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Granger causality

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29675896/verbal-working-memory-related-neural-network-communication-in-schizophrenia
#1
Thomas Kustermann, Tzvetan Popov, Gregory A Miller, Brigitte Rockstroh
Impaired working memory (WM) in schizophrenia is associated with reduced hemodynamic and electromagnetic activity and altered network connectivity within and between memory-associated neural networks. The present study sought to determine whether schizophrenia involves disruption of a frontal-parietal network normally supporting WM and/or involvement of another brain network. Nineteen schizophrenia patients (SZ) and 19 healthy comparison subjects (HC) participated in a cued visual-verbal Sternberg task while dense-array EEG was recorded...
April 19, 2018: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29674792/militarism-and-globalization-is-there-an-empirical-link
#2
Manuchehr Irandoust
Despite the fact that previous studies have extensively investigated the causal nexus between military expenditure and economic growth in both developed and developing countries, those studies have not considered the role of globalization. The aim of this study is to examine the relationship between militarism and globalization for the top 15 military expenditure spenders over the period 1990-2012. The bootstrap panel Granger causality approach is utilized to detect the direction of causality. The results show that military expenditure and overall globalization are causally related in most of the countries under review...
2018: Quality & Quantity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29668325/is-cushing-mechanism-a-dynamic-blood-pressure-stabilizing-system-insights-from-granger-causality-analysis-of-spontaneous-blood-pressure-and-cerebral-blood-flow
#3
Saqib Saleem, Paul D Teal, Connor A Howe, Michael M Tymko, Philip N Ainslie, Yu-Chieh Tzeng
Blood pressure regulation is widely recognised as being integral to the control of end-organ perfusion but it remains unclear whether end-organ perfusion also plays a role in driving changes in blood pressure (BP). A randomized and placebo controlled study design was followed to examine the feedback relationships between very-low-frequency fluctuations in BP and cerebral blood flow (CBF) in humans under placebo treatment and α1-adrenergic blockade. To determine the causal relations among haemodynamic variables, BP, middle cerebral artery blood velocity (MCAv), and end-tidal CO2 time-series were decimated, low-pass filtered (<0...
April 18, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29657804/modelling-cointegration-and-granger-causality-network-to-detect-long-term-equilibrium-and-diffusion-paths-in-the-financial-system
#4
Xiangyun Gao, Shupei Huang, Xiaoqi Sun, Xiaoqing Hao, Feng An
Microscopic factors are the basis of macroscopic phenomena. We proposed a network analysis paradigm to study the macroscopic financial system from a microstructure perspective. We built the cointegration network model and the Granger causality network model based on econometrics and complex network theory and chose stock price time series of the real estate industry and its upstream and downstream industries as empirical sample data. Then, we analysed the cointegration network for understanding the steady long-term equilibrium relationships and analysed the Granger causality network for identifying the diffusion paths of the potential risks in the system...
March 2018: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29615790/multivariate-granger-causality-unveils-directed-parietal-to-prefrontal-cortex-connectivity-during-task-free-mri
#5
Andrea Duggento, Luca Passamonti, Gaetano Valenza, Riccardo Barbieri, Maria Guerrisi, Nicola Toschi
While a large body of research has focused on the study of functional brain "connectivity", few investigators have focused on directionality of brain-brain interactions which, in spite of the mostly bidirectional anatomical substrates, cannot be assumed to be symmetrical. We employ a multivariate Granger Causality-based approach to estimating directed in-network interactions and quantify its advantages using extensive realistic synthetic BOLD data simulations to match Human Connectome Project (HCP) data specification...
April 3, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29610104/a-copula-based-granger-causality-measure-for-the-analysis-of-neural-spike-train-data
#6
Meng Hu, Wu Li, Hualou Liang
In systems neuroscience, it is becoming increasingly common to record the activity of hundreds of neurons simultaneously via electrode arrays. The ability to accurately measure the causal interactions among multiple neurons in the brain is crucial to understanding how neurons work in concert to generate specific brain functions. The development of new statistical methods for assessing causal influence between spike trains is still an active field of neuroscience research. Here, we suggest a copula-based Granger causality measure for the analysis of neural spike train data...
March 2018: IEEE/ACM Transactions on Computational Biology and Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29564025/decoding-the-different-states-of-visual-attention-using-functional-and-effective-connectivity-features-in-fmri-data
#7
Behdad Parhizi, Mohammad Reza Daliri, Mehdi Behroozi
The present paper concentrates on the impact of visual attention task on structure of the brain functional and effective connectivity networks using coherence and Granger causality methods. Since most studies used correlation method and resting-state functional connectivity, the task-based approach was selected for this experiment to boost our knowledge of spatial and feature-based attention. In the present study, the whole brain was divided into 82 sub-regions based on Brodmann areas. The coherence and Granger causality were applied to construct functional and effective connectivity matrices...
