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Cannabis and cannabinoids

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28534260/pharmacogenetics-of-cannabinoids
#1
Szymon Hryhorowicz, Michal Walczak, Oliwia Zakerska-Banaszak, Ryszard Słomski, Marzena Skrzypczak-Zielińska
Although the application of medical marijuana and cannabinoid drugs is controversial, it is a part of modern-day medicine. The list of diseases in which cannabinoids are promoted as a treatment is constantly expanding. Cases of significant improvement in patients with a very poor prognosis of glioma or epilepsy have already been described. However, the occurrence of side effects is still difficult to estimate, and the current knowledge of the therapeutic effects of cannabinoids is still insufficient. In our opinion, the answers to many questions and concerns regarding the medical use of cannabis can be provided by pharmacogenetics...
May 22, 2017: European Journal of Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28529696/in-silico-gene-expression-profiling-in-cannabis-sativa
#2
Luca Massimino
The cannabis plant and its active ingredients (i.e., cannabinoids and terpenoids) have been socially stigmatized for half a century. Luckily, with more than 430,000 published scientific papers and about 600 ongoing and completed clinical trials, nowadays cannabis is employed for the treatment of many different medical conditions. Nevertheless, even if a large amount of high-throughput functional genomic data exists, most researchers feature a strong background in molecular biology but lack advanced bioinformatics skills...
2017: F1000Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527758/modulation-of-cb1-cannabinoid-receptor-by-allosteric-ligands-pharmacology-and-therapeutic-opportunities
#3
REVIEW
Leepakshi Khurana, Ken Mackie, Daniele Piomelli, Debra A Kendall
Cannabinoid pharmacology has been intensely studied because of cannabis' pervasive medicinal and non-medicinal uses as well as for the therapeutic potential of cannabinoid-based drugs for the treatment of pain, anxiety, substance abuse, obesity, cancer and neurodegenerative disorders. The identification of allosteric modulators of the cannabinoid receptor 1 (CB1) has given a new direction to the development of cannabinoid-based therapeutics due to the many advantages offered by targeting allosteric site(s)...
May 17, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28516445/role-of-the-endocannabinoid-system-in-vertebrates-emphasis-on-the-zebrafish-model
#4
REVIEW
Francesca Oltrabella, Adam Melgoza, Brian Nguyen, Su Guo
The endocannabinoid system (eCBs), named after the plant Cannabis sativa, comprises cannabinoid receptors, endogenous ligands known as "endocannabinoids", and enzymes involved in the biosynthesis and degradation of these ligands, as well as putative transporters for these ligands. ECBs proteins and small molecules have been detected in early embryonic stages of many vertebrate models. As a result, cannabinoid receptors and endogenous as well as exogenous cannabinoids influence development and behavior in many vertebrate species...
May 17, 2017: Development, Growth & Differentiation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28515817/systematic-review-of-the-potential-role-of-cannabinoids-as-antiproliferative-agents-for-urological-cancers
#5
REVIEW
Shreyas Gandhi, Gaurav Vasisth, Anil Kapoor
INTRODUCTION: The palliative effects of cannabis sativa (marijuana), which include appetite stimulation, attenuation of nausea and emesis, and pain relief, are well known. The active components of cannabis sativa (cannabinoids) and their derivatives have received growing interest due to their diverse pharmacological activities, such as cell growth inhibition and tumour regression. The aim of this review is to look at the current evidence on the antiproliferative effects of cannabinoids in urological malignancies, including renal, prostate, bladder, and testicular cancers...
March 2017: Canadian Urological Association Journal, Journal de L'Association des Urologues du Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506926/high-times-for-cannabis-epigenetic-imprint-and-its-legacy-on-brain-and-behavior
#6
REVIEW
Henrietta Szutorisz, Yasmin L Hurd
Extensive debates continue regarding marijuana (Cannabis spp), the most commonly used illicit substance in many countries worldwide. There has been an exponential increase of cannabis studies over the past two decades but the drug's long-term effects still lack in-depth scientific data. The epigenome is a critical molecular machinery with the capacity to maintain persistent alterations of gene expression and behaviors induced by cannabinoids that have been observed across the individual's lifespan and even into the subsequent generation...
May 12, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28506704/a-method-to-achieve-extended-cannabis-abstinence-in-cannabis-dependent-patients-with-schizophrenia-and-non-psychiatric-controls
#7
Rachel A Rabin, Karolina Kozak, Konstantine K Zakzanis, Gary Remington, Cristiana Stefan, Alan J Budney, Tony P George
BACKGROUND: Cannabis use disorders (CUD) are common in schizophrenia (~25%) compared to the general population (~3%). Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the principal psychoactive component in cannabis is fat-soluble, resulting in an extended period for cannabinoid elimination. While detection of cannabinoids in urine is indicative of prior cannabis exposure, time of last use is difficult to verify sustained abstinence for extended periods (e.g., 28-days) in chronic cannabis users. Therefore, we evaluated the utility of a sustained cannabis abstinence paradigm in patients with schizophrenia and non-psychiatric controls...
