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fosfomycin resistance

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923876/co-location-of-the-multiresistance-gene-cfr-and-the-fosfomycin-resistance-gene-fosd-on-a-novel-plasmid-in-staphylococcus-arlettae-from-chicken-farm
#1
Bi-Hui Liu, Chang-Wei Lei, An-Yun Zhang, Yun Pan, Ling-Han Kong, Rong Xiang, Yong-Xiang Wang, Yan-Xian Yang, Hong-Ning Wang
A novel 63,558-bp plasmid pSA-01 harbouring nine antibiotic resistance genes, including cfr, erm(C), tet(L), erm(T), aadD, fosD, fexB, aacA-aphD and erm(B), was characterized in Staphylococcus arlettae strain SA-01 isolated from chicken farm in China. The co-location of cfr and fosD genes was detected for the first time in S. arlettae plasmid. The detection of two IS431-mediated circular forms containing resistance genes in SA-01 suggested that IS431 may facilitate dissemination of antibiotic resistance genes...
September 18, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28919055/antimicrobial-resistance-in-women-with-urinary-tract-infection-in-primary-care-no-relation-with-type-2-diabetes-mellitus
#2
Johanna E M Vinken, Helen E Mol, Theo J M Verheij, Sanne van Delft, Marion Kolader, Miquel B Ekkelenkamp, Guy E H M Rutten, Berna D L Broekhuizen
AIMS: To determine if type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is associated with the spectrum of uropathogens and antimicrobial resistance in urinary tract infections (UTI) in primary care. METHODS: A cross-sectional study in female outpatients ≥30 years with positive urine cultures. T2DM patients were 1:1 matched to controls by age group and general practitioner (GP). GPs were sent questionnaires for additional data. Uropathogens and resistance patterns were compared between patients with and without T2DM...
September 14, 2017: Primary Care Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28910381/genetic-characterization-of-blandm-harboring-plasmids-in-carbapenem-resistant-escherichia-coli-from-myanmar
#3
Yo Sugawara, Yukihiro Akeda, Noriko Sakamoto, Dan Takeuchi, Daisuke Motooka, Shota Nakamura, Hideharu Hagiya, Norihisa Yamamoto, Isao Nishi, Hisao Yoshida, Kazuhisa Okada, Khwar Nyo Zin, Mya Mya Aye, Kazunori Tonomo, Shigeyuki Hamada
The bacterial enzyme New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase hydrolyzes almost all β-lactam antibiotics, including carbapenems, which are drugs of last resort for severe bacterial infections. The spread of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae that carry the New Delhi metallo-β-lactamase gene, blaNDM, poses a serious threat to public health. In this study, we genetically characterized eight carbapenem-resistant Escherichia coli isolates from a tertiary care hospital in Yangon, Myanmar. The eight isolates belonged to five multilocus-sequence types and harbored multiple antimicrobial-resistance genes, resulting in resistance against nearly all of the antimicrobial agents tested, except colistin and fosfomycin...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28904326/intravenous-polymyxins-revival-with-puzzle
#4
Yun Yu, Aihua Fei, Zengbin Wu, Chengjin Gao, Shuming Pan
With the increasing incidence of multi-drug resistant strains, especially carbapenem resistant strains, polymyxsins (mainly colistin and polymyxin B) based regimens seem to be a revival as an effective treatment of last resort in these infections. Evidence from 47 clinical trials or case series we reviewed showed that polymyxins based regimens are effective and have less toxicity compared with previous trials. When used alone, the mortality of intravenous polymyxsins ranged from 0% to 74.3%, clinical response (cure and improvement) rate was 7-82...
2017: Bioscience Trends
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901793/intravenous-fosfomycin-for-the-treatment-of-hospitalized-patients-with-serious-infections
#5
Andrew F Shorr, Jason M Pogue, John F Mohr
With the worldwide increase in the rates of antimicrobial resistance, antimicrobials with novel mechanisms of action are needed to fill a void in the antimicrobial armamentarium. Areas Covered: Intravenous fosfomycin has been studied extensively in a wide variety of infections including cUTI, lower respiratory tract infection, bone and joint infections, endocarditis, meningitis, and bacteremia outside of the United States. This paper reviews the in vitro activity, pharmacokinetic properties, and clinical experience of intravenous fosfomycin in hospitalized patients with serious infections...
