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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897997/thermal-resilience-of-feeding-kinematics-may-contribute-to-the-spread-of-invasive-fishes-in-light-of-climate-change
#1
Ralph Turingan, Tyler Sloan
As a consequence of global warming, tropical invasive species are expected to expand their range pole-ward, extending their negative impacts to previously undisturbed, high-latitude ecosystems. Investigating the physiological responses of invasive species to environmental temperature is important because the coupled effects of climate change and species invasion on ecosystems could be more alarming than the effects of each phenomenon independently. Especially in poikilotherms, the rate of motion in muscle-driven biomechanical systems is expected to double for every 10 °C increase in temperature...
November 25, 2016: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896214/a-case-of-severe-mandibular-retrognathism-with-bilateral-condylar-deformities-treated-with-le-fort-i-osteotomy-and-two-advancement-genioplasty-procedures
#2
Masahiro Nakamura, Takeshi Yanagita, Tatsushi Matsumura, Takashi Yamashiro, Seiji Iida, Hiroshi Kamioka
We report a case involving a young female patient with severe mandibular retrognathism accompanied by mandibular condylar deformity that was effectively treated with Le Fort I osteotomy and two genioplasty procedures. At 9 years and 9 months of age, she was diagnosed with Angle Class III malocclusion, a skeletal Class II jaw relationship, an anterior crossbite, congenital absence of some teeth, and a left-sided cleft lip and palate. Although the anterior crossbite and narrow maxillary arch were corrected by interceptive orthodontic treatment, severe mandibular hypogrowth resulted in unexpectedly severe mandibular retrognathism after growth completion...
November 2016: Korean Journal of Orthodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27883179/evidence-that-an-internal-schema-adapts-swallowing-to-upper-airway-requirements
#3
Seng Mun Wong, Rickie J Domangue, Sidney Fels, Christy L Ludlow
Hyoid and laryngeal movements contribute to laryngeal vestibule closure and upper esophageal sphincter opening during swallowing. Evidence of an internal sensorimotor scaling system allowing individuals to achieve these functional goals is lacking. In speech, speakers adjust their articulatory movement magnitude according to the movement distance required to reach an articulatory target for intelligible speech. We investigated if swallowing is similar in that movement amplitude may be scaled by the functional goal for airway protection during swallowing, rather than by head and neck size...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869350/skeletogenesis-of-myiopsitta-monachus-psittaciformes-and-sequence-heterochronies-in-aves
#4
Julieta Carril, Claudia P Tambussi
The ossification sequence of Myiopsitta monachus was determined. Myiopsitta has a similar sequence to other altricial birds, with delayed skeletons compared to precocial species. The hindlimbs ossify before the forelimbs, a condition that could be linked to altriciality. To determine the stability of the sequences of ossification across birds, we selected species of different groups of Aves and used event-pairing method and character mapping on a phylogeny. Our results show that the homogeneity in the development of birds was supported by 56...
November 21, 2016: Evolution & Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861931/effect-of-genioglossus-geniohyoid-and-digastric-advancement-on-tongue-base-and-hyoid-position
#5
Emily A Kutzner, Christelle Miot, Yuan Liu, Elizabeth Renk, Joshua S Park, Jared C Inman
OBJECTIVES/HYPOTHESIS: To assess the effect of genioglossus, geniohyoid, and anterior digastric muscle advancement on base of tongue and hyoid position. STUDY DESIGN: Cadaver experiments. METHODS: In fresh cadavers, the mandibular attachments of the genioglossus, geniohyoid, and anterior digastric muscles were advanced anteriorly by 6, 10, or 14 mm, and the anterior displacement of the base of tongue and hyoid was measured. The degrees of displacement of the tongue base and hyoid by the individual muscles and combinations of muscles were compared to one another...
