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Dynamic functional connectivity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29035206/parametric-dependencies-of-sliding-window-correlation
#1
Sadia Shakil, Jacob C Billings, Shella D Keilholz, Chin-Hui Lee
OBJECTIVE: In this paper we explore the dependence of sliding window correlation (SWC) results on different parameters of correlating signals. The SWC is extensively used to explore the dynamics of functional connectivity (FC) networks using resting-state functional MRI (rsfMRI) scans. These scanned signals are often non-stationary and comprised of signals with multiple amplitudes, frequencies, and phases. However, the exact values of these parameters are unknown. Two recent studies explored the relationship of window length and frequencies (minimum/maximum) in the correlating signals...
October 13, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032620/evaluation-of-programs-to-improve-complementary-feeding-in-infants-and-young-children
#2
Edward A Frongillo
Evaluation of complementary feeding programs is needed to enhance knowledge on what works, to document responsible use of resources, and for advocacy. Evaluation is done during program conceptualization and design, implementation, and determination of effectiveness. This paper explains the role of evaluation in the advancement of complementary feeding programs, presenting concepts and methods and illustrating them through examples. Planning and investments for evaluations should occur from the beginning of the project life cycle...
October 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032220/electodiagnostic-and-advanced-neuro-imaging-characterization-for-successful-treatment-of-a-spinal-extradural-arachnoid-cyst
#3
Tomoko Tanaka, Raja S Boddepalli, Douglas C Miller, Zongxian Cao, Vivek Sindhwani, Joan R Coates, Raghav Govindarajan, N Scott Litofsky
BACKGROUND: Spinal extradural arachnoid cysts (SEAC) are relatively uncommon. However, several large cysts have presented with spinal cord compression requiring surgical intervention. CASE DESCRIPTION: We report a patient with progressively enlarging SEAC causing worsening right S1 radiculopathy and gastrocnemius muscle atrophy. Electromyography (EMG) and nerve conduction studies (NCS) revealed an S1 motor radiculopathy. Serial magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) findings confirmed enlargement of the small cyst originating from the sacral thecal sac on the right while two smaller cyst on the left remained stable...
October 11, 2017: World Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031531/a-functional-connectivity-based-neuromarker-of-sustained-attention-generalizes-to-predict-recall-in-a-reading-task
#4
David C Jangraw, Javier Gonzalez-Castillo, Daniel A Handwerker, Merage Ghane, Monica D Rosenberg, Puja Panwar, Peter A Bandettini
Sustaining attention to the task at hand is a crucial part of everyday life, from following a lecture at school to maintaining focus while driving. Lapses in sustained attention are frequent and often problematic, with conditions such as attention deficit hyperactivity disorder affecting millions of people worldwide. Recent work has had some success in finding signatures of sustained attention in whole-brain functional connectivity (FC) measures during basic tasks, but since FC can be dynamic and task-dependent, it remains unclear how fully these signatures would generalize to a more complex and naturalistic scenario...
October 11, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030069/sex-differences-and-menstrual-cycle-effects-in-cognitive-and-sensory-resting-state-networks
#5
Susanne Weis, Sophie Hodgetts, Markus Hausmann
It has not yet been established if resting state (RS) connectivity reflects stable characteristics of the brain, or if it is modulated by the psychological and/or physiological state of the participant. Based on research demonstrating sex hormonal effects in task-related brain activity, the present study aimed to investigate corresponding differences in RS networks. RS functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (RS fMRI) was conducted in women during three different menstrual cycle phases, while men underwent three repeated RS fMRI testing sessions...
October 10, 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025390/partitioning-of-functional-gene-expression-data-using-principal-points
#6
Jaehee Kim, Haseong Kim
BACKGROUND: DNA microarrays offer motivation and hope for the simultaneous study of variations in multiple genes. Gene expression is a temporal process that allows variations in expression levels with a characterized gene function over a period of time. Temporal gene expression curves can be treated as functional data since they are considered as independent realizations of a stochastic process. This process requires appropriate models to identify patterns of gene functions. The partitioning of the functional data can find homogeneous subgroups of entities for the massive genes within the inherent biological networks...
October 12, 2017: BMC Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024792/effective-connectivity-inferred-from-fmri-transition-dynamics-during-movie-viewing-points-to-a-balanced-reconfiguration-of-cortical-interactions
#7
REVIEW
Matthieu Gilson, Gustavo Deco, Karl Friston, Patric Hagmann, Dante Mantini, Viviana Betti, Gian Luca Romani, Maurizio Corbetta
Our behavior entails a flexible and context-sensitive interplay between brain areas to integrate information according to goal-directed requirements. However, the neural mechanisms governing the entrainment of functionally specialized brain areas remain poorly understood. In particular, the question arises whether observed changes in the regional activity for different cognitive conditions are explained by modifications of the inputs to the brain or its connectivity? We observe that transitions of fMRI activity between areas convey information about the tasks performed by 19 subjects, watching a movie versus a black screen (rest)...
