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Pediatric Respiratory support

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28105526/first-versus-second-year-respiratory-syncytial-virus-prophylaxis-in-chronic-lung-disease-2005-2015
#1
Daniel Y Wang, Abby Li, Bosco Paes, Ian Mitchell, Krista L Lanctôt
: Children aged <2 years with chronic lung disease (CLD) have a 10-fold higher risk for respiratory syncytial virus-positive hospitalization (RSVH) compared to healthy term infants. Based on the updated position statements, we compared respiratory-related illness hospitalization (RIH) and RSVH risks in CLD children who received palivizumab during the first year (FY) versus second year (SY) of life in the Canadian Registry of Palivizumab (CARESS). Demographic data were collected at enrolment and RIH events recorded monthly from 2005 to 2015...
January 20, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28103276/comparison-of-the-effect-of-two-kinds-of-iranian-honey-and-diphenhydramine-on-nocturnal-cough-and-the-sleep-quality-in-coughing-children-and-their-parents
#2
Parviz Ayazi, Abolfazl Mahyar, Mahdieh Yousef-Zanjani, Abbas Allami, Neda Esmailzadehha, Taraneh Beyhaghi
Coughing in a child induced by upper respiratory tract infections (URTIs) can be a problem, both for the child and its parents. Current studies show a lack of proven efficacy for over-the counter (OTC) medications, but promising data support the use of honey for children. The aim of this study was to compare the effects of two kinds of Iranian honey with diphenhydramine (DPH) on nocturnal pediatric coughs and the sleep quality of children and their parents. This was a clinical trial (registered in IRCT; No...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28089059/management-of-hospitalized-asthmatic-children-before-transport
#3
Brande Mazzeo, Rami Bzeih, Robert Schultz, Melissa Tavolieri, Alicia Fraser, Sabrina M Heidemann
Asthmatic children are at risk for respiratory failure and should be appropriately treated before transport. The objectives were to find out if the Pediatric Advanced Life Support guidelines for asthma treatment were followed in the emergency department (ED); to determine if additional treatment during transport or within the first 2 hours of admission was needed; and to compare the management of intubated asthmatics by the ED, transport team, and the intensive care unit (ICU) physician. The records for children diagnosed with acute asthma over 7 years who were transported by the intensive care transport team were reviewed...
January 2017: Air Medical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079652/long-term-survival-and-causes-of-late-death-in-children-treated-with-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation
#4
Viktor von Bahr, Jan Hultman, Staffan Eksborg, Roxana Gerleman, Øyvind Enstad, Björn Frenckner, Håkan Kalzén
OBJECTIVE: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation has been used in patients with severe circulatory or respiratory failure since the 1970s, but the knowledge on long-term survival in this group is scarce. The aim of the present study was to investigate the 10-year survival rates and causes of late death in children treated with extracorporeal membrane oxygenation. DESIGN: Single-center, retrospective cohort study. SETTING: Tertiary referral center for extracorporeal life support...
January 10, 2017: Pediatric Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078682/population-pharmacokinetics-of-intravenous-clonidine-for-sedation-during-pediatric-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-ecmo-and-continuous-veno-venous-hemofiltration-cvvh
#5
Niina Kleiber, Ron A A Mathôt, Maurice J Ahsman, Enno D Wildschut, Dick Tibboel, Saskia N de Wildt
AIMS: Clonidine is used for sedation in the pediatric intensive care unit. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) provides temporary support if respiratory and cardiac function is threatened. ECMO influences the pharmacokinetics of drugs. Clonidine during pediatric ECMO cannot be effectively titrated as PK data are lacking. The aim of this study is to describe clonidine PK in a particular ECMO system and propose dosing guidelines for children on this particular ECMO circuit. METHODS: All children below the age of 18 who received clonidine during ECMO were eligible...
