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Cascading network failure

Hayato Goto, Hideki Takayasu, Misako Takayasu
We derive a stochastic function of risk propagation empirically from comprehensive data of chain-reaction bankruptcy events in Japan from 2006 to 2015 over 5,000 pairs of firms. The probability is formulated by firm interaction between the pair of firms; it is proportional to the product of α-th power of the size of the first bankrupt firm and β-th power of that of the chain-reaction bankrupt firm. We confirm that α is positive and β is negative throughout the observing period, meaning that the probability of cascading failure is higher between a larger first bankrupt firm and smaller trading firm...
2017: PloS One
A Moussawi, N Derzsy, X Lin, B K Szymanski, G Korniss
Cascading failures are a critical vulnerability of complex information or infrastructure networks. Here we investigate the properties of load-based cascading failures in real and synthetic spatially-embedded network structures, and propose mitigation strategies to reduce the severity of damages caused by such failures. We introduce a stochastic method for optimal heterogeneous distribution of resources (node capacities) subject to a fixed total cost. Additionally, we design and compare the performance of networks with N-stable and (N-1)-stable network-capacity allocations by triggering cascades using various real-world node-attack and node-failure scenarios...
September 15, 2017: Scientific Reports
Yao-Ming Chang, Li Ling, Ya-Ting Chang, Yu-Wang Chang, Wen-Hsiung Li, Arthur Chun-Chieh Shih, Chien-Chang Chen
Pathological cardiac hypertrophy, a dynamic remodeling process, is a major risk factor for heart failure. Although a number of key regulators and related genes have been identified, how the transcription factors (TFs) dynamically regulate the associated genes and control the morphological and electrophysiological changes during the hypertrophic process are still largely unknown. In this study, we obtained the time-course transcriptomes at five time points in four weeks from male murine hearts subjected to transverse aorta banding surgery...
August 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
Leonardo Schirone, Maurizio Forte, Silvia Palmerio, Derek Yee, Cristina Nocella, Francesco Angelini, Francesca Pagano, Sonia Schiavon, Antonella Bordin, Albino Carrizzo, Carmine Vecchione, Valentina Valenti, Isotta Chimenti, Elena De Falco, Sebastiano Sciarretta, Giacomo Frati
Pathological molecular mechanisms involved in myocardial remodeling contribute to alter the existing structure of the heart, leading to cardiac dysfunction. Among the complex signaling network that characterizes myocardial remodeling, the distinct processes are myocyte loss, cardiac hypertrophy, alteration of extracellular matrix homeostasis, fibrosis, defective autophagy, metabolic abnormalities, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Several pathophysiological stimuli, such as pressure and volume overload, trigger the remodeling cascade, a process that initially confers protection to the heart as a compensatory mechanism...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Shogo Mizutaka, Kousuke Yakubo
We study how large functional networks can grow stably under possible cascading overload failures and evaluated the maximum stable network size above which even a small-scale failure would cause a fatal breakdown of the network. Employing a model of cascading failures induced by temporally fluctuating loads, the maximum stable size nmax has been calculated as a function of the load reduction parameter r that characterizes how quickly the total load is reduced during the cascade. If we reduce the total load sufficiently fast (r ≥ rc), the network can grow infinitely...
2017: PloS One
Yawei Wei, Ganesh Kumar Venayagamoorthy
To prevent large interconnected power system from a cascading failure, brownout or even blackout, grid operators require access to faster than real-time information to make appropriate just-in-time control decisions. However, the communication and computational system limitations of currently used supervisory control and data acquisition (SCADA) system can only deliver delayed information. However, the deployment of synchrophasor measurement devices makes it possible to capture and visualize, in near-real-time, grid operational data with extra granularity...
September 2017: Neural Networks: the Official Journal of the International Neural Network Society
Rahul Rao Padala, Rishabh Karnawat, Satish Bharathwaj Viswanathan, Abhishek Vijay Thakkar, Asim Bikas Das
Perturbations in molecular signaling pathways are a result of genetic or epigenetic alterations, which may lead to malignant transformation of cells. Despite cellular robustness, specific genetic or epigenetic changes of any gene can trigger a cascade of failures, which result in the malfunctioning of cell signaling pathways and lead to cancer phenotypes. The extent of cellular robustness has a link with the architecture of the network such as feedback and feedforward loops. Perturbation in components within feedback loops causes a transition from a regulated to a persistently activated state and results in uncontrolled cell growth...