November 9, 2016: Laryngoscope
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858156/a-supporting-platform-for-semi-automatic-hyoid-bone-tracking-and-parameter-extraction-from-videofluoroscopic-images-for-the-diagnosis-of-dysphagia-patients
#6
Jun Chang Lee, Kyoung Won Nam, Dong Pyo Jang, Nam Jong Paik, Ju Seok Ryu, In Young Kim
Conventional kinematic analysis of videofluoroscopic (VF) swallowing image, most popular for dysphagia diagnosis, requires time-consuming and repetitive manual extraction of diagnostic information from multiple images representing one swallowing period, which results in a heavy work load for clinicians and excessive hospital visits for patients to receive counseling and prescriptions. In this study, a software platform was developed that can assist in the VF diagnosis of dysphagia by automatically extracting a two-dimensional moving trajectory of the hyoid bone as well as 11 temporal and kinematic parameters...
November 17, 2016: Dysphagia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27858088/specific-branches-of-hypoglossal-nerve-to-genioglossus-muscle-as-a-potential-target-of-selective-neurostimulation-in-obstructive-sleep-apnea-anatomical-and-morphometric-study
#7
Philippe Delaey, Jérôme Duisit, Catherine Behets, Thierry Duprez, Pierre Gianello, Benoît Lengelé
PURPOSE: To determine the ideal implantation site for selective tongue neurostimulation in obstructive sleep apnea, anatomy of the distal branching of the hypoglossal nerve (HGN) was revisited. METHODS: The HGN distal course and intramuscular distribution to the tongue muscles were studied in 17 embalmed and 5 fresh heads (age 60-98, BMI 20-35). Medial branches supplying selectively the genioglossus (GG) muscle were identified. Then, the distinct bundles entering the oblique (GGo) and horizontal (GGh) parts of the GG were located...
November 17, 2016: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848021/impact-of-compliance-on-dysphagia-rehabilitation-in-head-and-neck-cancer-patients-results-from-a-multi-center-clinical-trial
#8
Gintas P Krisciunas, Kerlly Castellano, Timothy M McCulloch, Cathy L Lazarus, Barbara R Pauloski, Tanya K Meyer, Darlene Graner, Douglas J Van Daele, Alice K Silbergleit, Lisa R Crujido, Denis Rybin, Gheorghe Doros, Tamar Kotz, Susan E Langmore
A 5-year, 16-site, randomized controlled trial enrolled 170 HNC survivors into active (estim + swallow exercise) or control (sham estim + swallowing exercise) arms. Primary analyses showed that estim did not enhance swallowing exercises. This secondary analysis determined if/how patient compliance impacted outcomes. A home program, performed 2 times/day, 6 days/week, for 12 weeks included stretches and 60 swallows paired with real or sham estim. Regular clinic visits ensured proper exercise execution, and detailed therapy checklists tracked patient compliance which was defined by mean number of sessions performed per week (0-12 times) over the 12-week intervention period...
November 16, 2016: Dysphagia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27833328/a-rare-site-of-hyoid-bone-metastasis-in-patients-with-renal-cell-carcinoma-on-18-f-fluorodeoxyglucose-positron-emission-tomography-computed-tomography-scan
#9
Averilicia Passah, Krishan Kant Agarwal, Sreedharan Thankarajan ArunRaj, Rakesh Kumar, Chandrasekhar Bal
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 2016: Indian Journal of Nuclear Medicine: IJNM: the Official Journal of the Society of Nuclear Medicine, India
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832719/changes-in-posterior-airway-space-and-hyoid-bone-position-after-surgical-mandibular-advancement
#10
Anni Riepponen, Riitta Myllykangas, Jarno Savolainen, Pauli Kilpeläinen, Jari Kellokoski, Riitta Pahkala
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate cephalometric changes in posterior airway space (PAS) and in hyoid bone distance to mandibular plane (MP) 1-3 years after bilateral sagittal split osteotomy (BSSO). MATERIAL AND METHODS: The sample consisted of 36 females and 16 males who underwent mandibular advancement by BSSO. To observe sagittal changes in PAS and in hyoid bone distance to MP both pre- and postoperative cephalograms were analyzed using WinCeph(®) 8.0 software. For the statistical analyses paired T-test and multivariate logistic regression models were used...
