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levetiracetam in pregnancy

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819746/monotherapy-treatment-of-epilepsy-in-pregnancy-congenital-malformation-outcomes-in-the-child
#1
REVIEW
Jennifer Weston, Rebecca Bromley, Cerian F Jackson, Naghme Adab, Jill Clayton-Smith, Janette Greenhalgh, Juliet Hounsome, Andrew J McKay, Catrin Tudur Smith, Anthony G Marson
BACKGROUND: There is evidence that certain antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are teratogenic and are associated with an increased risk of congenital malformation. The majority of women with epilepsy continue taking AEDs throughout pregnancy; therefore it is important that comprehensive information on the potential risks associated with AED treatment is available. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of prenatal exposure to AEDs on the prevalence of congenital malformations in the child...
November 7, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766590/an-updated-overview-on-therapeutic-drug-monitoring-of-recent-antiepileptic-drugs
#2
REVIEW
Shery Jacob, Anroop B Nair
Given the distinctive characteristics of both epilepsy and antiepileptic drugs (AEDs), therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) can make a significant contribution to the field of epilepsy. The measurement and interpretation of serum drug concentrations can be of benefit in the treatment of uncontrollable seizures and in cases of clinical toxicity; it can aid in the individualization of therapy and in adjusting for variable or nonlinear pharmacokinetics; and can be useful in special populations such as pregnancy. This review examines the potential for TDM of newer AEDs such as eslicarbazepine acetate, felbamate, gabapentin, lacosamide, lamotrigine, levetiracetam, perampanel, pregabalin, rufinamide, retigabine, stiripentol, tiagabine, topiramate, vigabatrin, and zonisamide...
December 2016: Drugs in R&D
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27732918/evidence-for-spared-attention-to-faces-in-7-month-old-infants-after-prenatal-exposure-to-antiepileptic-drugs
#3
Mari Videman, Susanna Stjerna, Reina Roivainen, Taina Nybo, Sampsa Vanhatalo, Eija Gaily, Jukka M Leppänen
INTRODUCTION: Prenatal antiepileptic drug (AED) exposure is associated with an increased risk of cognitive impairment and autism spectrum disorders detected mainly at the age of two to six years. We examined whether the developmental aberrations associated with prenatal AED exposure could be detected already in infancy and whether effects on visual attention can be observed at this early age. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We compared a prospective cohort of infants with in utero exposure to AED (n=56) with infants without drug exposures (n=62)...
October 9, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27617120/an-update-on-maternal-use-of-antiepileptic-medications-in-pregnancy-and-neurodevelopment-outcomes
#4
REVIEW
Elizabeth E Gerard, Kimford J Meador
Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are prescribed commonly to women of childbearing age. In utero exposure to some AEDs can have significant cognitive and behavioral consequences for the unborn child. Recently, prospective studies of women taking AEDs during pregnancy have added significantly to our understanding of cognitive and behavioral teratogenic risks posed by fetal AED exposure. Valproate is clearly associated with impaired cognitive development as well as an increased risk of disorders such as autism and autism spectrum disorder...
June 2015: Journal of Pediatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27581218/cognition-in-school-age-children-exposed-to-levetiracetam-topiramate-or-sodium-valproate
#5
Rebecca L Bromley, Rebecca Calderbank, Christopher P Cheyne, Claire Rooney, Penny Trayner, Jill Clayton-Smith, Marta García-Fiñana, Beth Irwin, James Irvine Morrow, Rebekah Shallcross, Gus A Baker
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of prenatal exposure to monotherapy levetiracetam, topiramate, and valproate on child cognitive functioning. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional observational study. Children exposed to monotherapy levetiracetam (n = 42), topiramate (n = 27), or valproate (n = 47) and a group of children born to women who had untreated epilepsy (n = 55) were enrolled retrospectively from the UK Epilepsy and Pregnancy Register. Assessor-blinded neuropsychological assessments were conducted between 5 and 9 years of age...
November 1, 2016: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27452623/comparative-study-of-antiepileptic-drug-use-during-pregnancy-over-a-period-of-12-years-in-spain-efficacy-of-the-newer-antiepileptic-drugs-lamotrigine-levetiracetam-and-oxcarbazepine
#6
M Martinez Ferri, P Peña Mayor, I Perez López-Fraile, A Escartin Siquier, M Martin Moro, M Forcadas Berdusan
INTRODUCTION: The prescription pattern of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) during pregnancy is changing but to what extent this is occurring in Spain remains unknown. The efficacy of newer drugs for controlling seizures is a key issue and may have changed over the years as doctors gained familiarity with these drugs during pregnancy. To assess these 2 topics, we report the results from the Spanish EURAP register gathered over a 12-year period. MATERIAL AND METHODS: After signing informed consent forms, patients were included in the register and evaluated at onset of pregnancy, at the end of the second and third trimesters, after delivery, and one year after delivery...
