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Dynamic functional connectivity

Zhi-Hao Cui, Feng Wu, Hong Jiang
The relative stability of TiO2 in the rutile and anatase structure is wrongly described by density functional theory in various local, semilocal, or even hybrid functional approximations. In this work, we have found that by considering high-order correlations in the adiabatic connection fluctuation-dissipation theory with the random phase approximation (ACFDT-RPA), rutile is correctly predicted to be more stable than anatase, which can be physically attributed to different characters in the electronic band structure of rutile and anatase, including, in particular, that rutile has a smaller band gap than anatase...
October 20, 2016: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
Ricardo Sevilla-Escoboza, Javier M Buldú
We provide the topological structure of a series of N=28 Rössler chaotic oscillators diffusively coupled through one of its variables. The dynamics of the y variable describing the evolution of the individual nodes of the network are given for a wide range of coupling strengths. Datasets capture the transition from the unsynchronized behavior to the synchronized one, as a function of the coupling strength between oscillators. The fact that both the underlying topology of the system and the dynamics of the nodes are given together makes this dataset a suitable candidate to evaluate the interplay between functional and structural networks and serve as a benchmark to quantify the ability of a given algorithm to extract the structural network of connections from the observation of the dynamics of the nodes...
June 2016: Data in Brief
Ariel Haimovici, Pablo Balenzuela, Enzo Tagliazucchi
Synchronization of brain activity fluctuations is believed to represent communication between spatially distant neural processes. These inter-areal functional interactions develop in the background of a complex network of axonal connections linking cortical and sub-cortical neurons, termed the human "structural connectome". Theoretical considerations and experimental evidence support the view that the human brain can be modeled as a system operating at a critical point between ordered (sub-critical) and disordered (super-critical) phases...
October 19, 2016: Brain Connectivity
Herman Vercruysse, Luc Van Nassauw, Joan San Miguel-Moragas, Eva Lakiere, Sten Stevens, Geert Van Hemelen, Mirco Raffaini, Nasser Nadjmi
INTRODUCTION: Postoperative flattening of the upper lip with loss of lip pout and down turning of the corners of the mouth is often seen after Le Fort I surgery. We aim to determine which facial muscles are involved in this phenomenon to update the literature on this subject. METHODS: In 6 cadavers, a unilateral Le Fort I incision was executed. After removal of the skin, all individual facial muscles were identified and submitted to bilateral tactile traction, comparing incised sides with non-incised sides...
September 22, 2016: Journal of Cranio-maxillo-facial Surgery
Benedetta Vai, Chiara Bulgarelli, Beata R Godlewska, Philip J Cowen, Francesco Benedetti, Catherine J Harmer
The timely selection of the optimal treatment for depressed patients is critical to improve remission rates. The detection of pre-treatment variables able to predict differential treatment response may provide novel approaches for treatment selection. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) modulate the fronto-limbic functional response and connectivity, an effect preceding the overt clinical antidepressant effects. Here we investigated whether the cortico-limbic connectivity associated with emotional bias measured before SSRI administration predicts the efficacy of antidepressant treatment in MDD patients...
October 15, 2016: European Neuropsychopharmacology: the Journal of the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology
András Szilágyi, Dániel Györffy, Péter Závodszky
In an earlier study, we showed that two-domain segment-swapped proteins can evolve by domain swapping and fusion, resulting in a protein with two linkers connecting its domains. We proposed that a potential evolutionary advantage of this topology may be the restriction of interdomain motions, which may facilitate domain closure by a hinge-like movement, crucial for the function of many enzymes. Here, we test this hypothesis computationally on uroporphyrinogen III synthase, a two-domain segment-swapped enzyme essential in porphyrin metabolism...
