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Cannabis and cannabinoids

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100841/cannabinoids-a-new-weapon-against-cancer
#1
Małgorzata Pokrywka, Joanna Góralska, Bogdan Solnica
Cannabis has been cultivated by man since Neolithic times. It was used, among others for fiber and rope production, recreational purposes and as an excellent therapeutic agent. The isolation and characterization of the structure of one of the main active ingredients of cannabis - Δ9 - tetrahydrocannabinol as well the discovery of its cannabinoid binding receptors CB1 and CB2, has been a milestone in the study of the possibilities of the uses of Cannabis sativa and related products in modern medicine. Many scientific studies indicate the potential use of cannabinoids in the fight against cancer...
December 29, 2016: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098679/a-patient-with-a-curious-case-of-cyclical-vomiting
#2
David A Smith, Hayden R Phillips
Cannabis-related ED visits are on the rise due to wider legalization and availability of marijuana, and habitual daily use is increasingly common. Cannabis abuse has long been associated with various short-term and long-term adverse reactions. One such reaction is cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome: cyclical vomiting, nausea, and abdominal pain that only resolves with a warm bath or shower. Healthcare providers must understand the signs and symptoms of cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome so the problem can be recognized early and patients avoid unnecessary testing...
February 2017: JAAPA: Official Journal of the American Academy of Physician Assistants
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089286/historical-perspective-on-the-medical-use-of-cannabis-for-epilepsy-ancient-times-to-the-1980s
#3
REVIEW
Daniel Friedman, Joseph I Sirven
There has been a dramatic surge in the interest of utilizing cannabis for epilepsy treatment in the US. Yet, access to cannabis for research and therapy is mired in conflicting regulatory policies and shifting public opinion. Understanding the current state of affairs in the medical cannabis debate requires an examination of the history of medical cannabis use. From ancient Chinese pharmacopeias to the current Phase III trials of pharmaceutical grade cannabidiol, this review covers the time span of cannabis use for epilepsy therapy so as to better assess the issues surrounding the modern medical opinion of cannabis use...
January 11, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088044/dried-haematic-microsamples-and-lc-ms-ms-for-the-analysis-of-natural-and-synthetic-cannabinoids
#4
Michele Protti, James Rudge, Angelo Eliseo Sberna, Gilberto Gerra, Laura Mercolini
Synthetic cannabinoids are new psychoactive substances (NPS) with similar effects when compared to natural ones found in Cannabis derivatives. They have rapidly integrated into the illicit market, often sold as alternatives under international control. The need to identify and quantify an unprecedented and growing number of new compounds represents a unique challenge for toxicological, forensic and anti-doping analysis. Dried blood spots have been used within the bioanalytical framework in place of plasma or serum, in order to reduce invasiveness, lower sample size, simplify handling, storage and shipping of samples and to facilitate home-based and on-field applications...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087250/pharmacology-of-cannabinoids-in-the-treatment-of-epilepsy
#5
REVIEW
Tyler E Gaston, Daniel Friedman
The use of cannabis products in the treatment of epilepsy has long been of interest to researchers and clinicians alike; however, until recently very little published data were available to support its use. This article summarizes the available scientific data of pharmacology from human and animal studies on the major cannabinoids which have been of interest in the treatment of epilepsy, including ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinol (∆9-THC), cannabidiol (CBD), ∆9-tetrahydrocannabivarin (∆9-THCV), cannabidivarin (CBDV), and ∆9-tetrahydrocannabinolic acid (Δ9-THCA)...
January 10, 2017: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079617/manipulation-of-the-endocannabinoid-system-in-colitis-a-comprehensive-review
#6
Kristina L Leinwand, Mark E Gerich, Edward J Hoffenberg, Colm B Collins
BACKGROUND: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a lifelong disease of the gastrointestinal tract whose annual incidence and prevalence is on the rise. Current immunosuppressive therapies available for treatment of IBD offer limited benefits and lose effectiveness, exposing a significant need for the development of novel therapies. In the clinical setting, cannabis has been shown to provide patients with IBD symptomatic relief, although the underlying mechanisms of their anti-inflammatory effects remain unclear...
January 10, 2017: Inflammatory Bowel Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28065934/brain-cannabinoid-receptor-2-expression-function-and-modulation
#7
REVIEW
De-Jie Chen, Ming Gao, Fen-Fei Gao, Quan-Xi Su, Jie Wu
Cannabis sativa (marijuana) is a fibrous flowering plant that produces an abundant variety of molecules, some with psychoactive effects. At least 4% of the world's adult population uses cannabis annually, making it one of the most frequently used illicit drugs in the world. The psychoactive effects of cannabis are mediated primarily through cannabinoid receptor (CBR) subtypes. The prevailing view is that CB1Rs are mainly expressed in the central neurons, whereas CB2Rs are predominantly expressed in peripheral immune cells...
