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Cascading network failure

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29196654/cascading-collapse-of-online-social-networks
#1
János Török, János Kertész
Online social networks have increasing influence on our society, they may play decisive roles in politics and can be crucial for the fate of companies. Such services compete with each other and some may even break down rapidly. Using social network datasets we show the main factors leading to such a dramatic collapse. At early stage mostly the loosely bound users disappear, later collective effects play the main role leading to cascading failures. We present a theory based on a generalised threshold model to explain the findings and show how the collapse time can be estimated in advance using the dynamics of the churning users...
December 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29148236/emerging-roles-of-er-stress-in-the-aetiology-and-pathogenesis-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#2
REVIEW
Yannis Gerakis, Claudio Hetz
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by synaptic dysfunction and accumulation of abnormal aggregates formed by amyloid-β peptides or phophorylated Tau proteins. Accumulating evidence suggests that alterations in the buffering capacity of the proteostasis network is a salient feature of AD. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the main compartment involved in protein folding and secretion and is drastically affected in AD neurons. ER stress triggers the activation of the Unfolded Protein Response (UPR), a signal transduction pathway that enforces adaptive programs to recover homeostasis or trigger apoptosis of irreversibly damaged cells...
November 17, 2017: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29146778/small-vulnerable-sets-determine-large-network-cascades-in-power-grids
#3
Yang Yang, Takashi Nishikawa, Adilson E Motter
The understanding of cascading failures in complex systems has been hindered by the lack of realistic large-scale modeling and analysis that can account for variable system conditions. Using the North American power grid, we identified, quantified, and analyzed the set of network components that are vulnerable to cascading failures under any out of multiple conditions. We show that the vulnerable set consists of a small but topologically central portion of the network and that large cascades are disproportionately more likely to be triggered by initial failures close to this set...
November 17, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29130601/scaling-up-hiv-viral-load-lessons-from-the-large-scale-implementation-of-hiv-early-infant-diagnosis-and-cd4-testing
#4
Trevor Peter, Clement Zeh, Zachary Katz, Ali Elbireer, Bereket Alemayehu, Lara Vojnov, Alex Costa, Naoko Doi, Ilesh Jani
INTRODUCTION: The scale-up of effective HIV viral load (VL) testing is an urgent public health priority. Implementation of testing is supported by the availability of accurate, nucleic acid based laboratory and point-of-care (POC) VL technologies and strong WHO guidance recommending routine testing to identify treatment failure. However, test implementation faces challenges related to the developing health systems in many low-resource countries. The purpose of this commentary is to review the challenges and solutions from the large-scale implementation of other diagnostic tests, namely nucleic-acid based early infant HIV diagnosis (EID) and CD4 testing, and identify key lessons to inform the scale-up of VL...
November 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118418/cascading-failures-in-interdependent-networks-with-multiple-supply-demand-links-and-functionality-thresholds
#5
M A Di Muro, L D Valdez, H H Aragão Rêgo, S V Buldyrev, H E Stanley, L A Braunstein
Various social, financial, biological and technological systems can be modeled by interdependent networks. It has been assumed that in order to remain functional, nodes in one network must receive the support from nodes belonging to different networks. So far these models have been limited to the case in which the failure propagates across networks only if the nodes lose all their supply nodes. In this paper we develop a more realistic model for two interdependent networks in which each node has its own supply threshold, i...
November 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29117191/detecting-conservation-benefits-of-marine-reserves-on-remote-reefs-of-the-northern-gbr
#6
Carolina Castro-Sanguino, Yves-Marie Bozec, Alexandra Dempsey, Badi R Samaniego, Katie Lubarsky, Stefan Andrews, Valeriya Komyakova, Juan Carlos Ortiz, William D Robbins, Philip G Renaud, Peter J Mumby
The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBRMP) is the largest network of marine reserves in the world, yet little is known of the efficacy of no-fishing zones in the relatively lightly-exploited remote parts of the system (i.e., northern regions). Here, we find that the detection of reserve effects is challenging and that heterogeneity in benthic habitat composition, specifically branching coral cover, is one of the strongest driving forces of fish assemblages. As expected, the biomass of targeted fish species was generally greater (up to 5-fold) in no-take zones than in fished zones, but we found no differences between the two forms of no-take zone: 'no-take' versus 'no-entry'...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29102243/tau-amyloid-and-cascading-network-failure-across-the-alzheimer-s-disease-spectrum
#7
David T Jones, Jonathan Graff-Radford, Val J Lowe, Heather J Wiste, Jeffrey L Gunter, Matthew L Senjem, Hugo Botha, Kejal Kantarci, Bradley F Boeve, David S Knopman, Ronald C Petersen, Clifford R Jack
Functionally related brain regions are selectively vulnerable to Alzheimer's disease pathophysiology. However, molecular markers of this pathophysiology (i.e., beta-amyloid and tau aggregates) have discrepant spatial and temporal patterns of progression within these selectively vulnerable brain regions. Existing reductionist pathophysiologic models cannot account for these large-scale spatiotemporal inconsistencies. Within the framework of the recently proposed cascading network failure model of Alzheimer's disease, however, these large-scale patterns are to be expected...
