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Dynamic functional connectivity

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29454272/dealing-with-the-nucleus-during-cell-migration
#1
REVIEW
Francisco J Calero-Cuenca, Cátia S Janota, Edgar R Gomes
The position of the nucleus within cells is a key event during cell migration. The movement and positioning of the nucleus strongly impacts cell migration. Notably, the last two years largely contributed to emphasise the dynamicity of the nucleus-cytoskeleton interactions that occur during cell migration. Nuclei are under continuous tension from opposing intracellular forces and its tether to the cytoskeleton can be regulated at different levels. Interestingly, it was showed how nuclear positioning is highly related to cell function...
February 14, 2018: Current Opinion in Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453522/structural-disconnection-is-responsible-for-increased-functional-connectivity-in-multiple-sclerosis
#2
Kevin R Patel, Sean Tobyne, Daria Porter, John Daniel Bireley, Victoria Smith, Eric Klawiter
Increased synchrony within neuroanatomical networks is often observed in neurophysiologic studies of human brain disease. Most often, this phenomenon is ascribed to a compensatory process in the face of injury, though evidence supporting such accounts is limited. Given the known dependence of resting-state functional connectivity (rsFC) on underlying structural connectivity (SC), we examine an alternative hypothesis: that topographical changes in SC, specifically particular patterns of disconnection, contribute to increased network rsFC...
February 16, 2018: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29453207/hippocampal-ripple-oscillations-and-inhibition-first-network-models-frequency-dynamics-and-response-to-gaba-modulators
#3
José R Donoso, Dietmar Schmitz, Nikolaus Maier, Richard Kempter
Hippocampal ripples are involved in memory consolidation, but the mechanisms underlying their generation remain unclear. Models relying on interneuron networks in the CA1 region disagree on the predominant source of excitation to interneurons: either 'direct', via the Schaffer collaterals that provide feedforward input from CA3 to CA1, or 'indirect', via the local pyramidal cells in CA1, which are embedded in a recurrent excitatory-inhibitory network. Here, we used physiologically constrained computational models of basket-cell networks to investigate how they respond to different conditions of transient, noisy excitation...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29452267/git2-a-keystone-in-ageing-and-age-related-disease
#4
REVIEW
Jaana van Gastel, Jan Boddaert, Areta Jushaj, Richard T Premont, Louis M Luttrell, Jonathan Janssens, Bronwen Martin, Stuart Maudsley
Since its discovery, G protein-coupled receptor kinase-interacting protein 2, GIT2, and its family member, GIT1, have received considerable interest concerning their potential key roles in regulating multiple inter-connected physiological and pathophysiological processes. GIT2 was first identified as a multifunctional protein that is recruited to G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) during the process of receptor internalization. Recent findings have demonstrated that perhaps one of the most important effects of GIT2 in physiology concerns its role in controlling multiple aspects of the complex ageing process...
February 13, 2018: Ageing Research Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451770/thermodynamic-and-kinetic-effects-in-the-crystallization-of-metal-organic-frameworks
#5
Anthony K Cheetham, G Kieslich, H H-M Yeung
The evolution of metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) has been one of the most exciting aspects of materials chemistry over the last 20 years. In this Account, we discuss the development during this period in our understanding of the factors that control the crystallization of MOFs from solution. Both classical porous MOFs and dense MOF phases are considered. This is an opportune time at which to examine this complex area because the experimental tools now available to interrogate crystallization processes have matured significantly in the last 5 years, particularly with the use of in situ synchrotron X-ray diffraction...
February 16, 2018: Accounts of Chemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451125/reduced-integration-and-improved-segregation-of-functional-brain-networks-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#6
A Kabbara, H Eid, W El Falou, M Khalil, F Wendling, M Hassan
OBJECTIVE: Emerging evidence shows that cognitive deficits in Alzheimer's disease (AD) are associated with disruptions in brain functional connectivity. Thus, the identification of alterations in AD functional networks has become a topic of increasing interest. However, to what extent AD induces disruption of the balance of local and global information processing in the human brain remains elusive. The main objective of this study is to explore the dynamic topological changes of AD networks in terms of brain network segregation and integration...