October 18, 2016: Proteins
Erick Silva, Emanuela Prado Ferraz, Evandro Carneiro Martins Neto, Liat Chaushu, Gavriel Chaushu, Samuel Porfirio Xavier
The aim of this prospective controlled study present study is to evaluate volumetric changes of newly created bone following reconstruction of the atrophic posterior mandible using FFB. Twenty consecutive patients presenting for reconstruction of posterior mandibular alveolar bone ridge width ≤ 6.0 mm and/or height≤ 6.0 who met all inclusion and exlusion criteria were included. FFB blocks were used. The main outcome variable investigated was bone volume dynamics. Vertical, horizontal and three-dimensional bone gain data was measured from computerized tomography scans...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Oral Implantology
Andreas Spiegler, Enrique C A Hansen, Christophe Bernard, Anthony R McIntosh, Viktor K Jirsa
When the brain is stimulated, for example, by sensory inputs or goal-oriented tasks, the brain initially responds with activities in specific areas. The subsequent pattern formation of functional networks is constrained by the structural connectivity (SC) of the brain. The extent to which information is processed over short- or long-range SC is unclear. Whole-brain models based on long-range axonal connections, for example, can partly describe measured functional connectivity dynamics at rest. Here, we study the effect of SC on the network response to stimulation...
September 2016: ENeuro
Zewei Wang, Qing Yang, Li Min Chen
The goals of this study are to characterize the temporal dynamics of inter-regional connectivity of the brain in chronic headache (CH) patients versus their age/gender matched controls (CONCH, n=28 pairs), and to determine whether dynamic measures reveal additional features to static functional connectivity and correlate with psychometric scores. Cortical thickness and inter-regional resting state fMRI connectivity were quantified and compared between CH and CONCH groups. Six cortical regions of interest (ROI) pairs that exhibited correlated cortical thickness and static functional connectivity abnormalities were selected for temporal dynamic analysis...
October 14, 2016: Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Lei Cao, Wei Fu, Yanming Zhang, Su Huo, JuBao Du, Lin Zhu, Weiqun Song
Functional connectivity changes in the attention network are viewed as a physiological signature of visual spatial neglect (VSN). The left dorsal lateral prefrontal cortex (LDLPFC) is known to initiate and monitor top-down attentional control and dynamically adjust behavioral performance. This study aimed to investigate whether increasing the activity of the LDLPFC through intermittent θ burst stimulation (iTBS) could modulate the resting-state functional connectivity in the attention network and facilitate recovery from VSN...
September 29, 2016: Neuroreport
Miguel A Gonzalez-Lozano, Patricia Klemmer, Titia Gebuis, Chopie Hassan, Pim van Nierop, Ronald E van Kesteren, August B Smit, Ka Wan Li
Development of the brain involves the formation and maturation of numerous synapses. This process requires prominent changes of the synaptic proteome and potentially involves thousands of different proteins at every synapse. To date the proteome analysis of synapse development has been studied sparsely. Here, we analyzed the cortical synaptic membrane proteome of juvenile postnatal days 9 (P9), P15, P21, P27, adolescent (P35) and different adult ages P70, P140 and P280 of C57Bl6/J mice. Using a quantitative proteomics workflow we quantified 1560 proteins of which 696 showed statistically significant differences over time...
October 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
Iryna Yavorska, Michael Wehr
Cortical inhibitory neurons exhibit remarkable diversity in their morphology, connectivity, and synaptic properties. Here, we review the function of somatostatin-expressing (SOM) inhibitory interneurons, focusing largely on sensory cortex. SOM neurons also comprise a number of subpopulations that can be distinguished by their morphology, input and output connectivity, laminar location, firing properties, and expression of molecular markers. Several of these classes of SOM neurons show unique dynamics and characteristics, such as facilitating synapses, specific axonal projections, intralaminar input, and top-down modulation, which suggest possible computational roles...
2016: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
Jae W Chung, Edward Ofori, Gaurav Misra, Christopher W Hess, David E Vaillancourt
: Accurate motor performance may depend on the scaling of distinct oscillatory activity within the motor cortex and effective neural communication between the motor cortex and other brain areas. Oscillatory activity within the beta-band (13-30Hz) has been suggested to provide distinct functional roles for attention and sensorimotor control, yet it remains unclear how beta-band and other oscillatory activity within and between cortical regions is coordinated to enhance motor performance...
