed the learning curve of robotic rectal surgery, especially when lateral lymph node dissection is required. DESIGN: This was a nonrandomized, retrospective study from a single institution...
June 12, 2018: Journal of Surgical Education
Fang Niu, Martin Rabe, Simantini Nayak, Andreas Erbe
The charge-dependent structure of interfacial water at the n-Ge(100)-aqueous perchlorate interface was studied by controlling the electrode potential. Specifically, a joint attenuated total reflection infrared spectroscopy and electrochemical experiment was used in 0.1M NaClO4 at pH ≈ 1-10. The germanium surface transformation to an H-terminated surface followed the thermodynamic Nernstian pH dependence and was observed throughout the entire pH range. A singular value decomposition-based spectra deconvolution technique coupled to a sigmoidal transition model for the potential dependence of the main components in the spectra shows the surface transformation to be a two-stage process...
June 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Simbarashe Gift Mungazi, Brightson Mutseyekwa, Mordecai Sachikonye
INTRODUCTION: Ileosigmoid knot is an uncommon cause of acute intestinal obstruction where the ileum wraps around the base of a redundant sigmoid colon. CASE PRESENTATION: We present an unusual case of a 45-year-old male patient who presented with signs and symptoms of intestinal obstruction. Exploratory laparotomy revealed an ileosigmoid knot. Both the small and large bowels were viable. The sigmoid colon was resected an end to end anastomosis was done. His post-operative period was uneventful...
June 8, 2018: International Journal of Surgery Case Reports
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