September 13, 2017: Expert Review of Anti-infective Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28887199/temporal-evolution-of-polymyxin-b-resistant-klebsiella-pneumoniae-clones-recovered-from-blood-cultures-in-a-teaching-hospital-during-a-7-year-period
#6
Graziela Braun, Rodrigo Cayô, Adriana Pereira Matos, Juliane de Mello Fonseca, Ana Cristina Gales
The polymyxins have become one of the last resorts to treat serious infections caused by KPC-2-producing Klebsiella pneumoniae worldwide. However, the increase of polymyxin consumption has favored the emergence of resistance to these compounds. In this study we observed an increase in the polymyxin B resistance rates from 0 to 30.6% among 224 K. pneumoniae isolates recovered from blood cultures between 2009 and 2015. Only gentamicin, tigecycline and fosfomycin remained active against the polymyxin B-resistant K...
September 5, 2017: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28885139/prevalence-of-fosfomycin-resistance-and-plasmid-mediated-fosfomycin-modifying-enzymes-among-carbapenem-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-in-zhejiang-china
#7
Lin Huang, Yan Yan Hu, Rong Zhang
Two hundred and thirty-three nonduplicated clinical isolates of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae were collected from four hospitals in Zhejiang, China. 45.1 % (105/233) strains were resistant to fosfomycin, among which plasmid-mediated fosfomycin-modifying enzymes fosA, fosA2, fosA3 and fosA5 were positive, and the other fos genes were negative. 80 % (12/15) Enterobacter cloacae isolates were positive for fosA. 100 % (73/73) Klebsiella pneumoniae isolates were positive for fosA5. A conjugation experiment indicated that fosfomycin resistance could be transferred to an Escherichia coli recipient strain successfully...
September 2017: Journal of Medical Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28874374/structure-and-dynamics-of-fosa-mediated-fosfomycin-resistance-in-klebsiella-pneumoniae-and-escherichia-coli
#8
Erik H Klontz, Adam D Tomich, Sebastian Günther, Justin A Lemkul, Daniel Deredge, Zach Silverstein, JoAnna F Shaw, Christi McElheny, Yohei Doi, Patrick Wintrode, Alexander D MacKerell, Nicolas Sluis-Cremer, Eric J Sundberg
Fosfomycin exhibits broad-spectrum antibacterial activity, and is being re-evaluated for the treatment of extensively drug-resistant pathogens. Its activity in Gram-negatives, however, can be compromised by expression of FosA, a metal-dependent transferase that catalyzes the conjugation of glutathione to fosfomycin, rendering the antibiotic inactive. In this study, we solved the crystal structures of two of the most clinically relevant FosA enzymes: plasmid-encoded FosA3 from Escherichia coli and chromosomally-encoded FosA from Klebsiella pneumoniae (FosA(KP))...
September 5, 2017: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867662/high-interindividual-variability-in-urinary-fosfomycin-concentrations-in-healthy-female-volunteers
#9
Rixt A Wijma, Birgit C P Koch, Teun van Gelder, Johan W Mouton
OBJECTIVES: Fosfomycin is increasingly being prescribed for the treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infections in an era of emerging drug resistance. Surprisingly, little is known of the urinary concentrations of fosfomycin and its interindividual variation after the standard single 3 gram oral dose. We aimed to gain more insight into urinary fosfomycin pharmacokinetics to evaluate its effectiveness. METHODS: Three grams of fosfomycin trometamol was administered to 40 healthy female volunteers with an estimated mean glomerular filtration rate of > 90 mL/min/1...
August 31, 2017: Clinical Microbiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28866136/major-globally-disseminated-clonal-complexes-of-antimicrobial-resistant-enterococci-associated-with-infections-in-cancer-patients-in-brazil
#10
Barbara A Santos, Jéssica S Oliveira, Nayara T Cardoso, André V Barbosa, Silvana V Superti, Lúcia M Teixeira, Felipe P G Neves
Cancer and hematological malignancies constitute major comorbidities in enterococcal infections, but little is known about the characteristics of enterococci affecting cancer patients. The aim of this study was to characterize 132 enterococcal clinical isolates obtained from cancer patients attending a Cancer Reference Center in Brazil between April 2013 and March 2014. Susceptibility to 17 antimicrobial agents was assessed by disk diffusion method. Resistance and virulence genes were investigated by PCR. Multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was performed for selected Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium isolates...