October 3, 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29060283/deep-scattering-convolution-network-based-features-for-ultrasonic-fatty-liver-tissue-characterization
#8
R Bharath, P Rajalakshmi
Accumulation of excess fat in the liver tissue is the leading cause for dysfunction of liver, which can lead to the diseases from fibrosis to end stage cirrhosis. Hence, early detection of fatty liver becomes crucial in avoiding the liver from permanent failure. Depending on the concentration of fat in the tissue, the liver is classified as Normal, Grade 1, Grade 2 and Grade 3 respectively. The texture of liver tissue in ultrasound image is so specific to the concentration of fat, hence classifying the fatty liver is formulated as a texture discrimination problem...
July 2017: Conference Proceedings: Annual International Conference of the IEEE Engineering in Medicine and Biology Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052542/wide-area-measurement-system-based-supervision-of-protection-schemes-with-minimum-number-of-phasor-measurement-units
#9
Swaroop Gajare, J Ganeswara Rao, O D Naidu, Ashok Kumar Pradhan
Cascade tripping of power lines triggered by maloperation of zone-3 relays during stressed system conditions, such as load encroachment, power swing and voltage instability, has led to many catastrophic power failures worldwide, including Indian blackouts in 2012. With the introduction of wide-area measurement systems (WAMS) into the grids, real-time monitoring of transmission network condition is possible. A phasor measurement unit (PMU) sends time-synchronized data to a phasor data concentrator, which can provide a control signal to substation devices...
August 13, 2017: Philosophical Transactions. Series A, Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28972998/estimating-risk-propagation-between-interacting-firms-on-inter-firm-complex-network
#10
Hayato Goto, Hideki Takayasu, Misako Takayasu
We derive a stochastic function of risk propagation empirically from comprehensive data of chain-reaction bankruptcy events in Japan from 2006 to 2015 over 5,000 pairs of firms. The probability is formulated by firm interaction between the pair of firms; it is proportional to the product of α-th power of the size of the first bankrupt firm and β-th power of that of the chain-reaction bankrupt firm. We confirm that α is positive and β is negative throughout the observing period, meaning that the probability of cascading failure is higher between a larger first bankrupt firm and smaller trading firm...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28916772/limits-of-predictability-of-cascading-overload-failures-in-spatially-embedded-networks-with-distributed-flows
#11
A Moussawi, N Derzsy, X Lin, B K Szymanski, G Korniss
Cascading failures are a critical vulnerability of complex information or infrastructure networks. Here we investigate the properties of load-based cascading failures in real and synthetic spatially-embedded network structures, and propose mitigation strategies to reduce the severity of damages caused by such failures. We introduce a stochastic method for optimal heterogeneous distribution of resources (node capacities) subject to a fixed total cost. Additionally, we design and compare the performance of networks with N-stable and (N-1)-stable network-capacity allocations by triggering cascades using various real-world node-attack and node-failure scenarios...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790436/three-tf-co-expression-modules-regulate-pressure-overload-cardiac-hypertrophy-in-male-mice
#12
Yao-Ming Chang, Li Ling, Ya-Ting Chang, Yu-Wang Chang, Wen-Hsiung Li, Arthur Chun-Chieh Shih, Chien-Chang Chen
Pathological cardiac hypertrophy, a dynamic remodeling process, is a major risk factor for heart failure. Although a number of key regulators and related genes have been identified, how the transcription factors (TFs) dynamically regulate the associated genes and control the morphological and electrophysiological changes during the hypertrophic process are still largely unknown. In this study, we obtained the time-course transcriptomes at five time points in four weeks from male murine hearts subjected to transverse aorta banding surgery...
