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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923088/prevalence-of-depression-depressive-symptoms-and-suicidal-ideation-among-medical-students-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#1
Lisa S Rotenstein, Marco A Ramos, Matthew Torre, J Bradley Segal, Michael J Peluso, Constance Guille, Srijan Sen, Douglas A Mata
Importance: Medical students are at high risk for depression and suicidal ideation. However, the prevalence estimates of these disorders vary between studies. Objective: To estimate the prevalence of depression, depressive symptoms, and suicidal ideation in medical students. Data Sources and Study Selection: Systematic search of EMBASE, ERIC, MEDLINE, psycARTICLES, and psycINFO without language restriction for studies on the prevalence of depression, depressive symptoms, or suicidal ideation in medical students published before September 17, 2016...
December 6, 2016: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923015/project-shikamana-baseline-findings-from-a-community-empowerment-based-combination-hiv-prevention-trial-among-female-sex-workers-in-iringa-tanzania
#2
Deanna Kerrigan, Jessie Mbwambo, Samuel Likindikoki, Sarah Beckham, Ard Mwampashi, Catherine Shembilu, Andrea Mantsios, Anna Leddy, Wendy Davis, Noya Galai
BACKGROUND: Community empowerment approaches have been found to be effective in responding to HIV among female sex workers (FSWs) in South Asia and Latin America. To date, limited rigorous evaluations of these approaches have been conducted in sub-Saharan Africa. METHODS: A phase II community randomized controlled trial is being conducted in Iringa, Tanzania, to evaluate the effectiveness of a community empowerment-based combination HIV prevention model (Project Shikamana) among a stratified sample of HIV-infected and HIV-uninfected FSWs...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndromes: JAIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922995/integrating-preventive-cardiovascular-healthcare-into-home-health-a-pilot-study
#3
Janet R Lynch, Cynthia K Sun, Stacie Deslich
The viability of measuring and integrating preventive cardiovascular care into home healthcare was investigated through a pilot study fielded during 2013 and 2014. The study tested the feasibility of using a data registry to measure preventive cardiovascular care delivered in home healthcare, examined opportunities for quality improvement, and looked at the association between exposure to evidence-based tools and improvement in aspirin use and blood pressure screening and control among a convenience sample of 20 agencies...
January 2017: Home Healthcare Now
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922905/scale-up-of-an-human-papillomavirus-testing-implementation-program-in-el-salvador
#4
Miriam Cremer, Mauricio Maza, Karla Alfaro, Mario Morales Velado, Juan Felix, Philip E Castle, Jane Kim, Julia C Gage
OBJECTIVE: The Cervical Cancer Prevention in El Salvador is a demonstration project to introduce a lower-cost human papillomavirus (HPV)-DNA test into a public sector project. Started in October 2012, The Cervical Cancer Prevention in El Salvador consists of 3 phases and will ultimately screen 30,000 women. Results of phase 2 of the project are presented. The objective of this project was to compare colposcopy and noncolposcopy-based management for HPV-positive women. MATERIAL AND METHODS: In phase 2, a total of 8,050 women, aged 30 to 49 years, were screened; 6,761 provided both self- and provider-collected specimens and 1,289 provided only provider-testing specimens...
December 6, 2016: Journal of Lower Genital Tract Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922769/see-test-treat-a-5-year-experience-of-pathologists-driving-cervical-and-breast-cancer-screening-to-underserved-and-underinsured-populations
#5
Barbarajean Magnani, Beth Harubin, Judith F Katz, Andrea L Zuckerman, William C Strohsnitter
CONTEXT: - See, Test & Treat is a pathologist-driven program to provide cervical and breast cancer screening to underserved and underinsured patient populations. This program is largely funded by the CAP Foundation (College of American Pathologists, Northfield, Illinois) and is a collaborative effort among several medical specialties united to address gaps in the current health care system. OBJECTIVE: - To provide an outline for administering a See, Test & Treat program, using an academic medical center as a model for providing care and collating the results of 5 years of data on the See, Test & Treat program's findings...
