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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449353/how-excluding-some-benefits-from-value-assessment-of-new-drugs-impacts-innovation
#1
Joseph P Cook, Joseph Golec
Payers often assess the benefits of new drugs relative to costs for reimbursement purposes, but they frequently exclude some drugs' option-related benefits, reducing their reimbursement chances, and making them less attractive R&D investments. We develop and test a real options model of R&D investment that shows that excluding option-related benefits heightens drug developers' incentives to avoid high-risk (volatile) R&D investments and instead encourages them to focus on "safer" (positively skewed) investments...
April 27, 2017: Health Economics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449129/phenotypic-differences-determine-drought-stress-responses-in-ecotypes-of-arundo-donax-adapted-to-different-environments
#2
Mastaneh Ahrar, Dilyana Doneva, Massimiliano Tattini, Cecilia Brunetti, Antonella Gori, Mirco Rodeghiero, Georg Wohlfahrt, Franco Biasioli, Claudio Varotto, Francesco Loreto, Violeta Velikova
Arundo donax has been identified as an important biomass and biofuel crop. Yet, there has been little research on photosynthetic and metabolic traits, which sustain the high productivity of A. donax under drought conditions. This study determined phenotypic differences between two A. donax ecotypes coming from stands with contrasting adaptation to dry climate. We hypothesized that the Bulgarian (BG) ecotype, adapted to drier conditions, exhibits greater drought tolerance than the Italian (IT) ecotype, adapted to a more mesic environment...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Experimental Botany
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448847/lactic-acid-fermentation-of-human-urine-to-improve-its-fertilizing-value-and-reduce-odour-emissions
#3
N Andreev, M Ronteltap, B Boincean, M Wernli, E Zubcov, N Bagrin, N Borodin, P N L Lens
During storage of urine, urea is biologically decomposed to ammonia, which can be lost through volatilization and in turn causes significant unpleasant smell. In response, lactic acid fermentation of urine is a cost-effective technique to decrease nitrogen volatilization and reduce odour emissions. Fresh urine (pH = 5.2-5.3 and NH4(+)-N = 1.2-1.3 g L(-1)) was lacto-fermented for 36 days in closed glass jars with a lactic acid bacterial inoculum from sauerkraut juice and compared to untreated, stored urine...
April 24, 2017: Journal of Environmental Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448840/a-cocktail-of-volatile-compounds-emitted-from-alcaligenes-faecalis-jbcs1294-induces-salt-tolerance-in-arabidopsis-thaliana-by-modulating-hormonal-pathways-and-ion-transporters
#4
Dipto Bhattacharyya, Yong Hoon Lee
In our previous study we showed that volatile organic compounds (VOCs) from Alcaligenes faecalis JBCS1294 (JBCS1294) induced tolerance to salt stress in Arabidopsis thaliana by influencing the auxin and gibberellin pathways and upregulating the expression of key ion transporters. The aim of this study was to evaluate the contribution of each VOC and blends of the VOCs on the induction of salt tolerance and signaling pathways. The key VOCs emitted from JBCS1294 were dissolved in lanolin and applied to one side of bipartite I-plates that contained Arabidopsis seeds on Murashige and Skoog (MS) media supplemented with NaCl on the other side...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448810/associations-between-blood-btexs-concentrations-and-hematologic-parameters-among-adult-residents-of-the-u-s-gulf-states
#5
Brett T Doherty, Richard K Kwok, Matthew D Curry, Christine Ekenga, David Chambers, Dale P Sandler, Lawrence S Engel
BACKGROUND: Studies of workers exposed to benzene at average air concentrations below one part per million suggest that benzene, a known hematotoxin, causes hematopoietic damage even at low exposure levels. However, evidence of such effects outside of occupational settings and for other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) is limited. OBJECTIVE: To investigate associations between ambient exposures to five VOCs, including benzene, and hematologic parameters among adult residents of the U...