January 12, 2017: British Journal of Clinical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28064261/clinical-effects-of-prebiotics-in-pediatric-population
#6
Rok Orel, Lea Vodušek Reberšak
CONTEXT: Prebiotics are non-digestible components of food that in a selective manner trigger the expansion of microbes in the gut with valuable effects for the health of the host. In our document, current literature pertaining to the clinical effects of the use of prebiotics for the treatment and prevention of some common pediatric pathology such as infantile colic, constipation, absorption of minerals, weight gain, diarrhea, respiratory infections, and eczema is reviewed. EVIDENCE: Data was collected through search of the MEDLINE, PubMed, UpToDate, Cochrane Database of Systemic Reviews, and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register database as well as through references from relevant articles, all until September 2015...
December 15, 2016: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060793/preterm-birth-and-ventilation-decrease-surface-density-of-glomerular-capillaries-in-lambs-regardless-of-postnatal-respiratory-support-mode
#7
Eveline Staub, Mar Janna Dahl, Calan Yost, Sydney Bowen, Toshio Aoki, Adam Blair, Zhengming Wang, Donald M Null, Bradley A Yoder, Kurt H Albertine
BACKGROUND: Prematurity is often complicated by respiratory support, including invasive mechanical ventilation (IMV) and non-invasive support (NIS). Compared to IMV, NIS reduces injury to the lung and brain. Prematurity may also disrupt glomerular architecture. Whether NIS differentially affects glomerular architecture is incompletely understood. We hypothesized that IMV would lead to greater disruption of glomerular architecture than NIS. METHODS: This is a secondary analysis of kidneys from moderately preterm lambs delivered at ~131d gestation (term ~150d) that had antenatal steroid exposure and surfactant treatment before resuscitation by IMV...
January 6, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28060791/effects-of-infant-formula-supplemented-with-prebiotics-compared-with-synbiotics-on-growth-up-to-the-age-of-12-months-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#8
Hania Szajewska, Marek Ruszczyński, Henryk Szymański, Iwona Sadowska-Krawczenko, Anna Piwowarczyk, Preben Bødstrup Rasmussen, Mette Bach Kristensen, Christina E West, Olle Hernell
BACKGROUND: Growth is an essential outcome measure for evaluating the safety of infant formulas (IF). We investigated the effects of consumption of IF supplemented with prebiotics (fructooligosaccharides, FOS, and galactooligosaccharides, GOS) compared with synbiotics (FOS/GOS and Lactobacillus paracasei ssp. paracasei strain F19) on the growth of healthy infants. METHODS: 182 full-term infants who were weaned completely from breast milk to IF at 28 days of age were randomly assigned to receive prebiotic- or synbiotic-supplemented, otherwise identical, IF until 6 months of age (intervention period)...
January 6, 2017: Pediatric Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052594/network-meta-analysis-of-probiotics-to-prevent-respiratory-infections-in-children-and-adolescents
#9
REVIEW
Marina Azambuja Amaral, Gabriela Helena Barbosa Ferreira Guedes, Matias Epifanio, Mario Bernardes Wagner, Marcus Herbert Jones, Rita Mattiello
Probiotics have emerged as a promising intervention for the prevention of respiratory tract infections (RTIs) in children. Assess the effect of probiotics on prevention of RTIs in children and adolescents. MEDLINE, EMBASE, LILACS, SCIELO, CINAHL, SCOPUS, and Web of Science. Key words: "respiratory tract infections" AND probiotics. Randomized controlled trials RCT assessing the effect of probiotics on RTIs in children and adolescents were included. Two reviewers, working independently, to identify studies that met the eligibility criteria...
January 3, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052587/pilot-study-of-dornase-alfa-pulmozyme-therapy-for-acquired-ventilator-associated-infection-in-preterm-infants
#10
Melissa Scala, Deborah Hoy, Maria Bautista, Judith Jones Palafoutas, Kabir Abubakar
OBJECTIVE: Evaluate the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of adjunctive treatment with dornase alfa in preterm patients with ventilator-associated pulmonary infection (VAPI) compared to standard care. WORKING HYPOTHESIS: We hypothesize that therapy with dornase alfa will be safe and well tolerated in the preterm population with no worsening of symptoms, oxygen requirement, or need for respiratory support. STUDY DESIGN: Prospective, randomized, blinded, pilot study comparing adjunctive treatment with dornase alfa to sham therapy...
