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Dynamic functional connectivity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101525/untangling-basal-ganglia-network-dynamics-and-function-role-of-dopamine-depletion-and-inhibition-investigated-in-a-spiking-network-model
#1
Mikael Lindahl, Jeanette Hellgren Kotaleski
The basal ganglia are a crucial brain system for behavioral selection, and their function is disturbed in Parkinson's disease (PD), where neurons exhibit inappropriate synchronization and oscillations. We present a spiking neural model of basal ganglia including plausible details on synaptic dynamics, connectivity patterns, neuron behavior, and dopamine effects. Recordings of neuronal activity in the subthalamic nucleus and Type A (TA; arkypallidal) and Type I (TI; prototypical) neurons in globus pallidus externa were used to validate the model...
November 2016: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100817/mechanical-sensitivity-and-the-dynamics-of-evolutionary-rate-shifts-in-biomechanical-systems
#2
Martha M Muñoz, Philip S L Anderson, S N Patek
The influence of biophysical relationships on rates of morphological evolution is a cornerstone of evolutionary theory. Mechanical sensitivity-the correlation strength between mechanical output and the system's underlying morphological components-is thought to impact the evolutionary dynamics of form-function relationships, yet has rarely been examined. Here, we compare the evolutionary rates of the mechanical components of the four-bar linkage system in the raptorial appendage of mantis shrimp (Order Stomatopoda)...
January 25, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100643/fluid-shear-stress-increases-transepithelial-transport-of-ca2-in-ciliated-distal-convoluted-and-connecting-tubule-cells
#3
Sami G Mohammed, Francisco J Arjona, Femke Latta, René J M Bindels, Ronald Roepman, Joost G J Hoenderop
In kidney, transcellular transport of Ca(2+) is mediated by transient receptor potential vanilloid 5 and Na(+)-Ca(2+) exchanger 1 proteins in distal convoluted and connecting tubules (DCT and CNT, respectively). It is not yet understood how DCT/CNT cells can adapt to differences in tubular flow rate and, consequently, Ca(2+) load. This study aims to elucidate the molecular mechanisms by which DCT/CNT cells sense fluid dynamics to control transepithelial Ca(2+) reabsorption and whether their primary cilia play an active role in this process...
January 18, 2017: FASEB Journal: Official Publication of the Federation of American Societies for Experimental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28100609/sterol-binding-by-the-tombusviral-replication-proteins-is-essential-for-replication-in-yeast-and-plants
#4
Kai Xu, Peter D Nagy
: Membranous structures derived from various organelles are important for replication of plus-stranded RNA viruses. Although the important roles of co-opted host proteins in RNA virus replication have been appreciated for a decade, the equally important functions of cellular lipids in virus replication are gaining full attention only recently. Previous works with Tomato bushy stunt tombusvirus (TBSV) in model host yeast have revealed essential roles for phosphatidylethanolamine and sterols in viral replication...
January 18, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28099872/assessment-of-gait-and-sensorimotor-deficits-in-the-d1ct-7-mouse-model-of-tourette-syndrome
#5
Stephen C Fowler, Laura J Mosher, Sean C Godar, Marco Bortolato
Tourette syndrome (TS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder characterized by multiple motor and phonic tics. While TS patients have been also shown to exhibit subtle abnormalities of sensorimotor integration and gait, animal models of this disorder are seldom tested for these functions. To fill this gap, we assessed gait and sensorimotor integration in the D1CT-7 mouse, one of the best-validated animal models of TS. D1CT-7 mice exhibit spontaneous tic-like manifestations, which, in line with the clinical phenomenology of TS, are markedly exacerbated by environmental stress...
January 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28098297/spontaneous-assembly-of-a-hybrid-crystal-liquid-phase-in-inverse-patchy-colloid-systems
#6
Silvano Ferrari, Emanuela Bianchi, Gerhard Kahl
Materials with well-defined architectures are heavily sought after in view of their diverse technological applications. Among the desired target architectures, lamellar phases stand out for their exceptional mechanical and optical features. Here we show that charged colloids, decorated on their poles with two oppositely charged regions possess the unusual ability to spontaneously assemble in different morphologies of (semi-)ordered, layered particle arrangements which maintain their structural stability over a surprisingly large temperature range...
January 18, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28094384/foundation-of-correlation-ellipsometry
#7
Reinhard Sigel
An experimental strategy for the detection of fluctuation dynamics at interfaces based on a combination of photon correlation spectroscopy (PCS) with a nulling ellipsometry scheme is investigated theoretically. The intensity description of ellipsometry measurements is generalized to PCS time correlation functions. The nulling ellipsometry procedure is applied for every lag time t of the correlation functions, to extract the dynamics connected to the coherent signal which contains the interface dynamics. The classical ellipsometry parameters Δ and tanΨ are generalized to functions and tan [capital Psi, Greek, tilde]Q(t)...
