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Cascading network failure

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28317835/reducing-cascading-failure-risk-by-increasing-infrastructure-network-interdependence
#1
Mert Korkali, Jason G Veneman, Brian F Tivnan, James P Bagrow, Paul D H Hines
Increased interconnection between critical infrastructure networks, such as electric power and communications systems, has important implications for infrastructure reliability and security. Others have shown that increased coupling between networks that are vulnerable to internetwork cascading failures can increase vulnerability. However, the mechanisms of cascading in these models differ from those in real systems and such models disregard new functions enabled by coupling, such as intelligent control during a cascade...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28297942/modeling-structure-and-resilience-of-the-dark-network
#2
Manlio De Domenico, Alex Arenas
While the statistical and resilience properties of the Internet are no longer changing significantly across time, the Darknet, a network devoted to keep anonymous its traffic, still experiences rapid changes to improve the security of its users. Here we study the structure of the Darknet and find that its topology is rather peculiar, being characterized by a nonhomogeneous distribution of connections, typical of scale-free networks; very short path lengths and high clustering, typical of small-world networks; and lack of a core of highly connected nodes...
February 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275697/a-robust-biomarker-of-large-scale-network-failure-in-alzheimer-s-disease
#3
Daniela A Wiepert, Val J Lowe, David S Knopman, Bradley F Boeve, Jonathan Graff-Radford, Ronald C Petersen, Clifford R Jack, David T Jones
INTRODUCTION: Biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathophysiology have been developed that focus on various levels of brain organization. However, no robust biomarker of large-scale network failure has been developed. Using the recently introduced cascading network failure model of AD, we developed the network failure quotient (NFQ) as a biomarker of this process. METHODS: We developed and optimized the NFQ using our recently published analyses of task-free functional magnetic resonance imaging data in clinically normal (n = 43) and AD dementia participants (n = 28) from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative...
2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28246552/decreased-tissue-cox5b-expression-and-mitochondrial-dysfunction-during-sepsis-induced-kidney-injury-in-rats
#4
Jochen Hinkelbein, Lennert Böhm, Stefan Braunecker, Christoph Adler, Edoardo De Robertis, Fabrizio Cirillo
Background. Sepsis is defined as a life-threatening organ dysfunction due to a dysregulated host response to infection. Sepsis is the dominant cause of acute kidney injury (AKI), accounting for nearly 50% of episodes of acute renal failure. Signaling cascades and pathways within the kidney are largely unknown and analysis of these molecular mechanisms may enhance knowledge on pathophysiology and possible therapeutic options. Material and Methods. 26 male Wistar rats were assigned to either a sham group (control, N = 6) or sepsis group (N = 20; cecal ligature and puncture model, 24 and 48 hours after CLP)...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220840/coupling-effect-of-nodes-popularity-and-similarity-on-social-network-persistence
#5
Xiaogang Jin, Cheng Jin, Jiaxuan Huang, Yong Min
Network robustness represents the ability of networks to withstand failures and perturbations. In social networks, maintenance of individual activities, also called persistence, is significant towards understanding robustness. Previous works usually consider persistence on pre-generated network structures; while in social networks, the network structure is growing with the cascading inactivity of existed individuals. Here, we address this challenge through analysis for nodes under a coevolution model, which characterizes individual activity changes under three network growth modes: following the descending order of nodes' popularity, similarity or uniform random...
February 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186802/vulnerability-and-cosusceptibility-determine-the-size-of-network-cascades
#6
Yang Yang, Takashi Nishikawa, Adilson E Motter
In a network, a local disturbance can propagate and eventually cause a substantial part of the system to fail in cascade events that are easy to conceptualize but extraordinarily difficult to predict. Here, we develop a statistical framework that can predict cascade size distributions by incorporating two ingredients only: the vulnerability of individual components and the cosusceptibility of groups of components (i.e., their tendency to fail together). Using cascades in power grids as a representative example, we show that correlations between component failures define structured and often surprisingly large groups of cosusceptible components...
January 27, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27967181/interdependent-lattice-networks-in-high-dimensions
#7
Steven Lowinger, Gabriel A Cwilich, Sergey V Buldyrev
We study the mutual percolation of two interdependent lattice networks ranging from two to seven dimensions, denoted as D. We impose that the length (measured as chemical distance) of interdependency links connecting nodes in the two lattices be less than or equal to a certain value, r. For each value of D and r, we find the mutual percolation threshold, p_{c}[D,r], below which the system completely collapses through a cascade of failures following an initial destruction of a fraction (1-p) of the nodes in one of the lattices...