May 12, 2017: Schizophrenia Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503792/synthetic-cannabinoid-use-in-an-acute-psychiatric-inpatient-unit
#8
Richard Vincent Clancy, Robert Charles Hodgson, Arvind Kendurkar, Margarett Ann Terry, Lawrence Dadd, Donna Maria Clancy, Karen Ryan, Maria Hatzistylis, Benjamin Graham Tinman
In the present study, we explored the prevalence of new psychoactive substance use by people admitted into an Australian acute public mental health facility specializing in comorbid mental health and substance use. These substances have since been banned from retail outlets, but the pattern of uptake and reasons people use them is informative in terms of motivations and the management of substance use more generally. A cross-sectional study to explore the use of synthetic cannabis by people admitted to an acute adult mental health unit was undertaken...
May 15, 2017: International Journal of Mental Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28501518/cannabidiol-in-medical-marijuana-research-vistas-and-potential-opportunities
#9
REVIEW
Carola Rong, Yena Lee, Nicole E Carmona, Danielle S Cha, Renee-Marie Ragguett, Joshua D Rosenblat, Rodrigo B Mansur, Roger C Ho, Roger S McIntyre
The high and increasing prevalence of medical marijuana consumption in the general population invites the need for quality evidence regarding its safety and efficacy. Herein, we synthesize extant literature pertaining to the phytocannabinoid cannabidiol (CBD) and its brain effects. The principle phytocannabinoid Δ(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ(9)-THC) and CBD are the major pharmacologically active cannabinoids. The effect of CBD on brain systems as well as on phenomenological measures (e.g. cognitive function) are distinct and in many cases opposite to that of Δ(9)-THC...
May 10, 2017: Pharmacological Research: the Official Journal of the Italian Pharmacological Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28495606/the-synthetic-cannabinoid-win-55-212-55-212-induced-apoptosis-in-cytotrophoblasts-cells-by-a-mechanism-dependent-on-cb1-receptor
#10
Marta Almada, Lia Costa, Bruno Miguel Fonseca, Cristina Amaral, Natércia Teixeira, Georgina Correia-da-Silva
The endocannabinoid system has evolved as a key regulator in several pathological and physiological processes, including placentation, decidualization and implantation. In addition, it is known that Cannabis and cannabinoids negatively affect female reproduction. Although, the biological action of synthetic cannabinoids, such as WIN-55,212, in human fertility and pregnancy outcome remain to be unveiled. A tight balance between proliferation, differentiation and apoptosis of trophoblast cells is required for placental development and pregnancy outcome...
May 8, 2017: Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28494183/resolution-of-cannabis-hyperemesis-syndrome-with-topical-capsaicin-in-the-emergency-department-a-case-series
#11
Laurel Dezieck, Zachary Hafez, Albert Conicella, Eike Blohm, Mark J O'Connor, Evan S Schwarz, Michael E Mullins
BACKGROUND: Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome (CHS) is characterized by symptoms of cyclic abdominal pain, nausea, and vomiting in the setting of prolonged cannabis use. The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) receptor may be involved in this syndrome. Topical capsaicin is a proposed treatment for CHS; it binds TRPV1 with high specificity, impairing substance P signaling in the area postrema and nucleus tractus solitarius via overstimulation of TRPV1. This may explain its apparent antiemetic effect in this syndrome...
May 11, 2017: Clinical Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492950/psychoactive-constituents-of-cannabis-and-their-clinical-implications-a-systematic-review
#12
Cristina Casajuana, Hugo López-Pelayo, Mª Mercedes Balcells, Joan Colom, Antoni Gual
Objective This systematic review aims to summarize current evidence on which naturally present cannabinoids contribute to cannabis psychoactivity, considering their reported concentrations and pharmacodynamics in humans. Design Following PRISMA guidelines, papers published before March 2016 in Medline, Scopus-Elsevier, Scopus, ISI-Web of Knowledge and COCHRANE, and fulfilling established a-priori selection criteria have been included. Results In 40 original papers, three naturally present cannabinoids (∆-9-Tetrahydrocannabinol, ∆-8-Tetrahydrocannabinol and Cannabinol) and one human metabolite (11-OH-THC) had clinical relevance...
April 12, 2017: Adicciones
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28490916/the-cannabis-withdrawal-syndrome-current-insights
#13
REVIEW
Udo Bonnet, Ulrich W Preuss
The cannabis withdrawal syndrome (CWS) is a criterion of cannabis use disorders (CUDs) (Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders - Fifth Edition) and cannabis dependence (International Classification of Diseases [ICD]-10). Several lines of evidence from animal and human studies indicate that cessation from long-term and regular cannabis use precipitates a specific withdrawal syndrome with mainly mood and behavioral symptoms of light to moderate intensity, which can usually be treated in an outpatient setting...
