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Cannabis and cannabinoids

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444659/new-psychoactive-substances-nps-a-challenge-for-the-addiction-treatment-services
#1
Norbert Scherbaum, F Schifano, Udo Bonnet
Over the last few years, hundreds of new psychoactive substances (NPS) have been identified in Europe. Apart from some herbal compounds, NPS mainly include synthetic cannabinoids and a range of new synthetic stimulants (e. g., cathinones). Synthetic NPS are often developed whilst modifying the basic chemical (e. g., phenethylamine or tryptamine) structure. Although the pharmacology and toxicology of most NPS are hardly known, they are being offered, especially online, as "bath salts," as "incense mixtures," or under other misleading labels...
April 25, 2017: Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441106/jwh-122-consumption-adverse-effects-a-case-of-hallucinogen-persisting-perception-disorder-five-year-follow-up
#2
Maurizio Coppola, Raffaella Mondola
Synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists are a heterogeneous group of psychotropic drugs functionally related to Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol. These substances, marketed as cannabis substitutes, have been associated with numerous cases of severe intoxication and death across the world. In our article, we describe a case of hallucinogen persisting perception disorder developing in a natural cannabis user after consumption of JWH-122, a naphthoylindole largely used since 2010. Clinical symptomatology persisted for about four years and was alleviated through treatment with clonazepam...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434182/recent-trends-in-alcohol-and-other-drug-use-among-police-detainees-in-new-zealand-2010-2015
#3
Chris Wilkins, Jitesh Prasad, Karl Parker, Marta Rychert, Helen Moewaka Barnes
BACKGROUND: New Zealand has unusual patterns of recreational substance use by international standards including low levels of cocaine and heroin use, and high methamphetamine use. AIMS: This paper examines recent trends in alcohol and other drug use among police detainees in New Zealand over the past six years. METHOD: The paper utilises data from the New Zealand Arrestee Drug Use Monitoring (NZ-ADUM) study. NZ-ADUM interviewed approximately 800 police detainees each year at four central city police watch houses (i...
April 23, 2017: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427301/corneal-endothelial-changes-in-long-term-cannabinoid-users
#4
Nihat Polat, Birgul Cumurcu, Tongabay Cumurcu, İlknur Tuncer
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of long-term cannabis use on the corneal endothelial cells with the specular microscopy. METHODS: The study enrolled 28 eyes of 28 patients diagnosed with cannabinoid use disorder. The cannabinoid group was selected among patients who had been using the substance for 3 days or more per week over the past 1 year. 32 eyes of 32 age- and sex-matched healthy individuals enrolled as control group in the study...
April 20, 2017: Cutaneous and Ocular Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422145/compromised-external-validity-federally-produced-cannabis-does-not-reflect-legal-markets
#5
Daniela Vergara, L Cinnamon Bidwell, Reggie Gaudino, Anthony Torres, Gary Du, Travis C Ruthenburg, Kymron deCesare, Donald P Land, Kent E Hutchison, Nolan C Kane
As the most widely used illicit drug worldwide, and as a source of numerous under-studied pharmacologically-active compounds, a precise understanding of variability in psychological and physiological effects of Cannabis varieties is essential. The National Institute on Drug Abuse (NIDA) is designated as the sole legal producer of Cannabis for use in US research studies. We sought to compare the chemical profiles of Cannabis varieties that are available to consumers in states that have state-legalized use versus what is available to researchers interested in studying the plant and its effects...
April 19, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28417566/cannabinoid-type-1-receptor-cb1-bioligand-with-therapeutic-potential-for-withdrawal-syndrome-in-chemical-dependents-cannabis-sativa
#6
Lorane Hage Melim, Jaderson V Ferreira, Gisele A Chaves, Bianca L B Marino, Kessia P A Sousa, Lucilene R Souza, Maiara F B Brito, Hueldem R C Teixeira, Carlos H T P Silva, Cleydson B R Santos
Cannabis sativa withdrawal syndrome is characterized mainly by psychological symptoms. Using computational tools, the aim was to propose drug candidates based on natural ligands of the cannabinoid type 1 receptor (CB1), where only the molecule ZINC1730183 showed a positive prediction for the human CB1 receptor and easy synthetic prediction of accessibility. Therefore, this molecule proves to be a favorable proposal, suggesting the continuation of this research as a pharmacotherapeutic alternative to the withdrawal syndrome of C...
April 17, 2017: ChemMedChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412921/synthetic-cannabinoids-psychopharmacology-clinical-aspects-and-psy-chotic-onset
#7
Giovanni Martinotti, Rita Santacroce, Duccio Papanti, Yasmine Elgharably, Mariya Prilutskaya, Ornella Corazza
Synthetic Cannabinoids (SC) are the widest and most diffused class of Novel Psychoactive Substances. SC are chemically heterogeneous and structurally dissimilar from delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol, being full agonists of the endocannabinoid system receptors CB1 and CB2. Desired effects include euphoria, talkativeness, feelings of joy and laughter, relaxation. With respect to cannabis, SC intake may also be associated with quicker arise of the effects, shorter duration of action, and larger levels of hangover...