November 2016: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27934964/mitigate-cascading-failures-on-networks-using-a-memetic-algorithm
#8
Xianglong Tang, Jing Liu, Xingxing Hao
Research concerning cascading failures in complex networks has become a hot topic. However, most of the existing studies have focused on modelling the cascading phenomenon on networks and analysing network robustness from a theoretical point of view, which considers only the damage incurred by the failure of one or several nodes. However, such a theoretical approach may not be useful in practical situation. Thus, we first design a much more practical measure to evaluate the robustness of networks against cascading failures, termed Rcf...
December 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27925325/inflammation-oxidative-stress-and-apoptosis-cascade-implications-in-bisphenol-a-induced-liver-fibrosis-in-male-rats
#9
Sahar El-Sayed Elswefy, Fatma Rizk Abdallah, Hebatallah Husseini Atteia, Alaa Samir Wahba, Rehab Abdallah Hasan
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a key monomer in the production of plastics. It has been shown to be hepatotoxic. Inflammation and oxidative stress are closely linked with liver fibrosis, the major contributing factor to hepatic failure. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of chronic exposure to BPA on the development of hepatic fibrosis in male rats and to determine the cross-talk between the hepatic cytokine network, oxidative stress and apoptosis. For this purpose, 30 male Wistar albino rats were divided into three equal groups as follows: the first group was given no treatment (normal control group); the second group was given corn oil once daily by oral gavage for 8 weeks (vehicle control group); and the third group received BPA (50 mg/kg body weight/day, p...
October 2016: International Journal of Experimental Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27908007/the-interplay-of-network-structure-and-dispatch-solutions-in-power-grid-cascading-failures
#10
Jose M Reynolds-Barredo, David E Newman, Benjamin A Carreras, Ian Dobson
For a given minimum cost of the electricity dispatch, multiple equivalent dispatch solutions may exist. We explore the sensitivity of networks to these dispatch solutions and their impact on the vulnerability of the network to cascading failure blackouts. It is shown that, depending on the heterogeneity of the network structure, the blackout statistics can be sensitive to the dispatch solution chosen, with the clustering coefficient of the network being a key ingredient. We also investigate mechanisms or configurations that decrease discrepancies that can occur between the different dispatch solutions...
November 2016: Chaos
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901397/a-systems-toxicology-approach-reveals-the-wnt-mapk-crosstalk-pathway-mediated-reproductive-failure-in-caenorhabditis-elegans-exposed-to-graphene-oxide-go-but-not-to-reduced-graphene-oxide-rgo
#11
Nivedita Chatterjee, Youngho Kim, Jisu Yang, Carlos P Roca, Sang-Woo Joo, Jinhee Choi
The potential hazards of graphene nanomaterials were investigated by exposing the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO). The underlying mechanisms of the nano-bio interaction were addressed with an integrated systems toxicology approach using global transcriptomics, network-based pathway analysis, and experimental validation of the in-silico-derived hypotheses. Graphene oxide was found to reduce the worms' reproductive health to a greater degree than rGO, but it did not affect survival (24 h endpoint)...
December 20, 2016: Nanotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892940/robustness-and-vulnerability-of-networks-with-dynamical-dependency-groups
#12
Ya-Nan Bai, Ning Huang, Lei Wang, Zhi-Xi Wu
The dependency property and self-recovery of failure nodes both have great effects on the robustness of networks during the cascading process. Existing investigations focused mainly on the failure mechanism of static dependency groups without considering the time-dependency of interdependent nodes and the recovery mechanism in reality. In this study, we present an evolving network model consisting of failure mechanisms and a recovery mechanism to explore network robustness, where the dependency relations among nodes vary over time...
November 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764174/redundant-design-in-interdependent-networks
#13
Lijun Liu, Yongfeng Yin, Zenghu Zhang, Yashwant K Malaiya
Modern infrastructure networks are often coupled together and thus could be modeled as interdependent networks. Overload and interdependent effect make interdependent networks more fragile when suffering from attacks. Existing research has primarily concentrated on the cascading failure process of interdependent networks without load, or the robustness of isolated network with load. Only limited research has been done on the cascading failure process caused by overload in interdependent networks. Redundant design is a primary approach to enhance the reliability and robustness of the system...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27748446/cascading-failures-in-coupled-networks-the-critical-role-of-node-coupling-strength-across-networks
#14
Run-Ran Liu, Ming Li, Chun-Xiao Jia
The robustness of coupled networks against node failure has been of interest in the past several years, while most of the researches have considered a very strong node-coupling method, i.e., once a node fails, its dependency partner in the other network will fail immediately. However, this scenario cannot cover all the dependency situations in real world, and in most cases, some nodes cannot go so far as to fail due to theirs self-sustaining ability in case of the failures of their dependency partners. In this paper, we use the percolation framework to study the robustness of interdependent networks with weak node-coupling strength across networks analytically and numerically, where the node-coupling strength is controlled by an introduced parameter α...