December 2016: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922588/does-the-addition-of-ezetimibe-to-statins-reduce-cardiovascular-risk
#6
Francisca I Araya, Bruno Grassi
Statins are the mainstay of lipid-lowering therapy nowadays, since they reduce cardiovascular risk when used as primary or secondary prevention. However, only one third of the patients reach the goals established in several guidelines, and even if they do, they keep a risk higher than healthy controls. One of the new lipid-lowering agents is ezetimibe. Searching in Epistemonikos database, which is maintained by screening multiple databases, we identified nine systematic reviews comprising 67 trials overall...
December 5, 2016: Medwave
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27922335/nutritional-rickets-around-the-world-an-update
#7
Ana L Creo, Tom D Thacher, John M Pettifor, Mark A Strand, Philip R Fischer
Worldwide, nutritional rickets continues to be an evolving problem with several causes. This paper provides an updated literature review characterising the prevalence, aetiology, pathophysiology and treatment of nutritional rickets worldwide. A systematic review of articles on nutritional rickets from various geographical regions was undertaken. For each region, key information was extracted, including prevalence, cause of rickets specific to the region, methods of confirming the diagnosis and current treatment and preventive measures...
December 6, 2016: Paediatrics and International Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921426/-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#8
Hana Krejčí
The present generation of women of childbearing age more frequently suffer from overweight, obesity, initial as well as fully established metabolic syndrome, which together with postponing motherhood until the third decade in life plays an important role in the increasing incidence of gestational diabetes (GDM) that currently affects about 1/5 of pregnant women. However the causal link between diabetes during pregnancy and metabolic diseases in the whole population is mutual. By way of epigenetic changes, maternal diabetes unfavourably programmes metabolism of the offspring, who tend to transfer the disorder to the next generations...
2016: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921352/posttraumatic-stress-disorder-associated-with-unexpected-death-of-a-loved-one-cross-national-findings-from-the-world-mental-health-surveys
#9
Lukoye Atwoli, Dan J Stein, Andrew King, Maria Petukhova, Sergio Aguilar-Gaxiola, Jordi Alonso, Evelyn J Bromet, Giovanni de Girolamo, Koen Demyttenaere, Silvia Florescu, Josep Maria Haro, Elie G Karam, Norito Kawakami, Sing Lee, Jean-Pierre Lepine, Fernando Navarro-Mateu, Siobhan O'Neill, Beth-Ellen Pennell, Marina Piazza, Jose Posada-Villa, Nancy A Sampson, Margreet Ten Have, Alan M Zaslavsky, Ronald C Kessler
BACKGROUND: Unexpected death of a loved one (UD) is the most commonly reported traumatic experience in cross-national surveys. However, much remains to be learned about posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) after this experience. The WHO World Mental Health (WMH) survey initiative provides a unique opportunity to address these issues. METHODS: Data from 19 WMH surveys (n = 78,023; 70.1% weighted response rate) were collated. Potential predictors of PTSD (respondent sociodemographics, characteristics of the death, history of prior trauma exposure, history of prior mental disorders) after a representative sample of UDs were examined using logistic regression...
December 6, 2016: Depression and Anxiety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921329/preventive-dental-visiting-a-critical-interpretive-synthesis-of-theory-explaining-how-inequalities-arise
#10
Rebecca V Harris, Andrew Pennington, Margaret Whitehead
BACKGROUND: In many countries, those with lower socioeconomic status are disproportionately affected by poor oral health. This can be attributed, at least in part, to differences in preventive dental visiting. While several theories have been applied to the area, they generally fail to capture the recursive nature of dental visiting behaviour, and fall short of informing the design of complex interventions to tackle inequalities. OBJECTIVE: To undertake a systematic review and synthesis of theory in order to provide an overview of the pathways which bring about socioeconomic inequalities in early dental visiting, and identify possible intervention points...
