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Dynamic functional connectivity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29244497/semiclassical-path-integral-calculation-of-nonlinear-optical-spectroscopy
#1
Justin Provazza, Francesco Segatta, Marco Garavelli, David F Coker
Computation of nonlinear optical response functions allows for an in-depth connection between theory and experiment. Experimentally recorded spectra provide a high density of information, but to objectively disentangle overlapping signals and to reach a detailed and reliable understanding of the system dynamics, measurements must be integrated with theoretical approaches. Here, we present a new, highly accurate and efficient trajectory based semiclassical path integral method for computing higher-order nonlinear optical response functions for non-Markovian open quantum systems...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Chemical Theory and Computation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29243934/water-like-behavior-of-formamide-jump-reorientation-probed-by-extended-depolarized-light-scattering
#2
Stefania Perticaroli, Lucia Comez, Paola Sassi, Assunta Morresi, Daniele Fioretto, Marco Paolantoni
Water is a strong self-associated liquid with peculiar properties that crucially depend on H-bonding. As regards its molecular dynamics, only recently water reorientation has been successfully described based on a jump mechanism, which is responsible for the overall H-bonding exchange. Here, using high-resolution broad-band depolarized light scattering, we have investigated the reorientational dynamics of formamide (FA) as a function of concentration from the neat liquid to diluted aqueous solutions. Our main findings indicate that in the diluted regime the water rearrangement can trigger the motion of FA solute molecules, which are forced to reorient at the same rate as water...
December 15, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29242670/reach-scale-river-metabolism-across-contrasting-sub-catchment-geologies-effect-of-light-and-hydrology
#3
Lorenzo Rovelli, Karl M Attard, Andrew Binley, Catherine M Heppell, Henrik Stahl, Mark Trimmer, Ronnie N Glud
We investigated the seasonal dynamics of in-stream metabolism at the reach scale (∼ 150 m) of headwaters across contrasting geological sub-catchments: clay, Greensand, and Chalk of the upper River Avon (UK). Benthic metabolic activity was quantified by aquatic eddy co-variance while water column activity was assessed by bottle incubations. Seasonal dynamics across reaches were specific for the three types of geologies. During the spring, all reaches were net autotrophic, with rates of up to 290 mmol C m-2 d-1 in the clay reach...
November 2017: Limnology and Oceanography
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241569/structure-function-relationships-in-photosynthetic-membranes-challenges-and-emerging-fields
#4
REVIEW
Helmut Kirchhoff
Oxygenic photosynthesis is a fundamental biological process that shaped the earth's biosphere. The process of energy transformation is hosted in highly specialized thylakoid membranes that adjust their architecture in response to environmental cues at different structural levels leading to the adjustment of photosynthetic functions. This review presents structure-function dynamics ranging from the whole membrane system over the mesoscopic level (protein ensembles) down to interactions between lipids and protein complexes...
January 2018: Plant Science: An International Journal of Experimental Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241397/static-characteristics-of-a-new-three-dimensional-linear-homeomorphic-saccade-model
#5
Wei Zhou, Xiu Zhai, Alireza Ghahari, G Alex Korentis, David Kaputa, John D Enderle
A linear homeomorphic saccade model that produces 3D saccadic eye movements consistent with physiological and anatomical evidence is introduced. Central to the model is the implementation of a time-optimal controller with six linear muscles and pulleys that represent the saccade oculomotor plant. Each muscle is modeled as a parallel combination of viscosity [Formula: see text] and series elasticity [Formula: see text] connected to the parallel combination of active-state tension generator [Formula: see text], viscosity element [Formula: see text], and length tension elastic element [Formula: see text]...
October 20, 2017: International Journal of Neural Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240861/a-systematic-review-of-lower-lip-anatomy-mechanics-of-local-flaps-and-special-considerations-for-lower-lip-reconstruction
#6
Stefanos Boukovalas, Alexis L Boson, Joshua P Hays, C Helen Malone, Eric L Cole, Richard F Wagner
<p>Reconstruction of defects of the lower lip can be very challenging. The aim of this review is to analyze the unique characteristics of lower lip anatomy and provide a systematic approach for lower lip reconstruction. A review of current literature was performed using the PubMed database. Articles analyzing the anatomic and histologic characteristics of the lower lip, mechanics of local faps, and different lower lip recon-struction techniques were included. Articles focused on lower lip reconstruction with free faps were excluded...
December 1, 2017: Journal of Drugs in Dermatology: JDD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240694/centralized-networks-to-generate-human-body-motions
#7
Sergei Vakulenko, Ovidiu Radulescu, Ivan Morozov, Andres Weber
We consider continuous-time recurrent neural networks as dynamical models for the simulation of human body motions. These networks consist of a few centers and many satellites connected to them. The centers evolve in time as periodical oscillators with different frequencies. The center states define the satellite neurons' states by a radial basis function (RBF) network. To simulate different motions, we adjust the parameters of the RBF networks. Our network includes a switching module that allows for turning from one motion to another...
