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Cannabis and cannabinoids

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29909458/what-about-the-herb-a-new-metabolomics-approach-for-synthetic-cannabinoid-drug-testing
#1
Lubertus Bijlsma, Rubén Gil-Solsona, Félix Hernández, Juan Vicente Sancho
Synthetic cannabinoids (SCs) are consumed as legal alternative to cannabis and often allow passing drug-screening tests. Their rapid transience on the drug scene, combined with their mostly unknown metabolic profiles, creates a scenario with constantly moving analytical targets, making their monitoring and identification challenging. The development of fast screening strategies for SCs, not directly focused on their chemical structure, as an alternative to the commonly applied target acquisition methods, would be highly appreciated in forensic and public health laboratories...
June 16, 2018: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29896112/a-systematic-review-of-the-complex-effects-of-cannabinoids-on-cerebral-and-peripheral-circulation-in-animal-models
#2
REVIEW
J Sebastian Richter, Véronique Quenardelle, Olivier Rouyer, Jean Sébastien Raul, Rémy Beaujeux, Bernard Gény, Valérie Wolff
While cannabis is perceived as a relatively safe drug by the public, accumulating clinical data suggest detrimental cardiovascular effects of cannabinoids. Cannabis has been legalized in several countries and jurisdictions recently. Experimental studies specifically targeting cannabinoids' effects on the cerebral vasculature are rare. There is evidence for transient vasoconstrictive effects of cannabinoids in the peripheral and cerebral vasculature in a complex interplay of vasodilation and vasoconstriction...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29881935/-cannabinoids-in-pain-medicine
#3
M Karst
The endocannabinoid system (ECS) controls a large number of vital functions. Suboptimal tone of the ECS in certain regions of the nervous system may be associated with disorders that are also associated with pain. Pain and inflammation processes can be modulated by the exogenous supply of cannabinoids. Low-to-moderate pain-relieving effects and in individual cases large pain-relieving effects were observed in randomized, controlled studies of various types of chronic pain. People with chronic neuropathic pain and stress symptoms seem to particularly benefit...
June 7, 2018: Der Schmerz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29863387/influence-of-tiagabine-maintenance-on-cannabis-effects-and-related-behaviors-in-daily-cannabis-users
#4
Michael J Wesley, Philip M Westgate, William W Stoops, Thomas H Kelly, Lon R Hays, Joshua A Lile
No medications are approved for cannabis use disorder (CUD). Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) reuptake is modulated by cannabinoid (CB) receptor agonists, and there are shared effects between CB agonists and the GABA reuptake inhibitor tiagabine. This overlapping neuropharmacology suggested that tiagabine might be useful for CUD. The study determined the ability of tiagabine maintenance to reduce cannabis self-administration using a placebo-controlled, double-blind, counterbalanced, within-subjects design. Nontreatment-seeking daily cannabis users (N = 12; 3 female, 9 male) completed two 12-day outpatient maintenance phases (0 or 12 mg of tiagabine/day)...
June 2018: Experimental and Clinical Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29859014/medical-cannabis-aligning-use-to-evidence-based-medicine-approach
#5
REVIEW
Lihi Bar-Lev Schleider, Ran Abuhasira, Victor Novack
During the last decade we are witnessing a rise in medical cannabis use, yet the evidence for the safety and effectiveness of the different cannabinoid compounds is scarce. We believe that the role of the clinical research community is to identify the potential benefit of the new compounds under the Evidence Based Medicine paradigm. In this editorial review we shall present a summary of selected evidence of safety and efficacy of cannabis derived products with an emphasis on prospective studies in Israel.
June 2, 2018: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29847469/cannabis-and-cannabinoids-for-the-treatment-of-people-with-chronic-non-cancer-pain-conditions-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-controlled-and-observational-studies
#6
Emily Stockings, Gabrielle Campbell, Wayne D Hall, Suzanne Nielsen, Dino Zagic, Rakin Rahman, Bridin Murnion, Michael Farrell, Megan Weier, Louisa Degenhardt
This review examines evidence cannabinoids in chronic non-cancer pain (CNCP), and addresses gaps in the literature by: considering differences in outcomes based on cannabinoid type and specific CNCP condition; including all study designs; and following IMMPACT guidelines. MEDLINE, Embase, PsycINFO, CENTRAL and clinicaltrials.gov were searched in July 2017. Analyses were conducted using Revman 5.3 and Stata 15.0. A total of 91 publications containing 104 studies were eligible (n = 9958 participants), including 47 RCTs and 57 observational studies...
