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Dynamic functional connectivity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684751/shedding-new-light-on-disorders-of-consciousness-diagnosis-the-dynamic-functional-connectivity
#1
Antonino Naro, Alessia Bramanti, Antonino Leo, Alberto Cacciola, Alfredo Manuli, Placido Bramanti, Rocco S Calabrò
It has been proposed that awareness may depend on the highly-dynamic functional connectivity of large-scale cortico-thalamo-cortical networks. We investigated how brain connectivity changes over time in the resting state in a group of patients with chronic disorders of consciousness (DoC). To this end, we assessed dynamic functional connectivity (DFC) in the resting state by analyzing the time-dependent EEG phase synchronization in five frequency bands (δ, θ, α, β, and γ). Patients in Minimally Conscious State (MCS) showed changes in DFC matrices and topography over time (mainly in the γ range), which were significantly different from those observed in patients with Unresponsive Wakefulness Syndrome (UWS)...
April 4, 2018: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29684465/an-asymptotic-theory-for-cross-correlation-between-auto-correlated-sequences-and-its-application-on-neuroimaging-data
#2
Yunyi Zhou, Chenyang Tao, Wenlian Lu, Jianfeng Feng
BACKGROUND: Functional connectivity is among the most important tools to study brain. The correlation coefficient, between time series of different brain areas, is the most popular method to quantify functional connectivity. Correlation coefficient in practical use assumes the data to be temporally independent. However, the time series data of brain can manifest significant temporal auto-correlation. NEW METHOD: A widely applicable method is proposed for correcting temporal auto-correlation...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29683411/microbial-community-composition-and-methanogens-biodiversity-during-a-temperature-shift-in-a-methane-fermentation-chamber
#3
Anna Banach, Slawomir Ciesielski, Tomasz Bacza, Marek Pieczykolan, Aleksandra Ziembińska-Buczyńska
More information on the connection between anaerobic digestion parameters and composition of the microbial community involved in the anaerobic digestion process is required to gain a better understanding of how a bioreactor functions. The aim of this study was to analyse the composition of microbial communities and the dynamics of methanogens' biodiversity changes during the shift from mesophilic (38 °C) to thermophilic (55 °C) conditions during biogas production. The total microbial composition was examined via the metagenomic approach based on 16S rRNA gene sequencing, whereas the methanogen communities were analysed using PCR-DGGE (Polymerase Chain Reaction - Denaturing Gradient Gel Electrophoresis) of mcrA...
April 23, 2018: Environmental Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29681807/primary-sensorimotor-cortex-drives-the-common-cortical-network-for-gamma-synchronization-in-voluntary-hand-movements
#4
Gertrúd Tamás, Venkata C Chirumamilla, Abdul R Anwar, Jan Raethjen, Günther Deuschl, Sergiu Groppa, Muthuraman Muthuraman
Background: Gamma synchronization (GS) may promote the processing between functionally related cortico-subcortical neural populations. Our aim was to identify the sources of GS and to analyze the direction of information flow in cerebral networks at the beginning of phasic movements, and during medium-strength isometric contraction of the hand. Methods: We measured 64-channel electroencephalography in 11 healthy volunteers (age: 25 ± 8 years; four females); surface electromyography detected the movements of the dominant hand...
2018: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29680789/neurophysiological-differences-in-the-adolescent-brain-following-a-single-night-of-restricted-sleep-a-7t-fmri-study
#5
Jennifer L Robinson, Stephen A Erath, Rajesh K Kana, Mona El-Sheikh
Sleep deprivation in youth has garnered international attention in recent years, as correlational studies have demonstrated significant relationships between lack of sleep and detrimental behavioral and academic outcomes. However, no study to date has systematically examined the neurophysiological consequences of a single night of sleep restriction (i.e., 4 h) in adolescents using ultra-high field functional neuroimaging. Much of what we know regarding the neural consequences of sleep deprivation has come from the adult literature, and among those studies, the majority use region of interest (ROI) approaches, thus disregarding the dynamic mechanisms that may subserve the behavioral effects of sleep restriction...
April 7, 2018: Developmental Cognitive Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29679120/regulation-of-hydrolytic-enzyme-activity-in-aquatic-microbial-communities-hosted-by-carnivorous-pitcher-plants
#6
Erica B Young, Jessica Sielicki, Jacob J Grothjan
Carnivorous pitcher plants Sarracenia purpurea host diverse eukaryotic and bacterial communities which aid in insect prey digestion, but little is known about the functional processes mediated by the microbial communities. This study aimed to connect pitcher community diversity with functional nutrient transformation processes, identifying bacterial taxa, and measuring regulation of hydrolytic enzyme activity in response to prey and alternative nutrient sources. Genetic analysis identified diverse bacterial taxa known to produce hydrolytic enzyme activities...
