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Cascading network failure

Yulin Zhang, Maoxian Zhao, Jionglong Su, Xiao Lu, Kebo Lv
A novel model for cascading failures in a directed logic network based on the degree strength at a node was proposed. The definitions of in-degree and out-degree strength of a node were initially reconsidered, and the load at a nonisolated node was proposed as the ratio of in-degree strength to out-degree strength of the node. The cascading failure model based on degree strength was applied to the logic network for three types of cancer including adenocarcinoma of lung, prostate cancer, and colon cancer based on their gene expression profiles...
2018: Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
Mert Korkali, Jason G Veneman, Brian F Tivnan, James P Bagrow, Paul D H Hines
This corrects the article DOI: 10.1038/srep44499.
March 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Yingrui Zhang, Alex Arenas, Osman Yağan
Robustness and cascading failures in interdependent systems has been an active research field in the past decade. However, most existing works use percolation-based models where only the largest component of each network remains functional throughout the cascade. Although suitable for communication networks, this assumption fails to capture the dependencies in systems carrying a flow (e.g., power systems, road transportation networks), where cascading failures are often triggered by redistribution of flows leading to overloading of lines...
February 2018: Physical Review. E
Raquel B De Boni, Meridith B Peratikos, Bryan E Shepherd, Beatriz Grinsztejn, Claudia Cortés, Denis Padgett, Eduardo Gotuzzo, Pablo F Belaunzarán-Zamudio, Peter F Rebeiro, Stephany N Duda, Catherine C McGowan
BACKGROUND: The HIV care cascade has improved in Latin America over the last decade. However, the influence of alcohol and noninjected drug use (NIDU) on cascade outcomes is mostly unknown. This study estimated the association of alcohol and NIDU with retention in care, loss to follow up (LTFU), and virologic failure (VF). METHODS: Individuals ≥18 years attending routine HIV clinic visits and completing the Rapid Screening Tool (RST; evaluating NIDU and ART adherence in 7-day recall period) during 2012-13 were followed up to 2015 in the Caribbean, Central and South America network for HIV epidemiology...
2018: PloS One
Zenghu Zhang, Yongfeng Yin, Xin Zhang, Lijun Liu
Controllability of complex networks has been a hot topic in recent years. Real networks regarded as interdependent networks are always coupled together by multiple networks. The cascading process of interdependent networks including interdependent failure and overload failure will destroy the robustness of controllability for the whole network. Therefore, the optimization of the robustness of interdependent network controllability is of great importance in the research area of complex networks. In this paper, based on the model of interdependent networks constructed first, we determine the cascading process under different proportions of node attacks...
2018: PloS One
Run-Ran Liu, Daniel A Eisenberg, Thomas P Seager, Ying-Cheng Lai
Previous studies of multilayer network robustness model cascading failures via a node-to-node percolation process that assumes "strong" interdependence across layers-once a node in any layer fails, its neighbors in other layers fail immediately and completely with all links removed. This assumption is not true of real interdependent infrastructures that have emergency procedures to buffer against cascades. In this work, we consider a node-to-link failure propagation mechanism and establish "weak" interdependence across layers via a tolerance parameter α which quantifies the likelihood that a node survives when one of its interdependent neighbors fails...