January 3, 2017: Pediatric Pulmonology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049752/behavioral-intervention-in-the-treatment-of-obesity-in-children-and-adolescents-implications-for-mexico
#11
Elissa Jelalian, E Whitney Evans
Pediatric obesity is a worldwide health epidemic affecting both developed and developing countries. Mexico ranks second to the United States in rates of pediatric obesity. Obesity among youth has immediate and long-term consequences on physical and psychosocial development, including cardiovascular, respiratory, and health-related quality of life. Eventual amelioration of this epidemic will require change at the level of the family and community, along with policy initiatives to support healthier eating and activity habits...
January 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046188/comparative-effectiveness-of-nonsteroidal-anti-inflammatory-drug-treatment-vs-no-treatment-for-patent-ductus-arteriosus-in-preterm-infants
#12
Jonathan L Slaughter, Patricia B Reagan, Thomas B Newman, Mark A Klebanoff
Importance: Patent ductus arteriosus (PDA) is associated with increased mortality and worsened respiratory outcomes, including bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), in preterm infants. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are efficacious in closing PDA, but the effectiveness of NSAID-mediated PDA closure in improving mortality and preventing BPD is unclear. Objective: To determine the effectiveness of NSAID treatment for PDA in reducing mortality and moderate/severe BPD at 36 weeks postmenstrual age...
January 3, 2017: JAMA Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28045472/inhaled-nitric-oxide-for-respiratory-failure-in-preterm-infants
#13
REVIEW
Keith J Barrington, Neil Finer, Thomas Pennaforte
BACKGROUND: Inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) is effective in term infants with hypoxic respiratory failure. The pathophysiology of respiratory failure and the potential risks of iNO differ substantially in preterm infants, necessitating specific study in this population. OBJECTIVES: To determine effects of treatment with inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) on death, bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), intraventricular haemorrhage (IVH) or other serious brain injury and on adverse long-term neurodevelopmental outcomes in preterm newborn infants with hypoxic respiratory failure...
January 3, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042054/design-and-rationale-of-heart-and-lung-failure-pediatric-insulin-titration-trial-half-pint-a-randomized-clinical-trial-of-tight-glycemic-control-in-hyperglycemic-critically-ill-children
#14
Michael Sd Agus, Ellie Hirshberg, Vijay Srinivasan, Edward Vincent Faustino, Peter M Luckett, Martha Aq Curley, Jamin Alexander, Lisa A Asaro, Kerry Coughlin-Wells, Donna Duva, Jaclyn French, Natalie Hasbani, Martha T Sisko, Carmen L Soto-Rivera, Garry Steil, David Wypij, Vinay M Nadkarni
OBJECTIVES: Test whether hyperglycemic critically ill children with cardiovascular and/or respiratory failure experience more ICU-free days when assigned to tight glycemic control with a normoglycemic versus hyperglycemic blood glucose target range. DESIGN: Multi-center randomized clinical trial. SETTING: Pediatric ICUs at 35 academic hospitals. PATIENTS: Children aged 2weeks to 17years receiving inotropic support and/or acute mechanical ventilation, excluding cardiac surgical patients...
December 30, 2016: Contemporary Clinical Trials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034729/neonatal-and-pediatric-extracorporeal-membrane-oxygenation-in-developing-latin-american-countries
#15
Javier Kattan, Álvaro González, Andrés Castillo, Luiz Fernando Caneo
OBJECTIVE: To review the principles of neonatal-pediatric extracorporeal membrane oxygenation therapy, prognosis, and its establishment in limited resource-limited countries in Latino America. SOURCES: The PubMed database was explored from 1985 up to the present, selecting from highly-indexed and leading Latin American journals, and Extracorporeal Life Support Organization reports. SUMMARY OF THE FINDINGS: Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation provides "time" for pulmonary and cardiac rest and for recovery...
