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Cascading network failure

Yang Yang, Takashi Nishikawa, Adilson E Motter
In a network, a local disturbance can propagate and eventually cause a substantial part of the system to fail in cascade events that are easy to conceptualize but extraordinarily difficult to predict. Here, we develop a statistical framework that can predict cascade size distributions by incorporating two ingredients only: the vulnerability of individual components and the cosusceptibility of groups of components (i.e., their tendency to fail together). Using cascades in power grids as a representative example, we show that correlations between component failures define structured and often surprisingly large groups of cosusceptible components...
January 27, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Steven Lowinger, Gabriel A Cwilich, Sergey V Buldyrev
We study the mutual percolation of two interdependent lattice networks ranging from two to seven dimensions, denoted as D. We impose that the length (measured as chemical distance) of interdependency links connecting nodes in the two lattices be less than or equal to a certain value, r. For each value of D and r, we find the mutual percolation threshold, p_{c}[D,r], below which the system completely collapses through a cascade of failures following an initial destruction of a fraction (1-p) of the nodes in one of the lattices...
November 2016: Physical Review. E
Xianglong Tang, Jing Liu, Xingxing Hao
Research concerning cascading failures in complex networks has become a hot topic. However, most of the existing studies have focused on modelling the cascading phenomenon on networks and analysing network robustness from a theoretical point of view, which considers only the damage incurred by the failure of one or several nodes. However, such a theoretical approach may not be useful in practical situation. Thus, we first design a much more practical measure to evaluate the robustness of networks against cascading failures, termed Rcf...
December 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
Sahar El-Sayed Elswefy, Fatma Rizk Abdallah, Hebatallah Husseini Atteia, Alaa Samir Wahba, Rehab Abdallah Hasan
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a key monomer in the production of plastics. It has been shown to be hepatotoxic. Inflammation and oxidative stress are closely linked with liver fibrosis, the major contributing factor to hepatic failure. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of chronic exposure to BPA on the development of hepatic fibrosis in male rats and to determine the cross-talk between the hepatic cytokine network, oxidative stress and apoptosis. For this purpose, 30 male Wistar albino rats were divided into three equal groups as follows: the first group was given no treatment (normal control group); the second group was given corn oil once daily by oral gavage for 8 weeks (vehicle control group); and the third group received BPA (50 mg/kg body weight/day, p...
October 2016: International Journal of Experimental Pathology
Jose M Reynolds-Barredo, David E Newman, Benjamin A Carreras, Ian Dobson
For a given minimum cost of the electricity dispatch, multiple equivalent dispatch solutions may exist. We explore the sensitivity of networks to these dispatch solutions and their impact on the vulnerability of the network to cascading failure blackouts. It is shown that, depending on the heterogeneity of the network structure, the blackout statistics can be sensitive to the dispatch solution chosen, with the clustering coefficient of the network being a key ingredient. We also investigate mechanisms or configurations that decrease discrepancies that can occur between the different dispatch solutions...
November 2016: Chaos
Nivedita Chatterjee, Youngho Kim, Jisu Yang, Carlos P Roca, Sang-Woo Joo, Jinhee Choi
The potential hazards of graphene nanomaterials were investigated by exposing the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO). The underlying mechanisms of the nano-bio interaction were addressed with an integrated systems toxicology approach using global transcriptomics, network-based pathway analysis, and experimental validation of the in-silico-derived hypotheses. Graphene oxide was found to reduce the worms' reproductive health to a greater degree than rGO, but it did not affect survival (24 h endpoint)...
December 20, 2016: Nanotoxicology
Ya-Nan Bai, Ning Huang, Lei Wang, Zhi-Xi Wu
The dependency property and self-recovery of failure nodes both have great effects on the robustness of networks during the cascading process. Existing investigations focused mainly on the failure mechanism of static dependency groups without considering the time-dependency of interdependent nodes and the recovery mechanism in reality. In this study, we present an evolving network model consisting of failure mechanisms and a recovery mechanism to explore network robustness, where the dependency relations among nodes vary over time...
November 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
Lijun Liu, Yongfeng Yin, Zenghu Zhang, Yashwant K Malaiya
Modern infrastructure networks are often coupled together and thus could be modeled as interdependent networks. Overload and interdependent effect make interdependent networks more fragile when suffering from attacks. Existing research has primarily concentrated on the cascading failure process of interdependent networks without load, or the robustness of isolated network with load. Only limited research has been done on the cascading failure process caused by overload in interdependent networks. Redundant design is a primary approach to enhance the reliability and robustness of the system...
2016: PloS One
Run-Ran Liu, Ming Li, Chun-Xiao Jia
The robustness of coupled networks against node failure has been of interest in the past several years, while most of the researches have considered a very strong node-coupling method, i.e., once a node fails, its dependency partner in the other network will fail immediately. However, this scenario cannot cover all the dependency situations in real world, and in most cases, some nodes cannot go so far as to fail due to theirs self-sustaining ability in case of the failures of their dependency partners. In this paper, we use the percolation framework to study the robustness of interdependent networks with weak node-coupling strength across networks analytically and numerically, where the node-coupling strength is controlled by an introduced parameter α...
October 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
Run-Ran Liu, Ming Li, Chun-Xiao Jia, Bing-Hong Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 10, 2016: Scientific Reports
Lukas Martin, Patrick Koczera, Elisabeth Zechendorf, Tobias Schuerholz
Sepsis is defined as a life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection. The endothelial glycocalyx is one of the earliest sites involved during sepsis. This fragile layer is a complex network of cell-bound proteoglycans, glycosaminoglycan side chains, and sialoproteins lining the luminal side of endothelial cells with a thickness of about 1 to 3 μm. Sepsis-associated alterations of its structure affect endothelial permeability and result in the liberation of endogenous damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs)...