May 2, 2017: Molecular BioSystems
Nobuyuki Saito, Kazuhiro Sugiyama, Testu Ohnuma, Takashi Kanemura, Michitaka Nasu, Yuya Yoshidomi, Yuta Tsujimoto, Hiroshi Adachi, Hiroyuki Koami, Aito Tochiki, Kota Hori, Yukiko Wagatsuma, Hisashi Matsumoto
Septic shock-associated mortality in intensive care units (ICUs) remains high, with reported rates ranging 30-50%. In particular, Gram-negative bacilli (GNB), which induce significant inflammation and consequent multiple organ failure, are the etiological bacterial agent in 40% of severe sepsis cases. Hemoperfusion using polymyxin B-immobilized fiber (PMX), which adsorbs endotoxin, is expected to reduce the inflammatory sepsis cascade due to GNB. However, the clinical efficacy of this treatment has not yet been demonstrated...
2017: PloS One
Mert Korkali, Jason G Veneman, Brian F Tivnan, James P Bagrow, Paul D H Hines
Increased interconnection between critical infrastructure networks, such as electric power and communications systems, has important implications for infrastructure reliability and security. Others have shown that increased coupling between networks that are vulnerable to internetwork cascading failures can increase vulnerability. However, the mechanisms of cascading in these models differ from those in real systems and such models disregard new functions enabled by coupling, such as intelligent control during a cascade...
March 20, 2017: Scientific Reports
Manlio De Domenico, Alex Arenas
While the statistical and resilience properties of the Internet are no longer changing significantly across time, the Darknet, a network devoted to keep anonymous its traffic, still experiences rapid changes to improve the security of its users. Here we study the structure of the Darknet and find that its topology is rather peculiar, being characterized by a nonhomogeneous distribution of connections, typical of scale-free networks; very short path lengths and high clustering, typical of small-world networks; and lack of a core of highly connected nodes...
February 2017: Physical Review. E
Daniela A Wiepert, Val J Lowe, David S Knopman, Bradley F Boeve, Jonathan Graff-Radford, Ronald C Petersen, Clifford R Jack, David T Jones
INTRODUCTION: Biomarkers for Alzheimer's disease (AD) pathophysiology have been developed that focus on various levels of brain organization. However, no robust biomarker of large-scale network failure has been developed. Using the recently introduced cascading network failure model of AD, we developed the network failure quotient (NFQ) as a biomarker of this process. METHODS: We developed and optimized the NFQ using our recently published analyses of task-free functional magnetic resonance imaging data in clinically normal (n = 43) and AD dementia participants (n = 28) from the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative...
2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
Jochen Hinkelbein, Lennert Böhm, Stefan Braunecker, Christoph Adler, Edoardo De Robertis, Fabrizio Cirillo
Background. Sepsis is defined as a life-threatening organ dysfunction due to a dysregulated host response to infection. Sepsis is the dominant cause of acute kidney injury (AKI), accounting for nearly 50% of episodes of acute renal failure. Signaling cascades and pathways within the kidney are largely unknown and analysis of these molecular mechanisms may enhance knowledge on pathophysiology and possible therapeutic options. Material and Methods. 26 male Wistar rats were assigned to either a sham group (control, N = 6) or sepsis group (N = 20; cecal ligature and puncture model, 24 and 48 hours after CLP)...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
Xiaogang Jin, Cheng Jin, Jiaxuan Huang, Yong Min
Network robustness represents the ability of networks to withstand failures and perturbations. In social networks, maintenance of individual activities, also called persistence, is significant towards understanding robustness. Previous works usually consider persistence on pre-generated network structures; while in social networks, the network structure is growing with the cascading inactivity of existed individuals. Here, we address this challenge through analysis for nodes under a coevolution model, which characterizes individual activity changes under three network growth modes: following the descending order of nodes' popularity, similarity or uniform random...