November 10, 2016: Acta Odontologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27830322/configuration-of-the-extrinsic-muscles-of-the-tongue-and-their-spatial-interrelationships
#11
Yujiro Sakamoto
PURPOSE: The tongue is a highly muscular organ, and the extrinsic muscles of the tongue overlap one another, which makes their configuration intricate. The aim was to clarify their spatial interrelationships. METHODS: The extrinsic muscles of the tongue were gross anatomically investigated in 42 cadavers. RESULTS: The hyoglossus consisted of two parts arising from the hyoid body and the greater horn, respectively. They ascended to the tongue external to the genioglossus...
November 9, 2016: Surgical and Radiologic Anatomy: SRA
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27822944/swallowing-function-defined-by-videofluoroscopic-swallowing-studies-after-anterior-cervical-discectomy-and-fusion-a-prospective-study
#12
Si Hyun Kang, Don Kyu Kim, Kyung Mook Seo, Sang Yoon Lee, Seung Won Park, Yong Baeg Kim
This study evaluated factors related to swallowing dysfunction after anterior cervical discectomy and fusion (ACDF) using videofluoroscopic swallowing studies (VFSS). Preoperative and postoperative VFSSs were done with 5 mL diluted barium. Oral transit time, pharyngeal delay time, pharyngeal response time (PRT), and pharyngeal transit time were measured. Hyoid bone movement and upper esophageal sphincter (UES) diameter were measured serially. Thickness of prevertebral soft tissue was measured from digitized VFSS images...
December 2016: Journal of Korean Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811760/a-new-subfamily-styracurinae-and-new-genus-styracura-for-himantura%C3%A2-schmardae-werner-1904-and-himantura-pacifica-beebe-tee-van-1941-chondrichthyes-myliobatiformes
#13
Marcelo R De Carvalho, Thiago S Loboda, João Paulo C B Da Silva
A new subfamily (Styracurinae, subfam. nov.) and genus (Styracura, gen. nov.) are erected for Trygon schmardae Werner, 1904 (type species) and Dasyatis pacificus Beebe & Tee-Van, 1941, species placed in Himantura Müller & Henle, 1837 since 1953 but which differ significantly from it and all dasyatid genera in many morphological features. Recent molecular phylogenetic hypotheses based on the entire protein-coding mitochondrial genome have recovered Styracura as the sister group of the Neotropical freshwater stingrays (Potamotrygonidae), agreeing with previous morphological and molecular phylogenies...
October 14, 2016: Zootaxa
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27809898/efficacy-and-mechanism-of-mandibular-advancement-devices-for-persistent-sleep-apnea-after-surgery-a-prospective-study
#14
Huiping Luo, Xulan Tang, Yuanping Xiong, Lili Meng, Hongliang Yi, Shankai Yin
BACKGROUND: To explore the feasibility, the efficacy, and the mechanism of mandibular advancement devices (MAD) in the treatment of persistent sleep apnea after surgery. METHODS: Nineteen patients who failed uvulopalatopharyngoplasty (UPPP) or UPPP plus genioglossus advancement and hyoid myotomy (GAHM) were given a non-adjustable MAD for treatment. All patients had polysomnography (PSG) at least 6 months post-UPPP with and without the MAD. Seventeen patients had computed tomography (CT) examinations...
November 3, 2016: Journal of Otolaryngology—Head & Neck Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27792251/the-effect-of-aging-on-the-anatomic-position-of-the-thyroid-gland
#15
Darrin V Bann, Yesul Kim, Thomas Zacharia, David Goldenberg
Thyroid disease is common among elderly patients, frequently necessitating thyroid gland examination, imaging, and surgery. However, no prior studies have determined the effect of age on the anatomic position of the thyroid gland in the anterior neck. We hypothesized that the thyroid gland resides at a more caudal position in the neck in elderly patients as compared to younger patients. Head and neck CT scans were collected from 122 atraumatic patients without thyroid disease aged 18-39 years, 40-59 years, 60-79 years, and 80+ years...