October 9, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024679/short-range-connections-in-the-developmental-connectome-during-typical-and-atypical-brain-maturation
#8
REVIEW
Minhui Ouyang, Huiying Kang, John A Detre, Timothy P L Roberts, Hao Huang
The human brain is remarkably complex with connectivity constituting its basic organizing principle. Although long-range connectivity has been focused on in most research, short-range connectivity is characterized by unique and spatiotemporally heterogeneous dynamics from infancy to adulthood. Alterations in the maturational dynamics of short-range connectivity has been associated with neuropsychiatric disorders, such as autism and schizophrenia. Recent advances in neuroimaging techniques, especially diffusion magnetic resonance imaging (dMRI), resting-state functional MRI (rs-fMRI), electroencephalography (EEG) and magnetoencephalography (MEG), have made quantification of short-range connectivity possible in pediatric populations...
October 9, 2017: Neuroscience and Biobehavioral Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024669/pyramidal-cell-interneuron-circuit-architecture-and-dynamics-in-hippocampal-networks
#9
Daniel Fine English, Sam McKenzie, Talfan Evans, Kanghwan Kim, Euisik Yoon, György Buzsáki
Excitatory control of inhibitory neurons is poorly understood due to the difficulty of studying synaptic connectivity in vivo. We inferred such connectivity through analysis of spike timing and validated this inference using juxtacellular and optogenetic control of presynaptic spikes in behaving mice. We observed that neighboring CA1 neurons had stronger connections and that superficial pyramidal cells projected more to deep interneurons. Connection probability and strength were skewed, with a minority of highly connected hubs...
October 11, 2017: Neuron
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024277/how-intraspecific-variation-in-seed-dispersing-animals-matters-for-plants
#10
Rafał Zwolak
Seed dispersal by animals is a complex phenomenon, characterized by multiple mechanisms and variable outcomes. Most researchers approach this complexity by analysing context-dependency in seed dispersal and investigating extrinsic factors that might influence interactions between plants and seed dispersers. Intrinsic traits of seed dispersers provide an alternative way of making sense of the enormous variation in seed fates. I review causes of intraspecific variability in frugivorous and granivorous animals, discuss their effects on seed dispersal, and outline likely consequences for plant populations and communities...
October 10, 2017: Biological Reviews of the Cambridge Philosophical Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024197/multifaceted-brain-networks-reconfiguration-in-disorders-of-consciousness-uncovered-by-co-activation-patterns
#11
Carol Di Perri, Enrico Amico, Lizette Heine, Jitka Annen, Charlotte Martial, Stephen K Larroque, Andrea Soddu, Daniele Marinazzo, Steven Laureys
INTRODUCTION: Given that recent research has shown that functional connectivity is not a static phenomenon, we aim to investigate the dynamic properties of the default mode network's (DMN) connectivity in patients with disorders of consciousness. METHODS: Resting-state fMRI volumes of a convenience sample of 17 patients in unresponsive wakefulness syndrome (UWS) and controls were reduced to a spatiotemporal point process by selecting critical time points in the posterior cingulate cortex (PCC)...
October 11, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023096/graphene-liquid-enclosure-for-single-molecule-analysis-of-membrane-proteins-in-whole-cells-using-electron-microscopy
#12
Indra N Dahmke, Andreas Verch, Justus Hermannsdörfer, Diana B Peckys, Robert S Weatherup, Stephan Hofmann, Niels de Jonge
Membrane proteins govern many important functions in cells via dynamic oligomerization into active complexes. However, analytical methods to study their distribution and functional state in relation to the cellular structure are currently limited. Here, we introduce a technique for studying single-membrane proteins within their native context of the intact plasma membrane. SKBR3 breast cancer cells were grown on silicon microchips with thin silicon nitride windows. The cells were fixed, and the epidermal growth factor receptor ErbB2 was specifically labeled with quantum dot (QD) nanoparticles...
October 16, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021744/posterior-thalamic-nucleus-modulation-of-tactile-stimuli-processing-in-rat-motor-and-primary-somatosensory-cortices
#13
Diana Casas-Torremocha, Francisco Clascá, Ángel Núñez
Rodents move rhythmically their facial whiskers and compute differences between signals predicted and those resulting from the movement to infer information about objects near their head. These computations are carried out by a large network of forebrain structures that includes the thalamus and the primary somatosensory (S1BF) and motor (M1wk) cortices. Spatially and temporally precise mechanorreceptive whisker information reaches the S1BF cortex via the ventroposterior medial thalamic nucleus (VPM). Other whisker-related information may reach both M1wk and S1BF via the axons from the posterior thalamic nucleus (Po)...