January 9, 2017: Acta Pharmacologica Sinica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28063756/-synthetic-cannabinoids-a-new-addiction-matrix
#8
Amandine Scocard, Amine Benyamina, Sarah Coscas, Laurent Karila
Synthetic cannabinoids (SC) belong to the emergent market of new psychoactive substances, sold on the Internet or specialized shops. Since the 1970s, more than 160 new SC have invaded the drug market. These substances imitate the psychoactive effects of cannabis. Underestimated for too long, SC's market growth and consequences are no longer to be ignored, first of all in terms of public health. SC were first synthesized during researches on the endocannabinoid system. Though they are agonists of the cannabinoid receptors 1 and 2, as Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol in cannabis, they can also have a really high affinity with these receptors, rising up their potency...
January 4, 2017: La Presse Médicale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28061971/the-endocannabinoid-system-and-anxiety
#9
S F Lisboa, F V Gomes, A L B Terzian, D C Aguiar, F A Moreira, L B M Resstel, F S Guimarães
The medical properties of Cannabis sativa is known for centuries. Since the discovery and characterization of the endogenous cannabinoid system, several studies have evaluated how cannabinoid compounds and, particularly, how the modulation of the endocannabinoid (eCB) system influences a wide range of functions, from metabolic to mental disorders. Cannabinoids and eCB system often exert opposite effects on several functions, such as anxiety. Although the mechanisms are not completely understood, evidence points to different factors influencing those effects...
2017: Vitamins and Hormones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052951/is-haloperidol-the-wonder-drug-for-cannabinoid-hyperemesis-syndrome
#10
Faisal Inayat, Hafeez Ul Hassan Virk, Waqas Ullah, Qulsoom Hussain
Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome (CHS) is a rare clinical syndrome characterised by nausea, cyclic vomiting and severe abdominal pain in association with chronic cannabis use. It is often under-recognised or misdiagnosed, resulting in the unnecessary workup and frequent hospitalisations. Long-term treatment of CHS is abstinence from cannabis, but acute symptomatic management has been a struggle for many clinicians. The present report highlights the use of haloperidol as an agent that successfully and safely treats the unrelenting symptoms of CHS...
January 4, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28050136/a-user-s-guide-to-cannabinoid-therapies-in-oncology
#11
REVIEW
V Maida, P J Daeninck
"Cannabinoid" is the collective term for a group of chemical compounds that either are derived from the Cannabis plant, are synthetic analogues, or occur endogenously. Although cannabinoids interact mostly at the level of the currently recognized cannabinoid receptors, they might have cross reactivity, such as at opioid receptors. Patients with malignant disease represent a cohort within health care that have some of the greatest unmet needs despite the availability of a plethora of guideline-driven disease-modulating treatments and pain and symptom management options...
December 2016: Current Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035764/alpha-pvp-as-an-active-component-of-herbal-highs-in-poland-between-2013-2015
#12
Bogumiła Byrska, Roman Stanaszek, Dariusz Zuba
Alpha-PVP (alpha-pyrrolidinovalerophenone, α-PVP) is a synthetic derivative of cathinone. It has been one of the most frequently detected new psychoactive substances (NPS) available on the drug market in recent years in Poland. The usual routes of administration of the drug include oral, insufflation, injection. Unexpectedly, we dealt with a great number of herbal samples that turned out to contain α-PVP. A total number of 352 herbal samples from 19 cases, in which we detected synthetic cathinones, were investigated in the Institute of Forensic Research (IFR) from 2013 to 2015...
December 30, 2016: Drug Testing and Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28035196/therapeutic-use-of-cannabis-in-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#13
Waseem Ahmed, Seymour Katz
The marijuana plant Cannabis sativa and its derivatives, cannabinoids, have grown increasingly popular as a potential therapy for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Studies have shown that modulation of the endocannabinoid system, which regulates various functions in the body and has been shown to play a key role in the pathogenesis of IBD, has a therapeutic effect in mouse colitis. Epidemiologic data and human therapy studies reveal a possible role for cannabinoids in the symptomatic treatment of IBD, although it has yet to be determined in human populations whether cannabinoids have therapeutic anti-inflammatory effects in IBD or are simply masking its many debilitating symptoms...
