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Pediatric Respiratory support

Roshan Patel, Madelyn Kahana
A 3-year-old pediatric patient with previously diagnosed Pelizaeus-Merzbacher syndrome presented for outpatient dental restoration. Given the infrequency of this demyelinating disorder, an anesthetic plan was tailored to address the patient's hypotonia and aspiration risk, as well as minimize potential complications including seizures, hemodynamic instability, and postoperative respiratory support. Multimodal analgesia, along with an appropriate ventilation strategy and normothermia, allowed the patient to successfully undergo a general anesthetic and be safely discharged home the same day...
June 18, 2018: A&A practice
Cory N Criss, Ryan Barbaro, Kristy Ann Bauman, Odetola Folafoluwa, Ranjith Vellody, Marcus D Jarboe
INTRODUCTION: This case highlights the successful utilization of a multidisciplinary approach to numerous bilateral bronchopleural fistulae (BPF) using minimally invasive techniques. In this study, we present a previously healthy 14-year-old male hospitalized with 2009 H1N1 influenza and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus coinfection complicated by severe acute respiratory distress syndrome and multifocal necrotizing pneumonia, with significant lung tissue damage requiring prolonged extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support...
June 19, 2018: Journal of Laparoendoscopic & Advanced Surgical Techniques. Part A
Amanda Haney, Emily Burritt, Christopher J Babbitt
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Children who are critically ill undergo metabolic stress and it is important that they receive adequate calories and protein in order to recover. Our objective was to investigate the impact of early enteral nutrition (EEN) on pediatric intensive care (PICU) patients with acute respiratory failure. METHODS: A retrospective cohort study was performed on all patients admitted to a 20 bed PICU at a tertiary children's hospital over a 30 month period...
August 2018: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
Adrienne G Randolph, Ruifei Xu, Tanya Novak, Margaret M Newhams, Juliane Bubeck Wardenburg, Scott L Weiss, Ronald C Sanders, Neal J Thomas, Mark W Hall, Keiko M Tarquinio, Natalie Cvijanovich, Rainer G Gedeit, Edward J Truemper, Barry Markovitz, Mary E Hartman, Kate G Ackerman, John S Giuliano, Steven L Shein, Kristin Moffitt
Background: Respiratory coinfection with influenza virus and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) causes life-threatening necrotizing pneumonia in children. Sporadic incidence precludes evaluation of antimicrobial efficacy. We assessed the clinical characteristics and outcomes of critically ill children with influenza-MRSA respiratory coinfection and evaluated antibiotic use. Methods: We prospectively enrolled children (<18 years) with influenza infection and acute respiratory failure across 34 pediatric intensive care units Nov 2008 to May 2016...
June 9, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Satoshi Sato, Tomoka Kambe, Zenshiro Tamaki, Mihoko Furuichi, Yoji Uejima, Eisuke Suganuma, Tadamasa Takano, Kawano Yutaka
OBJECTIVES: Incidences of Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) are rare, but these conditions are associated with high mortality. There have been few reports of SJS and TEN in children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the clinical features and outcomes of SJS and TEN in a group of Japanese children. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed pediatric cases of SJS and TEN, from 2000 to 2015. RESULTS: We identified 12 cases of SJS and 3 cases of TEN, among children...
June 10, 2018: Pediatrics International: Official Journal of the Japan Pediatric Society
Liza Bialy, Amy C Plint, Stephen B Freedman, David W Johnson, Janet A Curran, Antonia S Stang
BACKGROUND: A growing body of literature supports patient and public involvement in the design, prioritization and dissemination of research and evidence based medicine. The objectives of this project were to engage patients and families in developing a prioritized list of research topics for Pediatric Emergency Medicine (PEM) and to compare results with prior research prioritization initiatives in the ED (emergency department) setting. METHODS: We utilized a systematic process to combine administrative data on frequency of patient presentations to the ED with multiple stakeholder input including an initial stakeholder survey followed by a modified Delphi consensus methodology consisting of two web-based surveys and a face-to-face meeting...
