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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27924470/emerging-issues-and-treatment-strategies-in-carbapenem-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-cre
#1
REVIEW
Dana R Bowers, Vanthida Huang
Carbapenems are the broadest spectrum antimicrobials utilized in the treatment of serious infections since the 1980s. Soon after their introduction, the discovery of carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) was reported in the 1990s. Invasive CRE infections are associated with high mortality and limited treatment options making care for patients with these infections challenging for clinicians. Current practice has reverted back to the use of "older" antimicrobials, such as the polymyxins, tigecycline, and fosfomycin, to combat invasive CRE infections...
December 2016: Current Infectious Disease Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912884/synergism-of-coumarins-from-the-chinese-drug-zanthoxylum-nitidum-with-antibacterial-agents-against-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus-mrsa
#2
Guo-Ying Zuo, Chun-Juan Wang, Jun Han, Yu-Qing Li, Gen-Chun Wang
BACKGROUND: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) poses a serious therapeutic challenge in current clinic and new drug development. Natural coumarins have diverse bioactivities and the potential of resistance modifying effects. PURPOSE: This study is to present in-depth evaluations of in vitro antimicrobial activities of four natural coumarins 5-geranyloxy-7-methoxycoumarin (Gm, 1), (5,7-dimethoxy-8-prenyloxycoumarin (artanin, Ar, 2)), isopimpinellin (Is, 3) and phellopterin (Ph, 4) from Zanthoxylum nitidum (Roxb...
December 15, 2016: Phytomedicine: International Journal of Phytotherapy and Phytopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27887965/muropeptide-signature-of-inhibitors-of-protein-synthesis-correlates-with-%C3%AE-lactam-synergism-against-methicillin-resistant-staphylococcus-aureus
#3
Bertrand Guignard, Paul A Majcherczyk, Cédric Monachon, Jacques Vouillamoz, Philippe Moreillon
Quinupristin/dalfopristin (Q/D) and β-lactams interact positively against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The effect extends to other inhibitors of protein synthesis, but not to inhibitors of polynucleotide synthesis or assembly, or to Q/D plus non-β-lactam cell wall inhibitors. Moreover, electron microscopy studies have correlated this effect with a thickened cell wall. In this study, we sought to determine whether inhibitors of protein synthesis might produce a specific peptidoglycan muropeptide signature that would correlate with their positive β-lactam interaction...
November 16, 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881539/coexistence-of-fosfomycin-and-colistin-resistance-in-klebsiella-pneumoniae-whole-genome-shotgun-sequencing
#4
Balaji Veeraraghavan, Susmitha K Perumalla, Naveen Kumar Devanga Ragupathi, Agila Kumari Pragasam, Dhiviya Prabaa Muthuirulandi Sethuvel, Sandhana Inian, Francis Yesurajan Inbanathan
Resistance to colistin is a major threat that limits therapeutic choices for treating carbapenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae infections. Herein, we report the draft genome sequences of two colistin-resistant K. pneumoniae isolates (BA41763 and B6753). The sequence data indicate that BA41763 and B6753 contain genomes of ~5.9 and 5.7 Mb in size with several plasmids.
November 23, 2016: Genome Announcements
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876296/pathogenic-features-of-clinically-significant-coagulase-negative-staphylococci-in-hospital-and-community-infections-in-benin
#5
Chimène Nanoukon, Xavier Argemi, Frédéric Sogbo, Jeanne Orekan, Daniel Keller, Dissou Affolabi, Frédéric Schramm, Philippe Riegel, Lamine Baba-Moussa, Gilles Prévost
In West Africa, very little consideration has been given to coagulase negative Staphylococci (CNS). Herein, we describe the features contributing to the pathogenicity of 99 clinically-significant independent CNS isolates associated with infections encountered at the National Teaching Hospital Center of Cotonou (Benin). The pathogenic potentials of nosocomial strains were compared with community strains. S. haemolyticus (44%), S. epidermidis (22%) and S. hominis (7%) were the most frequently isolated while bacteremia (66...