February 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
Yang Yang, Takashi Nishikawa, Adilson E Motter
In a network, a local disturbance can propagate and eventually cause a substantial part of the system to fail in cascade events that are easy to conceptualize but extraordinarily difficult to predict. Here, we develop a statistical framework that can predict cascade size distributions by incorporating two ingredients only: the vulnerability of individual components and the cosusceptibility of groups of components (i.e., their tendency to fail together). Using cascades in power grids as a representative example, we show that correlations between component failures define structured and often surprisingly large groups of cosusceptible components...
January 27, 2017: Physical Review Letters
Steven Lowinger, Gabriel A Cwilich, Sergey V Buldyrev
We study the mutual percolation of two interdependent lattice networks ranging from two to seven dimensions, denoted as D. We impose that the length (measured as chemical distance) of interdependency links connecting nodes in the two lattices be less than or equal to a certain value, r. For each value of D and r, we find the mutual percolation threshold, p_{c}[D,r], below which the system completely collapses through a cascade of failures following an initial destruction of a fraction (1-p) of the nodes in one of the lattices...
November 2016: Physical Review. E
Xianglong Tang, Jing Liu, Xingxing Hao
Research concerning cascading failures in complex networks has become a hot topic. However, most of the existing studies have focused on modelling the cascading phenomenon on networks and analysing network robustness from a theoretical point of view, which considers only the damage incurred by the failure of one or several nodes. However, such a theoretical approach may not be useful in practical situation. Thus, we first design a much more practical measure to evaluate the robustness of networks against cascading failures, termed Rcf...
December 9, 2016: Scientific Reports
Sahar El-Sayed Elswefy, Fatma Rizk Abdallah, Hebatallah Husseini Atteia, Alaa Samir Wahba, Rehab Abdallah Hasan
Bisphenol A (BPA) is a key monomer in the production of plastics. It has been shown to be hepatotoxic. Inflammation and oxidative stress are closely linked with liver fibrosis, the major contributing factor to hepatic failure. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of chronic exposure to BPA on the development of hepatic fibrosis in male rats and to determine the cross-talk between the hepatic cytokine network, oxidative stress and apoptosis. For this purpose, 30 male Wistar albino rats were divided into three equal groups as follows: the first group was given no treatment (normal control group); the second group was given corn oil once daily by oral gavage for 8 weeks (vehicle control group); and the third group received BPA (50 mg/kg body weight/day, p...
October 2016: International Journal of Experimental Pathology
Jose M Reynolds-Barredo, David E Newman, Benjamin A Carreras, Ian Dobson
For a given minimum cost of the electricity dispatch, multiple equivalent dispatch solutions may exist. We explore the sensitivity of networks to these dispatch solutions and their impact on the vulnerability of the network to cascading failure blackouts. It is shown that, depending on the heterogeneity of the network structure, the blackout statistics can be sensitive to the dispatch solution chosen, with the clustering coefficient of the network being a key ingredient. We also investigate mechanisms or configurations that decrease discrepancies that can occur between the different dispatch solutions...
November 2016: Chaos
Nivedita Chatterjee, Youngho Kim, Jisu Yang, Carlos P Roca, Sang-Woo Joo, Jinhee Choi
The potential hazards of graphene nanomaterials were investigated by exposing the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans to graphene oxide (GO) and reduced graphene oxide (rGO). The underlying mechanisms of the nano-bio interaction were addressed with an integrated systems toxicology approach using global transcriptomics, network-based pathway analysis, and experimental validation of the in-silico-derived hypotheses. Graphene oxide was found to reduce the worms' reproductive health to a greater degree than rGO, but it did not affect survival (24 h endpoint)...
February 2017: Nanotoxicology
Ya-Nan Bai, Ning Huang, Lei Wang, Zhi-Xi Wu
The dependency property and self-recovery of failure nodes both have great effects on the robustness of networks during the cascading process. Existing investigations focused mainly on the failure mechanism of static dependency groups without considering the time-dependency of interdependent nodes and the recovery mechanism in reality. In this study, we present an evolving network model consisting of failure mechanisms and a recovery mechanism to explore network robustness, where the dependency relations among nodes vary over time...
November 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
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