November 2016: Gastroenterology & Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28012093/pharmacological-and-toxicological-effects-of-synthetic-cannabinoids-and-their-metabolites
#14
Sherrica Tai, William E Fantegrossi
Commercial preparations containing synthetic cannabinoids (SCBs) are rapidly emerging as drugs of abuse. Although often assumed to be "safe" and "legal" alternatives to cannabis, reports indicate that SCBs induce toxicity not often associated with the primary psychoactive component of marijuana, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC). This chapter will summarize the evidence that use of SCBs poses greater health risks relative to marijuana and suggest that distinct pharmacological properties and metabolism of SCBs relative to Δ(9)-THC may contribute to this increased toxicity...
December 24, 2016: Current Topics in Behavioral Neurosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000787/establishment-of-a-new-drug-code-for-marihuana-extract-final-rule
#15
(no author information available yet)
The Drug Enforcement Administration is creating a new Administration Controlled Substances Code Number for "Marihuana Extract." This code number will allow DEA and DEA-registered entities to track quantities of this material separately from quantities of marihuana. This, in turn, will aid in complying with relevant treaty provisions. Under international drug control treaties administered by the United Nations, some differences exist between the regulatory controls pertaining to marihuana extract versus those for marihuana and tetrahydrocannabinols...
14, 2016: Federal Register
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000146/cannabinoid-hyperemesis-syndrome-diagnosis-pathophysiology-and-treatment-a-systematic-review
#16
REVIEW
Cecilia J Sorensen, Kristen DeSanto, Laura Borgelt, Kristina T Phillips, Andrew A Monte
Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome (CHS) is a syndrome of cyclic vomiting associated with cannabis use. Our objective is to summarize the available evidence on CHS diagnosis, pathophysiology, and treatment. We performed a systematic review using MEDLINE, Ovid MEDLINE, Embase, Web of Science, and the Cochrane Library from January 2000 through September 24, 2015. Articles eligible for inclusion were evaluated using the Grading and Recommendations Assessment, Development, and Evaluation (GRADE) criteria. Data were abstracted from the articles and case reports and were combined in a cumulative synthesis...
December 20, 2016: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989385/cannabis-and-epilepsy-an-ancient-treatment-returns-to-the-fore
#17
REVIEW
Ethan B Russo
Cannabis has been associated with the treatment of epilepsy throughout history, and if ancient Assyrian sources referring to "hand of ghost" are considered credible, this relationship may span four millennia. A tradition of usage continued in Arabic medicine and Ayurvedic practice in India, which led, in turn, to early experiments in Europe and North America with "Indian hemp." Lack of standardization, bioavailability issues, and ultimately prohibition were all factors in cannabis-based medicines failing to maintain mainstream usage in seizure treatment, but investigation was resumed in the 1970s with interesting signals noted in both laboratory and clinical settings...
December 15, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986504/the-consequences-of-chronic-cannabis-smoking-in-vulnerable-adolescents
#18
REVIEW
Montaha Al Iede, Kenneth Nunn, Bronwyn Milne, Dominic A Fitzgerald
Cannabis, like the mythic shape-shifter, presents in various guises, morphing with the perspective and context of the observer. Arguments about cannabis are confused by a myriad of debates-medical, social, ethical and political-as if a single conceptual umbrella can capture the variety and granularity of marijuana-related issues. This paper responds to marijuana use as it is commonly practised by youth in Australia. It has little to say about synthetic cannabinoids, specific medicinal cannabinoids, or medicinal properties of marijuana...
November 9, 2016: Paediatric Respiratory Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27959995/cannabis-and-cannabinoids
#19
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
13, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27957741/quantitative-determination-of-cannabinoids-in-cannabis-and-cannabis-products-using-ultra-high-performance-supercritical-fluid-chromatography-and-diode-array-mass-spectrometric-detection
#20
Mei Wang, Yan-Hong Wang, Bharathi Avula, Mohamed M Radwan, Amira S Wanas, Zlatko Mehmedic, John van Antwerp, Mahmoud A ElSohly, Ikhlas A Khan
Ultra-high-performance supercritical fluid chromatography (UHPSFC) is an efficient analytical technique and has not been fully employed for the analysis of cannabis. Here, a novel method was developed for the analysis of 30 cannabis plant extracts and preparations using UHPSFC/PDA-MS. Nine of the most abundant cannabinoids, viz. CBD, ∆(8) -THC, THCV, ∆(9) -THC, CBN, CBG, THCA-A, CBDA, and CBGA, were quantitatively determined (RSDs < 6.9%). Unlike GC methods, no derivatization or decarboxylation was required prior to UHPSFC analysis...
December 13, 2016: Journal of Forensic Sciences
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