April 20, 2018: Microbial Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29677161/fast-gpu-pcc-a-gpu-based-technique-to-compute-pairwise-pearson-s-correlation-coefficients-for-time-series-data-fmri-study
#7
Taban Eslami, Fahad Saeed
Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) is a non-invasive brain imaging technique, which has been regularly used for studying brain’s functional activities in the past few years. A very well-used measure for capturing functional associations in brain is Pearson’s correlation coefficient. Pearson’s correlation is widely used for constructing functional network and studying dynamic functional connectivity of the brain. These are useful measures for understanding the effects of brain disorders on connectivities among brain regions...
April 20, 2018: High-throughput
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674346/from-microscopic-to-macroscopic-sports-injuries-applying-the-complex-dynamic-systems-approach-to-sports-medicine-a-narrative-review
#8
REVIEW
Rafel Pol, Robert Hristovski, Daniel Medina, Natalia Balague
A better understanding of how sports injuries occur in order to improve their prevention is needed for medical, economic, scientific and sports success reasons. This narrative review aims to explain the mechanisms that underlie the occurrence of sports injuries, and an innovative approach for their prevention on the basis of complex dynamic systems approach. First, we explain the multilevel organisation of living systems and how function of the musculoskeletal system may be impaired. Second, we use both, a constraints approach and a connectivity hypothesis to explain why and how the susceptibility to sports injuries may suddenly increase...
April 19, 2018: British Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673687/the-brassinosteroid-regulated-transcription-factors-bzr1-bes1-function-as-a-coordinator-in-multisignal-regulated-plant-growth
#9
REVIEW
Qian-Feng Li, Jun Lu, Jia-Wen Yu, Chang-Quan Zhang, Jun-Xian He, Qiao-Quan Liu
BZR1 and BES1 are key transcription factors of brassinosteroid (BR) signaling and represent the integration node of numerous signaling cascades. Their direct target genes have been identified, and BZR1/BES1-DNA interactions have been experimentally verified. Importantly, BZR1/BES1 also integrate different growth and development events via direct protein-protein interactions. For instance, DELLAs, PIFs, ARF6, and PKL, all directly interact with BZR1/BES1, forming a BZR1/BES1-centered regulatory network to coordinate cell elongation...
April 16, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29672091/resting-state-connectivity-dynamics-in-individuals-at-risk-for-psychosis
#10
Andrea Pelletier-Baldelli, Jessica R Andrews-Hanna, Vijay A Mittal
Clarifying dynamic fluctuations in resting-state connectivity in individuals at risk for psychosis (termed clinical high risk [CHR]) may inform understanding of psychotic disorders, such as schizophrenia, which have been associated with dysconnectivity and aberrant salience processing. Dynamic functional connectivity (DFC) investigations provide insight into how neural networks exchange information over time. Currently, there are no published DFC studies involving CHR individuals. This is notable, because understanding how networks may come together and disassociate over time could lend insight into the neural communication that underlies psychosis development and symptomatology...
April 2018: Journal of Abnormal Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670202/automated-fluid-delivery-from-multiwell-plates-to-microfluidic-devices-for-high-throughput-experiments-and-microscopy
#11
Ross C Lagoy, Dirk R Albrecht
High-throughput biological and chemical experiments typically use either multiwell plates or microfluidic devices to analyze numerous independent samples in a compact format. Multiwell plates are convenient for screening chemical libraries in static fluid environments, whereas microfluidic devices offer immense flexibility in flow control and dynamics. Interfacing these platforms in a simple and automated way would introduce new high-throughput experimental capabilities, such as compound screens with precise exposure timing...
April 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29670045/what-we-know-about-the-brain-structure-function-relationship
#12
REVIEW
Karla Batista-García-Ramó, Caridad Ivette Fernández-Verdecia
How the human brain works is still a question, as is its implication with brain architecture: the non-trivial structure–function relationship. The main hypothesis is that the anatomic architecture conditions, but does not determine, the neural network dynamic. The functional connectivity cannot be explained only considering the anatomical substrate. This involves complex and controversial aspects of the neuroscience field and that the methods and methodologies to obtain structural and functional connectivity are not always rigorously applied...
April 18, 2018: Behavioral Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29669420/recent-advances-in-connecting-structure-dynamics-and-function-of-biomolecules-by-nmr
#13
Sarah C Larsen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
April 19, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668280/shift-in-conformational-equilibrium-induces-constitutive-activity-of-g-protein-coupled-receptor-rhodopsin
#14
Ryo Maeda, Michio Hiroshima, Takahiro Yamashita, Akimori Wada, Yasushi Sako, Yoshinori Shichida, Yasushi Imamoto
Constitutively active mutants (CAMs) of G-protein coupled receptors (GPCRs), cause various kinds of diseases. Rhodopsin, a light-absorbing GPCR in animal retina, has retinal as an endogenous ligand; only very low levels of activation of G-protein can be obtained with the ligand-free opsin. However, the CAM of opsin activates G-protein much more efficiently than the wild type but the mechanism underlying this remains unclear. The present work revisits the constitutive activity of rhodopsin from the standpoint of conformational dynamics...