February 1, 2018: Scientific Reports
Huapeng Lin, Qian Zhang, Xiaocheng Li, Yushen Wu, Ye Liu, Yingchun Hu
Hepatitis B virus-associated acute liver failure (HBV-ALF) is a rare but life-threatening syndrome that carried a high morbidity and mortality. Our study aimed to explore the possible molecular mechanisms of HBV-ALF by means of bioinformatics analysis. In this study, genes expression microarray datasets of HBV-ALF from Gene Expression Omnibus were collected, and then we identified differentially expressed genes (DEGs) by the limma package in R. After functional enrichment analysis, we constructed the protein-protein interaction (PPI) network by the Search Tool for the Retrieval of Interacting Genes online database and weighted genes coexpression network by the WGCNA package in R...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
Ho Fai Po, Chi Ho Yeung, An Zeng, K Y Michael Wong
The stability of powergrid is crucial since its disruption affects systems ranging from street lightings to hospital life-support systems. While short-term dynamics of single-event cascading failures have been extensively studied, less is understood on the long-term evolution and self-organization of powergrids. In this paper, we introduce a simple model of evolving powergrid and establish its connection with the sandpile model and earthquakes, i.e., self-organized systems with intermittent strain releases...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
Xianyuan Zhan, Satish V Ukkusuri, P Suresh C Rao
We propose a new framework for modeling the evolution of functional failures and recoveries in complex networks, with traffic congestion on road networks as the case study. Differently from conventional approaches, we transform the evolution of functional states into an equivalent dynamic structural process: dual-vertex splitting and coalescing embedded within the original network structure. The proposed model successfully explains traffic congestion and recovery patterns at the city scale based on high-resolution data from two megacities...
November 2017: Physical Review. E
Nagendra K Panduranga, Jianxi Gao, Xin Yuan, H Eugene Stanley, Shlomo Havlin
Cascading failures in complex systems have been studied extensively using two different models: k-core percolation and interdependent networks. We combine the two models into a general model, solve it analytically, and validate our theoretical results through extensive simulations. We also study the complete phase diagram of the percolation transition as we tune the average local k-core threshold and the coupling between networks. We find that the phase diagram of the combined processes is very rich and includes novel features that do not appear in the models studying each of the processes separately...
September 2017: Physical Review. E
V A T Nguyen, D C Vural
Epidemics, neural cascades, power failures, and many other phenomena can be described by a diffusion process on a network. To identify the causal origins of a spread, it is often necessary to identify the triggering initial node. Here, we define a new morphological operator and use it to detect the origin of a diffusive front, given the final state of a complex network. Our method performs better than algorithms based on distance (closeness) and Jordan centrality. More importantly, our method is applicable regardless of the specifics of the forward model, and therefore can be applied to a wide range of systems such as identifying the patient zero in an epidemic, pinpointing the neuron that triggers a cascade, identifying the original malfunction that causes a catastrophic infrastructure failure, and inferring the ancestral species from which a heterogeneous population evolves...
September 2017: Physical Review. E
Jason M Samuels, Hunter B Moore, Ernest E Moore
BACKGROUND: Disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) remains a challenging complication of infection with inadequate treatment and significant morbidity and mortality rates. METHODS: Review of the English-language literature. RESULTS: Disseminated intravascular coagulation arises from the immune system's response to microbial invasion, as well as the byproducts of cell death that result from severe sepsis. This response triggers the coagulation system through an interconnected network of cellular and molecular signals, which developed originally as an evolutionary mechanism intended to isolate micro-organisms via fibrin mesh formation...
February 2018: Surgical Infections
Yang Yang, Adilson E Motter
In network systems, a local perturbation can amplify as it propagates, potentially leading to a large-scale cascading failure. Here we derive a continuous model to advance our understanding of cascading failures in power-grid networks. The model accounts for both the failure of transmission lines and the desynchronization of power generators and incorporates the transient dynamics between successive steps of the cascade. In this framework, we show that a cascade event is a phase-space transition from an equilibrium state with high energy to an equilibrium state with lower energy, which can be suitably described in a closed form using a global Hamiltonian-like function...
December 15, 2017: Physical Review Letters
János Török, János Kertész
Online social networks have increasing influence on our society, they may play decisive roles in politics and can be crucial for the fate of companies. Such services compete with each other and some may even break down rapidly. Using social network datasets we show the main factors leading to such a dramatic collapse. At early stage mostly the loosely bound users disappear, later collective effects play the main role leading to cascading failures. We present a theory based on a generalised threshold model to explain the findings and show how the collapse time can be estimated in advance using the dynamics of the churning users...