November 10, 2016: International Journal of Medical Microbiology: IJMM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875349/the-revival-of-old-antibiotics-for-treatment-of-uncomplicated-urinary-tract-infections-in-the-era-of-antibiotic-stewardship
#6
Jennifer Kranz, Sina Helbig, Falitsa Mandraka, Stefanie Schmidt, Kurt G Naber
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: In the era of increasing antibiotic resistance worldwide, this review highlights the advantages of revival of old antibiotics for treatment of uncomplicated urinary tract infections (uUTIs). RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have shown that these four oral old antibiotics, fosfomycin trometamol, nitrofurantoin, nitroxoline and pivmecillinam, show no increasing antibiotic resistance against uropathogens causing uUTI, are still effective for the treatment of uUTI and exhibit only minimal or no collateral damage as compared with fluoroquinolones or third-generation cephalosporines...
November 21, 2016: Current Opinion in Urology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806071/fosfomycin-addition-to-poly-d-l-lactide-coating-does-not-affect-prophylaxis-efficacy-in-rat-implant-related-infection-model-but-that-of-gentamicin-does
#7
Anil Gulcu, Alp Akman, Ahmet Fahir Demirkan, Ali Cagdas Yorukoglu, Ilknur Kaleli, Ferda Bir
Gentamicin is the preferred antimicrobial agent used in implant coating for the prevention of implant-related infections (IRI). However, the present heavy local and systemic administration of gentamicin can lead to increased resistance, which has made its future use uncertain, together with related preventive technologies. Fosfomycin is an alternative antimicrobial agent that lacks the cross-resistance presented by other classes of antibiotics. We evaluated the efficacy of prophylaxis of 10% fosfomycin-containing poly(D,L-lactide) (PDL) coated K-wires in a rat IRI model and compared it with uncoated (Control 1), PDL-coated (Control 2), and 10% gentamicin-containing PDL-coated groups with a single layer of coating...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800131/determination-of-acquired-resistance-profiles-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-isolates-and-characterization-of-an-effective-bacteriocin-like-inhibitory-substance-blis-against-these-isolates
#8
Dariush Shokri, Mohammad Rabbani Khorasgani, Saeideh Zaghian, Seyed Masih Fatemi, Milad Mohkam, Younes Ghasemi, Asghar Taheri-Kafrani
BACKGROUND: The emergence of pan-drug resistant strains (PDR) of Pseudomonas aeruginosa has led to renewed efforts to identify alternative agents, such as bacteriocins and bacteriocin-like inhibitory substances (BLISs). OBJECTIVES: The aims of this study were to determine the acquired resistance profiles of multidrug-resistant (MDR), extensively drug-resistant (XDR), and PDR P. aeruginosa isolates based on the revised definitions of the CDC and ECDC and to screen and characterize effective BLISs against these isolates...
August 2016: Jundishapur Journal of Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27795380/pharmacodynamics-of-aerosolized-fosfomycin-and-amikacin-against-resistant-clinical-isolates-of-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-and-klebsiella-pneumoniae-in-a-hollow-fiber-infection-model-experimental-basis-for-combination-therapy
#9
Fekade Bruck Sime, Adam Johnson, Sarah Whalley, Anahi Santoyo-Castelazo, A Bruce Montgomery, Kathie Ann Walters, Jeffrey Lipman, William W Hope, Jason A Roberts
There has been a resurgence of interest in aerosolization of antibiotics for treatment of patients with severe pneumonia, caused by multi-drug resistant pathogens. A combination formulation of amikacin/fosfomycin is currently undergoing clinical testing although the exposure response-relationships of these drugs have not been fully characterized. The aim of this study was to describe the individual and combined antibacterial effects of simulated epithelial lining fluid exposures of aerosolized amikacin and fosfomycin against resistant clinical isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (MICs 16 mg/L; 64 mg/L) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (MICs 2 mg/L; 64 mg/L) using the dynamic hollow-fiber infection model over 7-days...
October 24, 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27788499/assessment-of-fosfomycin-for-complicated-or-multidrug-resistant-urinary-tract-infections-patient-characteristics-and-outcomes
#10
Stephanie E Giancola, Monica V Mahoney, Michael D Hogan, Brian R Raux, Christopher McCoy, Elizabeth B Hirsch
BACKGROUND: Bacterial resistance among uropathogens is on the rise and has led to a decreased effectiveness of oral therapies. Fosfomycin tromethamine (fosfomycin) is indicated for uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTIs) and displays in vitro activity against multidrug-resistant (MDR) isolates; however, clinical data assessing fosfomycin for the treatment of complicated or MDR UTIs are limited. METHODS: We conducted a retrospective evaluation of patients who received ≥1 dose of fosfomycin between January 2009 and September 2015 for treatment of a UTI...