January 17, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092972/tracking-dynamic-interactions-between-structural-and-functional-connectivity-a-tms-eeg-dmri-study
#8
Enrico Amico, Olivier Bodart, Mario Rosanova, Olivia Gosseries, Lizette Heine, Pieter Van Mierlo, Charlotte Martial, Marcello Massimini, Daniele Marinazzo, Steven Laureys
Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in combination with neuroimaging techniques allows to measure the effects of a direct perturbation of the brain. When coupled to high density electroencephalography (TMS/hd-EEG), TMS pulses revealed electrophysiological signatures of different cortical modules in health and disease. However, the neural underpinnings of these signatures remain unclear. Here, by applying multimodal analyses of cortical response to TMS recordings and diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI) tractography, we investigated the relationship between functional and structural features of different cortical modules in a cohort of awake healthy volunteers...
January 16, 2017: Brain Connectivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28090665/can-patel-s-%C3%AF-accurately-estimate-directionality-of-connections-in-brain-networks-from-fmri
#9
Yunzhi Wang, Olivier David, Xiaoping Hu, Gopikrishna Deshpande
PURPOSE: Investigating directional interactions between brain regions plays a critical role in fully understanding brain function. Consequently, multiple methods have been developed for noninvasively inferring directional connectivity in human brain networks using functional MRI (fMRI). Recent simulations by Smith et al showed that Patel's τ, a method based on higher-order statistics, was the best approach for inferring directional interactions from fMRI. Because simulations make restrictive assumptions about reality, we set out to verify this finding using experimental fMRI data obtained from a three-region network in a rat model with electrophysiological validation...
January 16, 2017: Magnetic Resonance in Medicine: Official Journal of the Society of Magnetic Resonance in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089689/piecing-it-together-unraveling-the-elusive-structure-function-relationship-in-single-pass-membrane-receptors
#10
REVIEW
Christopher C Valley, Andrew K Lewis, Jonathan N Sachs
The challenge of crystallizing single-pass plasma membrane receptors has remained an obstacle to understanding the structural mechanisms that connect extracellular ligand binding to cytosolic activation. For example, the complex interplay between receptor oligomerization and conformational dynamics has been, historically, only inferred from static structures of isolated receptor domains. A fundamental challenge in the field of membrane receptor biology, then, has been to integrate experimentally observable dynamics of full-length receptors (e...
January 12, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28088071/discrete-quasi-linear-viscoelastic-damping-analysis-of-connective-tissues-and-the-biomechanics-of-stretching
#11
Behzad Babaei, Aaron J Velasquez-Mao, Stavros Thomopoulos, Elliot L Elson, Steven D Abramowitch, Guy M Genin
The time- and frequency-dependent properties of connective tissue define their physiological function, but are notoriously difficult to characterize. Well-established tools such as linear viscoelasticity and the Fung quasi-linear viscoelastic (QLV) model impose forms on responses that can mask true tissue behavior. Here, we applied a more general discrete quasi-linear viscoelastic (DQLV) model to identify the static and dynamic time- and frequency-dependent behavior of rabbit medial collateral ligaments. Unlike the Fung QLV approach, the DQLV approach revealed that energy dissipation is elevated at a loading period of ∼10s...
December 22, 2016: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28087321/enteric-nervous-system-development-a-crest-cell-s-journey-from-neural-tube-to-colon
#12
REVIEW
Nandor Nagy, Allan M Goldstein
The enteric nervous system (ENS) is comprised of a network of neurons and glial cells that are responsible for coordinating many aspects of gastrointestinal (GI) function. These cells arise from the neural crest, migrate to the gut, and then continue their journey to colonize the entire length of the GI tract. Our understanding of the molecular and cellular events that regulate these processes has advanced significantly over the past several decades, in large part facilitated by the use of rodents, avians, and zebrafish as model systems to dissect the signals and pathways involved...
January 10, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086869/evaluation-of-an-aged-care-nurse-practitioner-service-quality-of-care-within-a-residential-aged-care-facility-hospital-avoidance-service
#13
Trudy Dwyer, Alison Craswell, Dolene Rossi, Darren Holzberger
BACKGROUND: Reducing avoidable hospitialisation of aged care facility (ACF) residents can improve the resident experience and their health outcomes. Consequently many variations of hospital avoidance (HA) programs continue to evolve. Nurse practitioners (NP) with expertise in aged care have the potential to make a unique contribution to hospital avoidance programs. However, little attention has been dedicated to service evaluation of this model and the quality of care provided. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the quality of an aged care NP model of care situated within a HA service in a regional area of Australia...
January 13, 2017: BMC Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077511/altered-connectivity-and-synapse-maturation-of-the-hippocampal-mossy-fiber-pathway-in-a-mouse-model-of-the-fragile-x-syndrome
#14
F Scharkowski, Michael Frotscher, David Lutz, Martin Korte, Kristin Michaelsen-Preusse
The Fragile X syndrome (FXS) as the most common monogenetic cause of cognitive impairment and autism indicates how tightly the dysregulation of synapse development is linked to cognitive deficits. Symptoms of FXS include excessive adherence to patterns that point to compromised hippocampal network formation. Surprisingly, one of the most complex hippocampal synapses connecting the dentate gyrus (DG) to CA3 pyramidal neurons has not been analyzed in FXS yet. Intriguingly, we found altered synaptic function between DG and CA3 in a mouse model of FXS (fmr1 knockout [KO]) demonstrated by increased mossy fiber-dependent miniature excitatory postsynaptic current (mEPSC) frequency at CA3 pyramidal neurons together with increased connectivity between granule cells and CA3 neurons...