July 21, 2016: Neurología: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Neurología
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27438183/levetiracetam-and-valproate-retention-rate-in-juvenile-myoclonic-epilepsy
#7
Jacint Sala-Padró, Manuel Toledo, Estevo Santamarina, Montserrat González-Cuevas, Miquel Raspall-Chaure, Maria Sueiras-Gil, Manolo Quintana, Xavier Salas-Puig
BACKGROUND: Valproic acid (VPA) is an effective treatment in juvenile myoclonic epilepsy (JME), but concerns on its use during pregnancy are remarkable. Levetiracetam (LEV) is approved as second-line therapy, and used as monotherapy in clinical practice. Our objective was to analyze the outcome of LEV and VPA in JME. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed patients with JME attending our epilepsy unit between 2010 and 2014, including all patients treated with LEV and/or VPA at some point of the disease course...
July 19, 2016: Clinical Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27398292/the-risk-of-specific-congenital-anomalies-in-relation-to-newer-antiepileptic-drugs-a-literature-review
#8
Josta de Jong, Ester Garne, Lolkje T W de Jong-van den Berg, Hao Wang
BACKGROUND: More information is needed about possible associations between the newer anti-epileptic drugs (AEDs) in the first trimester of pregnancy and specific congenital anomalies of the fetus. OBJECTIVES: We performed a literature review to find signals for potential associations between newer AEDs (lamotrigine, topiramate, levetiracetam, gabapentin, oxcarbazepine, eslicarbazepine, felbamate, lacosamide, pregabalin, retigabine, rufinamide, stiripentol, tiagabine, vigabatrin, and zonisamide) and specific congenital anomalies...
June 2016: Drugs—Real World Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27392927/-not-available
#9
Eric Dailly, Régis Bouquié, Danièle Bentué-Ferrer
Levetiracetam is an anticonvulsant drug used to treat partial seizures, myoclonic seizures of juvenile myoclonic epilepsy and primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures. A review of the literature with an evidence-based medicine method highlighted parameters (age, renal failure, pregnancy, combination with other anticonvulsant drugs) which affect levetiracetam pharmacokinetics but no significant relationship between plasma concentration of levetiracetam and efficacy or toxicity. Concentrations usually observed in therapeutics is from 6 to 18 mg/L...
January 2010: Thérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27312074/the-treatment-of-epilepsy-in-pregnancy-the-neurodevelopmental-risks-associated-with-exposure-to-antiepileptic-drugs
#10
R Bromley
A number of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) have been confirmed as teratogens due to their association with an increased malformation rate. The majority of research to date does not find an association between prenatal exposure to monotherapy carbamazepine, lamotrigine or phenytoin and neurodevelopmental outcome in comparison to control children and noted higher abilities in comparison to children exposed to valproate; but further work is needed before conclusions can be drawn. Data for levetiracetam was limited to one study, as was the evidence for topiramate...
September 2016: Reproductive Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27265509/antiepileptic-drug-combinations-not-involving-valproate-and-the-risk-of-fetal-malformations
#11
Frank J E Vajda, Terrence J O'Brien, Cecilie M Lander, Janet Graham, Mervyn J Eadie
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the relationship between antiepileptic drug (AED) polytherapy in pregnant women and the risk of fetal malformations as prescribing practice changed, with valproate being used less often and at lower doses. Specifically, the risks associated with two of the most common AEDs included in polytherapy over recent years, levetiracetam and topiramate, were examined. METHODS: An observational cohort study in which malformation rates were analyzed in 1,461 pregnancies exposed to AED monotherapy, and in 484 exposed to antiepileptic drug combinations, from the Australian Register of Antiepileptic Drugs in Pregnancy over a 15-year period (1999-2014)...
July 2016: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27255296/evaluation-of-apoptotic-cell-death-on-liver-and-kidney-tissues-following-administration-of-levetiracetam-during-prenatal-period
#12
Akin Tekcan, Sengul Tural, Mehmet Elbistan, Tolga Guvenc, Bulent Ayas, Nurten Kara
OBJECTIVE: Levetiracetam is a new generation antiepileptic drug used in treatment of patients with epilepsy and has adverse effects on different tissues. We aimed to evaluate the apoptotic effects of levetiracetam exposure during pregnancy on liver and kidney tissues of rat pups. METHODS: We analyzed the newborn rat pups exposed to levetiracetam during prenatal period. Fifteen pregnant female rats were divided into three groups. The group 1 and 2 rats were treated with different doses of levetiracetam (25 mg/kg/d and 50 mg/kg/d, respectively) from gestational days 1-22 during pregnancy...
June 3, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26953551/-neurological-disorders-and-pregnancy
#13
P Berlit
Neurological disorders caused by pregnancy and puerperium include the posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome, the amniotic fluid embolism syndrome (AFES), the postpartum angiopathy due to reversible vasoconstriction syndrome, and the Sheehan syndrome. Hypertension and proteinuria are the hallmarks of preeclampsia, seizures define eclampsia. Hemolysis, elevated liver enzymes and low platelets constitute the HELLP syndrome. Vision disturbances including cortical blindness occur in the posterior reversible encephalopathy syndrome (PRES)...