October 17, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27721379/corrigendum-cascading-failures-in-coupled-networks-with-both-inner-dependency-and-inter-dependency-links
#15
Run-Ran Liu, Ming Li, Chun-Xiao Jia, Bing-Hong Wang
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 10, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699168/the-endothelial-glycocalyx-new-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-approaches-in-sepsis
#16
REVIEW
Lukas Martin, Patrick Koczera, Elisabeth Zechendorf, Tobias Schuerholz
Sepsis is defined as a life-threatening organ dysfunction caused by a dysregulated host response to infection. The endothelial glycocalyx is one of the earliest sites involved during sepsis. This fragile layer is a complex network of cell-bound proteoglycans, glycosaminoglycan side chains, and sialoproteins lining the luminal side of endothelial cells with a thickness of about 1 to 3 μm. Sepsis-associated alterations of its structure affect endothelial permeability and result in the liberation of endogenous damage-associated molecular patterns (DAMPs)...
2016: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27494715/study-of-robustness-in-functionally-identical-coupled-networks-against-cascading-failures
#17
Xingyuan Wang, Jianye Cao, Xiaomeng Qin
Based on coupled networks, taking node load, capacity and load redistribution between two networks into consideration, we propose functionally identical coupled networks, which consist of two networks connected by interlinks. Functionally identical coupled networks are derived from the power grid of the United States, which consists of many independent grids. Many power transmission lines are planned to interconnect those grids and, therefore, the study of the robustness of functionally identical coupled networks becomes important...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27211291/strength-of-weak-layers-in-cascading-failures-on-multiplex-networks-case-of-the-international-trade-network
#18
Kyu-Min Lee, K-I Goh
Many real-world complex systems across natural, social, and economical domains consist of manifold layers to form multiplex networks. The multiple network layers give rise to nonlinear effect for the emergent dynamics of systems. Especially, weak layers that can potentially play significant role in amplifying the vulnerability of multiplex networks might be shadowed in the aggregated single-layer network framework which indiscriminately accumulates all layers. Here we present a simple model of cascading failure on multiplex networks of weight-heterogeneous layers...
2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27197265/the-ribonucleic-complex-hur-malat1-represses-cd133-expression-and-suppresses-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-breast-cancer
#19
Elisa Latorre, Stephana Carelli, Ivan Raimondi, Vito D'Agostino, Ilaria Castiglioni, Chiara Zucal, Giacomina Moro, Andrea Luciani, Giorgio Ghilardi, Eleonora Monti, Alberto Inga, Anna Maria Di Giulio, Alfredo Gorio, Alessandro Provenzani
Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a core process underlying cell movement during embryonic development and morphogenesis. Cancer cells hijack this developmental program to execute a multi-step cascade, leading to tumorigenesis and metastasis. CD133 (PROM1), a marker of cancer stem cells, has been shown to facilitate EMT in various cancers, but the regulatory networks controlling CD133 gene expression and function in cancer remain incompletely delineated. In this study, we show that a ribonucleoprotein complex including the long noncoding RNA MALAT1 and the RNA-binding protein HuR (ELAVL1) binds the CD133 promoter region to regulate its expression...
May 1, 2016: Cancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27184804/calcific-aortic-valve-disease-part-2-morphomechanical-abnormalities-gene-reexpression-and-gender-effects-on-ventricular-hypertrophy-and-its-reversibility
#20
REVIEW
Ares Pasipoularides
In part 1, we considered cytomolecular mechanisms underlying calcific aortic valve disease (CAVD), hemodynamics, and adaptive feedbacks controlling pathological left ventricular hypertrophy provoked by ensuing aortic valvular stenosis (AVS). In part 2, we survey diverse signal transduction pathways that precede cellular/molecular mechanisms controlling hypertrophic gene expression by activation of specific transcription factors that induce sarcomere replication in-parallel. Such signaling pathways represent potential targets for therapeutic intervention and prevention of decompensation/failure...
August 2016: Journal of Cardiovascular Translational Research
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