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Granger causality

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28819676/granger-causality-supports-abnormal-functional-connectivity-of-beta-oscillations-in-the-dorsolateral-striatum-and-substantia-nigra-pars-reticulata-in-hemiparkinsonian-rats
#1
Qiang Wang, Min Li, Zhengyuan Xie, Junbin Cai, Nanxiang Li, Hu Xiao, Ning Wang, Jinyan Wang, Fei Luo, Wangming Zhang
Synchronized oscillatory neuronal activity in the beta frequency range has been reported in the basal ganglia (BG) of patients with Parkinson disease (PD) and PD animal models. The coherent abnormal oscillatory activities in the dorsolateral striatum (dStr) and substantia nigra pars reticulata (SNr) that accompany parkinsonian states have not been resolved. In this study, we recorded local field potentials (LFPs) in the dStr and SNr of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced dopamine (DA)-lesioned rats in an awake, resting state...
August 17, 2017: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809833/application-of-granger-causality-analysis-of-the-directed-functional-connection-in-alzheimer-s-disease-and-mild-cognitive-impairment
#2
Mei Wang, Zhengluan Liao, Dewang Mao, Qi Zhang, Yumei Li, Enyan Yu, Zhongxiang Ding
Impaired functional connectivity in the Default Mode Network (DMN) may be involved in the progression of Alzheimer's Disease (AD). The Posterior Cingulate Cortex (PCC) is a potential imaging marker for monitoring the progression of AD. Previous studies did not focus on the functional connectivity between the PCC and nodes in regions outside the DMN, but our study is an effort to explore these overlooked functional connections. For collecting data, we used functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) and Granger Causality Analysis (GCA)...
August 7, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809668/tractography-based-score-for-learning-effective-connectivity-from-multimodal-imaging-data-using-dynamic-bayesian-networks
#3
Shilpa Dang, Santanu Chaudhury, Brejesh Lall, Prasun K Roy
OBJECTIVE: Effective connectivity (EC) is the methodology for determining functional-integration among the functionally-active segregated regions of the brain. By definition [1] EC is "the causal influence exerted by one neuronal group on another" which is constrained by anatomical connectivity (AC) (axonal connections). AC is necessary for EC but does not fully determine it, because synaptic communication occurs dynamically in a context-dependent fashion. Although there is a vast emerging evidence of structure-function relationship using multimodal imaging studies, till date only a few studies have done joint modelling of the two modalities: functional MRI (fMRI) and Diffusion Tensor Imaging (DTI)...
August 10, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Bio-medical Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800575/disruption-of-frontal-parietal-connectivity-during-conscious-sedation-by-propofol-administration
#4
Pil-Jong Kim, Hong-Gee Kim, Gyu-Jeong Noh, Yong-Seo Koo, Teo Jeon Shin
The sedative state is a transitional state from wakefulness to general anesthesia. However, little is understood regarding the mechanism of conscious sedation, different from general anesthesia while maintaining wakefulness. In this study, we aimed to investigate changes in functional connectivity of the parietal-frontal network, implicated in wakefulness during conscious sedation induced by propofol infusion. The electroencephalography was obtained at the frontal and parietal areas of adult volunteers who maintain wakefulness during low-dose propofol infusion (1...
August 10, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759567/functional-neural-circuits-that-underlie-developmental-stuttering
#5
Jianping Qiao, Zhishun Wang, Guihu Zhao, Yuankai Huo, Carl L Herder, Chamonix O Sikora, Bradley S Peterson
The aim of this study was to identify differences in functional and effective brain connectivity between persons who stutter (PWS) and typically developing (TD) fluent speakers, and to assess whether those differences can serve as biomarkers to distinguish PWS from TD controls. We acquired resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging data in 44 PWS and 50 TD controls. We then used Independent Component Analysis (ICA) together with Hierarchical Partner Matching (HPM) to identify networks of robust, functionally connected brain regions that were highly reproducible across participants, and we assessed whether connectivity differed significantly across diagnostic groups...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28753507/an-integrated-specification-for-the-nexus-of-water-pollution-and-economic-growth-in-china-panel-cointegration-long-run-causality-and-environmental-kuznets-curve
#6
Chen Zhang, Yuan Wang, Xiaowei Song, Jumpei Kubota, Yanmin He, Junji Tojo, Xiaodong Zhu
This paper concentrates on a Chinese context and makes efforts to develop an integrated process to explicitly elucidate the relationship between economic growth and water pollution discharge-chemical oxygen demand (COD) discharge and ammonia nitrogen (NH3-N), using two unbalanced panel data sets covering the period separately from 1990 to 2014, and 2001 to 2014. In our present study, the panel unit root tests, cointegration tests, and Granger causality tests allowing for cross-sectional dependence, nonstationary, and heterogeneity are conducted to examine the causal effects of economic growth on COD/NH3-N discharge...