April 24, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448492/stylized-facts-of-intraday-precious-metals
#6
Jonathan Batten, Brian Lucey, Frank McGroarty, Maurice Peat, Andrew Urquhart
This paper examines the stylized facts, correlation and interaction between volatility and returns at the 5-minute frequency for gold, silver, platinum and palladium from May 2000 to April 2015. We study the full sample period, as well as three subsamples to determine how high-frequency data of precious metals have developed over time. We find that over the full sample, the number of trades has increased substantially over time for each precious metal, while the bid-ask spread has narrowed over time, indicating an increase in liquidity and price efficiency...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448151/methoxysulfinyl-radical-ch3oso-gas-phase-generation-photochemistry-and-oxidation
#7
Qifan Liu, Zhuang Wu, Jian Xu, Yan Lu, Hongmin Li, Xiaoqing Zeng
Methylsulfoxide radicals CH3SOx (x = 1-4) are key reactive sulfur species (RSS) in the atmospheric oxidation of volatile organic sulfur compounds (VOSCs). Through flash vacuum pyrolysis (FVP) of trifluoromethanesulfinic acid methyl ester CF3S(O)OCH3 at 1000 K, the methoxysulfinyl radical CH3OSO has been generated in the gas phase and subsequently characterized in cryogenic N2, Ar, and Ne matrices by IR spectroscopy. Upon 266 nm laser irradiation, CH3OSO efficiently isomerizes to the less stable methylsulfonyl radical CH3SO2 in matrices without noticeable decomposition...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447993/synthesis-of-1-2-azaborines-and-the-preparation-of-their-protein-complexes-with-t4-lysozyme-mutants
#8
Hyelee Lee, Shih-Yuan Liu
We describe a general synthesis of 1,2-azaborines using standard air-free techniques and protein complex preparation with T4 lysozyme mutants by vapor diffusion. Oxygen- and moisture-sensitive compounds are prepared and isolated under an inert atmosphere (N2) using either a vacuum gas manifold or a glove box. As an example of azaborine synthesis, we demonstrate the synthesis and purification of the volatile N-H-B-ethyl-1,2-azaborine by a five-step sequence involving distillation and column chromatography for the isolation of products...
March 25, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447506/anti-inflammatory-and-gastroprotective-potential-of-leaf-essential-oil-of-cinnamomum-glanduliferum-in-ethanol-induced-rat-experimental-gastritis
#9
Samar S Azab, Gehad A Abdel Jaleel, Omayma A Eldahshan
CONTEXT: Nothing could be found in the literature concerning Cinnamomum glanduliferum (Wall) Meissn (Lauraceae) bark (CG) in Egypt. OBJECTIVE: To investigate CG volatile oil chemically and its anti-inflammatory and gastroprotective effects. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Essential oils were investigated by GC-MS. Leaves oil was assessed at doses of 250, 500 and 1000 mg/kg for its anti-inflammatory effect against carrageenan-induced rat oedema model...
December 2017: Pharmaceutical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447463/screening-of-debaryomyces-hansenii-strains-for-flavor-production-under-reduced-concentration-of-nitrifying-preservatives-used-in-meat-products
#10
Monica Flores, Daniel Moncunill, Rebeca Montero, Jose Javier López-Díez, Carmela Belloch
Fifteen D. hansenii strains from different food origins were genetically characterised and tested on a culture medium resembling the composition of fermented sausages but different concentrations of nitrifying preservatives. Genetic typing of the D. hansenii strains revealed two levels of discrimination, isolation source or strain specific. Different ability to proliferate on culture media containing different concentrations of nitrate and nitrite, as sole nitrogen sources and in presence of amino acids, was observed within D...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447451/improvement-of-a-p450-based-recombinant-e-coli-whole-cell-system-for-the-production-of-oxygenated-sesquiterpene-derivatives
#11
Thuy Thi Bich Ly, Alexander Schifrin, Bach Duc Nguyen, Rita Bernhardt
Sesquiterpenes are common constituents of essential oil in plants. Their oxygenated derivatives often possess desirable flavor, fragrant and pharmaceutical properties. Recently, the CYP264B1-based recombinant E. coli whole-cell system has been constructed for the oxidation of sesquiterpenes. However, limiting factors of this system related to the high volatility of substrates and the suitability of the P450 redox partner need to be addressed. In this work, the improvement of the system was implemented with (+)-α-longipinene as a model substrate...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447342/maintaining-postharvest-quality-of-cold-stored-hass-avocados-by-altering-the-fatty-acids-content-and-composition-with-the-use-of-natural-volatile-compounds-methyl-jasmonate-and-methyl-salicylate
#12
Marcin Glowacz, Malick Bill, Peter P Tinyane, Dharini Sivakumar
BACKGROUND: Low temperature is often used to reduce metabolic processes and extend the storage of fruit, however, in the case of avocado the temperature below 3 °C would often result in development of physiological disorders associated with chilling injury. The objective of this study was to investigate the ability of methyl jasmonate (MeJA) and methyl salicylate (MeSA) vapours to alleviate the chilling injury in 'Hass' avocado fruit kept at 2 °C for 21 d followed by 6-7 d shelf-life at 20 °C, simulating supply chain conditions...