May 25, 2018: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29803870/the-role-of-depressive-symptoms-in-treatment-of-adolescent-cannabis-use-disorder-with-n-acetylcysteine
#7
Rachel L Tomko, Amanda K Gilmore, Kevin M Gray
Relative to adults, adolescents are at greater risk of developing a cannabis use disorder (CUD) and risk may be exacerbated by co-occurring depressive symptoms. N-Acetylcysteine (NAC), an over-the-counter antioxidant, is thought to normalize glutamate transmission. Oxidative stress and glutamate transmission are disrupted in both depression and CUD. Thus, NAC may be particularly effective at promoting cannabis abstinence among adolescents with elevated depressive symptoms. Secondary analyses were conducted using a sub-sample of adolescents with CUD (N = 74) who participated in an 8-week randomized placebo-controlled clinical trial examining the efficacy of NAC for cannabis cessation...
May 21, 2018: Addictive Behaviors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29797104/patterns-of-medicinal-cannabis-use-strain-analysis-and-substitution-effect-among-patients-with-migraine-headache-arthritis-and-chronic-pain-in-a-medicinal-cannabis-cohort
#8
Eric P Baron, Philippe Lucas, Joshua Eades, Olivia Hogue
BACKGROUND: Medicinal cannabis registries typically report pain as the most common reason for use. It would be clinically useful to identify patterns of cannabis treatment in migraine and headache, as compared to arthritis and chronic pain, and to analyze preferred cannabis strains, biochemical profiles, and prescription medication substitutions with cannabis. METHODS: Via electronic survey in medicinal cannabis patients with headache, arthritis, and chronic pain, demographics and patterns of cannabis use including methods, frequency, quantity, preferred strains, cannabinoid and terpene profiles, and prescription substitutions were recorded...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Headache and Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29789034/pharmacological-properties-of-cannabidiol-in-the-treatment-of-psychiatric-disorders-a-critical-overview
#9
G M Mandolini, M Lazzaretti, A Pigoni, L Oldani, G Delvecchio, P Brambilla
Cannabidiol (CBD) represents a new promising drug due to a wide spectrum of pharmacological actions. In order to relate CBD clinical efficacy to its pharmacological mechanisms of action, we performed a bibliographic search on PUBMED about all clinical studies investigating the use of CBD as a treatment of psychiatric symptoms. Findings to date suggest that (a) CBD may exert antipsychotic effects in schizophrenia mainly through facilitation of endocannabinoid signalling and cannabinoid receptor type 1 antagonism; (b) CBD administration may exhibit acute anxiolytic effects in patients with generalised social anxiety disorder through modification of cerebral blood flow in specific brain sites and serotonin 1A receptor agonism; (c) CBD may reduce withdrawal symptoms and cannabis/tobacco dependence through modulation of endocannabinoid, serotoninergic and glutamatergic systems; (d) the preclinical pro-cognitive effects of CBD still lack significant results in psychiatric disorders...
May 23, 2018: Epidemiology and Psychiatric Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786643/controlled-deactivation-cb1-receptor-ligands-as-a-novel-strategy-to-lower-intraocular-pressure
#10
Sally Miller, Shashank Kulkarni, Alex Ciesielski, Spyros P Nikas, Ken Mackie, Alexandros Makriyannis, Alex Straiker
Nearly half a century has passed since the demonstration that cannabis and its chief psychoactive component Δ⁸-THC lowers intraocular pressure (IOP). Elevated IOP remains the chief hallmark and therapeutic target for glaucoma, a condition that places millions at risk of blindness. It is likely that Δ⁸-THC exerts much of its IOP-lowering effects via the activation of CB1 cannabinoid receptors. However, the initial promise of CB1 as a target for treating glaucoma has not thus far translated into a credible therapeutic strategy...