January 10, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28076347/spatiotemporal-feedback-and-network-structure-drive-and-encode-caenorhabditis-elegans-locomotion
#15
James M Kunert, Joshua L Proctor, Steven L Brunton, J Nathan Kutz
Using a computational model of the Caenorhabditis elegans connectome dynamics, we show that proprioceptive feedback is necessary for sustained dynamic responses to external input. This is consistent with the lack of biophysical evidence for a central pattern generator, and recent experimental evidence that proprioception drives locomotion. The low-dimensional functional response of the Caenorhabditis elegans network of neurons to proprioception-like feedback is optimized by input of specific spatial wavelengths which correspond to the spatial scale of real body shape dynamics...
January 2017: PLoS Computational Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28074926/disrupted-global-metastability-and-static-and-dynamic-brain-connectivity-across-individuals-in-the-alzheimer-s-disease-continuum
#16
Aldo Córdova-Palomera, Tobias Kaufmann, Karin Persson, Dag Alnæs, Nhat Trung Doan, Torgeir Moberget, Martina Jonette Lund, Maria Lage Barca, Andreas Engvig, Anne Brækhus, Knut Engedal, Ole A Andreassen, Geir Selbæk, Lars T Westlye
As findings on the neuropathological and behavioral components of Alzheimer's disease (AD) continue to accrue, converging evidence suggests that macroscale brain functional disruptions may mediate their association. Recent developments on theoretical neuroscience indicate that instantaneous patterns of brain connectivity and metastability may be a key mechanism in neural communication underlying cognitive performance. However, the potential significance of these patterns across the AD spectrum remains virtually unexplored...
January 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073937/activity-of-tachykinin1-expressing-pet1-raphe-neurons-modulates-the-drive-to-breathe
#17
Morgan L Hennessy, Andrea Corcoran, Rachael D Brust, Eugene E Nattie, Susan Dymecki
: Homeostatic control of breathing, heart rate, and body temperature relies on circuits within the brainstem modulated by the neurotransmitter serotonin (5-HT). Mounting evidence points to specialized neuronal subtypes within the 5-HT system, which have borne out in functional studies, including the modulation of distinct facets of homeostatic control. These functional differences, read out at the organismal level, are likely subserved by differences among 5-HT neuron subtypes at the cellular and molecular levels, including differences in the capacity to co-express other neurotransmitters such as glutamate, GABA, thyrotropin releasing hormone, and substance P encoded by the Tachykinin-1 (Tac1) gene...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073788/dopamine-controls-parkinson-s-tremor-by-inhibiting-the-cerebellar-thalamus
#18
Michiel F Dirkx, Hanneke E M den Ouden, Esther Aarts, Monique H M Timmer, Bastiaan R Bloem, Ivan Toni, Rick C Helmich
Parkinson's resting tremor is related to altered cerebral activity in the basal ganglia and the cerebello-thalamo-cortical circuit. Although Parkinson's disease is characterized by dopamine depletion in the basal ganglia, the dopaminergic basis of resting tremor remains unclear: dopaminergic medication reduces tremor in some patients, but many patients have a dopamine-resistant tremor. Using pharmacological functional magnetic resonance imaging, we test how a dopaminergic intervention influences the cerebral circuit involved in Parkinson's tremor...
January 9, 2017: Brain: a Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071688/epileptiform-activity-in-the-mouse-visual-cortex-interferes-with-cortical-processing-in-connected-areas
#19
L Petrucco, E Pracucci, M Brondi, G M Ratto, S Landi
Epileptiform activity is associated with impairment of brain function even in absence of seizures, as demonstrated by failures in various testing paradigm in presence of hypersynchronous interictal spikes (ISs). Clinical evidence suggests that cognitive deficits might be directly caused by the anomalous activity rather than by its underlying etiology. Indeed, we seek to understand whether ISs interfere with neuronal processing in connected areas not directly participating in the hypersynchronous activity in an acute model of epilepsy...
January 10, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28069917/dopamine-modulates-the-functional-organization-of-the-orbitofrontal-cortex
#20
Thorsten Kahnt, Philippe N Tobler
: Neuromodulators such as dopamine can alter the intrinsic firing properties of neurons, and may thereby change the configuration of larger functional circuits. The primate orbitofrontal cortex (OFC) receives dopaminergic input from midbrain nuclei, but the role of dopamine in the OFC is still unclear. Here we tested the idea that dopaminergic activity changes the pattern of connectivity between the OFC and the rest of the brain, and thereby reconfigures functional networks in the OFC...
January 9, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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