December 6, 2016: Community Dentistry and Oral Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27921091/the-relationship-between-serum-vitamin-d-level-and-premenstrual-syndrome-in-iranian-women
#11
Samira Rajaei, Azadeh Akbari Sene, Sara Norouzi, Yasrin Berangi, Sahereh Arabian, Parvaneh Lak, Ali Dabbagh
BACKGROUND: Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) is among the most unfavorable problems in women in reproductive age; however its pathophysiology is still not fully confirmed. Vitamin D as an immunomodulator could prevent inflammatory state before and during menstruation. OBJECTIVE: The aim was to investigate whether there is any relationship between serum vitamin D levels and PMS. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In total, 82 women participate in this case-control study which was conducted in Shahid Akbar-abadi hospital from November 2013 to March 2015...
October 2016: International Journal of Reproductive Biomedicine (Yazd, Iran)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920943/a-pilot-dental-survey-on-maui
#12
Olivia Jenkins, Sara Routley, Tina Pedro-Gomes, Lorrin Pang
Routine dental screening surveys of third graders have proven to be a useful tool to monitor the dental health of a community, especially those of highest risk. In 2010 the PEW Charitable Trust (PEW) conducted state-by-state oral hygiene assessments, giving Hawai'i a poor grade, with routine dental surveys of children one of several criteria not met. The Maui Oral Health Task Force piloted its own survey for the island of Maui to assess the challenges in implementing a dental screening and to gain an understanding as to how obstacles might be addressed...
November 2016: Hawai'i Journal of Medicine & Public Health: a Journal of Asia Pacific Medicine & Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920683/squamous-cell-carcinoma-in-african-children-with-xeroderma-pigmentosum-three-case-reports
#13
Mamadou Kaloga, Pauline Dioussé, Boubacar Ahy Diatta, Mariama Bammo, Sarah Kourouma, Almamy Diabate, Ndiaga Gueye, Haby Dione, Moussa Diallo, Bernard Marcel Diop
INTRODUCTION: Xeroderma pigmentosum is a rare autosomal recessive genetic disease. This disease predisposes patients to early-onset skin cancers, particularly squamous cell carcinoma. Here, we report 3 pediatric cases, including 2 deaths. OBSERVATION: The subjects included 2 boys and 1 girl with skin type VI. All subjects were from consanguineous marriages, and the average age was 7.6 years. The patients all had ulcerative budding tumor lesions in the cephalic region, and the mean disease duration was 18 months...
September 2016: Case Reports in Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920535/prevalence-of-alcohol-use-disorders-and-associated-factors-among-people-with-epilepsy-attending-amanuel-mental-specialized-hospital-addis-ababa-ethiopia
#14
Tsegereda Waja, Jemal Ebrahim, Zegeye Yohannis, Asres Bedaso
INTRODUCTION: Alcohol use disorders represent one of the leading causes of preventable death, illness, and injury in many societies throughout the world. Heavy alcohol consumption has multiple negative consequences for people with epilepsy such as precipitation of seizure, exacerbation of seizure, poor seizure control, increased side effects of antiepileptic drugs, noncompliance to antiepileptic drugs, alcohol withdrawal seizures, long-term hospital admission, status epilepticus, sudden unexpected death, and premature mortality...
2016: Neuropsychiatric Disease and Treatment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919935/secondary-prevention-lifestyle-interventions-initiated-within-90-days-after-tia-or-minor-stroke-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-rehabilitation-programmes
#15
Neil Heron, Frank Kee, Christopher Cardwell, Mark A Tully, Michael Donnelly, Margaret E Cupples
BACKGROUND: Strokes are often preceded by a transient ischaemic attack (TIA) or 'minor' stroke. The immediate period after a TIA/minor stroke is a crucial time to initiate secondary prevention. However, the optimal approach to prevention, including non-pharmacological measures, after TIA is not clear. AIM: To systematically review evidence about the effectiveness of delivering secondary prevention, with lifestyle interventions, in comprehensive rehabilitation programmes, initiated within 90 days of a TIA/minor stroke...
