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Alessandro Marra
Pancoast or superior pulmonary sulcus tumour is a subset of lung carcinoma that invades the structures of the thoracic inlet - first ribs, distal roots of the brachial plexus, stellate ganglion, vertebrae, and subclavian vessels. The first symptom is usually shoulder pain; consequently, most patients are initially treated for osteoarthritis. Late diagnosis is common. Success of therapy depends on an accurate staging: standard imaging with CT scan of the chest, PET-CT scan, brain MRI are needed to rule out distant metastases, endobronchial ultrasound-guided needle biopsy (EBUS-TBNA) or mediastinoscopy are mandatory for reliable nodal staging...
June 2018: Zentralblatt Für Chirurgie
Qiao-Li Wang, Shao-Hua Xie, Wen-Tao Li, Jesper Lagergren
Background: Tobacco smoking strongly increases risk of esophageal squamous cell carcinoma and moderately increases risk of esophageal adenocarcinoma. How smoking cessation influences esophageal cancer risk across histological subtypes, time latencies, and geographic regions is not clear. Methods: Studies were systematically searched on Medline, Embase, Web of Science, Cochrane Library, and Pooled estimates of risk ratios (RRs) were derived using a random effects model...
December 1, 2017: Journal of the National Cancer Institute
Ilona Okhremchuk, Anh Tuan Nguyen, Bernard Fouet, Jean-Jacques Morand
An 83-year-old man presented to the dermatology department for an ulcerated skin lesion of the back that had been increasing in size during the past 11 years. The physical examination revealed a well-defined, fleshy, reddish plaque measuring 10 × 20 cm in diameter with erosions and black areas on the surface. The patient underwent surgical excision with margins of 10 mm followed by a skin graft. Histologic section showed a lesion composed of 2 intimately intermingled epithelial and mesenchymal components associated with a basal cell carcinoma (BCC)...
June 14, 2018: American Journal of Dermatopathology
Jennifer C Tang, Seung-David L Kim, Erik J Stratman
BACKGROUND: Perineural invasion (PNI) is a high-risk feature of cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC). Depths at which PNI occurs are unknown. OBJECTIVE: To determine the most superficial depth at which PNI occurs in CSCC and stratify by tumor clinical diameter and body location. METHODS AND MATERIALS: Single-institution retrospective review of CSCC specimens reporting PNI on pathology reports between January 2004 and August 2014. Depth was defined as distance from top of granular layer to middle of nerve invaded by CSCC or distance from erosion to middle of nerve affected by CSCC...
June 21, 2018: Dermatologic Surgery: Official Publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et Al.]
Mariam Mafee, Daniel D Bennett, Andrew M Swanson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 21, 2018: Dermatologic Surgery: Official Publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et Al.]
Yunhuan Liu, Qing Liu, John Hesketh, Da Huang, Fang Gan, Shu Hao, Shan Tang, Yanxia Guo, Kehe Huang
Hepatic fibrosis is a common pathological basis of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinomas. So, prevention and treatment of liver fibrosis is one of the crucial therapeutic goals in hepatology. Organic selenium, glutathione or probiotics supplementation could ameliorate hepatic fibrosis, respectively. The purpose of this study is to develop a novel selenium-glutathione-enriched probiotics (SGP) and to investigate its protective effect on CCl4 -induced liver fibrosis in rats. Yeast strains with the high-yield glutathione were isolated and identified by analysis of 26S ribosomal DNA sequences...
May 1, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Sameer A Greenall, Jacqueline Donoghue, Terrance G Johns, Timothy E Adams
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is highly refractory to current therapeutics used in the clinic. DX-2647, a recombinant human antibody, potently neutralizes the action of insulin-like growth factor-II (IGF-II), a ligand for three cell-surface receptors (IGF-IR, insulin receptor A and B isoforms, and the cation-independent mannose-6-phosphate receptor) which is overexpressed in primary human HCC. DX-2647 impaired the growth of tumor xenografts of the HCC cell line, Hep3B; however, xenografts of the HCC cell line, HepG2, were largely unresponsive to DX-2647 treatment...
June 18, 2018: Translational Oncology
Xinan Sheng, Dengfeng Cao, Jianlin Yuan, Fangjian Zhou, Qiang Wei, Xiaodong Xie, Chuanliang Cui, Zhihong Chi, Lu Si, Siming Li, Lili Mao, Bin Lian, Bixia Tang, Xieqiao Yan, Xuan Wang, Yan Kong, Jie Dai, Xue Bai, Li Zhou, Jun Guo
BACKGROUND: Collecting duct carcinoma (CDC) is a rare type of renal cancer with a poor prognosis. As there are no standard guidelines for the management of metastatic CDC (mCDC), we evaluated the efficacy and safety of combined therapies of sorafenib, gemcitabine, plus cisplatin in patients with mCDC. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A prospective, multicentre, single-arm, open-label, phase 2 trial ( identifier NCT01762150) that enrolled 26 mCDC patients with no prior systemic chemotherapy...