May 22, 2018: Pharmaceuticals
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29786144/self-initiated-use-of-topical-cannabidiol-oil-for-epidermolysis-bullosa
#11
Malcolm P Chelliah, Zachary Zinn, Phoung Khuu, Joyce M C Teng
Epidermolysis bullosa is a rare blistering skin disorder that is challenging to manage because skin fragility and repeated wound healing cause itching, pain, limited mobility, and recurrent infections. Cannabidiol, an active cannabinoid found in cannabis, is postulated to have antiinflammatory and analgesic effects. We report 3 cases of self-initiated topical cannabidiol use in patients with epidermolysis bullosa in an observational study. One patient was weaned completely off oral opioid analgesics. All 3 reported faster wound healing, less blistering, and amelioration of pain with cannabidiol use...
May 22, 2018: Pediatric Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29776349/randomised-controlled-trial-rct-of-cannabinoid-replacement-therapy-nabiximols-for-the-management-of-treatment-resistant-cannabis-dependent-patients-a-study-protocol
#12
Anjali K Bhardwaj, David J Allsop, Jan Copeland, Iain S McGregor, Adrian Dunlop, Marian Shanahan, Raimondo Bruno, Nghi Phung, Mark Montebello, Craig Sadler, Jessica Gugusheff, Melissa Jackson, Jennifer Luksza, Nicholas Lintzeris
BACKGROUND: The cannabis extract nabiximols (Sativex®) effectively supresses withdrawal symptoms and cravings in treatment resistant cannabis dependent individuals, who have high relapse rates following conventional withdrawal treatments. This study examines the efficacy, safety and cost-effectiveness of longer-term nabiximols treatment for outpatient cannabis dependent patients who have not responded to previous conventional treatment approaches. METHODS/DESIGN: A phase III multi-site outpatient, randomised, double-blinded, placebo controlled parallel design, comparing a 12-week course of nabiximols to placebo, with follow up at 24 weeks after enrolment...
May 18, 2018: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29775956/typology-of-new-psychoactive-substance-use-among-the-general-australian-population
#13
Rachel Sutherland, Amy Peacock, Amanda Roxburgh, Monica J Barratt, Lucinda Burns, Raimondo Bruno
AIM: The aim of this study was to examine the typology of Australian illicit drug consumers to determine whether those who use new psychoactive substances (NPS) differ from those using other illicit substances. METHODS: Data were from the 2013 National Drug Strategy Household Survey, a representative population study; analyses were limited to participants reporting past year illicit drug use (including NPS; n = 3309). Latent class analysis identified groups based on past year substance use, and a weighted multivariable, multinomial regression model was used to examine characteristics associated with group membership...
May 3, 2018: Drug and Alcohol Dependence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773998/larger-gray-matter-volume-in-the-basal-ganglia-of-heavy-cannabis-users-detected-by-voxel-based-morphometry-and-subcortical-volumetric-analysis
#14
Ana Moreno-Alcázar, Begoña Gonzalvo, Erick J Canales-Rodríguez, Laura Blanco, Diana Bachiller, Anna Romaguera, Gemma C Monté-Rubio, Carlos Roncero, Peter J McKenna, Edith Pomarol-Clotet
Background: Structural imaging studies of cannabis users have found evidence of both cortical and subcortical volume reductions, especially in cannabinoid receptor-rich regions such as the hippocampus and amygdala. However, the findings have not been consistent. In the present study, we examined a sample of adult heavy cannabis users without other substance abuse to determine whether long-term use is associated with brain structural changes, especially in the subcortical regions. Method: We compared the gray matter volume of 14 long-term, heavy cannabis users with non-using controls...