February 16, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29448074/a-probabilistic-approach-to-discovering-dynamic-full-brain-functional-connectivity-patterns
#7
REVIEW
Jeremy R Manning, Xia Zhu, Theodore L Willke, Rajesh Ranganath, Kimberly Stachenfeld, Uri Hasson, David M Blei, Kenneth A Norman
Recent research shows that the covariance structure of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data - commonly described as functional connectivity - can change as a function of the participant's cognitive state (for review see (Turk-Browne, 2013)). Here we present a Bayesian hierarchical matrix factorization model, termed hierarchical topographic factor analysis (HTFA), for efficiently discovering full-brain networks in large multi-subject neuroimaging datasets. HTFA approximates each subject's network by first re-representing each brain image in terms of the activities of a set of localized nodes, and then computing the covariance of the activity time series of these nodes...
February 12, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446165/synthetic-transient-crosslinks-program-the-mechanics-of-soft-biopolymer-based-materials
#8
Jessica S Lorenz, Jörg Schnauß, Martin Glaser, Martin Sajfutdinow, Carsten Schuldt, Josef A Käs, David M Smith
Actin networks are adaptive materials enabling dynamic and static functions of living cells. A central element for tuning their underlying structural and mechanical properties is the ability to reversibly connect, i.e., transiently crosslink, filaments within the networks. Natural crosslinkers, however, vary across many parameters. Therefore, systematically studying the impact of their fundamental properties like size and binding strength is unfeasible since their structural parameters cannot be independently tuned...
February 15, 2018: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29444403/plant-villin-headpiece-domain-demonstrates-a-novel-surface-charge-pattern-and-high-affinity-for-f-actin
#9
Heather L Miears, David R Gruber, Nicholas M Horvath, John M Antos, Jeff Young, Johann P Sigurjonsson, Maya L Klem, Erin A Rosenkranz, Mark Okon, Christopher James McKnight, Liliya Vugmeyster, Serge L Smirnov
Plants utilize multiple isoforms of villin, an F-actin regulating protein with an N-terminal gelsolin-like core and a distinct C-terminal headpiece domain. Unlike their vertebrate homologs, plant villins have a much longer linker polypeptide connecting the core and headpiece. Moreover, the linker-headpiece connection region in plant villins lack sequence homology to the vertebrate villin sequences. It is unknown to what extent the plant villin headpiece structure and function resemble those of the well-studied vertebrate counterparts...
February 14, 2018: Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29440262/a-meiotic-xpf-ercc1-like-complex-recognizes-joint-molecule-recombination-intermediates-to-promote-crossover-formation
#10
Arnaud De Muyt, Alexandra Pyatnitskaya, Jessica Andréani, Lepakshi Ranjha, Claire Ramus, Raphaëlle Laureau, Ambra Fernandez-Vega, Daniel Holoch, Elodie Girard, Jérome Govin, Raphaël Margueron, Yohann Couté, Petr Cejka, Raphaël Guérois, Valérie Borde
Meiotic crossover formation requires the stabilization of early recombination intermediates by a set of proteins and occurs within the environment of the chromosome axis, a structure important for the regulation of meiotic recombination events. The molecular mechanisms underlying and connecting crossover recombination and axis localization are elusive. Here, we identified the ZZS (Zip2-Zip4-Spo16) complex, required for crossover formation, which carries two distinct activities: one provided by Zip4, which acts as hub through physical interactions with components of the chromosome axis and the crossover machinery, and the other carried by Zip2 and Spo16, which preferentially bind branched DNA molecules in vitro...