December 5, 2016: British Journal of General Practice: the Journal of the Royal College of General Practitioners
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919281/incidence-causes-and-consequences-of-preventable-adverse-drug-events-protocol-for-an-overview-of-reviews
#16
Brian Hutton, Salmaan Kanji, Erika McDonald, Fatemeh Yazdi, Dianna Wolfe, Kednapa Thavorn, Sally Pepper, Laurie Chapman, Becky Skidmore, David Moher
BACKGROUND: Medication errors represent a noteworthy source of harm to patients. In recent years, several systematic reviews have assessed the frequency and causes of these events, as well as other factors such as commonly associated drugs, their incidence in different specialties, and their consequences to patients. Despite this past literature, there remains a need to study discrepancies between these reviews and establish the current state of the evidence. The planned review will bring together, compare, and contract existing evidence related to the occurrence of medication errors in acute and continuing/long-term care settings...
December 5, 2016: Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919245/one-day-workshop-based-training-improves-physical-activity-prescription-knowledge-in-latin-american-physicians-a-pre-test-post-test-study
#17
Maria C Arciniegas Calle, Felipe Lobelo, Mario A Jiménez, Diana C Páez, Sebastian Cortés, Andrés de Lima, John Duperly
BACKGROUND: The physical inactivity pandemic and related non-communicable diseases have made it imperative for medical doctors (MDs) to effectively provide lifestyle counseling as part of prevention and treatment plans for patients. A one-day certification workshop was designed to improve MDs PA prescription knowledge, as part of the Exercise is Medicine® (EIM®) global health initiative. The objective was to determine knowledge gain of MDs participating in a standardized, one-day PA prescription workshop performed throughout Latin America (LA)...
December 5, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919096/should-we-screen-for-vitamin-d-deficiency-grand-rounds-discussion-from-beth-israel-deaconess-medical-center
#18
Howard Libman, Alan O Malabanan, Gordon J Strewler, Eileen E Reynolds
The U.S. Preventive Services Task Force (USPSTF) recently issued guidelines on screening for vitamin D deficiency. The guidelines were based on randomized trials of vitamin D deficiency screening and treatment, as well as on case-control studies nested within the Women's Health Initiative. The USPSTF concluded that current evidence is insufficient to assess the benefits and harms of screening for vitamin D deficiency in asymptomatic adults. Compared with placebo or no treatment, vitamin D was associated with decreased mortality; however, benefits were no longer seen after trials of institutionalized persons were excluded...
December 6, 2016: Annals of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918880/racial-differences-in-hiv-and-hcv-risk-behaviors-transmission-and-prevention-knowledge-among-non-treatment-seeking-individuals-with-opioid-use-disorder
#19
Verena E Metz, Maria A Sullivan, Jermaine D Jones, Elizabeth Evans, Rachel Luba, Jonathan Vogelman, Sandra D Comer
In light of New York's recently reinforced strategy to end the AIDS epidemic by expanding testing, treatment, and access to pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP), we assessed drug use and sexual risk behaviors, along with HIV/Hepatitis C virus (HCV) transmission and prevention knowledge among non-treatment-seeking adults with opioid use disorder (OUD) in New York City. Over the course of 18 months, volunteers screening for research studies in the Opioid Laboratory at the New York State Psychiatric Institute completed a locally developed self-assessment questionnaire...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Psychoactive Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27918850/implementation-and-evaluation-of-a-community-based-interprofessional-learning-activity
#20
Ellen L Luebbers, Mary A Dolansky, Anton Vehovec, Gayle Petty
Implementation of large-scale, meaningful interprofessional learning activities for pre-licensure students has significant barriers and requires novel approaches to ensure success. To accomplish this goal, faculty at Case Western Reserve University, Ohio, USA, used the Ottawa Model of Research Use (OMRU) framework to create, improve, and sustain a community-based interprofessional learning activity for large numbers of medical students (N = 177) and nursing students (N = 154). The model guided the process and included identification of context-specific barriers and facilitators, continual monitoring and improvement using data, and evaluation of student learning outcomes as well as programme outcomes...
December 5, 2016: Journal of Interprofessional Care
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