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Preventive screening

V Papastergiou, N Mathou, K Manes, P Maniatis, K Paraskeva, A Evgenidi, A Giannakopoulos, J A Karagiannis
Colonoscopy is generally safe, although expansion of colorectal cancer prevention programs is likely to increase the number of post-colonoscopy complications. We report the case of a 42-year old woman with a prior history of 2 cesarean section deliveries who developed abdominal pain after an otherwise uneventful screening colonoscopy. Urgent exploration revealed closed-loop obstruction involving the terminal ileum, caused by an adhesive band close to the site of her previous Pfannenstiel incision. A systematic review of the literature revealed 11 reports (1985-2008) describing a total of 13 cases of mechanical small bowel obstruction (MSBO) after colonoscopy, 9 of which were confirmed by laparotomy...
January 2018: Acta Gastro-enterologica Belgica
Nancy A Gonzales, Michaeline Jensen, Jenn Yun Tein, Jessie J Wong, Larry E Dumka, Anne Marie Mauricio
Importance: Substance abuse preventive interventions frequently target middle school students and demonstrate efficacy to prevent early onset and use of alcohol and illicit drugs. However, evidence of sustained results to prevent later patterns of alcohol misuse and more serious alcohol abuse disorders has been lacking, particularly for US Latino populations. Objective: To test whether a universal middle school prevention program can reduce the frequency of alcohol misuse and rates of alcohol use disorder 5 years after implementation with a Mexican American sample...
March 21, 2018: JAMA Psychiatry
Christoph Rudin, Hans H Hirsch, Rahel Spaelti, Sabine Schaedelin, Thomas Klimkait
BACKGROUND: Due to the lack of prospective data there is an ongoing debate about the need for screening and prevention programs for congenital toxoplasmosis in Europe. Accordingly, individual countries have chosen different public health strategies. METHODS: A cord-blood screening program for congenital toxoplasmosis was established in 1982 in obstetric units of hospitals in North-Western Switzerland. Samples were tested for specific IgG and IgM, and after 1992 also for IgA antibodies...
March 14, 2018: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
Raquel González, Clara Pons-Duran, Mireia Piqueras, John J Aponte, Feiko O Ter Kuile, Clara Menéndez
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization recommends intermittent preventive treatment in pregnancy (IPTp) with sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine for malaria for all women who live in moderate to high malaria transmission areas in Africa. However, parasite resistance to sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine has been increasing steadily in some areas of the region. Moreover, HIV-infected women on cotrimoxazole prophylaxis cannot receive sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine because of potential drug interactions. Thus, there is an urgent need to identify alternative drugs for prevention of malaria in pregnancy...
March 21, 2018: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Simin Mirakhor Samani, Tahmineh Ezazi Bojnordi, Manijeh Zarghampour, Sobhan Merat, Daniel F Fouladi
Our objective was to examine the expression rates of p53, Bcl-2 and Bax in endometrial carcinoma, endometrial hyperplasia and normal endometrium. A total of 94 endometrial frozen sections (carcinoma 48, hyperplasia 21, normal tissue 25) were examined immunohistochemically in terms of the expression rates of p53, Bcl-2 and Bax. All of the specimens in the non-malignant groups were positive for Bax, whereas this rate was 85.4% in the group with malignant specimens (p = .03). Conversely, p53 was expressed only in the cancerous group (77...
March 21, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
M F Madhoun, H Bitar, P Parava, M H Bashir, H Zia
BACKGROUND: Anecdotally, we observed that patients who had previous colonoscopies were less likely to follow newly implemented split-dose bowel preparation (SDBP) instructions. We investigated whether the indication for colonoscopy is an independent factor for achieving high quality bowel preparation among patients asked to follow SDBP. METHODS: We performed a retrospective study of data from 1478 patients who received outpatient colonoscopies in 2014 (the year of SDBP implementation) at our Veterans Affairs Medical Center...
April 2017: Acta Gastro-enterologica Belgica
Josephine Feliciano, Breanna Becker, Manish Shukla, Joann Bodurtha
BACKGROUND: The risk factors, diagnosis, management, and outcomes for lung cancer (LC) are a family experience. Genetic and environmental factors interact to predispose certain groups to LC, including family member, and the family or caregiving unit experiences the disease course as an interdependent group. This qualitative study examined the concerns and preferences of LC patients about incorporating family in addressing their lung cancer experiences and cancer risks. METHODS: This project aims to identify concerns and preferences for addressing family history documentation, risk assessment, prevention, and follow-up issues for LC patients and their family...