February 9, 2018: Genes & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435856/modern-theories-of-pelvic-floor-support-a-topical-review-of-modern-studies-on-structural-and-functional-pelvic-floor-support-from-medical-imaging-computational-modeling-and-electromyographic-perspectives
#11
REVIEW
Yun Peng, Brandi D Miller, Timothy B Boone, Yingchun Zhang
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Weakened pelvic floor support is believed to be the main cause of various pelvic floor disorders. Modern theories of pelvic floor support stress on the structural and functional integrity of multiple structures and their interplay to maintain normal pelvic floor functions. Connective tissues provide passive pelvic floor support while pelvic floor muscles provide active support through voluntary contraction. Advanced modern medical technologies allow us to comprehensively and thoroughly evaluate the interaction of supporting structures and assess both active and passive support functions...
February 12, 2018: Current Urology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434570/perspectives-on-how-human-simultaneous-multi-modal-imaging-adds-directionality-to-spread-models-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#12
Julia Neitzel, Rachel Nuttall, Christian Sorg
Previous animal research suggests that the spread of pathological agents in Alzheimer's disease (AD) follows the direction of signaling pathways. Specifically, tau pathology has been suggested to propagate in an infection-like mode along axons, from transentorhinal cortices to medial temporal lobe cortices and consequently to other cortical regions, while amyloid-beta (Aβ) pathology seems to spread in an activity-dependent manner among and from isocortical regions into limbic and then subcortical regions. These directed connectivity-based spread models, however, have not been tested directly in AD patients due to the lack of an in vivo method to identify directed connectivity in humans...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430790/altered-frontal-amygdala-effective-connectivity-during-effortful-emotion-regulation-in-bipolar-disorder
#13
Liwen Zhang, Esther M Opmeer, Lisette van der Meer, André Aleman, Branislava Ćurčić-Blake, Henricus G Ruhé
OBJECTIVES: Sufficient prefrontal top-down control of limbic affective areas, especially the amygdala, is essential for successful effortful emotion regulation (ER). Difficulties in effortful ER have been seen in patients with bipolar disorder (BD), which could be suggestive of a disturbed prefrontal-amygdala regulation circuit. The aim of this study was to investigate whether BD patients show abnormal effective connectivity from the prefrontal areas to the amygdala during effortful ER (reappraisal)...
February 11, 2018: Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429419/altered-fear-processing-in-adolescents-with-a-history-of-severe-childhood-maltreatment-an-fmri-study
#14
H Hart, L Lim, M A Mehta, A Simmons, K A H Mirza, K Rubia
BACKGROUND: Children with a history of maltreatment suffer from altered emotion processing but the neural basis of this phenomenon is unknown. This pioneering functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study investigated the effects of severe childhood maltreatment on emotion processing while controlling for psychiatric conditions, medication and substance abuse. METHOD: Twenty medication-naive, substance abuse-free adolescents with a history of childhood abuse, 20 psychiatric control adolescents matched on psychiatric diagnoses but with no maltreatment and 27 healthy controls underwent a fMRI emotion discrimination task comprising fearful, angry, sad happy and neutral dynamic facial expressions...
February 12, 2018: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429386/r516q-mutation-in-melanoma-differentiation-associated-protein-5-mda5-and-its-pathogenic-role-towards-rare-singleton-merton-syndrome-a-signature-associated-molecular-dynamics-study
#15
P Raghuraman, C Sudandiradoss
Singleton Merton syndrome, a critical and rare multifactorial disorder that is closely linked to R516Q mutation in MDA5 protein associated with an enhanced interferon response in the affected individual. In the present study, we provide conclusive key evidence on R516Q mutation and their connectivity towards sequence-structural basis dysfunction of MDA5 protein. Among the various mutations, we found R516Q is the most pathogenic mutation based on mutational signature Q-A-[RE]-G-R-[GA]-R-A-[ED]-[DE]-S-[ST]-Y-[TSAV]-L-V designed from our work...