September 1, 2017: Infection, Genetics and Evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28861056/identification-of-novel-conjugative-plasmids-with-multiple-copies-of-fosb-that-confer-high-level-fosfomycin-resistance-to-vancomycin-resistant-enterococci
#11
Lingyan Sun, Ping Zhang, Tingting Qu, Yan Chen, Xiaoting Hua, Keren Shi, Yunsong Yu
To further characterize the fosB-carrying plasmids of 19 vancomycin-resistant enterococci, the complete sequences of the fosB- and vanA-containing plasmids of Enterococcus faecium (pEMA120) and E. avium (pEA19081) were obtained by single-molecule, real-time sequencing. We found that these two plasmids are essentially identical (99.99% nucleotide sequence identity), which proved the possibility of interspecies transmission. Comparative analysis of the plasmids revealed that the backbone of pEMA120 is 99% similar to a conjugative fosB-negative E...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28854668/current-and-future-therapies-for-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-infection-in-patients-with-cystic-fibrosis
#12
Wynne D Smith, Emmanuelle Bardin, Loren Cameron, Claire L Edmondson, Katie V Farrant, Isaac Martin, Ronan A Murphy, Odel Soren, Andrew R Turnbull, Natasha Wierre-Gore, Eric W Alton, Jacob G Bundy, Andrew Bush, Gary J Connett, Saul N Faust, Alain Filloux, Paul S Freemont, Andrew L Jones, Zoltan Takats, Jeremy S Webb, Huw D Williams, Jane C Davies
Pseudomonas aeruginosa opportunistically infects the airways of patients with cystic fibrosis and causes significant morbidity and mortality. Initial infection can often be eradicated though requires prompt detection and adequate treatment. Intermittent and then chronic infection occurs in the majority of patients. Better detection of P. aeruginosa infection using biomarkers may enable more successful eradication before chronic infection is established. In chronic infection P. aeruginosa adapts to avoid immune clearance and resist antibiotics via efflux pumps, β-lactamase expression, reduced porins and switching to a biofilm lifestyle...
August 1, 2017: FEMS Microbiology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28851843/widespread-fosfomycin-resistance-in-gram-negative-bacteria-attributable-to-the-chromosomal-fosa-gene
#13
Ryota Ito, Mustapha M Mustapha, Adam D Tomich, Jake D Callaghan, Christi L McElheny, Roberta T Mettus, Robert M Q Shanks, Nicolas Sluis-Cremer, Yohei Doi
Fosfomycin is a decades-old antibiotic which is being revisited because of its perceived activity against many extensively drug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens. FosA proteins are Mn(2+) and K(+)-dependent glutathione S-transferases which confer fosfomycin resistance in Gram-negative bacteria by conjugation of glutathione to the antibiotic. Plasmid-borne fosA variants have been reported in fosfomycin-resistant Escherichia coli strains. However, the prevalence and distribution of fosA in other Gram-negative bacteria are not known...
August 29, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28840351/activity-of-temocillin-and-15-other-agents-including-fosfomycin-and-colistin-against-enterobacteriaceae-in-hong-kong
#14
Margaret Ip, Christopher K Lai, Kitty S C Fung, K-Tak Wong, Chendi Zhu, Sebastien Van de Velde, Dominic N Tsang, Peter Hawkey
Limited data are available on temocillin susceptibilities in Enterobacteriaceae from Asian countries where antimicrobial resistance is prevalent. The in vitro activities of temocillin and 15 commonly used antimicrobials against 613 non-duplicate blood (n = 310) and urine (with clinically significant bacteriuria; n = 303) isolates of Enterobacteriaceae from patients who attended 3 out of 7 clusters of public hospitals of the Hospital Authority, Hong Kong, during 2015/2016 were tested. Minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) were determined by Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) microbroth dilution (agar dilution with fosfomycin)...
August 25, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28831226/antibiotic-and-heavy-metal-resistance-of-aeromonas-hydrophila-and-edwardsiella-tarda-isolated-from-red-hybrid-tilapia-oreochromis-spp-coinfected-with-motile-aeromonas-septicemia-and-edwardsiellosis
#15
S W Lee, W Wendy
AIM: The aim of this study is to identify antibiogram and heavy metal resistance pattern of Aeromonas hydrophila and Edwardsiella tarda isolated from red hybrid tilapia (Oreochromis spp.) coinfected with motile aeromonas septicemia and edwardsiellosis in four commercial fish farms. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A. hydrophila and E. tarda were isolated using glutamate starch phenol red and xylose lysine deoxycholate (Merck, Germany) as a selective medium, respectively. All the suspected bacterial colonies were identified using conventional biochemical tests and commercial identification kit (BBL Crystal, USA)...