April 13, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412920/neuropsychiatric-and-general-interactions-of-natural-and-synthetic-cannabinoids-with-drugs-of-abuse-and-medicines
#8
Ana Lucia Arellano, Esther Papaseit, Anna Romaguera, Marta Torrens, Magi Farré
Cannabis is the most widely used illicit drug. The two most important natural cannabinoids are delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD). The THC content of cannabis has been increasing during the last years and recently appeared in the market a series of synthetic cannabinoids with potent agonist activity. Recreational users frequently combine cannabis with other drugs of abuse as alcohol, amphetamines and derivatives, nicotine and cocaine. In addition these subjects can be taking medicines for acute and chronic medical conditions...
April 13, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412919/neurological-disorders-in-medical-use-of-cannabis-an-update
#9
Renata Solimini, Maria Concetta Rotolo, Simona Pichini, Roberta Pacifici
Medical cannabis is increasingly used as a treatment or adjunct treatment with different levels of efficacy in several neurological disorders or related symptoms (such as multiple sclerosis, autism, Parkinson and Alzheimer disease, Tourette's syndrome, Huntington's disease, neuropathic pain, epilepsy, headache), as well as in other medical conditions (e.g. nausea and vomiting, glaucoma, appetite stimulation, cancer, inflammatory conditions, asthma). Nevertheless, a number of neurological adverse effects from use of medical cannabis on the short- and on the long- term have been reported, in addition to other adverse health events...
April 13, 2017: CNS & Neurological Disorders Drug Targets
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28412575/the-role-of-illicit-licit-and-designer-drugs-in-the-traffic-in-hungary
#10
László Institóris, Előd Hidvégi, Adrienn Dobos, Éva Sija, Éva M Kereszty, László Balázs Tajti, Gábor Pál Somogyi, Tibor Varga
The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and pattern of psychoactive substances among suspected DUID (Driving Under the Influence of Drugs) drivers in Hungary in 2014 and 2015. Blood and/or urine samples of 1252 suspected drivers (600 in 2014 and 652 in 2015) were analyzed for classical illicit and licit drugs, stimulant designer drugs (SDDs), and for synthetic cannabinoids, with 78.3% and 79.6% positive cases for at least one substance in 2014, and 2015, respectively. Impairment was proven in 39...
April 3, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402427/bdnf-overexpression-prevents-cognitive-deficit-elicited-by-adolescent-cannabis-exposure-and-host-susceptibility-interaction
#11
Hadar Segal-Gavish, Neta Gazit, Yael Barhum, Tali Ben-Zur, Michal Taler, Shay Henry Hornfeld, Irit Gil-Ad, Abraham Weizman, Inna Slutsky, Minae Niwa, Atsushi Kamiya, Akira Sawa, Daniel Offen, Ran Barzilay
Cannabis abuse in adolescence is associated with increased risk of psychotic disorders. Δ-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the primary psychoactive component of cannabis. Disrupted-In-Schizophrenia-1 (DISC1) protein is a driver for major mental illness by influencing neurodevelopmental processes. Here, utilizing a unique mouse model based on host (DISC1) X environment (THC administration) interaction, we aimed at studying the pathobiological basis through which THC exposure elicits psychiatric manifestations...
April 11, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28401285/individual-prolactin-reactivity-modulates-response-of-nucleus-accumbens-to-erotic-stimuli-during-acute-cannabis-intoxication-an-fmri-pilot-study
#12
R Androvicova, J Horacek, J Tintera, J Hlinka, J Rydlo, D Jezova, M Balikova, T Hlozek, P Miksatkova, M Kuchar, M Roman, P Tomicek, F Tyls, M Viktorinova, T Palenicek
RATIONALE: Self-report studies indicate that cannabis could increase sexual desire in some users. We hypothesized that intoxication increases activation of brain areas responsive to visual erotica, which could be useful in the treatment of hypoactive sexual desire disorder, a condition marked by a lack of sexual desire. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to assess the aphrodisiacal properties of cannabis. METHODS: We conducted an open-randomized study with 21 heterosexual casual cannabis users...
April 12, 2017: Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28400711/cannabinoid-hyperemesis-and-the-cyclic-vomiting-syndrome-in-adults-recognition-diagnosis-acute-and-long-term-treatment
#13
REVIEW
Christian G Blumentrath, Boris Dohrmann, Nils Ewald
The cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome (CHS) and the cyclic vomiting syndrome in adults (CVS) are both characterized by recurrent episodes of heavy nausea, vomiting and frequently abdominal pain. Both syndromes are barely known among physicians. Literature is inconsistent concerning clinical features which enable differentiation between CVS and CHS. We performed a literature review using the LIVIVO search portal for life sciences to develop a pragmatic approach towards these two syndromes. Our findings indicate that complete and persistent resolution of all symptoms of the disease following cannabis cessation is the only reliable criterion applicable to distinguish CHS from CVS...