July 25, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28742849/joint-action-aesthetics
#7
Staci Vicary, Matthias Sperling, Jorina von Zimmermann, Daniel C Richardson, Guido Orgs
Synchronized movement is a ubiquitous feature of dance and music performance. Much research into the evolutionary origins of these cultural practices has focused on why humans perform rather than watch or listen to dance and music. In this study, we show that movement synchrony among a group of performers predicts the aesthetic appreciation of live dance performances. We developed a choreography that continuously manipulated group synchronization using a defined movement vocabulary based on arm swinging, walking and running...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28729831/investigating-focal-connectivity-deficits-in-alzheimer-s-disease-using-directional-brain-networks-derived-from-resting-state-fmri
#8
Sinan Zhao, D Rangaprakash, Archana Venkataraman, Peipeng Liang, Gopikrishna Deshpande
Connectivity analysis of resting-state fMRI has been widely used to identify biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD) based on brain network aberrations. However, it is not straightforward to interpret such connectivity results since our understanding of brain functioning relies on regional properties (activations and morphometric changes) more than connections. Further, from an interventional standpoint, it is easier to modulate the activity of regions (using brain stimulation, neurofeedback, etc.) rather than connections...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713396/system-level-and-granger-network-analysis-of-integrated-proteomic-and-metabolomic-dynamics-identifies-key-points-of-grape-berry-development-at-the-interface-of-primary-and-secondary-metabolism
#9
Lei Wang, Xiaoliang Sun, Jakob Weiszmann, Wolfram Weckwerth
Grapevine is a fruit crop with worldwide economic importance. The grape berry undergoes complex biochemical changes from fruit set until ripening. This ripening process and production processes define the wine quality. Thus, a thorough understanding of berry ripening is crucial for the prediction of wine quality. For a systemic analysis of grape berry development we applied mass spectrometry based platforms to analyse the metabolome and proteome of Early Campbell at 12 stages covering major developmental phases...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713237/behavioral-and-neural-correlates-of-executive-function-interplay-between-inhibition-and-updating-processes
#10
Na Young Kim, Ellen Wittenberg, Chang S Nam
This study investigated the interaction between two executive function processes, inhibition and updating, through analyses of behavioral, neurophysiological, and effective connectivity metrics. Although, many studies have focused on behavioral effects of executive function processes individually, few studies have examined the dynamic causal interactions between these two functions. A total of twenty participants from a local university performed a dual task combing flanker and n-back experimental paradigms, and completed the Operation Span Task designed to measure working memory capacity...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28708870/assessment-of-resampling-methods-for-causality-testing-a-note-on-the-us-inflation-behavior
#11
Angeliki Papana, Catherine Kyrtsou, Dimitris Kugiumtzis, Cees Diks
Different resampling methods for the null hypothesis of no Granger causality are assessed in the setting of multivariate time series, taking into account that the driving-response coupling is conditioned on the other observed variables. As appropriate test statistic for this setting, the partial transfer entropy (PTE), an information and model-free measure, is used. Two resampling techniques, time-shifted surrogates and the stationary bootstrap, are combined with three independence settings (giving a total of six resampling methods), all approximating the null hypothesis of no Granger causality...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28705767/common-and-distinct-dysfunctional-patterns-contribute-to-triple-network-model-in-schizophrenia-and-depression-a-preliminary-study
#12
Yuchao Jiang, Mingjun Duan, Xi Chen, Xin Chang, Hui He, YingJia Li, Cheng Luo, Dezhong Yao
BACKGROUND: Schizophrenia (SCH) and depression (DEP) are prevalent psychiatric disorders and share common and distinguished elements in their pathophysiology. A triple network model composed of the default mode network (DMN), salience network (SN) and central executive network (CEN) may represent a major abnormality across several psychiatric disorders including SCH and DEP. However, common and distinct dysfunctional patterns between SCH and DEP across three core networks remain unclear...
July 10, 2017: Progress in Neuro-psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698376/frequency-specific-directed-interactions-in-the-human-brain-network-for-language
#13
Jan-Mathijs Schoffelen, Annika Hultén, Nietzsche Lam, André F Marquand, Julia Uddén, Peter Hagoort
The brain's remarkable capacity for language requires bidirectional interactions between functionally specialized brain regions. We used magnetoencephalography to investigate interregional interactions in the brain network for language while 102 participants were reading sentences. Using Granger causality analysis, we identified inferior frontal cortex and anterior temporal regions to receive widespread input and middle temporal regions to send widespread output. This fits well with the notion that these regions play a central role in language processing...
July 25, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698280/glycemic-control-after-metabolic-surgery-a-granger-causality-and-graph-analysis
#14
Elena Previti, Serenella Salinari, Alessandro Bertuzzi, Esmeralda Capristo, Stefan Bornstein, Geltrude Mingrone
To examine the contribution of Non-Esterified Fatty-Acids (NEFA) and incretin to insulin-resistance and diabetes amelioration after malabsorptive metabolic-surgery that dramatically reduces circulating NEFA. In fact, NEFA infusion reduces glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and high-fat diets predict diabetes development. Six healthy-controls, 11 obese and 10 Type-2-Diabetic (T2D) subjects were studied before and 1 month after Bilio-Pancreatic Diversion (BPD). Twenty-four hours plasma glucose, NEFA, insulin, C-peptide, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP1) and gastric-inhibitory-polypeptide (GIP) time courses were obtained and analyzed by Granger causality and graph analyses...