February 2016: Fortschritte der Neurologie-Psychiatrie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26844738/managing-epilepsy-in-women
#14
REVIEW
Elizabeth E Gerard, Kimford J Meador
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Caring for a woman with epilepsy requires familiarity with the implications of antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) for pregnancy and contraception as well as an understanding of the effects of female hormones on epilepsy. RECENT FINDINGS: AED pregnancy registries and prospective studies of cognitive development continue to confirm that valproate poses a significantly increased risk of structural and cognitive teratogenesis. In contrast, data thus far suggest that lamotrigine and levetiracetam are associated with a relatively low risk for both anatomic and developmental adverse effects, although further studies are needed for these and other AEDs...
February 2016: Continuum: Lifelong Learning in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26773680/use-of-antiepileptic-drugs-during-pregnancy-and-lactation-type-of-information-provided-by-searching-google
#15
Tal Lavi-Blau, Dana Ekstein, Miri Y Neufeld, Sara Eyal
Surveys among women with epilepsy (WWE) show that they receive their essential pregnancy-related information from many sources, including the internet. Our aim was to assess the types of websites provided by searching Google for the use of four antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) during pregnancy and lactation. The search was performed on 40 computers used by health-care professionals, on 40 computers used by nonhealth-care professionals, and on 5 computers used by WWE in Israel and on 8 computers used by nonhealth-care professionals in the U...
February 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26521756/is-carbamazepine-a-human-teratogen
#16
REVIEW
F J E Vajda, T J O'Brien, J Graham, C M Lander, M J Eadie
The foetal outcomes of 2,635 pregnancies recorded in the Australian Pregnancy Register were studied. In at least the initial 4months of 515 pregnancies, there had been no intrauterine exposure to antiepileptic drugs, though the women involved in 264 of these pregnancies took antiepileptic drugs in later pregnancies. Compared with these 515 drug-unexposed pregnancies, foetal malformations risks were increased more than five-fold in association with valproate monotherapy, and more than doubled in association with carbamazepine monotherapy (p<0...
January 2016: Journal of Clinical Neuroscience: Official Journal of the Neurosurgical Society of Australasia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26519545/developmental-effects-of-antiepileptic-drugs-and-the-need-for-improved-regulations
#17
REVIEW
Kimford J Meador, David W Loring
Antiepileptic drugs (AEDs) are among the most common teratogenic drugs prescribed to women of childbearing age. AEDs can induce both anatomical (malformations) and behavioral (cognitive/behavioral deficits) teratogenicity. Only in the last decade have we begun to truly discriminate differential AED developmental effects. Fetal valproate exposure carries a special risk for both anatomical and behavioral teratogenic abnormalities, but the mechanisms and reasons for individual variability are unknown. Intermediate anatomical risks exist for phenobarbital and topiramate...
January 19, 2016: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26485447/neuroprotective-effects-of-levetiracetam-target-xct-in-astrocytes-in-parkinsonian-mice
#18
Ikuko Miyazaki, Shinki Murakami, Nao Torigoe, Yoshihisa Kitamura, Masato Asanuma
Astrocytes but not neurons express cystine/glutamate exchange transporter (xCT), which takes up cystine, and consequently supplies the substrate for GSH synthesis in neurons. It is recognized that GSH synthesis in neurons is dependent on the expression of xCT in astrocytes. Previous studies reported that levetiracetam (LEV), an anti-epileptic drug, increased xCT expression in vivo. The purpose of this study was to examine neuroprotective effects of LEV in parkinsonian models and demonstrate xCT in astrocytes as a target of neuroprotection against dopaminergic neurodegeneration...
January 2016: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26416395/management-of-epilepsy-during-pregnancy
#19
REVIEW
P Emanuela Voinescu, Page B Pennell
Over a million women with epilepsy are of childbearing age in the USA and require careful consideration of not only type of antiepileptic drug (AED) but also dosage, in the event of a planned or unplanned pregnancy. Careful selection of AEDs can lower the potential adverse effects of AEDs while maintaining seizure control for the health of not only on the patient, the mother, but also the unborn fetus. The number of treatment options has increased significantly in the last 20 years and remarkable progress has been made in characterizing the risks AEDs pose to pregnant women and fetuses...
October 2015: Expert Review of Neurotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26343016/quantification-of-new-antiepileptic-drugs-by-liquid-chromatography-electrospray-ionization-tandem-mass-spectrometry-and-its-application-to-cellular-uptake-experiment-using-human-placental-choriocarcinoma-bewo-cells
#20
Ayako Furugen, Masaki Kobayashi, Ayako Nishimura, Shigeo Takamura, Katsuya Narumi, Takehiro Yamada, Ken Iseki
A method for quantification of new antiepileptic drugs, including lamotrigine (LTG), levetiracetam (LEV), gabapentin (GBP), and topiramate (TPM), in cellular samples, using liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry was developed to better understand the membrane transport mechanisms of these drugs. Cell lysate was deproteinized by methanol containing LEV-d3 as an internal standard (IS). Chromatographic separation was performed on a C18 column using gradient elution with methanol-water-formic acid (10:90:0...
October 1, 2015: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
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