April 2018: Cognitive Neurodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29563869/altered-brain-functional-hubs-and-connectivity-in-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-patients-a-resting-state-fmri-study
#8
Daihong Liu, Shanshan Duan, Chaoyang Zhou, Ping Wei, Lihua Chen, Xuntao Yin, Jiuquan Zhang, Jian Wang
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) affects a vast population and is closely associated with cognitive impairment. However, the mechanisms of cognitive impairment in T2DM patients have not been unraveled. Research on the basic units (nodes or hubs and edges) of the brain functional network on the basis of neuroimaging may advance our understanding of the network change pattern in T2DM patients. This study investigated the change patterns of brain functional hubs using degree centrality (DC) analysis and the connectivity among these hubs using functional connectivity and Granger causality analysis...
2018: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29559923/bidirectional-cardio-respiratory-interactions-in-heart-failure
#9
Nikola N Radovanović, Siniša U Pavlović, Goran Milašinović, Bratislav Kirćanski, Mirjana M Platiša
We investigated cardio-respiratory coupling in patients with heart failure by quantification of bidirectional interactions between cardiac (RR intervals) and respiratory signals with complementary measures of time series analysis. Heart failure patients were divided into three groups of twenty, age and gender matched, subjects: with sinus rhythm (HF-Sin), with sinus rhythm and ventricular extrasystoles (HF-VES), and with permanent atrial fibrillation (HF-AF). We included patients with indication for implantation of implantable cardioverter defibrillator or cardiac resynchronization therapy device...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29557928/altered-connectivity-of-the-right-anterior-insula-drives-the-pain-connectome-changes-in-chronic-knee-osteoarthritis
#10
William J Cottam, Sarina J Iwabuchi, Marianne M Drabek, Diane Reckziegel, Dorothee P Auer
Resting-state functional connectivity (FC) has proven a powerful approach to understand the neural underpinnings of chronic pain, reporting altered connectivity in three main networks: the default mode (DMN), central executive (CEN), and the salience network (SN). The interrelation and possible mechanisms of these changes are less well understood in chronic pain. Based on emerging evidence of its role to drive switches between network states, the right anterior insula (rAI, an SN hub) may play a dominant role in network connectivity changes underpinning chronic pain...
March 16, 2018: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554882/pre-industrial-plague-transmission-is-mediated-by-the-synergistic-effect-of-temperature-and-aridity-index
#11
Ricci P H Yue, Harry F Lee
BACKGROUND: Although the linkage between climate change and plague transmission has been proposed in previous studies, the dominant approach has been to address the linkage with traditional statistical methods, while the possible non-linearity, non-stationarity and low frequency domain of the linkage has not been fully considered. We seek to address the above issue by investigating plague transmission in pre-industrial Europe (AD1347-1760) at both continental and country levels. METHODS: We apply Granger Causality Analysis to identify the casual relationship between climatic variables and plague outbreaks...
March 20, 2018: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29549664/altered-effective-connectivity-anchored-in-the-posterior-cingulate-cortex-and-the-medial-prefrontal-cortex-in-cognitively-intact-elderly-apoe-%C3%AE%C2%B54-carriers-a-preliminary-study
#12
Xiao Luo, Kaicheng Li, Y L Jia, Qingze Zeng, Yeerfan Jiaerken, Tiantian Qiu, Peiyu Huang, Xiaojun Xu, Zhujing Shen, Xiaojun Guan, Jiong Zhou, Chao Wang, J J Xu, Minming Zhang
The APOE ε4 allele is associated with impaired intrinsic functional connectivity in neural networks, especially in the default mode network (DMN). However, effective connectivity (EC) reflects the direct causal effects of one brain region to another, which has rarely been investigated. Recently, Granger causality analysis (GCA) proved suitable for the study of directionality in neuronal interactions. Using GCA, we examined the differences in the EC between the anterior medial prefrontal cortex/posterior cingulate cortex (aMPFC/PCC) and the whole brain in 17 ε4 carrying and 32 non-carrying cognitively intact elderly individuals...
March 17, 2018: Brain Imaging and Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29542141/time-frequency-and-time-varying-granger-causality-measures-in-neuroscience
#13
Sezen Cekic, Didier Grandjean, Olivier Renaud
This article proposes a systematic methodological review and an objective criticism of existing methods enabling the derivation of time, frequency, and time-varying Granger-causality statistics in neuroscience. The capacity to describe the causal links between signals recorded at different brain locations during a neuroscience experiment is indeed of primary interest for neuroscientists, who often have very precise prior hypotheses about the relationships between recorded brain signals. The increasing interest and the huge number of publications related to this topic calls for this systematic review, which describes the very complex methodological aspects underlying the derivation of these statistics...