October 28, 2016: Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787975/phosphonate-biochemistry
#11
Geoff P Horsman, David L Zechel
Organophosphonic acids are unique as natural products in terms of stability and mimicry. The C-P bond that defines these compounds resists hydrolytic cleavage, while the phosphonyl group is a versatile mimic of transition-states, intermediates, and primary metabolites. This versatility may explain why a variety of organisms have extensively explored the use organophosphonic acids as bioactive secondary metabolites. Several of these compounds, such as fosfomycin and bialaphos, figure prominently in human health and agriculture...
October 27, 2016: Chemical Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780292/diversity-of-antibiotic-resistance-genes-in-enterococcus-strains-isolated-from-ready-to-eat-meat-products
#12
Wioleta Chajęcka-Wierzchowska, Anna Zadernowska, Łucja Łaniewska-Trokenheim
The objective of the study was to answer the question of whether the ready-to-eat meat products can pose indirect hazard for consumer health serving as reservoir of Enterococcus strains harboring tetracyclines, aminoglycosides, and macrolides resistance genes. A total of 390 samples of ready-to-eat meat products were investigated. Enterococcus strains were found in 74.1% of the samples. A total of 302 strains were classified as: Enterococcus faecalis (48.7%), Enterococcus faecium (39.7%), Enterococcus casseliflavus (4...
October 25, 2016: Journal of Food Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27765412/characterisation-of-fosfomycin-resistance-mechanisms-and-molecular-epidemiology-in-extended-spectrum-%C3%AE-lactamase-producing-klebsiella-pneumoniae-isolates
#13
Po-Liang Lu, Ya-Ju Hsieh, Jun-En Lin, Jun-Wei Huang, Tsung-Ying Yang, Lin Lin, Sung-Pin Tseng
Although fosfomycin is a treatment option for infections caused by extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Enterobacteriaceae, fosfomycin resistance has been documented. To our knowledge, fosfomycin resistance mechanisms in Klebsiella pneumoniae have not been systematically investigated. A total of 108 ESBL-producing K. pneumoniae isolates collected from Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Taiwan, from August 2012 to May 2013 were analysed in this study. Pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) revealed 64 pulsotypes and six non-typeable isolates, indicating high genetic diversity...
November 2016: International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27756910/validation-of-the-mutant-selection-window-hypothesis-with-fosfomycin-against-escherichia-coli-and-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-an-in-vitro-and-in-vivo-comparative-study
#14
Ai-Jun Pan, Qing Mei, Ying Ye, Hong-Ru Li, Bao Liu, Jia-Bin Li
The purpose of this study was to validate the mutant selection window (MSW) hypothesis in vitro and in vivo with Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa exposed to fosfomycin. Two standard strains of Gram-negative bacteria, those are E. coli ATCC 25922 and P. aeruginosa ATCC 27853, were exposed to fosfomycin at concentrations below MIC, between the MIC and the mutant prevention concentration (MPC), and above the MPC in Luria-Bertani broth and in a tissue-cage infection model, respectively. With the in vitro time-kill studies, there were bacterial re-growth and emergence of resistance thereafter for both strains at antibiotic concentrations of × 4, × 8 and × 16 MIC...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Antibiotics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27750121/identification-of-antibiotic-resistant-bacteria-community-and-a-geochip-based-study-of-resistome-in-urban-watersheds
#15
Adrian Low, Charmaine Ng, Jianzhong He
Urban watersheds from point sources are potential reservoirs of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). However, few studies have investigated urban watersheds of non-point sources. To understand the type of ARGs and bacteria that might carry such genes, we investigated two non-point source urban watersheds with different land-use profiles. Antibiotic resistance levels of two watersheds (R1, R3) were examined using heterotrophic plate counts (HPC) as a culturing method to obtain counts of bacteria resistant to seven antibiotics belonging to different classes (erythromycin, kanamycin, lincomycin, norfloxacin, sulfanilamide, tetracycline and trimethoprim)...