2017: Substance Abuse and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28488989/spice-y-kidney-failure-a-case-report-and-systematic-review-of-acute-kidney-injury-attributable-to-the-use-of-synthetic-cannabis
#14
REVIEW
Ceyda Zarifi, Shuchi Vyas
INTRODUCTION: Spice is a synthetic cannabinoid that is readily available for purchase in smoke shops at relatively low cost. Spice is not detectable upon routine drug screening, making it an increasingly popular new street drug. CASE REPORT: A 21-year-old man presented with new-onset seizures. During the next 2 days, he developed uncontrollable hypertension, agitation, respiratory failure requiring intubation, pulmonary hypertension, and acute kidney injury (AKI) with a maximum blood urea nitrogen/creatinine level of 54/7...
2017: Permanente Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28469427/vaping-synthetic-cannabinoids-a-novel-preclinical-model-of-e-cigarette-use-in-mice
#15
Timothy W Lefever, Julie A Marusich, Brian F Thomas, Daniel G Barrus, Nicholas C Peiper, Richard C Kevin, Jenny L Wiley
Smoking is the most common route of administration for cannabis; however, vaping cannabis extracts and synthetic cannabinoids ("fake marijuana") in electronic cigarette devices has become increasingly popular. Yet, most animal models used to investigate biological mechanisms underlying cannabis use employ injection as the route of administration. This study evaluated a novel e-cigarette device that delivers aerosolized cannabinoids to mice. The effects of aerosolized and injected synthetic cannabinoids (CP 55,940, AB-CHMINACA, XLR-11, and JWH-018) in mice were compared in a battery of bioassays in which psychoactive cannabinoids produce characteristic effects...
2017: Substance Abuse: Research and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28463706/thc-and-cbd-in-blood-samples-and-seizures-in-norway-does-cbd-affect-thc-induced-impairment-in-apprehended-subjects
#16
Stine Marie Havig, Gudrun Høiseth, Maren Cecilie Strand, Ritva Anneli Karinen, Gerd-Wenche Brochmann, Dag Helge Strand, Liliana Bachs, Vigdis Vindenes
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Several publications have suggested increasing cannabis potency over the last decade, which, together with lower amounts of cannabidiol (CBD), could contribute to an increase in adverse effects after cannabis smoking. Naturalistic studies on tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and CBD in blood samples are, however, missing. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between THC- and CBD concentrations in blood samples among cannabis users, and to compare cannabinoid concentrations with the outcome of a clinical test of impairment (CTI) and between traffic accidents and non-accident driving under the influence of drugs (DUID)-cases...
April 15, 2017: Forensic Science International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457767/clinical-and-financial-implications-of-emergency-department-visits-for-synthetic-marijuana
#17
Eric Rowley, David Benson, Aaron Tiffee, Adam Hockensmith, Henry Zeng, Glenn N Jones, Mandi W Musso
BACKGROUND: Many users believe that synthetic cannabinoids offer a safe and legal means of getting high. However, spikes in emergency department visits have been associated with use of synthetic cannabinoids. The purpose of the current study was to document emergency department visits from three large hospitals in one metropolitan area over a two month period. METHOD: This was a retrospective chart review examining 218 patients presenting to three inner city emergency departments between March and April 2014...
April 23, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28457056/cannabis-use-in-palliative-oncology-a-review-of-the-evidence-for-popular-indications
#18
Ilit Turgeman, Gil Bar-Sela
A flowering plant of variegated ingredients and psychoactive qualities, cannabis has long been used for medicinal and recreational purposes. Currently, cannabis is approved in several countries for indications of symptomatic alleviation. However, limited knowledge on the benefits and risks precludes inclusion of cannabis in standard treatment guidelines. This review provides a summary of the available literature on the use of cannabis and cannabinoid-based medicines in palliative oncology. Favorable outcomes are demonstrated for chemotherapy-induced nausea and vomiting and cancer-related pain, with evidence of advantageous neurological interactions...
February 2017: Israel Medical Association Journal: IMAJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444659/new-psychoactive-substances-nps-a-challenge-for-the-addiction-treatment-services
#19
Norbert Scherbaum, F Schifano, Udo Bonnet
Over the last few years, hundreds of new psychoactive substances (NPS) have been identified in Europe. Apart from some herbal compounds, NPS mainly include synthetic cannabinoids and a range of new synthetic stimulants (e. g., cathinones). Synthetic NPS are often developed whilst modifying the basic chemical (e. g., phenethylamine or tryptamine) structure. Although the pharmacology and toxicology of most NPS are hardly known, they are being offered, especially online, as "bath salts," as "incense mixtures," or under other misleading labels...
May 2017: Pharmacopsychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441106/jwh-122-consumption-adverse-effects-a-case-of-hallucinogen-persisting-perception-disorder-five-year-follow-up
#20
Maurizio Coppola, Raffaella Mondola
Synthetic cannabinoid receptor agonists are a heterogeneous group of psychotropic drugs functionally related to Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol. These substances, marketed as cannabis substitutes, have been associated with numerous cases of severe intoxication and death across the world. In our article, we describe a case of hallucinogen persisting perception disorder developing in a natural cannabis user after consumption of JWH-122, a naphthoylindole largely used since 2010. Clinical symptomatology persisted for about four years and was alleviated through treatment with clonazepam...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
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