March 21, 2018: Supportive Care in Cancer: Official Journal of the Multinational Association of Supportive Care in Cancer
Faisal Akhtar, Sabah Rehman
Congenital syphilis is one of the preventable diseases caused by the gram-negative bacteria Treponema pallidum; yet, it imposes a serious global health and economic burden, with more than half of the cases resulting in serious adverse outcomes, including infant mortality. Mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of syphilis is estimated at 3.6 million adjusted life years (DALYs) and around $309 million in medical costs. In 2006, an estimated 9.7 million children of age less than five years died in developing countries; almost four million were neonatal deaths...
January 16, 2018: Curēus
Faisal Akhtar, Sabah Rehman
Hepatitis B and Hepatitis C have been major disease-causing agents among humans since they were discovered in the 1960s. Both cause jaundice-like symptoms initially but their prognosis and treatment are somehow different and depend upon many demographic details, such as the age and susceptibility of the patients and any other comorbid conditions. They clinically present primarily with hepatitis and can have many adverse effects or even be life-threatening at times, if not treated properly. However, their epidemiological background and findings in terms of morbidity, mortality, and case fatality rates are different...
January 16, 2018: Curēus
Laura M Jacobsen, Michael J Haller, Desmond A Schatz
While the incidence of type 1 diabetes continues to rise by 3% each year, the ability to prevent this disease remains elusive. Hybrid closed loop devices, artificial pancreas systems, and continuous glucose monitoring technology have helped to ease the daily burden for many people living with type 1 diabetes. However, the artificial pancreas is not a cure; more research is needed to achieve our ultimate goal of preventing type 1 diabetes. The preceding decades have generated a wealth of information regarding the natural history of pre-type 1 diabetes...
2018: Frontiers in Endocrinology
Nicola J Pitchford, Elizabeth Kamchedzera, Paula J Hubber, Antonie L Chigeda
Interactive apps delivered on touch-screen tablets can be effective at supporting the acquisition of basic skills in mainstream primary school children. This technology may also be beneficial for children with Special Educational Needs and Disabilities (SEND) as it can promote high levels of engagement with the learning task and an inclusive learning environment. However, few studies have measured extent of learning for SEND pupils when using interactive apps, so it has yet to be determined if this technology is effective at raising attainment for these pupils...
2018: Frontiers in Psychology
Shweta Gupta Rathi, Anasua Ganguly Kapoor, Swathi Kaliki
Ocular surface squamous neoplasia (OSSN) refers to a spectrum of conjunctival and corneal epithelial tumors including dysplasia, carcinoma in situ, and invasive carcinoma. In this article, we discuss the current perspectives of OSSN associated with HIV infection, focusing mainly on the epidemiology, pathophysiology, clinical manifestations, diagnosis, and treatment of these tumors in patients with HIV. Upsurge in the incidence of OSSN with the HIV pandemic most severely affected sub-Saharan Africa, due to associated risk factors, such as human papilloma virus and solar ultraviolet exposure...
2018: HIV/AIDS: Research and Palliative Care
Camilla Lagheden, Carina Eklund, Helena Lamin, Sara Nordqvist Kleppe, Jiayao Lei, K Miriam Elfström, Karin Sundström, Bengt Andrae, Pär Sparén, Joakim Dillner
BACKGROUND: The Swedish National Cervical Screening Registry collects and evaluates comprehensive, nationwide health data to optimise organised cervical cancer prevention. Since all cervical cancer specimens are saved in biobanks, population-based data from the specimens should be available for analysis and linkage with other health information. METHODS: We identified all cervical cancers diagnosed in Sweden during 2002-2011 (4254 confirmed cases) and requested the tissue blocks to retrieve human papillomavirus (HPV) genotype data using general primer PCR with Luminex genotyping and real-time PCR targeting the E6/E7 regions of HPV16/18...
March 21, 2018: British Journal of Cancer
Clare Whicher, Hermione Clare Price, Richard Ig Holt
Objective There have been concerns about the effects of antipsychotics on weight gain and the development of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). This article aims to provide an up to date review on the evidence addressing this issue and the practical implications for the management of people taking antipsychotics in the context of T2DM. Methods We carried out searches on MEDLINE/PUBMED and the website in August 2017 using the terms 'antipsychotic' and 'diabetes' or 'glucose' citing articles published after 2006 preferentially...
