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Cushing syndrome paediatric management

Maria Güemes, Philip G Murray, Caroline E Brain, Helen A Spoudeas, Catherine J Peters, Peter C Hindmarsh, Mehul T Dattani
UNLABELLED: The diagnosis and management of paediatric Cushing syndrome (CS) is highly challenging. This study aims to characterise its presentation, diagnosis, management and outcome by a retrospective case review of 30 patients (14 females) followed at a single tertiary paediatric endocrinology centre over a 30-year period. At presentation, median age was 8.9 years (0.2-15.5) and the commonest manifestations were weight gain (23/30), hirsutism (17/30), acne (15/30) and hypertension (15/30)...
July 2016: European Journal of Pediatrics
Francesco Ferraù, Márta Korbonits
Cushing's syndrome (CS) patients have increased mortality primarily due to cardiovascular events induced by glucocorticoid (GC) excess-related severe metabolic changes. Glucose metabolism abnormalities are common in CS due to increased gluconeogenesis, disruption of insulin signalling with reduced glucose uptake and disposal of glucose and altered insulin secretion, consequent to the combination of GCs effects on liver, muscle, adipose tissue and pancreas. Dyslipidaemia is a frequent feature in CS as a result of GC-induced increased lipolysis, lipid mobilisation, liponeogenesis and adipogenesis...
October 2015: European Journal of Endocrinology
Helen L Storr, Martin O Savage
Cushing's disease (CD) is the commonest form of ACTH-dependent Cushing's syndrome and is a rare clinical diagnosis in paediatric and adolescent patients. CD is caused by an ACTH-secreting pituitary corticotroph adenoma and is associated with significant morbidity in children; therefore, early diagnosis and treatment are critical for optimal therapeutic outcome. This review highlights the key clinical and biochemical features of paediatric CD and appraises current practices in diagnosis and management. A close liaison with adult endocrinology colleagues, particularly, for interpretation of investigations and definition of therapeutic strategy is strongly advised...
July 2015: European Journal of Endocrinology
L F Chan, M Vaidya, B Westphal, J Allgrove, L Martin, F Afshar, P C Hindmarsh, M O Savage, A B Grossman, H L Storr
BACKGROUND: Psychosis secondary to paediatric Cushing's disease (CD) is extremely rare and presents a significant management challenge. METHOD: We report a 14.7-year-old CD patient with acute psychosis and self-inflicted injuries following failed transsphenoidal pituitary surgery. Her mental state rapidly deteriorated precluding medical therapy. RESULTS: Emergency intravenous low-dose etomidate infusion (3-3.5 mg/h) with dose titration according to the serum cortisol combined with a hydrocortisone infusion, in an intensive care setting, was effective in controlling the hypercortisolaemia...
2011: Hormone Research in Pædiatrics
Krystallenia I Alexandraki, Gregory A Kaltsas, Andrea M Isidori, Scott A Akker, William M Drake, Shern L Chew, John P Monson, G Michael Besser, Ashley B Grossman
OBJECTIVE: Cyclical Cushing's syndrome may render the diagnosis and management of Cushing's disease difficult. The aim of the present study was to investigate the prevalence of cyclicity and variability in patients with Cushing's disease, and to identify putative distinctive features. DESIGN: Retrospective case-note study. METHODS: We analysed the case records of 201 patients with Cushing's disease in a retrospective case-note study. Cyclicity was considered as the presence of at least one cycle, defined as a clinical and/or biochemical hypercortisolaemic peak followed by clinical and biochemical remission, followed by a new clinical and/or biochemical hypercortisolaemic peak...
June 2009: European Journal of Endocrinology
Martin O Savage, Li F Chan, Ashley B Grossman, Helen L Storr
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: Paediatric Cushing's syndrome presents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Most paediatric endocrinologists have limited experience in managing children or adolescents with Cushing's syndrome and thus benefit from close consultation with adult colleagues. A protocol for investigation of the child with suspected Cushing's syndrome is presented followed by principles of management. RECENT FINDINGS: Cushing's syndrome is rare in childhood, but causes serious morbidity...
August 2008: Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes, and Obesity
M M Foisy, E M K Yakiwchuk, I Chiu, A E Singh
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this article is to provide a systematic overview of the literature on adrenal suppression and Cushing's syndrome secondary to an interaction between inhaled/intranasal fluticasone and ritonavir. The clinical presentation, diagnosis and management will be discussed. METHODS: A literature search using Medline and EMBASE and a search of abstracts of the three previous years of major HIV-related conferences were carried out. RESULTS: There were 25 cases (15 adult and 10 paediatric) of significant adrenal suppression secondary to an interaction between ritonavir and inhaled fluticasone, and three cases involving ritonavir and intranasal fluticasone...
July 2008: HIV Medicine
Helen L Storr, Li F Chan, Ashley B Grossman, Martin O Savage
Cushing's syndrome (CS), which is caused by excessive circulating glucocorticoid concentrations, is rare in the paediatric age range but presents a diagnostic and therapeutic challenge. Most paediatric endocrinologists have limited experience of managing children or adolescents with CS and thus benefit from close consultation with colleagues who treat adult patients. A protocol for investigation is required that broadly follows the model for adult patients. Here, the epidemiology and diagnosis of different causes of CS are discussed according to typical age of presentation...
May 2007: Trends in Endocrinology and Metabolism: TEM
M O Savage, M C Lebrethon, J C Blair, J T Ho, L B Johnston, A Lienhardt, A J Clark, J L Chaussain
Linear growth can be disturbed in paediatric adrenal disease associated with endocrine hypo- or hyperfunction. Tall stature is a feature in some patients with adrenocorticotropic hormone resistance syndromes and short stature is recognized in the IMAGe (intrauterine growth retardation, metaphyseal dysplasia, adrenal hypoplasia congenita and genital anomalies) association. In autoimmune Addison's disease, growth is usually normal. In congenital adrenal hyperplasia, height may be compromised by advanced skeletal maturation or by suppressed growth, particularly in the neonatal period due to excess glucocorticoid treatment...
2001: Hormone Research
A Weber, P J Trainer, A B Grossman, F Afshar, S Medbak, L A Perry, P N Plowman, L H Rees, G M Besser, M O Savage
OBJECTIVE: Cushing's syndrome in childhood and adolescence is rare. We analysed the clinical presentation, investigation, management and therapeutic outcome in 12 paediatric patients with Cushing's syndrome. DESIGN: Retrospective review of case notes. PATIENTS: Twelve patients, 7 males and 5 females, aged 7.6-17.8 years with Cushing's syndrome who were admitted to St Bartholomew's Hospital between 1978 and 1993, were studied. Aetiologies of the Cushing's syndrome patients were: Cushing's disease (9), adrenal adenoma (1), nodular adrenocortical dysplasia (1) and ectopic ACTH syndrome (1)...
July 1995: Clinical Endocrinology
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