2017: German Medical Science: GMS E-journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399488/intentional-cannabis-use-to-reduce-crack-cocaine-use-in-a-canadian-setting-a-longitudinal-analysis
#14
M Eugenia Socías, Thomas Kerr, Evan Wood, Huiru Dong, Stephanie Lake, Kanna Hayashi, Kora DeBeck, Didier Jutras-Aswad, Julio Montaner, M-J Milloy
BACKGROUND: No effective pharmacotherapies exist for the treatment of crack cocaine use disorders. Emerging data suggests that cannabinoids may play a role in reducing cocaine-related craving symptoms. This study investigated the intentional use of cannabis to reduce crack use among people who use illicit drugs (PWUD). METHODS: Data were drawn from three prospective cohorts of PWUD in Vancouver, Canada. Using data from participants reporting intentional cannabis use to control crack use, we used generalized linear mixed-effects modeling to estimate the independent effect of three pre-defined intentional cannabis use periods (i...
April 4, 2017: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28392338/cannabis-exercise-performance-and-sport-a-systematic-review
#15
REVIEW
Michael C Kennedy
OBJECTIVES: To review the evidence relating to the effect of cannabis on exercise performance. DESIGN: A systematic review of published literature METHODS: Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the principal psychoactive component of cannabis. A search was conducted using PUB med, Medline and Embase searching for cannabis, marijuana, cannabinoids and THC, in sport and exercise; the contents of sports medicine journals for the last 10 years; as well as cross references from journals and a personal collection of reprints...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Science and Medicine in Sport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28387093/-diagnosis-of-cannabinoid-hyperemesis-update-on-the-cannabis-shower-syndrome
#16
REVIEW
B Cuppens, M Gensburger, M Tonglet, L Marissiaux, E Brasseur, V d'Orio, A Ghuysen
Sometimes, the emergency department is confronted with cases of repetitive vomiting and abdominal pain without organic causes. These patients come back again and again for this problem. All diagnostic tests are systematically negative. A well conducted history taking reveals a chronic cannabis addiction and the disappearance of symptomatology by taking hot showers. This presentation is pathognomonic of the cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome.
December 2016: Revue Médicale de Liège
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28376639/the-effect-of-symptom-controlling-medication-on-gait-outcomes-in-people-with-multiple-sclerosis-a-systematic-review
#17
Kate Behm, Prue Morgan
PURPOSE: To synthesise and critically appraise randomised controlled trials examining the effect of symptom-controlling medication on gait outcomes in people with multiple sclerosis (MS). METHOD: The literature search examined five databases (Medline, Embase, AMED, Cochrane (CENTRAL), and CINAHL until the end of November 2016. Eligible studies included medication to address symptoms associated with MS and an objective gait outcome measure. Two reviewers independently extracted data and assessed study quality using structured data extraction forms and the PEDro scale...
April 4, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28373843/antihyperalgesic-activities-of-endocannabinoids-in-a-mouse-model-of-antiretroviral-induced-neuropathic-pain
#18
Neha Munawar, Mabayoje A Oriowo, Willias Masocha
Background: Nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitors (NRTIs) are the cornerstone of the antiretroviral therapy for human immunodeficiency virus/acquired immune deficiency syndrome (HIV/AIDS). However, their use is sometimes limited by the development of a painful sensory neuropathy, which does not respond well to drugs. Smoked cannabis has been reported in clinical trials to have efficacy in relieving painful HIV-associated sensory neuropathy. Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the expression of endocannabinoid system molecules is altered during NRTI-induced painful neuropathy, and also whether endocannabinoids can attenuate NRTI-induced painful neuropathy...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28372838/development-and-validation-of-a-liquid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry-method-for-the-determination-of-cannabinoids-and-phase-i-and-ii-metabolites-in-meconium
#19
Pablo Prego-Meleiro, Elena Lendoiro, Marta Concheiro, Angelines Cruz, Manuel López-Rivadulla, Ana de Castro
A liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MSMS) method was developed and fully validated for the determination of Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), 11-hydroxyTHC (OHTHC), 11-nor-9-carboxyTHC (THCCOOH), 8-β-11-dihydroxyTHC (diOHTHC), cannabinol, cannabidiol, and THC and THCCOOH glucuronides in 0.25±0.02g meconium. Samples were homogenized in methanol and subjected to cation exchange solid-phase extraction. Chromatographic separation was performed on a Kinetex C18 column (50 mm×2.1mm, 2.6μm) at 35°C, with a gradient of 0...
March 25, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28371432/determination-of-cannabinoid-and-synthetic-cannabinoid-metabolites-in-wastewater-by-liquid-liquid-extraction-and-ultrahigh-performance-supercritical-fluid-chromatography-tandem-mass-spectrometry
#20
Iria González-Mariño, Kevin V Thomas, Malcolm J Reid
For the first time, ultrahigh performance supercritical fluid chromatography (UHPSFC) coupled to tandem mass spectrometry has been used to determine cannabinoid and synthetic cannabinoid residues in wastewater. Combined with a downscaled version of the classical liquid-liquid extraction, the proposed method allows for the quantification of ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol, three of its major metabolites (the monohydroxylated, the dihydroxylated and the carboxylated species) and four synthetic cannabinoid metabolites (from the JWH-series) at low ng L(-1) levels...
March 31, 2017: Drug Testing and Analysis
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