June 19, 2018: European Journal of Cancer
Shunsunke Nomura, Yasuo Aihara, Kosaku Amano, Seiichiro Eguchi, Kentaro Chiba, Takashi Komori, Takakazu Kawamata
Malignant craniopharyngioma or anaplastic craniopharyngioma was first reported in 1987 by Akachi. It has a malignant clinical and histological feature; remarkably rapid progression, atypical pathology like squamous cell carcinoma and poor prognosis. To date seventeen cases of malignant craniopharyngioma have been reported and of these cases, most were of secondary malignant tumor in nature. With respect to traditional benign craniopharyngioma, adjunctive treatment after gross total removal is not necessary, but in the case of malignant types of the tumor, adjunctive treatment is important...
June 19, 2018: World Neurosurgery
Shahryar Khoshtinat Nikkhoi, Fatemeh Rahbarizadeh, Davoud Ahmadvand, Seyed Moein Moghimi
The variable domain of the heavy chain antibodies (VHHs) is the smallest (15 kDa) intact single domain antigen-binding fragment. VHHs often exhibit sub-nanomolar affinity for their designated targets and therefore are receiving increasing attention in molecular targeting and nanomedicine engineering. We cloned and expressed four non-overlapping anti-HER2 VHHs in a prokaryotic expression system that yielded periplasmic expression of disulfide-bonded VHHs. Purified VHHs, before and after thiolation, were characterized by Western blot and their functionality against the ecto-domain of HER2 receptor was confirmed by ELISA and flow cytometry...
June 19, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Jingwen Yao, Shuli Man, Honghong Dong, Li Yang, Long Ma, Wenyuan Gao
Sorafenib, as a multi-kinase inhibitor, was the first FDA-approved anti- hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) drug. Rhizoma Paridis saponins (RPS) as natural products have shown antitumor activity through regulation of glycolytic and lipid metabolism which was regarded as the side effect limited the utility of sorafenib. In this research, we tried to use metabolomics to verify the probability of combinatorial treatment of RPS and Sorafenib. As a result, Sorafenib + RPS increased the antitumor effect of sorafenib and RPS in H22 mice...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Steroid Biochemistry and Molecular Biology
Ryan G Price, Smith Apisarnthanarax, Stephanie K Schaub, Matthew J Nyflot, Tobias R Chapman, Manuela Matesan, Hubert J Vesselle, Stephen R Bowen
We report on patient-specific quantitative changes in longitudinal sulfur colloid SPECT/CT as a function of regional radiation dose distributions to normal liver in a cohort of hepatocellular carcinoma patients. Dose-response thresholds and slopes varied with baseline liver function metrics, and extreme values were found in patients with fatal hepatotoxicity. Dose-response modeling of normal liver in individual HCC patients has potential to characterize in vivo radiosensitivity, identify high risk subgroups, and personalize treatment planning dose constraints...
June 19, 2018: International Journal of Radiation Oncology, Biology, Physics
Shintaro Yokoyama, Tomoyuki Murakami, Hiroyuki Tao, Hideko Onoda, Akio Hara, Ryohei Miyazaki, Masashi Furukawa, Masataro Hayashi, Hidetoshi Inokawa, Kazunori Okabe, Yoshito Akagi
BACKGROUND: Tumor spread through air spaces (STAS) has recently been reported as a novel form of lung adenocarcinoma invasion that can negatively impact survival; however, its role in pleomorphic carcinoma remains unclear. This study aimed to characterize tumor STAS in pleomorphic carcinoma, including its association with clinicopathological features and prognosis. METHODS: Tumor specimens obtained from 35 consecutive patients with pleomorphic carcinoma who underwent surgical resection between 2009 and 2015 were reviewed...
June 19, 2018: Chest
Lucas Goense, Kenneth W Merrell, Andrea L Arnett, Christopher L Hallemeier, Gert J Meijer, Jelle P Ruurda, Wayne L Hofstetter, Richard van Hillegersberg, Steven H Lin
BACKGROUND: Recently a nomogram was developed for the prediction of overall survival (OS) after treatment with neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (nCRT) combined with surgery for esophageal or junctional cancer. The nomogram included clinical nodal category (cN), pathological tumour category (ypT) and number of positive lymph nodes in the resection specimen (ypN). The aim of this study was to externally validate the nomogram in an international multi-institutional cohort of patients, and to explore the prognostic use of the nomogram for the prediction of progression-free survival (PFS) after nCRT followed by surgery...