April 26, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447285/hydrogen-sulfide-and-ionic-liquids-absorption-separation-and-oxidation
#13
REVIEW
Cinzia Chiappe, Christian Silvio Pomelli
Economical and environmental concerns are the main motivations for development of energy-efficient processes and new eco-friendly materials for the capture of greenhouse gases. Currently, H2S capture is dominated by physical and/or chemical absorption technologies, which are, however, energy intensive and often problematic from an environmental point of view due to emission of volatile solvent components. Ionic liquids have been proposed as a promising alternative to conventional solvents because of their low volatility and other interesting properties...
June 2017: Topics in Current Chemistry (Journal)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447255/phenolic-compounds-volatiles-and-antioxidant-capacity-of-white-myrtle-berry-liqueurs
#14
Gabriele Serreli, Igor Jerković, Katarzyna Angelika Gil, Zvonimir Marijanović, Viviana Pacini, Carlo Ignazio Giovanni Tuberoso
The aim of this research was to evaluate the antioxidant capacity and physical-chemical characteristics of commercial white myrtle berry (Myrtus communis L. var. leucocarpa DC) liqueur (WMBL). The total phenolic (TP) content was measured spectrophotometrically, applying a modified Folin-Ciocalteu's method, and phenolic compounds were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with electrospray mass spectrometry, and quantified by HPLC coupled with ultraviolet/visible detection. The antioxidant capacities were evaluated by FRAP, CUPRAC, DPPH(•), and ABTS(•+) assays...
April 26, 2017: Plant Foods for Human Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447232/distribution-seasonal-variation-and-inhalation-risks-of-polychlorinated-dibenzo-p-dioxins-and-dibenzofurans-polychlorinated-biphenyls-and-polybrominated-diphenyl-ethers-in-the-atmosphere-of-beijing-china
#15
Yanfen Hao, Yingming Li, Thanh Wang, Yongbiao Hu, Huizhong Sun, Julius Matsiko, Shucheng Zheng, Pu Wang, Qinghua Zhang
Spatial distribution, seasonal variation and potential inhalation risks of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs), polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) and polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) were investigated in the atmosphere of Beijing, using passive air samplers equipped with polyurethane foam disks. Concentrations of ΣPCDD/Fs, ΣPCBs and ΣPBDEs ranged from 8.4 to 179 fg WHO2005-TEQ/m(3), 38.6-139 and 1.5-176 pg/m(3), respectively. PCDFs showed higher air concentrations than those of PCDDs, indicating the influence of industrial activities and other combustion processes...
April 26, 2017: Environmental Geochemistry and Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447077/evidence-europe-2017-london-uk-february-22-23-2017
#16
A Kibble
As the political backdrop changes in both the U.S. and Europe, volatility in the pharma industry is beginning to be felt as the sector becomes sensitive to the uncertainty. U.S. President Trump has stated he will pursue an agenda against high U.S. drug prices and is expected to seek to repeal the Affordable Care Act, while in Europe, Brexit casts further unknowns in regulatory authorization procedures, trade and external reference pricing. With these factors in mind, Terrapin's Evidence Europe meeting provided for a very topical discussion on the use of evidence to define and communicate value in healthcare...