2017: Frontiers in Neural Circuits
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29021389/norepinephrine-enhances-song-responsiveness-and-encoding-in-the-auditory-forebrain-of-male-zebra-finches
#14
Vanessa Lee, Benjamin A Pawlisch, Matheus Macedo-Lima, Luke Remage-Healey
Norepinephrine (NE) can dynamically modulate excitability and functional connectivity of neural circuits in response to changes in external and internal states. Regulation by NE has been demonstrated extensively in mammalian sensory cortices, but whether NE-dependent modulation in sensory cortex alters response properties in downstream sensorimotor regions is less clear. Here, we examine this question in male zebra finches, a songbird species with complex vocalizations and a well-defined neural network for auditory processing of those vocalizations...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29019403/tertiary-interactions-in-the-unbound-guanine-sensing-riboswitch-focus-functional-conformational-variability-on-the-binding-site
#15
Christian Hanke, Holger Gohlke
Riboswitches are genetic regulatory elements mainly found in bacteria, which regulate gene expression based on the availability of a ligand. Purine-sensing riboswitches, including the guanine-sensing riboswitch (Gsw), possess tertiary interactions connecting the L2 and L3 loops. These interactions are important for ligand binding to the aptamer. However, atomic-level structural knowledge about the unbound state and how the tertiary interactions influence the conformational heterogeneity of the aptamer is still scarce...
October 11, 2017: Journal of Chemical Information and Modeling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29018207/stress-induced-plasticity-of-dynamic-collagen-networks
#16
Jihan Kim, Jingchen Feng, Christopher A R Jones, Xiaoming Mao, Leonard M Sander, Herbert Levine, Bo Sun
The structure and mechanics of tissues is constantly perturbed by endogenous forces originated from cells, and at the same time regulate many important cellular functions such as migration, differentiation, and growth. Here we show that 3D collagen gels, major components of connective tissues and extracellular matrix (ECM), are significantly and irreversibly remodeled by cellular traction forces, as well as by macroscopic strains. To understand this ECM plasticity, we develop a computational model that takes into account the sliding and merging of ECM fibers...
October 10, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29016686/learning-about-learning-mining-human-brain-sub-network-biomarkers-from-fmri-data
#17
Petko Bogdanov, Nazli Dereli, Xuan-Hong Dang, Danielle S Bassett, Nicholas F Wymbs, Scott T Grafton, Ambuj K Singh
Modeling the brain as a functional network can reveal the relationship between distributed neurophysiological processes and functional interactions between brain structures. Existing literature on functional brain networks focuses mainly on a battery of network properties in "resting state" employing, for example, modularity, clustering, or path length among regions. In contrast, we seek to uncover functionally connected subnetworks that predict or correlate with cohort differences and are conserved within the subjects within a cohort...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993741/executive-control-and-striatal-resting-state-network-interact-with-risk-factors-to-influence-treatment-outcomes-in-alcohol-use-disorder
#18
Milky Kohno, Laura E Dennis, Holly McCready, William F Hoffman
Alterations within mesocorticolimbic terminal regions commonly occur with alcohol use disorder (AUD). As pathological drug-seeking behavior may arise as a consequence of alcohol-induced neuroadaptations, it is critical to understand how such changes increase the likelihood of relapse. This report examined resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) using both a seed-based and model-free approach in individuals in treatment for AUD and how dysregulation of network connectivity contributes to treatment outcomes...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993252/h-d-exchange-mass-spectrometry-and-statistical-coupling-analysis-reveal-a-role-for-allostery-in-a-ferredoxin-dependent-bifurcating-transhydrogenase-catalytic-cycle
#19
Luke Berry, Saroj Poudel, Monika Tokmina-Lukaszewska, Daniel R Colman, Diep M N Nguyen, Gerrit J Schut, Michael W W Adams, John W Peters, Eric S Boyd, Brian Bothner
Recent investigations into ferredoxin-dependent transhydrogenases, a class of enzymes responsible for electron transport, have highlighted the biological importance of flavin-based electron bifurcation (FBEB). FBEB generates biomolecules with very low reduction potential by coupling the oxidation of an electron donor with intermediate potential to the reduction of high and low potential molecules. Bifurcating systems can generate biomolecules with very low reduction potentials, such as reduced ferredoxin (Fd), from species such as NADPH...
October 6, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28991495/molecular-dynamics-simulation-study-of-polymer-nanocomposites-with-controllable-dispersion-of-spherical-nanoparticles
#20
Zijian Zheng, Guanyi Hou, Xiuyang Xia, Jun Liu, Mesfin Tsige, Youping Wu, Liqun Zhang
Through coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulation, we construct a novel kind of end-linked polymer network by employing dual end-functionalized polymer chains that chemically attach to the surface of nanoparticles (NPs), so that the NPs act as large cross-linkers. We examine the effects of the length and flexibility of polymer chains on the dispersion of NPs, and the effect of the chain length on the stress-strain behavior and the segment orientation during the deformation process. We find that the stress upturn becomes more prominent with the decrease of the chain length, attributed to the limited extensibility of the chain strand connecting two neighboring NPs...
October 9, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
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