July 11, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28690507/the-relationship-between-intrinsic-couplings-of-the-visual-word-form-area-with-spoken-language-network-and-reading-ability-in-children-and-adults
#15
Yu Li, Linjun Zhang, Zhichao Xia, Jie Yang, Hua Shu, Ping Li
Reading plays a key role in education and communication in modern society. Learning to read establishes the connections between the visual word form area (VWFA) and language areas responsible for speech processing. Using resting-state functional connectivity (RSFC) and Granger Causality Analysis (GCA) methods, the current developmental study aimed to identify the difference in the relationship between the connections of VWFA-language areas and reading performance in both adults and children. The results showed that: (1) the spontaneous connectivity between VWFA and the spoken language areas, i...
2017: Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687605/alterations-in-functional-cortical-hierarchy-in-hemiparkinsonian-rats
#16
B N Jávor-Duray, M Vinck, M van der Roest, E Bezard, H W Berendse, T Boraud, P Voorn
Parkinson's disease and experimentally induced hemiparkinsonism are characterized by increased beta-synchronization between cortical and subcortical areas. This change in beta-connectivity might reflect either a symmetric increase in interareal influences or asymmetric changes in directed influences among brain areas. We assessed patterns of functional and directed connectivity within and between striatum and six cortical sites in each hemisphere of the hemiparkinsonian rat model. Local field potentials were recorded in resting and walking states, before and after unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine lesion...
July 7, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28687522/dimension-reduction-of-frequency-based-direct-granger-causality-measures-on-short-time-series
#17
Elsa Siggiridou, Vasilios K Kimiskidis, Dimitris Kugiumtzis
BACKGROUND: The mainstream in the estimation of effective brain connectivity relies on Granger causality measures in the frequency domain. If the measure is meant to capture direct causal effects accounting for the presence of other observed variables, as in multi-channel electroencephalograms (EEG), typically the fit of a vector autoregressive (VAR) model on the multivariate time series is required. For short time series of many variables, the estimation of VAR may not be stable requiring dimension reduction resulting in restricted or sparse VAR models...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28674507/impaired-coupling-between-the-dorsomedial-prefrontal-cortex-and-the-amygdala-in-schizophrenia-smokers-viewing-anti-smoking-images
#18
Stéphane Potvin, Andràs Tikàsz, Ovidiu Lungu, Emmanuel Stip, Vesséla Zaharieva, Pierre Lalonde, Olivier Lipp, Adrianna Mendrek
BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoking is highly prevalent in schizophrenia and is one of the main factors contributing to the significantly decreased life expectancy in this population. Schizophrenia smokers, compared to their counterparts with no comorbid psychiatric disorder, are largely unaware and indifferent to the long-term negative consequences of cigarette smoking. The objective of this study was to determine, for the first time, if these meta-cognitive deficits are associated with neuro-functional alterations in schizophrenia smokers...
2017: Frontiers in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660667/pivotal-role-of-hmt-in-long-range-disambiguation-of-interhemispheric-bistable-surface-motion
#19
João Valente Duarte, Gabriel Nascimento Costa, Ricardo Martins, Miguel Castelo-Branco
It remains an open question whether long-range disambiguation of ambiguous surface motion can be achieved in early visual cortex or instead in higher level regions, which concerns object/surface segmentation/integration mechanisms. We used a bistable moving stimulus that can be perceived as a pattern comprehending both visual hemi-fields moving coherently downward or as two widely segregated nonoverlapping component objects (in each visual hemi-field) moving separately inward. This paradigm requires long-range integration across the vertical meridian leading to interhemispheric binding...
June 28, 2017: Human Brain Mapping
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28654771/trajectories-of-social-anxiety-cognitive-reappraisal-and-mindfulness-during-an-rct-of-cbgt-versus-mbsr-for-social-anxiety-disorder
#20
Philippe R Goldin, Amanda S Morrison, Hooria Jazaieri, Richard G Heimberg, James J Gross
Cognitive-Behavioral Group Therapy (CBGT) and Mindfulness-Based Stress Reduction (MBSR) are efficacious in treating social anxiety disorder (SAD). It is not yet clear, however, whether they share similar trajectories of change and underlying mechanisms in the context of SAD. This randomized controlled study of 108 unmedicated adults with generalized SAD investigated the impact of CBGT vs. MBSR on trajectories of social anxiety, cognitive reappraisal, and mindfulness during 12 weeks of treatment. CBGT and MBSR produced similar trajectories showing decreases in social anxiety and increases in reappraisal (changing the way of thinking) and mindfulness (mindful attitude)...
June 3, 2017: Behaviour Research and Therapy
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