March 15, 2018: Statistics in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29541686/isoflurane-impairs-low-frequency-feedback-but-leaves-high-frequency-feedforward-connectivity-intact-in-the-fly-brain
#14
Dror Cohen, Bruno van Swinderen, Naotsugu Tsuchiya
Hierarchically organized brains communicate through feedforward (FF) and feedback (FB) pathways. In mammals, FF and FB are mediated by higher and lower frequencies during wakefulness. FB is preferentially impaired by general anesthetics in multiple mammalian species. This suggests FB serves critical functions in waking brains. The brain of Drosophila melanogaster (fruit fly) is also hierarchically organized, but the presence of FB in these brains is not established. Here, we studied FB in the fly brain, by simultaneously recording local field potentials (LFPs) from low-order peripheral structures and higher-order central structures...
January 2018: ENeuro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29535614/large-scale-brain-networks-supporting-divided-attention-across-spatial-locations-and-sensory-modalities
#15
Valerio Santangelo
Higher-order cognitive processes were shown to rely on the interplay between large-scale neural networks. However, brain networks involved with the capability to split attentional resource over multiple spatial locations and multiple stimuli or sensory modalities have been largely unexplored to date. Here I re-analyzed data from Santangelo et al. (2010) to explore the causal interactions between large-scale brain networks during divided attention. During fMRI scanning, participants monitored streams of visual and/or auditory stimuli in one or two spatial locations for detection of occasional targets...
2018: Frontiers in Integrative Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29529092/a-dynamic-analysis-of-s-p-500-ftse-100-and-euro-stoxx-50-indices-under-different-exchange-rates
#16
Yanhua Chen, Rosario N Mantegna, Athanasios A Pantelous, Konstantin M Zuev
In this study, we assess the dynamic evolution of short-term correlation, long-term cointegration and Error Correction Model (hereafter referred to as ECM)-based long-term Granger causality between each pair of US, UK, and Eurozone stock markets from 1980 to 2015 using the rolling-window technique. A comparative analysis of pairwise dynamic integration and causality of stock markets, measured in common and domestic currency terms, is conducted to evaluate comprehensively how exchange rate fluctuations affect the time-varying integration among the S&P 500, FTSE 100 and EURO STOXX 50 indices...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29517685/the-altered-granger-causality-connection-among-pain-related-brain-networks-in-migraine
#17
Yanzhe Ning, Ruwen Zheng, Kuangshi Li, Yong Zhang, Diyang Lyu, Hongxiao Jia, Yi Ren, Yihuai Zou
Numerous fMRI studies have confirmed functional abnormalities in resting-state brain networks in migraine patients. However, few studies focusing on causal relationships of pain-related brain networks in migraine have been conducted. This study aims to explore the difference of Granger causality connection among pain-related brain networks in migraine without aura (MWoA) patients.Twenty two MWoA patients and 17 matched healthy subjects were recruited to undergo resting-state fMRI scanning. Independent component analysis was used to extract pain-related brain networks, and Granger causality analysis to characterize the difference of Granger causality connection among pain-related brain networks was employed...
March 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29516420/does-agricultural-ecosystem-cause-environmental-pollution-in-pakistan-promise-and-menace
#18
Arif Ullah, Dilawar Khan, Imran Khan, Shaofeng Zheng
The increasing trend of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2 ) is the main cause of harmful anthropogenic greenhouse gas emissions, which may result in environmental pollution, global warming, and climate change. These issues are expected to adversely affect the agricultural ecosystem and well-being of the society. In order to minimize food insecurity and prevent hunger, a timely adaptation is desirable to reduce potential losses and to seek alternatives for promoting a global knowledge system for agricultural sustainability...
March 7, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29492823/impact-of-military-on-biofuels-consumption-and-ghg-emissions-the-evidence-from-g7-countries
#19
Melike Bildirici
It was aimed to test the relation among the greenhouse gases emissions, economic growth, biofuels consumption, and militarization in G7 countries during the 1985-2015 period by Pedroni 1995 and panel Johansen tests and two long-run estimators-dynamic OLS and fully modified OLS. Long-run estimators found that economic growth and militarization have statistically significant positive impact on CO2 emission of G7 countries. Furthermore, the panel causality tests were applied: Dumitrescu and Hurlin (Econ Model 29(4):1450-1460, 2012) and panel Granger causality...
March 1, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29484255/brain-resting-state-networks-in-adolescents-with-high-functioning-autism-analysis-of-spatial-connectivity-and-temporal-neurodynamics
#20
Antoine Bernas, Evelien M Barendse, Albert P Aldenkamp, Walter H Backes, Paul A M Hofman, Marc P H Hendriks, Roy P C Kessels, Frans M J Willems, Peter H N de With, Svitlana Zinger, Jacobus F A Jansen
Introduction: Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is mainly characterized by functional and communication impairments as well as restrictive and repetitive behavior. The leading hypothesis for the neural basis of autism postulates globally abnormal brain connectivity, which can be assessed using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Even in the absence of a task, the brain exhibits a high degree of functional connectivity, known as intrinsic, or resting-state, connectivity. Global default connectivity in individuals with autism versus controls is not well characterized, especially for a high-functioning young population...
February 2018: Brain and Behavior
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