February 11, 2018: Journal of Biomolecular Structure & Dynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426917/conformational-states-during-vinculin-unlocking-differentially-regulate-focal-adhesion-properties
#16
Dror S Chorev, Tova Volberg, Ariel Livne, Miriam Eisenstein, Bruno Martins, Zvi Kam, Brigitte M Jockusch, Ohad Medalia, Michal Sharon, Benny Geiger
Focal adhesions (FAs) are multi-protein complexes that connect the actin cytoskeleton to the extracellular matrix, via integrin receptors. The growth, stability and adhesive functionality of these structures are tightly regulated by mechanical stress, yet, despite the extensive characterization of the integrin adhesome, the detailed molecular mechanisms underlying FA mechanosensitivity are still unclear. Besides talin, another key candidate for regulating FA-associated mechanosensing, is vinculin, a prominent FA component, which possesses either closed ("auto-inhibited") or open ("active") conformation...
February 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425897/the-dynamics-of-human-cognition-increasing-global-integration-coupled-with-decreasing-segregation-found-using-ieeg
#17
Josephine Cruzat, Gustavo Deco, Adrià Tauste Campo, Alessandro Principe, Albert Costa, Morten L Kringelbach, Rodrigo Rocamora
Cognitive processing requires the ability to flexibly integrate and process information across large brain networks. How do brain networks dynamically reorganize to allow broad communication between many different brain regions in order to integrate information? We record neural activity from 12 epileptic patients using intracranial EEG while performing three cognitive tasks. We assess how the functional connectivity between different brain areas changes to facilitate communication across them. At the topological level, this facilitation is characterized by measures of integration and segregation...
February 6, 2018: NeuroImage
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425716/biological-connective-tissues-exhibit-viscoelastic-and-poroelastic-behavior-at-different-frequency-regimes-application-to-tendon-and-skin-biophysics
#18
Ramin Oftadeh, Brianne K Connizzo, Hadi Tavakoli Nia, Christine Ortiz, Alan J Grodzinsky
In this study, a poroviscoelastic finite element model (FEM) was developed and used in conjunction with an AFM-based wide-bandwidth nanorheology system to predict the frequency-dependent mechanical behavior of tendon and dermis subjected to compression via nanoindentation. The aim was to distinguish between loading rates that are dominated by either poroelasticity, viscoelasticity, or the superposition of these processes. Using spherical probe tips having different radii, the force and tip displacement were measured and the magnitude, |E∗|, and phase angle, ϕ, of the dynamic complex modulus were evaluated for mouse supraspinatus tendon and mouse dermis...
February 6, 2018: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425270/system-specific-patterns-of-thalamocortical-connectivity-in-early-brain-development-as-revealed-by-structural-and-functional-mri
#19
Silvina L Ferradal, Borjan Gagoski, Camilo Jaimes, Francesca Yi, Clarisa Carruthers, Catherine Vu, Jonathan S Litt, Ryan Larsen, Brad Sutton, P Ellen Grant, Lilla Zöllei
The normal development of thalamocortical connections plays a critical role in shaping brain connectivity in the prenatal and postnatal periods. Recent studies using advanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) techniques in neonates and infants have shown that abnormal thalamocortical connectivity is associated with adverse neurodevelopmental outcomes. However, all these studies have focused on a single neuroimaging modality, overlooking the dynamic relationship between structure and function at this early stage...
February 7, 2018: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424361/patterning-of-functional-human-astrocytes-onto-parylene-c-sio2-substrates-for-the-study-of-ca2-dynamics-in-astrocytic-networks
#20
Brad Joseph Raos, Cather M Simpson, Colin S Doyle, Alan F Murray, Scott Graham, Charles P Unsworth
Recent literature suggests that astrocytes form organized functional networks and communicate through transient changes in cytosolic Ca2+. Traditional techniques to investigate network activity, such as pharmacological blocking or genetic knockout, are difficult to restrict to individual cells. The objective of this work is to develop cell-patterning techniques to physically manipulate astrocytic interactions to enable the study of Ca2+ in astrocytic networks. Approach. We investigate how an in vitro cell-patterning platform that utilizes geometric patterns of parylene-C on SiO2 can be used to physically isolate single astrocytes and small astrocytic networks...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Neural Engineering
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