March 20, 2018: European Journal of Endocrinology
Dawn Perez, Kath Peters, Lesley Wilkes, Gillian Murphy
BACKGROUND: Physical restraints (PRs) are commonly used in intensive care units (ICUs) worldwide for the prevention of treatment interference. While PRs are fundamentally used to maintain patient safety, they can negatively impact the experiences of patients and their families and cause moral and ethical dilemmas for ICU nurses. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this integrative review was to explore the current literature on the use of PR in intensive care. METHODS: This article used an integrative review framework to explore the current literature available on the experiences of PR in ICU...
March 17, 2018: Australian Critical Care: Official Journal of the Confederation of Australian Critical Care Nurses
Francesca Andriani, Maria Teresa Majorini, Miguel Mano, Elena Landoni, Rosalba Miceli, Federica Facchinetti, Mavis Mensah, Enrico Fontanella, Matteo Dugo, Mauro Giacca, Ugo Pastorino, Gabriella Sozzi, Domenico Delia, Luca Roz, Daniele Lecis
BACKGROUND: Fibroblasts are crucial mediators of tumor-stroma cross-talk through synthesis and remodeling of the extracellular matrix and production of multiple soluble factors. Nonetheless, little is still known about specific determinants of fibroblast pro-tumorigenic activity in lung cancer. Here, we aimed at understanding the role of miRNAs, which are often altered in stromal cells, in reprogramming fibroblasts towards a tumor-supporting phenotype. METHODS: We employed a co-culture-based high-throughput screening to identify specific miRNAs modulating the pro-tumorigenic potential of lung fibroblasts...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Hematology & Oncology
Paula Tiittala, Matti Ristola, Kirsi Liitsola, Jukka Ollgren, Päivikki Koponen, Heljä-Marja Surcel, Eija Hiltunen-Back, Irja Davidkin, Pia Kivelä
BACKGROUND: Migrants are considered a key population at risk for sexually transmitted and blood-borne diseases in Europe. Prevalence data to support the design of infectious diseases screening protocols are scarce. We aimed to estimate the prevalence of hepatitis B and C, human immunodefiency virus (HIV) infection and syphilis in specific migrant groups in Finland and to assess risk factors for missed diagnosis. METHODS: A random sample of 3000 Kurdish, Russian, or Somali origin migrants in Finland was invited to a migrant population-based health interview and examination survey during 2010-2012...
March 20, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
David C Grossman, Susan J Curry, Douglas K Owens, Michael J Barry, Aaron B Caughey, Karina W Davidson, Chyke A Doubeni, John W Epling, Alex R Kemper, Alex H Krist, Martha Kubik, Seth Landefeld, Carol M Mangione, Michael Silverstein, Melissa A Simon, Chien-Wen Tseng
Importance: Skin cancer is the most common type of cancer in the United States. Although invasive melanoma accounts for only 2% of all skin cancer cases, it is responsible for 80% of skin cancer deaths. Basal and squamous cell carcinoma, the 2 predominant types of nonmelanoma skin cancer, represent the vast majority of skin cancer cases. Objective: To update the 2012 US Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recommendation on behavioral counseling for the primary prevention of skin cancer and the 2009 recommendation on screening for skin cancer with skin self-examination...
March 20, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Hanan A Alfawaz, Kaiser Wani, Abdullah M Alnaami, Yousef Al-Saleh, Naji J Aljohani, Omar S Al-Attas, Majed S Alokail, Sudhesh Kumar, Nasser M Al-Daghri
This three-arm, randomized, controlled study aimed to determine the differences in the effects of general advice (GA) on lifestyle change, intensive lifestyle modification programme (ILMP) and GA + metformin (GA + Met) in reducing the prevalence of full metabolic syndrome (MetS) in subjects with prediabetes; 294 Saudis with prediabetes (fasting glucose 5.6-6.9 mmol/L) were initially randomized, 263 completed 6 months and 237 completed 12 months. They were allocated into three groups: GA group which received a standard lifestyle change education; ILMP which followed a rigorous lifestyle modification support on diet and physical activity; and a GA + Met group...
March 20, 2018: Nutrients
Aleksandra Kołtuniuk, Joanna Rosińczuk
BACKGROUND: Chronic non-communicable diseases (CNCDs) are the leading cause of mortality in the world. Identification of risk factors and the implementation of preventive measures can effectively reduce the chance of disease and death due to CNCDs. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was to analyze selected risk factors of CNCDs in women and men hospitalized in surgical wards. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study group included 420 patients aged 18-84 years who were hospitalized in surgical wards...
March 19, 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
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