2018: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29773359/-psychoactive-substances-use-in-r%C3%A3-union-island-and-mayotte-french-departments-in-indian-ocean
#15
Amélie Daveluy, Françoise Haramburu
INTRODUCTION: The government plan for the fight against drugs and addictive behaviors 2013-2017 includes several actions concerning French overseas territories, in particular to strengthen information on drug addiction. The Interministerial mission for combating drugs and addictive behaviors (MILD&CA) has commissioned the Bordeaux addictovigilance center to strengthen exchanges on addictovigilance with Réunion Island and Mayotte and to make an inventory of problematic drug use in these two French departments of Indian Ocean...
February 27, 2018: Thérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29768651/cannabinoid-hyperemesis-syndrome-reports-of-fatal-cases
#16
Mahra Nourbakhsh, Angela Miller, Jeff Gofton, Graham Jones, Bamidele Adeagbo
Cannabinoid hyperemesis syndrome (CHS) is one of the more clinically challenging effects of cannabis consumption. It is characterized by cyclic attacks of nausea and vomiting in chronic cannabinoid users and learned behavior of compulsive hot bathing. The deaths of a 27-year-old female, a 27-year-old male, and a 31-year-old male with a history of CHS are reported. The decedents had a history of cyclical nausea and vomiting, chronic cannabinoid use and negative laboratory, radiological and endoscopic findings...
May 16, 2018: Journal of Forensic Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29766540/gaps-in-predicting-clinical-doses-for-cannabinoids-therapy-overview-of-issues-for-pharmacokinetics-and-pharmacodynamics-modelling
#17
REVIEW
Zheng Liu, Jennifer H Martin
AIM: Model-based prediction on clinical doses for cannabinoids therapy is beneficial in the clinical setting, especially for seriously ill patients with both altered pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamic responses. The objective of this article is to review the currently available PK and/or PD models of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabidiol (CBD) and to highlight the major issues for modelling this complex therapeutic area. METHODS: A systematic search was conducted in the electronic databases PubMed and EMBASE using the key words "cannabis", "cannabinoid", "tetrahydrocannabinol", "THC", "cannabidiol", "CBD", "pharmacokinetic model", "pharmacodynamics model" and their combinations...
May 16, 2018: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29765102/the-effects-of-cannabidiol-on-impulsivity-and-memory-during-abstinence-in-cigarette-dependent-smokers
#18
C Hindocha, T P Freeman, M Grabski, H Crudgington, A C Davies, J B Stroud, R K Das, W Lawn, C J A Morgan, H V Curran
Acute nicotine abstinence in cigarette smokers results in deficits in performance on specific cognitive processes, including working memory and impulsivity which are important in relapse. Cannabidiol (CBD), the non-intoxicating cannabinoid found in cannabis, has shown pro-cognitive effects and preliminary evidence has indicated it can reduce the number of cigarettes smoked in dependent smokers. However, the effects of CBD on cognition have never been tested during acute nicotine withdrawal. The present study therefore aimed to investigate if CBD can improve memory and reduce impulsivity during acute tobacco abstinence...
May 15, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745720/cannabinoid-hyperemesis-syndrome
#19
Eduardo Valdivielso Cortázar, Patricia Ucha Abal, Pedro Alonso Aguirre
We report the case of a 30-year-old female with a history of cannabis use from 16 years of age. The patient presented to the Gastroenterology Clinic due to cyclical epigastric pain associated with postprandial stomach heaviness, nausea and vomiting. She was admitted due to a worsening of her condition, which prevented her from leading a normal life.
May 2018: Revista Española de Enfermedades Digestivas
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29745439/cannabinoids-and-gastrointestinal-motility-pharmacology-clinical-effects-and-potential-therapeutics-in-humans
#20
REVIEW
M Camilleri
BACKGROUND: Cannabinoid agents and cannabis are frequently used for relief of diverse gastrointestinal symptoms. PURPOSE: The objective of this article is to increase the awareness of gastroenterologists to the effects of cannabinoids on gastrointestinal motility, as gastroenterologists are likely to encounter patients who are taking cannabinoids, or those with dysmotility that may be associated with cannabinoid mechanisms. The non-selective cannabinoid agonist, dronabinol, retards gastric emptying and inhibits colonic tone and phasic pressure activity...
May 10, 2018: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
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