June 6, 2018: Academic Emergency Medicine: Official Journal of the Society for Academic Emergency Medicine
Joanna Merckx, Francine M Ducharme, Christine Martineau, Roger Zemek, Jocelyn Gravel, Dominic Chalut, Naveen Poonai, Caroline Quach
: media-1vid110.1542/5771275574001PEDS-VA_2017-4105 Video Abstract OBJECTIVES: Respiratory pathogens commonly trigger pediatric asthma exacerbations, but their impact on severity and treatment response remains unclear. METHODS: We performed a secondary analysis of the Determinants of Oral Corticosteroid Responsiveness in Wheezing Asthmatic Youth (DOORWAY) study, a prospective cohort study of children (aged 1-17 years) presenting to the emergency department with moderate or severe exacerbations...
June 4, 2018: Pediatrics
Mihir R Atreya, John M Lorenz, Vivek Narendran
BACKGROUND: Bubble continuous positive airway pressure (bCPAP) is a simple, safe, and cost-effective strategy to provide respiratory support to newborns with respiratory distress syndrome in resource-limited settings. PURPOSE: To understand whether implementation of bCPAP, relative to other modes of respiratory support in the care of newborns with respiratory distress syndrome, increases positive attitudes about its potential for consistent and widespread use among providers in neonatal intensive care units (NICUs) of lower middle-income countries...
May 31, 2018: Advances in Neonatal Care: Official Journal of the National Association of Neonatal Nurses
Yu-Ting Lin, Yu-Sheng Lee, Mei-Jy Jeng, Wei-Yu Chen, Pei-Chen Tsao, I-Ching Chan, Wen-Jue Soong
BACKGROUND: Extubation failure (EF) in acute pediatric cases causes high morbidity and prolonged hospitalization, some of which might encounter EF repeatedly. This study aims to investigate flexible bronchoscopic findings of airway problems associated with repeated EF (REF) in children. METHODS: We retrospectively reviewed the medical records of intubated children from 2005 to 2013 and enrolled those with EF (reintubated within 48 h after extubation) and receiving flexible bronchoscopy (FB) examinations...
May 31, 2018: Journal of the Chinese Medical Association: JCMA
Jennifer Guyther, Richard Lichenstein, Yonghong Gao, James A Zhou, Adebola Ajao, Priti K Bajaj, Veronica A Combs, James C King
Retrospective data evaluated increases in advanced medical support for children with medically attended acute respiratory illness (MAARI) during influenza outbreak periods (IOP). Advanced support included hospitalisation, intensive care unit admission, or mechanical ventilation, for children aged 0-17 years hospitalised in Maryland's 50 acute-care hospitals over 12 influenza seasons. Weekly numbers of positive influenza tests in the Maryland area defined IOP for each season as the fewest consecutive weeks, including the peak week containing at least 85% of positive tests with a 2-week buffer on either side of the IOP...
May 30, 2018: Epidemiology and Infection
Xiaoming Shi, Mary J Edwards, Jordan Guice, Richard Strilka, Brandon Propper
BACKGROUND: The pediatric patient's response to hemorrhage as a function of young age is not well understood. As a result, there is no consensus on optimal resuscitation strategies for hemorrhagic shock in pediatric patients, or on the identification of clinical triggers to prompt implementation. The study objective was to develop a model of pediatric hemorrhage using young pigs to simulate school-aged children, and determine clinical and laboratory indicators for significant hemorrhage...
May 28, 2018: Pediatric Surgery International
Chiara Botti, Alberto Micillo, Giuseppe Ricci, Adolfo Russo, Alberto Denisco, Monica Cantile, Giosuè Scognamiglio, Antonio De Rosa, Gerardo Botti
Most acute respiratory infections (ARIs) in children are due to viral etiology, and represent an important cause of mortality and morbidity in children <5 years old in developing countries. The pathogens that cause ARIs vary geographically and by season, and viruses serve a major role. In the present study, the distribution of the seven respiratory viruses that are more prevalent in Southern European countries were retrospectively analyzed in a Southern Italy Hospital, that centralizes pediatric diseases from the Naples province...
June 2018: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
Michele Gérardin, Anne Pesle, Dominique Pougheon-Bertrand, Pilar Léger, Céline Vallet, Tiphaine Bihouee, Valérie David
BACKGROUND: The two pediatric cystic fibrosis centers (CFCs) in Paris (Robert Debré) and Nantes, France, have been developing therapeutic patient education (TPE) programs since 2006 and have been engaged in the pilot phase of the quality improvement program (QIP) named the Hospital Program to Improve Outcomes and Expertise in Cystic Fibrosis (PHARE-M) since 2011. The objective was to improve the FEV1 of the cohort of adolescents to prepare them for their optimal transition to an adult CFC...