December 14, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29240457/urinary-peptidomics-in-kidney-disease-and-drug-research
#8
Magdalena Krochmal, Joost P Schanstra, Harald Mischak
Due to its close connection with the renal system, urine is considered a valuable source of information in kidney disease research. Peptidomics methods focus on the discovery of endogenous peptides, given their wide range of biological functions and diagnostic and therapeutic potential. Representing a non-invasive and sensitive method, technological prospects of urinary peptidomics should be evaluated in the context of drug discovery and research. Areas covered: This review describes urinary peptidomics with focus on its application in drug research in the field of kidney diseases...
December 14, 2017: Expert Opinion on Drug Discovery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239977/increased-resting-state-brain-entropy-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#9
Shao-Wei Xue, Yonghu Guo
Entropy analysis of resting-state functional MRI (R-fMRI) is a novel approach to characterize brain temporal dynamics and facilitates the identification of abnormal brain activity caused by several disease conditions. However, Alzheimer's disease (AD)-related brain entropy mapping based on R-fMRI has not been assessed. Here, we measured the sample entropy and voxel-wise connectivity of the network degree centrality (DC) of the intrinsic brain activity acquired by R-fMRI in 26 patients with AD and 26 healthy controls...
December 12, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29239622/coactivation-of-cognitive-control-networks-during-task-switching
#10
Shouhang Yin, Gedeon Deák, Antao Chen
OBJECTIVE: The ability to flexibly switch between tasks is considered an important component of cognitive control that involves frontal and parietal cortical areas. The present study was designed to characterize network dynamics across multiple brain regions during task switching. METHOD: Functional magnetic resonance images (fMRI) were captured during a standard rule-switching task to identify switching-related brain regions. Multiregional psychophysiological interaction (PPI) analysis was used to examine effective connectivity between these regions...
December 14, 2017: Neuropsychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29238085/communication-dynamics-in-complex-brain-networks
#11
REVIEW
Andrea Avena-Koenigsberger, Bratislav Misic, Olaf Sporns
Neuronal signalling and communication underpin virtually all aspects of brain activity and function. Network science approaches to modelling and analysing the dynamics of communication on networks have proved useful for simulating functional brain connectivity and predicting emergent network states. This Review surveys important aspects of communication dynamics in brain networks. We begin by sketching a conceptual framework that views communication dynamics as a necessary link between the empirical domains of structural and functional connectivity...
December 14, 2017: Nature Reviews. Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235352/systems-approaches-to-understanding-and-designing-allosteric-proteins
#12
Srivatsan Raman
The study of allostery has a central place in biology due to the myriad roles of allosteric proteins in cellular function. As technologies to probe spatiotemporal resolution of biomolecules have become increasingly sophisticated, so has our understanding of the diverse structural and molecular mechanisms of allosteric proteins. Studies have shown that allosteric signal is transmitted a through a network of residue-residue interactions connecting distal sites on a protein. Linking structural and dynamical changes to the functional role of individual residues will give a more complete molecular view of allostery...
December 13, 2017: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29234484/determining-the-surface-structure-of-silicated-alumina-catalysts-via-isotopic-enrichment-and-dynamic-nuclear-polarization-surface-enhanced-nmr-spectroscopy
#13
Andrew G M Rankin, Paul B Webb, Daniel M Dawson, Jasmine Viger-Gravel, Brennan J Walder, Lyndon Emsley, Sharon E Ashbrook
Isotopic enrichment of 29Si and DNP-enhanced NMR spectroscopy are combined to determine the detailed surface structure of a silicated alumina catalyst. The significant sensitivity enhancement provided by DNP is vital to the acquisition of multinuclear and multidimensional experiments that provide information on the atomic-level structure of the species present at the surface. Isotopic enrichment not only facilitates spectral acquisition, particularly given the low (1.5 wt %) Si loading, but also enables spectra with higher resolution than those acquired using DNP to be obtained...
October 19, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. C, Nanomaterials and Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29233863/cobl-like-promotes-actin-filament-formation-and-dendritic-branching-using-only-a-single-wh2-domain
#14
Maryam Izadi, Dirk Schlobinski, Maria Lahr, Lukas Schwintzer, Britta Qualmann, Michael M Kessels
Local actin filament formation powers the development of the signal-receiving arbor of neurons that underlies neuronal network formation. Yet, little is known about the molecules that drive these processes and may functionally connect them to the transient calcium pulses observed in restricted areas in the forming dendritic arbor. Here we demonstrate that Cordon-Bleu (Cobl)-like, an uncharacterized protein suggested to represent a very distantly related, evolutionary ancestor of the actin nucleator Cobl, despite having only a single G-actin-binding Wiskott-Aldrich syndrome protein Homology 2 (WH2) domain, massively promoted the formation of F-actin-rich membrane ruffles of COS-7 cells and of dendritic branches of neurons...