August 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28751931/a-review-of-the-molecular-mechanisms-underlying-the-development-and-progression-of-cardiac-remodeling
#13
REVIEW
Leonardo Schirone, Maurizio Forte, Silvia Palmerio, Derek Yee, Cristina Nocella, Francesco Angelini, Francesca Pagano, Sonia Schiavon, Antonella Bordin, Albino Carrizzo, Carmine Vecchione, Valentina Valenti, Isotta Chimenti, Elena De Falco, Sebastiano Sciarretta, Giacomo Frati
Pathological molecular mechanisms involved in myocardial remodeling contribute to alter the existing structure of the heart, leading to cardiac dysfunction. Among the complex signaling network that characterizes myocardial remodeling, the distinct processes are myocyte loss, cardiac hypertrophy, alteration of extracellular matrix homeostasis, fibrosis, defective autophagy, metabolic abnormalities, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Several pathophysiological stimuli, such as pressure and volume overload, trigger the remodeling cascade, a process that initially confers protection to the heart as a compensatory mechanism...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727823/structural-instability-of-large-scale-functional-networks
#14
Shogo Mizutaka, Kousuke Yakubo
We study how large functional networks can grow stably under possible cascading overload failures and evaluated the maximum stable network size above which even a small-scale failure would cause a fatal breakdown of the network. Employing a model of cascading failures induced by temporally fluctuating loads, the maximum stable size nmax has been calculated as a function of the load reduction parameter r that characterizes how quickly the total load is reduced during the cascade. If we reduce the total load sufficiently fast (r ≥ rc), the network can grow infinitely...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28527861/cellular-computational-generalized-neuron-network-for-frequency-situational-intelligence-in-a-multi-machine-power-system
#15
Yawei Wei, Ganesh Kumar Venayagamoorthy
To prevent large interconnected power system from a cascading failure, brownout or even blackout, grid operators require access to faster than real-time information to make appropriate just-in-time control decisions. However, the communication and computational system limitations of currently used supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system can only deliver delayed information. However, the deployment of synchrophasor measurement devices makes it possible to capture and visualize, in near-real-time, grid operational data with extra granularity...
September 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28367561/cancerous-perturbations-within-the-erk-pi3k-akt-and-wnt-%C3%AE-catenin-signaling-network-constitutively-activate-inter-pathway-positive-feedback-loops
#16
Rahul Rao Padala, Rishabh Karnawat, Satish Bharathwaj Viswanathan, Abhishek Vijay Thakkar, Asim Bikas Das
Perturbations in molecular signaling pathways are a result of genetic or epigenetic alterations, which may lead to malignant transformation of cells. Despite cellular robustness, specific genetic or epigenetic changes of any gene can trigger a cascade of failures, which result in the malfunctioning of cell signaling pathways and lead to cancer phenotypes. The extent of cellular robustness has a link with the architecture of the network such as feedback and feedforward loops. Perturbation in components within feedback loops causes a transition from a regulated to a persistently activated state and results in uncontrolled cell growth...
May 2, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28358803/efficacy-of-polymyxin-b-immobilized-fiber-hemoperfusion-for-patients-with-septic-shock-caused-by-gram-negative-bacillus-infection
#17
Nobuyuki Saito, Kazuhiro Sugiyama, Testu Ohnuma, Takashi Kanemura, Michitaka Nasu, Yuya Yoshidomi, Yuta Tsujimoto, Hiroshi Adachi, Hiroyuki Koami, Aito Tochiki, Kota Hori, Yukiko Wagatsuma, Hisashi Matsumoto
Septic shock-associated mortality in intensive care units (ICUs) remains high, with reported rates ranging 30-50%. In particular, Gram-negative bacilli (GNB), which induce significant inflammation and consequent multiple organ failure, are the etiological bacterial agent in 40% of severe sepsis cases. Hemoperfusion using polymyxin B-immobilized fiber (PMX), which adsorbs endotoxin, is expected to reduce the inflammatory sepsis cascade due to GNB. However, the clinical efficacy of this treatment has not yet been demonstrated...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317835/reducing-cascading-failure-risk-by-increasing-infrastructure-network-interdependence
#18
Mert Korkali, Jason G Veneman, Brian F Tivnan, James P Bagrow, Paul D H Hines
Increased interconnection between critical infrastructure networks, such as electric power and communications systems, has important implications for infrastructure reliability and security. Others have shown that increased coupling between networks that are vulnerable to internetwork cascading failures can increase vulnerability. However, the mechanisms of cascading in these models differ from those in real systems and such models disregard new functions enabled by coupling, such as intelligent control during a cascade...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297942/modeling-structure-and-resilience-of-the-dark-network
#19
Manlio De Domenico, Alex Arenas
While the statistical and resilience properties of the Internet are no longer changing significantly across time, the Darknet, a network devoted to keep anonymous its traffic, still experiences rapid changes to improve the security of its users. Here we study the structure of the Darknet and find that its topology is rather peculiar, being characterized by a nonhomogeneous distribution of connections, typical of scale-free networks; very short path lengths and high clustering, typical of small-world networks; and lack of a core of highly connected nodes...
February 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275697/a-robust-biomarker-of-large-scale-network-failure-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#20
Daniela A Wiepert, Val J Lowe, David S Knopman, Bradley F Boeve, Jonathan Graff-Radford, Ronald C Petersen, Clifford R Jack, David T Jones
INTRODUCTION: Biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathophysiology have been developed that focus on various levels of brain organization. However, no robust biomarker of large-scale network failure has been developed. Using the recently introduced cascading network failure model of AD, we developed the network failure quotient (NFQ) as a biomarker of this process. METHODS: We developed and optimized the NFQ using our recently published analyses of task-free functional magnetic resonance imaging data in clinically normal (n = 43) and AD dementia participants (n = 28) from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative...
2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
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