July 2017: Veterinary World
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28820368/emergence-of-plasmid-mediated-fosfomycin-resistance-genes-among-escherichia-coli-isolates-france
#16
Yahia Benzerara, Salah Gallah, Baptiste Hommeril, Nathalie Genel, Dominique Decré, Martin Rottman, Guillaume Arlet
FosA, a glutathione S-transferase that inactivates fosfomycin, has been reported as the cause of enzymatic resistance to fosfomycin. We show that multiple lineages of FosA-producing extended spectrum β-lactamase Escherichia coli have circulated in France since 2012, potentially reducing the efficacy of fosfomycin in treating infections with antimicrobial drug-resistant gram-negative bacilli.
September 2017: Emerging Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819154/rpos-independent-evolution-reveals-the-importance-of-attenuated-camp-crp-regulation-in-high-hydrostatic-pressure-resistance-acquisition-in-e-coli
#17
Elisa Gayán, Alexander Cambré, Chris W Michiels, Abram Aertsen
High hydrostatic pressure (HHP) processing is an attractive non-thermal alternative to food pasteurization. Nevertheless, the large inter- and intra-species variations in HHP resistance among foodborne pathogens and the ease by which they can acquire extreme resistance are an issue of increasing concern. Since RpoS activity has been considered as a central determinant in the HHP resistance of E. coli and its pathovars, this study probed for the potential of an E. coli MG1655 ΔrpoS mutant to acquire HHP resistance by directed evolution...
August 17, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28814888/frequency-of-colistin-and-fosfomycin-resistance-in-carbapenem-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-from-a-tertiary-care-hospital-in-karachi
#18
Salima Qamar, Najma Shaheen, Sadia Shakoor, Joveria Farooqi, Kauser Jabeen, Rumina Hasan
INTRODUCTION: Management of infections with carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) is challenging. In recent times, agents such as colistin and fosfomycin have been used in combination with other antibiotics to treat such infections. In this study, we aim to seek frequency of colistin and fosfomycin resistance in CRE from Pakistan. METHODS: This study was conducted at clinical laboratories, Aga Khan University Hospital. In total, 251 CRE were included in the study...
2017: Infection and Drug Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768448/resistance-phenotypes-and-susceptibility-of-contemporary-serratia-isolates-in-the-university-hospital-of-crete-greece
#19
George Samonis, Konstantinos Z Vardakas, Sofia Maraki, Petroula Stamouli, Viktoria-Eirini Mavromanolaki, Diamantis P Kofteridis, Matthew E Falagas
OBJECTIVE: To study changes in the susceptibility of Serratia spp. in Crete, Greece (2010-2015). METHODS: Non-duplicate isolates were examined using automated systems. Phenotypic confirmatory tests were applied. RESULTS: Three hundred and seventy-eight Serratia spp. were analyzed. Serratia marcescens (88.3%) was the predominant species. Fluoroquinolones (97.9%), carbapenems (97.4%) and fosfomycin (97.4%) were the most active followed by amikacin (95...
August 2, 2017: Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759841/a-fast-and-sensitive-lc-ms-ms-method-for-the-quantification-of-fosfomycin-in-human-urine-and-plasma-using-one-sample-preparation-method-and-hilic-chromatography
#20
Rixt A Wijma, Soma Bahmany, E B Wilms, T van Gelder, Johan W Mouton, Birgit C P Koch
Fosfomycin is an old antibiotic that is increasingly prescribed because of emergence of the antibiotic resistance and the growing incidence of multi-drug resistant infections. Surprisingly, little is known about its pharmacokinetics (PK) and the pharmacodynamics (PD). Quantification of fosfomycin in both urine and plasma provides insight into the PK/PD characteristics of fosfomycin, which is crucial for the optimization of the therapy and the prevention of the emergence of resistance. An analytical method is therefore needed for the quantification of fosfomycin in both urine and plasma...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Chromatography. B, Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences
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