March 2017: Drugs of Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446552/a-european-respiratory-society-technical-standard-exhaled-biomarkers-in-lung-disease
#17
Ildiko Horváth, Peter J Barnes, Stelios Loukides, Peter J Sterk, Marieann Högman, Anna-Carin Olin, Anton Amann, Balazs Antus, Eugenio Baraldi, Andras Bikov, Agnes W Boots, Lieuwe D Bos, Paul Brinkman, Caterina Bucca, Giovanna E Carpagnano, Massimo Corradi, Simona Cristescu, Johan C de Jongste, Anh-Tuan Dinh-Xuan, Edward Dompeling, Niki Fens, Stephen Fowler, Jens M Hohlfeld, Olaf Holz, Quirijn Jöbsis, Kim Van De Kant, Hugo H Knobel, Konstantinos Kostikas, Lauri Lehtimäki, Jon Lundberg, Paolo Montuschi, Alain Van Muylem, Giorgio Pennazza, Petra Reinhold, Fabio L M Ricciardolo, Philippe Rosias, Marco Santonico, Marc P van der Schee, Frederik-Jan van Schooten, Antonio Spanevello, Thomy Tonia, Teunis J Vink
Breath tests cover the fraction of nitric oxide in expired gas (FeNO), volatile organic compounds (VOCs), variables in exhaled breath condensate (EBC) and other measurements. For EBC and for FeNO, official recommendations for standardised procedures are more than 10 years old and there is none for exhaled VOCs and particles. The aim of this document is to provide technical standards and recommendations for sample collection and analytic approaches and to highlight future research priorities in the field. For EBC and FeNO, new developments and advances in technology have been evaluated in the current document...
April 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446315/-research-on-relation-of-platelet-aggregation-rate-with-platelet-concentration-in-platelet-rich-plasma
#18
Song-Mei Han, Wen-Li Liao, Shuai Yu
OBJECTIVE: To explore the effect of platelet concentration in platelet-rich plasma (PRP)' on platelet aggregation rate, to determine the allowed range of inducer adenosine diphosphate (ADP: 5.0 µmol/L, ADP: 1.5 µmol/L) and arachidonic acid (AA: 500.0 µg/ml) for platelet concentration in platelet aggregation rate. METHODS: The venous blood samples of 72 healthy persons with citrate anticoagulation were selected and divided into groups, every 12 cases were mixed for each group...
April 2017: Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue za Zhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444952/similarity-in-volatile-communities-leads-to-increased-herbivory-and-greater-tropical-forest-diversity
#19
Tara Joy Massad, Marcílio Martins de Moraes, Casey Philbin, Celso Oliveira, Gerardo Cebrian Torrejon, Lydia Fumiko Yamaguchi, Christopher S Jeffrey, Lee A Dyer, Lora A Richards, Massuo Jorge Kato
A longstanding paradigm in ecology is that there are positive associations between herbivore diversity, specialization, and plant species diversity, with a focus on taxonomic diversity. However, phytochemical diversity is also an informative metric, as insect herbivores interact with host-plants not as taxonomic entities, but as sources of nutrients, primary metabolites, and mixtures of attractant and repellant chemicals. The present research examines herbivore responses to phytochemical diversity measured as volatile similarity in the tropical genus Piper...
April 26, 2017: Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444804/effect-of-resistant-starch-on-the-intestinal-health-of-old-dogs-fermentation-products-and-histological-features-of-the-intestinal-mucosa
#20
M C Peixoto, É M Ribeiro, A P J Maria, B A Loureiro, L G di Santo, T C Putarov, F N Yoshitoshi, G T Pereira, L R M Sá, A C Carciofi
The effects of resistant starch (RS) intake on nutrient digestibility, microbial fermentation products, faecal IgA, faecal pH, and histological features of the intestinal mucosa of old dogs were evaluated. The same formulation was extruded in two different conditions: one to obtain elevated starch cooking degree with low RS content (0.21%) and the other lower starch cooking with high RS content (1.46%). Eight geriatric Beagles (11.5 ± 0.38 years old) were fed each diet for 61 days in a crossover design...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
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