September 20, 2016: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27736752/deciphering-the-resistome-of-the-widespread-pseudomonas-aeruginosa-sequence-type-175-international-high-risk-clone-through-whole-genome-sequencing
#16
Gabriel Cabot, Carla López-Causapé, Alain A Ocampo-Sosa, Lea M Sommer, María Ángeles Domínguez, Laura Zamorano, Carlos Juan, Fe Tubau, Cristina Rodríguez, Bartolomé Moyà, Carmen Peña, Luis Martínez-Martínez, Patrick Plesiat, Antonio Oliver
Whole-genome sequencing (WGS) was used for the characterization of the frequently extensively drug resistant (XDR) Pseudomonas aeruginosa sequence type 175 (ST175) high-risk clone. A total of 18 ST175 isolates recovered from 8 different Spanish hospitals were analyzed; 4 isolates from 4 different French hospitals were included for comparison. The typical resistance profile of ST175 included penicillins, cephalosporins, monobactams, carbapenems, aminoglycosides, and fluoroquinolones. In the phylogenetic analysis, the four French isolates clustered together with two isolates from one of the Spanish regions...
December 2016: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27729016/oral-fosfomycin-for-treatment-of-urinary-tract-infection-a-retrospective-cohort-study
#17
Philippa C Matthews, Lucinda K Barrett, Stephanie Warren, Nicole Stoesser, Mel Snelling, Matthew Scarborough, Nicola Jones
BACKGROUND: Fosfomycin is increasingly called upon for the treatment of multi drug-resistant (MDR) organisms causing urinary tract infection (UTI). We reviewed oral fosfomycin use for UTI treatment in a large UK hospital. The primary goal was to audit our clinical practice against current national guidelines. Secondary aims were to identify factors associated with treatment failure, and to investigate the potential for using fosfomycin in patients with co-morbidities. METHODS: We retrospectively studied 75 adult patients with UTI who received 151 episodes of treatment with fosfomycin from March 2013 to June 2015...
October 11, 2016: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27712137/an-update-on-the-management-of-urinary-tract-infections-in-the-era-of-antimicrobial-resistance
#18
Mazen S Bader, Mark Loeb, Annie A Brooks
Urinary tract infections (UTIs) caused by antibiotic-resistant Gram-negative bacteria are a growing concern due to limited therapeutic options. Gram-negative bacteria, specifically Enterobacteriaceae, are common causes of both community-acquired and hospital acquired UTIs. These organisms can acquire genes that encode for multiple antibiotic resistance mechanisms, including extended-spectrum-lactamases (ESBLs), AmpC- β -lactamase, and carbapenemases. The assessment of suspected UTI includes identification of characteristic symptoms or signs, urinalysis, dipstick or microscopic tests, and urine culture if indicated...
October 7, 2016: Postgraduate Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650185/fosfomycin-resistance-in-acinetobacter-baumannii-is-mediated-by-efflux-through-a-major-facilitator-superfamily-mfs-transporter-abaf
#19
Atin Sharma, Rajnikant Sharma, Tapas Bhattacharyya, Timsy Bhando, Ranjana Pathania
OBJECTIVES: To decipher the function of A1S_1331, named AbaF (Acinetobacter baumannii Fosfomycin efflux), one of the primary targets of AbsR25, a small RNA of A. baumannii. METHODS: abaF was cloned in a multicopy plasmid and expressed from its native promoter in an efflux-deficient strain-Escherichia coli KAM32. Drug susceptibility, accumulation and efflux of ethidium bromide (EtBr) were determined in this strain. abaF was disrupted in A. baumannii using homologous recombination and its effect on drug susceptibility, biofilm formation and virulence was studied...
September 20, 2016: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27639858/uropathogen-distribution-and-antimicrobial-susceptibility-in-uncomplicated-cystitis-in-belgium-a-high-antibiotics-prescribing-country-20-year-surveillance
#20
S Heytens, J Boelens, G Claeys, A DeSutter, T Christiaens
Treatment of cystitis in primary care is usually empirical, guided by the prior probability of causal pathogens and their susceptibility. To re-evaluate empirical treatment guidelines, the actual distribution and susceptibility of uropathogens was examined and compared with two previous surveys in Belgium over the past 20 years. Because of the alarming increase in carriage of extended-spectrum β-lactamase (ESBL)- and carbapenemase-producing Escherichia coli, this specific resistance was explored. From May 2014 to December 2015, 120 general practitioners collected midstream urine specimens from adult pre- and postmenopausal female patients with suspected cystitis...
September 17, 2016: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
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