December 26, 2016: Jornal de Pediatria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28005691/clinical-and-bacterial-risk-factors-for-mortality-in-children-with-carbapenem-resistant-enterobacteriaceae-bloodstream-infections-in-india
#16
Laura E B Nabarro, Chaitra Shankar, Akila Prakasam, Georgekutty Mathew, Visali Jeyaseelan, Balaji Veeraraghavan, Valsan P Verghese
BACKGROUND: Carbapenem-resistant Enterobacteriaceae (CRE) are an increasing cause of nosocomial infection in hospitalized children worldwide. Few studies have investigated risk factors for mortality in children with CRE bloodstream infection (BSI). Data are particularly scarce in areas where NDM and OXA carbapenemases predominate. Here, we investigate mortality rates, clinical and microbiologic risk factors for mortality in 50 pediatric patients with CRBSI in India. METHOD: Children younger than 17 years old with meropenem-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae or Escherichia coli isolated from blood culture in 2014 and 2015 were identified from laboratory records...
December 21, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28002689/design-and-implementation-of-a-telepediatric-primary-level-and-low-cost-system-to-reduce-unnecessary-patient-transfers
#17
Christian Cifuentes, Eduardo Romero, Javier Godoy
BACKGROUND: Most inhabitants in Latin America are concentrated in large urban foci with different access to facilities. Although the main hospitals offer specialized services, economically vulnerable populations cannot easily afford these services, the pediatric population being most affected. This article presents the design and implementation of a low cost telepediatric system, applied to primary care hospitals through a study in Bogotá, Colombia, mainly aimed to reduce the number of unnecessary transfers commonly sent to specialized medical services...
December 21, 2016: Telemedicine Journal and E-health: the Official Journal of the American Telemedicine Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27989226/-after-the-epidemic-before-the-epidemic-incidence-of-bronchiolitis-at-the-pediatric-ward-of-the-b%C3%A3-cs-kiskun-county-hospital
#18
Zsófia Ábel, Bernadett Budinkity, Gábor Svorenj, Gyula Tálosi
INTRODUCTION: Bronchiolitis may cause severe respiratory insufficiency in infants and toddlers. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV) is its most frequent infective agent. AIM AND METHOD: The authors surveyed the incidence of bronchiolitis during the last 6 seasons, examined the epidemic of the 2014/15 season and compared the groups of RSV positive and negative patients. RSV was tested with a quick essay. Anamnestic data, clinical and laboratory parameters were compared...
December 2016: Orvosi Hetilap
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977558/intensive-care-admissions-for-children-with-enterovirus-and-human-parechovirus-infections-in-the-united-kingdom-and-the-republic-of-ireland-2010-14
#19
Serena Braccio, Melpo Kapetanstrataki, Mike Sharland, Shamez Ladhani
Enteroviruses and human parechoviruses (EV/HPeV) usually cause mild, self-limiting illnesses in children but can occasionally cause severe disease. During 2010-14, 104 children in the UK and the Republic of Ireland were admitted to a pediatric intensive care unit with severe EV/HPeV infection; 40% had neurologic symptoms, 20% respiratory failure, 16% cardiac complications and 11% septic shock. Annual number of cases and incidence increased in the five-year period, from 0.6/1,000 PICU admissions (12 cases) in 2010 to 1...
December 12, 2016: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976361/early-nasal-intermittent-positive-pressure-ventilation-nippv-versus-early-nasal-continuous-positive-airway-pressure-ncpap-for-preterm-infants
#20
REVIEW
Brigitte Lemyre, Matthew Laughon, Carl Bose, Peter G Davis
BACKGROUND: Nasal continuous positive airway pressure (NCPAP) is a strategy for maintaining positive airway pressure throughout the respiratory cycle through the application of bias flow of respiratory gas to an apparatus attached to the nose. Treatment with NCPAP is associated with decreased risk of mechanical ventilation and might be effective in reducing chronic lung disease. Nasal intermittent positive pressure ventilation (NIPPV) is a form of noninvasive ventilation during which patients are exposed intermittently to higher levels of airway pressure, along with NCPAP through the same nasal device...
December 15, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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