February 8, 2018: Orphanet Journal of Rare Diseases
Michelle Bosley Henderson, Jeff E Schunk, Jeffrey L Henderson, Gitte Y Larsen, Jacob Wilkes, Susan L Bratton
OBJECTIVES: To describe asthma management, investigate practice variation, and describe asthma-associated charges and resource use during asthma management in the PICU. METHODS: Children ages 2 to 18 years treated for status asthmaticus in the PICU from 2008 to 2011 are included in this study. This is a retrospective, single-center, cohort study. Data were collected by using the Intermountain Healthcare Enterprise Data Warehouse. RESULTS: There were 262 patients included and grouped by maximal respiratory support intervention...
May 24, 2018: Hospital Pediatrics
Uri Pollak
Heparin-induced thrombocytopenia (HIT) is a prothrombotic, immune-mediated complication of unfractionated heparin (UFH) and low molecular weight heparin therapy. HIT is characterized by moderate thrombocytopenia 5-10 days after initial heparin exposure, detection of platelet-activating anti-platelet factor 4/heparin antibodies and an increased risk of venous and arterial thrombosis. Extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) is a form of mechanical circulatory support used in critically ill patients with respiratory or cardiac failure...
May 2018: Perfusion
Cynthia A Gravel, Richard G Bachur
BACKGROUND: There is a growing body of evidence to support the utility of lung point-of-care ultrasound (POCUS) in pediatric patients with multiple pulmonary pathologies, particularly pneumonia. As we increase our use of lung POCUS for pediatric patients with respiratory complaints, we must be mindful of the normal anatomy and sonographic findings within the pediatric chest and aware of how to distinguish normal findings (e.g., thymus) from pathologic findings (e.g., consolidation). CASE REPORTS: We report four cases of pediatric patients who presented to the Emergency Department with respiratory complaints for which POCUS was able to distinguish lung consolidation and normal thymus in the anterior chest...
May 18, 2018: Journal of Emergency Medicine
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No abstract text is available yet for this article.
May 2, 2018: Zhonghua Er Ke za Zhi. Chinese Journal of Pediatrics
Anja Hetland Smeland, Alison Twycross, Stefan Lundeberg, Tone Rustøen
Despite readily available evidence to guide practice, children continue to experience moderate to severe pain in hospital postoperatively. Reasons for this may include attitudes of nurses toward pain management and their lack of knowledge in key areas. To identify nurses' knowledge and clinical practice of pediatric postoperative pain management and whether there is a link between knowledge and practice. A descriptive cross-sectional study including a questionnaire and observations was conducted in postanesthesia care (recovery) units in six university hospitals in Norway...
May 16, 2018: Pain Management Nursing: Official Journal of the American Society of Pain Management Nurses
Sitaram M Emani, James D McCully
Mitochondrial transplantation refers to transplantation of respiratory competent mitochondria from healthy tissue into tissues injured by ischemia and reperfusion. This technique has been utilized for recovery of myocardial dysfunction in pediatric patients. The preclinical experience and initial patient experience with this technique are reviewed in this article. Initial experience is with pediatric patients undergoing extracorporeal membrane oxygenation support following myocardial ischemia and reperfusion...
April 2018: Translational Pediatrics
Ryan P Barbaro, Philip S Boonstra, Kevin W Kuo, David T Selewski, David K Bailly, Cheryl L Stone, Chin Ying Chow, Gail M Annich, Frank W Moler, Matthew L Paden
This study evaluates whether three commonly used pediatric intensive care unit (PICU) severity of illness scores, pediatric risk of mortality score (PRISM) III, pediatric index of mortality (PIM) 2, and pediatric logistic organ dysfunction (PELOD), are the appropriate tools to discriminate mortality risk in children receiving extracorporeal membrane oxygenation (ECMO) support for respiratory failure. This study also evaluates the ability of the Pediatric Risk Estimate Score for Children Using Extracorporeal Respiratory Support (Ped-RESCUERS) to discriminate mortality risk in the same population, and whether Ped-RESCUERS' discrimination of mortality is improved by additional clinical and laboratory measures of renal, hepatic, neurologic, and hematologic dysfunction...
May 8, 2018: ASAIO Journal: a Peer-reviewed Journal of the American Society for Artificial Internal Organs
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