2016: BioMed Research International
Xingyuan Wang, Jianye Cao, Xiaomeng Qin
Based on coupled networks, taking node load, capacity and load redistribution between two networks into consideration, we propose functionally identical coupled networks, which consist of two networks connected by interlinks. Functionally identical coupled networks are derived from the power grid of the United States, which consists of many independent grids. Many power transmission lines are planned to interconnect those grids and, therefore, the study of the robustness of functionally identical coupled networks becomes important...
2016: PloS One
Kyu-Min Lee, K-I Goh
Many real-world complex systems across natural, social, and economical domains consist of manifold layers to form multiplex networks. The multiple network layers give rise to nonlinear effect for the emergent dynamics of systems. Especially, weak layers that can potentially play significant role in amplifying the vulnerability of multiplex networks might be shadowed in the aggregated single-layer network framework which indiscriminately accumulates all layers. Here we present a simple model of cascading failure on multiplex networks of weight-heterogeneous layers...
2016: Scientific Reports
Elisa Latorre, Stephana Carelli, Ivan Raimondi, Vito D'Agostino, Ilaria Castiglioni, Chiara Zucal, Giacomina Moro, Andrea Luciani, Giorgio Ghilardi, Eleonora Monti, Alberto Inga, Anna Maria Di Giulio, Alfredo Gorio, Alessandro Provenzani
Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a core process underlying cell movement during embryonic development and morphogenesis. Cancer cells hijack this developmental program to execute a multi-step cascade, leading to tumorigenesis and metastasis. CD133 (PROM1), a marker of cancer stem cells, has been shown to facilitate EMT in various cancers, but the regulatory networks controlling CD133 gene expression and function in cancer remain incompletely delineated. In this study, we show that a ribonucleoprotein complex including the long noncoding RNA MALAT1 and the RNA-binding protein HuR (ELAVL1) binds the CD133 promoter region to regulate its expression...
May 1, 2016: Cancer Research
Ares Pasipoularides
In part 1, we considered cytomolecular mechanisms underlying calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD), hemodynamics, and adaptive feedbacks controlling pathological left ventricular hypertrophy provoked by ensuing aortic valvular stenosis (AVS). In part 2, we survey diverse signal transduction pathways that precede cellular/molecular mechanisms controlling hypertrophic gene expression by activation of specific transcription factors that induce sarcomere replication in-parallel. Such signaling pathways represent potential targets for therapeutic intervention and prevention of decompensation/failure...
August 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research
Rebekka Burkholz, Antonios Garas, Frank Schweitzer
We study the influence of risk diversification on cascading failures in weighted complex networks, where weighted directed links represent exposures between nodes. These weights result from different diversification strategies and their adjustment allows us to reduce systemic risk significantly by topological means. As an example, we contrast a classical exposure diversification (ED) approach with a damage diversification (DD) variant. The latter reduces the loss that the failure of high degree nodes generally inflict to their network neighbors and thus hampers the cascade amplification...
April 2016: Physical Review. E
Deokjae Lee, S Choi, M Stippinger, J Kertész, B Kahng
Interdependent networks are more fragile under random attacks than simplex networks, because interlayer dependencies lead to cascading failures and finally to a sudden collapse. This is a hybrid phase transition (HPT), meaning that at the transition point the order parameter has a jump but there are also critical phenomena related to it. Here we study these phenomena on the Erdős-Rényi and the two-dimensional interdependent networks and show that the hybrid percolation transition exhibits two kinds of critical behaviors: divergence of the fluctuations of the order parameter and power-law size distribution of finite avalanches at a transition point...
April 2016: Physical Review. E
Sarah E Tevis, Alexander G Cobian, Huy P Truong, Mark W Craven, Gregory D Kennedy
OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the association between multiple complications and postoperative outcomes and to assess which complications occur together in patients with multiple complications. BACKGROUND: Patients who suffer multiple complications have increased risk of prolonged hospital stay and mortality. However, little is known about what places patients at risk for multiple complications or which complications tend to occur in these patients. METHODS: Surgical patients were identified from the American College of Surgeons National Quality Improvement Program (ACS NSQIP) database from 2005 to 2011...
June 2016: Annals of Surgery
Run-Ran Liu, Ming Li, Chun-Xiao Jia, Bing-Hong Wang
We study the percolation in coupled networks with both inner-dependency and inter-dependency links, where the inner- and inter-dependency links represent the dependencies between nodes in the same or different networks, respectively. We find that when most of dependency links are inner- or inter-ones, the coupled networks system is fragile and makes a discontinuous percolation transition. However, when the numbers of two types of dependency links are close to each other, the system is robust and makes a continuous percolation transition...
2016: Scientific Reports
R Speeckaert, J Lambert, L Grine, M Van Gele, S De Schepper, N van Geel
Interleukin (IL)-17 is an emerging target for inflammatory skin disorders. Given the remarkable success of its therapeutic inhibition in psoriasis, the pathogenic role of this cytokine is being explored in other immune-mediated diseases. Interestingly, IL-17 is linked to particular skin conditions where its activation coincides with disease flares. The leading hypothesis for its contribution to proinflammatory signalling cascades is driving inflammasome activation. However, IL-17 stimulation also releases a range of noninflammasome-related cytokines from human skin...
November 2016: British Journal of Dermatology
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