April 18, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666567/the-neural-correlates-of-grasping-in-left-handers-when-handedness-does-not-matter
#15
Chiara Begliomini, Luisa Sartori, Maria G Di Bono, Sanja Budisavljević, Umberto Castiello
Neurophysiological studies showed that in macaques, grasp-related visuomotor transformations are supported by a circuit involving the anterior part of the intraparietal sulcus, the ventral and the dorsal region of the premotor area. In humans, a similar grasp-related circuit has been revealed by means of neuroimaging techniques. However, the majority of "human" studies considered movements performed by right-handers only, leaving open the question of whether the dynamics underlying motor control during grasping is simply reversed in left-handers with respect to right-handers or not...
2018: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29666283/the-origin-dynamic-morphology-and-pi4p-independent-formation-of-encephalomyocarditis-virus-replication-organelles
#16
C E Melia, H M van der Schaar, A W M de Jong, H R Lyoo, E J Snijder, A J Koster, F J M van Kuppeveld, M Bárcena
Picornaviruses induce dramatic rearrangements of endomembranes in the cells that they infect to produce dedicated platforms for viral replication. These structures, termed replication organelles (ROs), have been well characterized for the Enterovirus genus of the Picornaviridae However, it is unknown whether the diverse RO morphologies associated with enterovirus infection are conserved among other picornaviruses. Here, we use serial electron tomography at different stages of infection to assess the three-dimensional architecture of ROs induced by encephalomyocarditis virus (EMCV), a member of the Cardiovirus genus of the family of picornaviruses that is distantly related...
April 17, 2018: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665216/peak-visual-gamma-frequency-is-modified-across-the-healthy-menstrual-cycle
#17
Rachael L Sumner, Rebecca L McMilllan, Alexander D Shaw, Krish D Singh, Fred Sundram, Suresh D Muthukumaraswamy
Fluctuations in gonadal hormones over the course of the menstrual cycle are known to cause functional brain changes and are thought to modulate changes in the balance of cortical excitation and inhibition. Animal research has shown this occurs primarily via the major metabolite of progesterone, allopregnanolone, and its action as a positive allosteric modulator of the GABAA receptor. Our study used EEG to record gamma oscillations induced in the visual cortex using stationary and moving gratings. Recordings took place during twenty females' mid-luteal phase when progesterone and estradiol are highest, and early follicular phase when progesterone and estradiol are lowest...
April 17, 2018: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29665147/detrimental-effects-of-a-novel-flow-regime-on-the-functional-trajectory-of-an-aquatic-invertebrate-metacommunity
#18
Albert Ruhi, Xiaoli Dong, Courtney H McDaniel, Darold P Batzer, John L Sabo
Novel flow regimes resulting from dam operations and overallocation of freshwater resources are an emerging consequence of global change. Yet, anticipating how freshwater biodiversity will respond to surging flow regime alteration requires overcoming two challenges in environmental flow science: shifting from local to riverscape-level understanding of biodiversity dynamics, and from static to time-varying characterizations of the flow regime. Here, we used time-series methods (wavelets and multivariate autoregressive models) to quantify flow-regime alteration and to link time-varying flow regimes to the dynamics of multiple local communities potentially connected by dispersal (i...
April 17, 2018: Global Change Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29664723/the-value-of-electrically-evoked-stapedius-reflex-in-determining-the-maximum-comfort-level-of-a-cochlear-implant
#19
Kelly Cristina Lira de Andrade, Lilian Ferreira Muniz, Pedro de Lemos Menezes, Silvio da Silva Caldas Neto, Aline Tenório Lins Carnaúba, Mariana de Carvalho Leal
BACKGROUND: One of the most important steps for good user performance with a cochlear implant (CI) is activation and programming, aimed at determining the dynamic range. In adults, current levels are determined by psychophysical measures. In babies, small children, or individuals with multiple disorders, this procedure requires techniques that may provide inconsistent responses because of auditory inexperience or the age of the child, making it a very difficult process that demands the collaboration of both the patient and the family...
April 2018: Journal of the American Academy of Audiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29663556/structure-and-dynamics-of-the-extended-helix-state-of-alpha-synuclein-intrinsic-lability-of-the-linker-region
#20
Yoon-Hui Sung, David Eliezer
The Parkinson's protein alpha-synuclein binds to synaptic vesicles in vivo and adopts a highly extended helical conformation when binding to lipid vesicles in vitro. High-resolution structural analysis of alpha-synuclein bound to small lipid or detergent micelles revealed two helices connected by a non-helical linker, but corresponding studies of the vesicle-bound extended-helix state are hampered by the size and heterogeneity of the protein-vesicle complex. Here we employ fluorinated alcohols (FAs) to induce a highly helical aggregation-resistant state of alpha-synuclein in solution that resembles the vesicle-bound extended-helix state but is amenable to characterization using high-resolution solution-state NMR...
April 16, 2018: Protein Science: a Publication of the Protein Society
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