December 1, 2017: Scientific Reports
Yannis Gerakis, Claudio Hetz
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive neurodegenerative disease characterized by synaptic dysfunction and accumulation of abnormal aggregates formed by amyloid-β peptides or phosphorylated tau proteins. Accumulating evidence suggests that alterations in the buffering capacity of the proteostasis network are a salient feature of AD. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is the main compartment involved in protein folding and secretion and is drastically affected in AD neurons. ER stress triggers the activation of the unfolded protein response (UPR), a signal transduction pathway that enforces adaptive programs to recover homeostasis or trigger apoptosis of irreversibly damaged cells...
November 17, 2017: FEBS Journal
Yang Yang, Takashi Nishikawa, Adilson E Motter
The understanding of cascading failures in complex systems has been hindered by the lack of realistic large-scale modeling and analysis that can account for variable system conditions. Using the North American power grid, we identified, quantified, and analyzed the set of network components that are vulnerable to cascading failures under any out of multiple conditions. We show that the vulnerable set consists of a small but topologically central portion of the network and that large cascades are disproportionately more likely to be triggered by initial failures close to this set...
November 17, 2017: Science
Trevor Peter, Clement Zeh, Zachary Katz, Ali Elbireer, Bereket Alemayehu, Lara Vojnov, Alex Costa, Naoko Doi, Ilesh Jani
INTRODUCTION: The scale-up of effective HIV viral load (VL) testing is an urgent public health priority. Implementation of testing is supported by the availability of accurate, nucleic acid based laboratory and point-of-care (POC) VL technologies and strong WHO guidance recommending routine testing to identify treatment failure. However, test implementation faces challenges related to the developing health systems in many low-resource countries. The purpose of this commentary is to review the challenges and solutions from the large-scale implementation of other diagnostic tests, namely nucleic-acid based early infant HIV diagnosis (EID) and CD4 testing, and identify key lessons to inform the scale-up of VL...
November 2017: Journal of the International AIDS Society
M A Di Muro, L D Valdez, H H Aragão Rêgo, S V Buldyrev, H E Stanley, L A Braunstein
Various social, financial, biological and technological systems can be modeled by interdependent networks. It has been assumed that in order to remain functional, nodes in one network must receive the support from nodes belonging to different networks. So far these models have been limited to the case in which the failure propagates across networks only if the nodes lose all their supply nodes. In this paper we develop a more realistic model for two interdependent networks in which each node has its own supply threshold, i...
November 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
Carolina Castro-Sanguino, Yves-Marie Bozec, Alexandra Dempsey, Badi R Samaniego, Katie Lubarsky, Stefan Andrews, Valeriya Komyakova, Juan Carlos Ortiz, William D Robbins, Philip G Renaud, Peter J Mumby
The Great Barrier Reef Marine Park (GBRMP) is the largest network of marine reserves in the world, yet little is known of the efficacy of no-fishing zones in the relatively lightly-exploited remote parts of the system (i.e., northern regions). Here, we find that the detection of reserve effects is challenging and that heterogeneity in benthic habitat composition, specifically branching coral cover, is one of the strongest driving forces of fish assemblages. As expected, the biomass of targeted fish species was generally greater (up to 5-fold) in no-take zones than in fished zones, but we found no differences between the two forms of no-take zone: 'no-take' versus 'no-entry'...
2017: PloS One
David T Jones, Jonathan Graff-Radford, Val J Lowe, Heather J Wiste, Jeffrey L Gunter, Matthew L Senjem, Hugo Botha, Kejal Kantarci, Bradley F Boeve, David S Knopman, Ronald C Petersen, Clifford R Jack
Functionally related brain regions are selectively vulnerable to Alzheimer's disease pathophysiology. However, molecular markers of this pathophysiology (i.e., beta-amyloid and tau aggregates) have discrepant spatial and temporal patterns of progression within these selectively vulnerable brain regions. Existing reductionist pathophysiologic models cannot account for these large-scale spatiotemporal inconsistencies. Within the framework of the recently proposed cascading network failure model of Alzheimer's disease, however, these large-scale patterns are to be expected...
December 2017: Cortex; a Journal Devoted to the Study of the Nervous System and Behavior
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