October 28, 2016: Clinical Anatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27789622/ligament-versus-bone-cell-identity-in-the-zebrafish-hyoid-skeleton-is-regulated-by-mef2ca
#16
James T Nichols, Bernardo Blanco-Sánchez, Elliott P Brooks, Raghuveer Parthasarathy, John Dowd, Arul Subramanian, Gregory Nachtrab, Kenneth D Poss, Thomas F Schilling, Charles B Kimmel
Heightened phenotypic variation among mutant animals is a well-known, but poorly understood phenomenon. One hypothetical mechanism accounting for mutant phenotypic variation is progenitor cells variably choosing between two alternative fates during development. Zebrafish mef2ca(b1086) mutants develop tremendously variable ectopic bone in their hyoid craniofacial skeleton. Here, we report evidence that a key component of this phenotype is variable fate switching from ligament to bone. We discover that a 'track' of tissue prone to become bone cells is a previously undescribed ligament...
December 1, 2016: Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787268/anatomy-of-the-cervicomental-region-insights-from-an-anatomy-laboratory-and-roundtable-discussion
#17
Jeffrey M Kenkel, Derek H Jones, Steven Fagien, Dee Anna Glaser, Gary D Monheit, Karen Stauffer, Jonathan M Sykes
In 2015, ATX-101 (deoxycholic acid injection; Kybella in the United States and Belkyra in Canada; Kythera Biopharmaceuticals, Inc., Westlake Village, CA [an affiliate of Allergan plc, Dublin, Ireland]) was approved as a first-in-class injectable drug for reduction of submental fat. Use of a pharmacologic/injectable therapy within the submental region requires a thorough understanding of cervicomental anatomy to ensure proper injection technique and safe administration. To this end, an anatomy laboratory was conducted to review key external landmarks and important internal anatomic structures that characterize the lower face and anterior neck...
November 2016: Dermatologic Surgery: Official Publication for American Society for Dermatologic Surgery [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27780157/the-geometric-effects-of-a-woodpecker-s-hyoid-apparatus-for-stress-wave-mitigation
#18
Nayeon Lee, M F Horstemeyer, R Prabhu, Jun Liao, Hongjoo Rhee, Youssef Hammi, Robert D Moser, Lakiesha N Williams
In this study a woodpecker's hyoid apparatus was characterized to determine its impact mitigation mechanism using finite element (FE) analysis. The woodpecker's hyoid apparatus, comprising bone and muscle, has a unique geometry compared to those of other birds. The hyoid starts at the beak tip, surrounds the woodpecker's skull, and ends at the upper beak/front head intersection while being surrounded by muscle along the whole length. A FE model of the hyoid apparatus was created based on the geometry, microstructure, and mechanical properties garnered from our experimental measurements...
October 25, 2016: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27775805/craniofacial-morphology-and-airflow-in-children-with-primary-snoring
#19
V Luzzi, G Di Carlo, M Saccucci, G Ierardo, E Guglielmo, M Fabbrizi, A M Zicari, M Duse, F Occasi, G Conti, E Leonardi, A Polimeni
OBJECTIVE: Sleep-disordered breathing (SDB) is among the most common diseases and includes a group of pathological conditions that form a severity continuum from primary snoring (PS) to obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). SDB presents a multifactorial etiology and in children, it is often linked to adenotonsillar hypertrophy, which may lead to an alteration of the breathing pattern. Therefore, several studies hinted at the existence of a correlation between SDB and the alteration of craniofacial growth...
October 2016: European Review for Medical and Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27770150/upper-airway-changes-following-single-step-or-stepwise-advancement-using-the-functional-mandibular-advancer
#20
Isil Aras, Aylin Pasaoglu, Sultan Olmez, Idil Unal, Aynur Aras
OBJECTIVES: Purpose of the present study was to determine and compare possible changes in the dimensions of the pharyngeal airway, morphology of the soft palate, and position of the tongue and hyoid bone after single-step or stepwise mandibular advancement using the Functional Mandibular Advancer (FMA). PATIENTS AND METHODS: The sample included 51 peak-pubertal Class II subjects. In all, 34 patients were allocated to two groups using matched randomization: a single-step mandibular advancement group (SSG) and a stepwise mandibular advancement group (SWG)...
October 21, 2016: Journal of Orofacial Orthopedics, Fortschritte der Kieferorthopädie
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