October 13, 2016: NeuroImage
Leyla Kocgozlu, Thuan Beng Saw, Anh Phuong Le, Ivan Yow, Murat Shagirov, Eunice Wong, René-Marc Mège, Chwee Teck Lim, Yusuke Toyama, Benoit Ladoux
The control of tissue growth, which is a key to maintain the protective barrier function of the epithelium, depends on the balance between cell division and cell extrusion rates [1, 2]. Cells within confluent epithelial layers undergo cell extrusion, which relies on cell-cell interactions [3] and actomyosin contractility [4, 5]. Although it has been reported that cell extrusion is also dependent on cell density [6, 7], the contribution of tissue mechanics, which is tightly regulated by cell density [8-12], to cell extrusion is still poorly understood...
October 5, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Chensong Li, Jun Zhao
In this work, we investigate the output synchronization problem for discrete-time dynamical networks with identical nodes. Firstly, if each node of a network is geometrically incrementally dissipative, the entire network can be viewed as a geometrically dissipative nonlinear system by choosing a particular input-output pair. Then, based on the geometrical dissipativity property, we consider two cases: output synchronization under arbitrary topology and switching topology, respectively. For the first case, we establish several criteria of output synchronization under arbitrary switching between a set of connection topologies by employing a common Lyapunov function...
October 12, 2016: ISA Transactions
Cindo O Nicholson, Matthew B Friedersdorf, Jack D Keene
RNA-binding proteins (RBPs) and non-coding RNAs orchestrate post-transcriptional processes through the recognition of specific sites on targeted transcripts. Thus, understanding the connection between binding to specific sites and active regulation of the whole transcript is essential. Many immunoprecipitation techniques have been developed that identify either whole transcripts or binding sites of RBPs on each transcript using cell lysates. However, none of these methods simultaneously measures the strength of each binding site, and quantifies binding to whole transcripts...
October 14, 2016: RNA
Uros Kuzmanov, Hongbo Guo, Diana Buchsbaum, Jake Cosme, Cynthia Abbasi, Ruth Isserlin, Parveen Sharma, Anthony O Gramolini, Andrew Emili
Phospholamban (PLN) plays a central role in Ca(2+) homeostasis in cardiac myocytes through regulation of the sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca(2+)-ATPase 2A (SERCA2A) Ca(2+) pump. An inherited mutation converting arginine residue 9 in PLN to cysteine (R9C) results in dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) in humans and transgenic mice, but the downstream signaling defects leading to decompensation and heart failure are poorly understood. Here we used precision mass spectrometry to study the global phosphorylation dynamics of 1,887 cardiac phosphoproteins in early affected heart tissue in a transgenic R9C mouse model of DCM compared with wild-type littermates...
October 14, 2016: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
Maarten Schrama, Fons van der Plas, Matty P Berg, Han Olff
1.Terrestrial ecosystems are characterised by a strong functional connection between the green (plant-herbivore-based) and brown (detritus-detritivore-based) parts of the food web, which both develop over successional time. However, the interlinked changes in green and brown food web diversity patterns in relation to key ecosystem processes are rarely studied. 2.Here, we demonstrate changes in species richness, diversity and evenness over a wide range of invertebrate green and brown trophic groups during 100 years of primary succession in a salt marsh ecosystem, using a well-calibrated chronosequence...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Animal Ecology
Samantha I Cunningham, Dardo Tomasi, Nora D Volkow
Neuroimaging studies have identified functional interactions between the thalamus, precuneus, and default mode network (DMN) in studies of consciousness. However, less is known about the structural connectivity of the precuneus and thalamus to regions within the DMN. We used diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) to parcellate the precuneus and thalamus based on their probabilistic white matter connectivity to each other and DMN regions of interest (ROIs) in 37 healthy subjects from the Human Connectome Database. We further assessed resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) among the precuneus, thalamus, and DMN ROIs...
October 14, 2016: Human Brain Mapping
L L Xiao, Y Liu, S Chen, B M Fu
Adhesion of circulating tumor cells (CTCs) to the microvessel wall largely depends on the blood hydrodynamic conditions, one of which is the blood viscosity. Since blood is a non-Newtonian fluid, whose viscosity increases with hematocrit, in the microvessels at low shear rate. In this study, the effects of hematocrit, vessel size, flow rate and red blood cell (RBC) aggregation on adhesion of a CTC in the microvessels were numerically investigated using dissipative particle dynamics. The membrane of cells was represented by a spring-based network connected by elastic springs to characterize its deformation...
October 13, 2016: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
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