December 12, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29232016/characterization-of-h3-3-and-hira-expression-and-function-in-bovine-early-embryos
#15
Kun Zhang, Han Wang, Sandeep K Rajput, Joseph K Folger, George W Smith
Histone variant H3.3 is encoded by two distinct genes, H3F3A and H3F3B, that are closely associated with actively transcribed genes. H3.3 replacement is continuous and essential for maintaining correct chromatin structure during mouse oogenesis. Upon fertilization, H3.3 is incorporated to parental chromatin, and is required for blastocyst formation in mice. The H3.3 exchange process is facilitated by the chaperone HIRA, particularly during zygote development. We previously demonstrated that H3.3 is required for bovine early embryonic development; here, we explored the mechanisms of its functional requirement...
December 12, 2017: Molecular Reproduction and Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231868/a-data-driven-response-virtual-sensor-technique-with-partial-vibration-measurements-using-convolutional-neural-network
#16
Shan-Bin Sun, Yuan-Yuan He, Si-Da Zhou, Zhen-Jiang Yue
Measurement of dynamic responses plays an important role in structural health monitoring, damage detection and other fields of research. However, in aerospace engineering, the physical sensors are limited in the operational conditions of spacecraft, due to the severe environment in outer space. This paper proposes a virtual sensor model with partial vibration measurements using a convolutional neural network. The transmissibility function is employed as prior knowledge. A four-layer neural network with two convolutional layers, one fully connected layer, and an output layer is proposed as the predicting model...
December 12, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29230182/a-network-model-to-explore-the-effect-of-the-micro-environment-on-endothelial-cell-behavior-during-angiogenesis
#17
Nathan Weinstein, Luis Mendoza, Isidoro Gitler, Jaime Klapp
Angiogenesis is an important adaptation mechanism of the blood vessels to the changing requirements of the body during development, aging, and wound healing. Angiogenesis allows existing blood vessels to form new connections or to reabsorb existing ones. Blood vessels are composed of a layer of endothelial cells (ECs) covered by one or more layers of mural cells (smooth muscle cells or pericytes). We constructed a computational Boolean model of the molecular regulatory network involved in the control of angiogenesis...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29223740/statistical-models-for-brain-signals-with-properties-that-evolve-across-trials
#18
REVIEW
Hernando Ombao, Mark Fiecas, Chee-Ming Ting, Yin Fen Low
Most neuroscience cognitive experiments involve repeated presentations of various stimuli across several minutes or a few hours. It has been observed that brain responses, even to the same stimulus, evolve over the course of the experiment. These changes in brain activation and connectivity are believed to be associated with learning and/or habituation. In this paper, we present two general approaches to modeling dynamic brain connectivity using electroencephalograms (EEGs) recorded across replicated trials in an experiment...
December 6, 2017: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222818/task-related-effective-connectivity-reveals-that-the-cortical-rich-club-gates-cortex-wide-communication
#19
Mario Senden, Niels Reuter, Martijn P van den Heuvel, Rainer Goebel, Gustavo Deco, Matthieu Gilson
Higher cognition may require the globally coordinated integration of specialized brain regions into functional networks. A collection of structural cortical hubs-referred to as the rich club-has been hypothesized to support task-specific functional integration. In the present paper, we use a whole-cortex model to estimate directed interactions between 68 cortical regions from functional magnetic resonance imaging activity for four different tasks (reflecting different cognitive domains) and resting state. We analyze the state-dependent input and output effective connectivity (EC) of the structural rich club and relate these to whole-cortex dynamics and network reconfigurations...
December 8, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29222674/effect-of-rehabilitation-exercise-durations-on-the-dynamic-bone-repair-process-by-coupling-polymer-scaffold-degradation-and-bone-formation
#20
Quan Shi, Qiang Chen, Nicola Pugno, Zhi-Yong Li
Implantation of biodegradable scaffold is considered as a promising method to treat bone disorders, but knowledge of the dynamic bone repair process is extremely limited. In this study, based on the representative volume cell of a periodic scaffold, the influence of rehabilitation exercise duration per day on the bone repair was investigated by a computational framework. The framework coupled scaffold degradation and bone remodeling. The scaffold degradation was described by a function of stochastic hydrolysis independent of mechanical stimulation, and the bone formation was remodeled by a function of the mechanical stimulation, i...
December 8, 2017: Biomechanics and Modeling in Mechanobiology
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