June 19, 2018: Annals of Thoracic Surgery
Asangi R Kumarapeli, William Bellamy, Ericka Olgaard, Nicole Massoll, Soheila Korourian
CONTEXT: - A thorough gross examination of specimens for breast cancer requires the tissue to be very thinly sectioned, which is often difficult in large mastectomy samples. We have implemented rapid chilling of mastectomy specimens before formalin fixation. OBJECTIVE: - To evaluate the effects of rapid chilling of breast tissue on subsequent biomarker and molecular testing. DESIGN: - Mastectomy specimens were chilled at -80°C for 20 minutes to facilitate uniform sectioning of tissue at 4-mm intervals and enhance proper fixation and identification of small lesions...
June 22, 2018: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
Melissa Alexander, Jessica Beyda, Anupma Nayak, Shabnam Jaffer
CONTEXT: - Mammographic screening has increased the incidence of ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS), but this has not been accompanied by a decline in the incidence of invasive carcinoma (IC). Consequently, the surgical treatment of DCIS has recently been questioned, with some advocating only surveillance (with or without neoadjuvant endocrine therapy) after a core biopsy diagnosis of DCIS. OBJECTIVES: - To examine the predictive value of a core biopsy diagnosis of DCIS, particularly the upgrade rate to IC, and to identify associated factors...
June 22, 2018: Archives of Pathology & Laboratory Medicine
Khaled M Elsayes, Victoria Chernyak, Ali I Morshid, An Tang, Ania Z Kielar, Mustafa R Bashir, Claude B Sirlin
OBJECTIVE: The purposes of this article are to review a variety of pitfalls in liver imaging that can lead to the inaccurate diagnosis of focal hepatic lesions in cirrhosis, to describe the pathophysiologic processes of these pitfalls, and to provide specific clues for achieving the correct diagnoses. CONCLUSION: Cirrhosis complicates liver imaging. The distortion and replacement of normal liver parenchyma by fibrous and regenerative tissue can change the typical appearance of many benign lesions, causing them to be misinterpreted as malignancy...
July 2018: AJR. American Journal of Roentgenology
Ahmet Bindayi, Michelle L Mcdonald, Alp T Beksac, Gerant Rivera-Sanfeliz, Ahmed Shabaik, Fiona Hughes, Lejla Aganovic, Donna E Hansel, Ithaar H Derweesh
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the utility of multiphase computed tomography (CT) and percutaneous renal mass biopsy (PRMB) in differentiating between papillary renal cell carcinoma (pRCC)-Type 1 and -Type 2, as emerging data have suggested differential enhancement patterns in different renal tumor histologies. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Retrospective analysis of 51 patients (23 pRCC-Type 1/28 pRCC-Type 2) who underwent multiphase CT followed by surgery from July 2011 to April 2016 was performed...
July 2018: Turkish Journal of Urology
Elizabeth G Bannister, Lilly Yuen, Margaret Littlejohn, Rosalind Edwards, Vitina Sozzi, Danni Colledge, Xin Li, Stephen Locarnini, Winita Hardikar, Peter A Revill
Migration from sub-Saharan Africa is contributing to the rising incidence of chronic hepatitis B (CHB) infection and its complications in Australia. African CHB is associated with unique genotypes, such as E and A1, which are associated with reduced vaccine efficacy and early-onset hepatocellular carcinoma, respectively, although the prevalence of these genotypes outside Africa is poorly described. Treatment-naïve children of African origin with CHB were recruited at the Royal Children's Hospital Melbourne...
June 22, 2018: Journal of General Virology
Dong Young Jeong, Min Yeong Kim, Kyung Soo Lee, Joon Young Choi, Soo Jeong Kim, Myung Jin Chung, Yang Won Min, Hong Kwan Kim, Jae Ill Zo, Young Mog Shim, Jong-Mu Sun
This study aimed to evaluate the frequency of nodal metastases and to disclose the diagnostic performance of endoscopic ultrasonography (EUS) and PET/CT in T and N staging in surgically resected early-stage esophageal squamous cell carcinomas (eSCCs). Institutional review board approved this retrospective study with waiver of informed consent for reviewing medical record. We included 435 patients with an early T-stage (Tis or T1a [≤T1a], T1b and T2) eSCC. The rates of metastatic lymphadenopathy were calculated...
June 22, 2018: Cancer Medicine
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