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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449375/the-genetic-dimension-of-pest-pressure-in-the-tropical-rainforest
#1
Marco Todesco, Quentin Cronk
Wet tropical forests are among the most diverse ecosystems on Earth and can host several hundreds of tree species per hectare. To maintain such diversity, the community must contain large numbers of relatively rare species rather than be dominated by a few very common trees, as is often the case in temperate forests. Explaining the mechanisms preventing dominance by common species has been a major task of tropical forest ecology. One of the most promising mechanisms is negative density dependence (NDD) of tree abundance driven by pests, including fungal diseases ('pest pressure')...
May 2017: Molecular Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449351/long-term-plasticity-of-corticostriatal-synapses-is-modulated-by-pathway-specific-co-release-of-opioids-through-kappa-opioid-receptors
#2
Sarah L Hawes, Armando G Salinas, David M Lovinger, Kim T Blackwell
Synaptic plasticity in striatum adjusts behaviour adaptively during skill learning, or maladaptively in the case of addiction. Just as dopamine plays a critical role in synaptic plasticity underlying normal skill learning and addiction, endogenous and exogenous opiates also modulate learning and addiction-related striatal plasticity. Though the role of opioid receptors in long-term depression in striatum has been characterized, their effect on long-term potentiation (LTP) remains unknown. In particular, direct pathway (Dopamine D1 Receptor containing; D1R) - spiny projection neurons (SPNs) co-release the opioid neuropeptide dynorphin, which acts at presynaptic kappa opioid receptors (KORs) on dopaminergic afferents and can negatively regulate dopamine release...
April 27, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449251/vascular-twin-nevi
#3
Senay Agirgol, Hatice Nur Ozturk, Tugba Ozkok Akbulut, Ceyda Gunduzoglu, Leyli Kadriye Koc, Zafer Turkoglu
Vascular twin nevi (VTN) are characterized by the simultaneous dermatological manifestatiton of a telangiectatic naevus close to a nevus anemicus. Nevus anemicus (NA) is a vascular anomaly characterized by localized pale patches with normal melanine and melanocyte level. According to twin spotting phenomenon crossing-over in heterozygous somatic-cells during mitosis results in two different offspring homozygous cells. Consequent to this mechanism, two different vascular anomalies may occur at the same region...
April 27, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28449231/resource-partitioning-in-tolerant-and-intolerant-macaques
#4
Nancy Rebout, Christine Desportes, Bernard Thierry
The clumped distribution of food resources promotes food defensibility and can lead to the monopolizing of resources by high-ranking individuals. However, the balance of power is set at different levels according to societies, meaning that resource partitioning should vary between them. This study investigates whether dominance asymmetry and resource partitioning are related in non-human primates by comparing two species with contrasting social styles, namely rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) which display strong social intolerance and a steep gradient of dominance, and Tonkean macaques (Macaca tonkeana), which exhibit higher levels of tolerance and more balanced dominance relationships...
April 27, 2017: Aggressive Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448963/paradoxical-aging-in-hiv-immune-senescence-of-b-cells-is-most-prominent-in-young-age
#5
Stefano Rinaldi, Suresh Pallikkuth, Varghese K George, Lesley R de Armas, Rajendra Pahwa, Celeste M Sanchez, Maria Fernanda Pallin, Li Pan, Nicola Cotugno, Gordon Dickinson, Allan Rodriguez, Margaret Fischl, Maria Alcaide, Louis Gonzalez, Paolo Palma, Savita Pahwa
Combination antiretroviral therapies (cART)can lead to normal life expectancy in HIV-infected persons, and people aged >50 yrs represent the fastest growing HIV group. Although HIV and aging are independently associated with impaired humoral immunity, immune status in people aging with HIV is relatively unexplored. In this study influenza vaccination was used to probe age associated perturbations in the B cell compartment of HIV-negative "healthy controls" (HC) and virologically controlled HIV-infected participants on cART (HIV) (n=124), grouped by age as young (<40 yrs), middle-aged (40-59yrs) or old (>60 yrs)...
April 27, 2017: Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448947/traveling-from-the-hypothalamus-to-the-adipose-tissue-the-thermogenic-pathway
#6
REVIEW
Cristina Contreras, Rubén Nogueiras, Carlos Diéguez, Kamal Rahmouni, Miguel López
Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a specialized tissue critical for non-shivering thermogenesis producing heat through mitochondrial uncoupling; whereas white adipose tissue (WAT) is responsible of energy storage in the form of triglycerides. Another type of fat has been described, the beige adipose tissue; this tissue emerges in existing WAT depots but with thermogenic ability, a phenomenon known as browning. Several peripheral signals relaying information about energy status act in the brain, particularly the hypothalamus, to regulate thermogenesis in BAT and browning of WAT...
April 15, 2017: Redox Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448935/analysis-of-the-synoptic-winter-mortality-climatology-in-five-regions-of-england-searching-for-evidence-of-weather-signals
#7
A K Paschalidou, P A Kassomenos, G R McGregor
Although heat-related mortality has received considerable research attention, the impact of cold weather on public health is less well-developed, probably due to the fact that physiological responses to cold weather can vary substantially among individuals, age groups, diseases etc., depending on a number of behavioral and physiological factors. In the current work we use the classification techniques provided by the COST-733 software to link synoptic circulation patterns with excess cold-related mortality in 5 regions of England...
April 24, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448516/natural-variation-of-pirna-expression-affects-immunity-to-transposable-elements
#8
Sergei Ryazansky, Elizaveta Radion, Anastasia Mironova, Natalia Akulenko, Yuri Abramov, Valeriya Morgunova, Maria Y Kordyukova, Ivan Olovnikov, Alla Kalmykova
In the Drosophila germline, transposable elements (TEs) are silenced by PIWI-interacting RNA (piRNA) that originate from distinct genomic regions termed piRNA clusters and are processed by PIWI-subfamily Argonaute proteins. Here, we explore the variation in the ability to restrain an alien TE in different Drosophila strains. The I-element is a retrotransposon involved in the phenomenon of I-R hybrid dysgenesis in Drosophila melanogaster. Genomes of R strains do not contain active I-elements, but harbour remnants of ancestral I-related elements...
April 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448320/difficult-airway-management-resulting-from-local-anesthetic-allergy-during-emergent-cesarean-delivery-a-case-report
#9
Courtney L Maxey-Jones, Alec Palmerton, Jocelyn R Farmer, Brian T Bateman
Difficult airway management in the gravid patient is a well-described phenomenon. We present a case of emergent cesarean delivery complicated by a "cannot intubate, cannot ventilate" scenario that was later determined to be secondary to an allergic, IgE-mediated reaction to epidurally administered local anesthetic.
April 26, 2017: A & A Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28448023/induction-of-mesenchymal-epithelial-transitions-in-sarcoma-cells
#10
Kathryn E Ware, Shivee Gilja, Shenghan Xu, Samantha Shetler, Mohit K Jolly, Xueyang Wang, Suzanne Bartholf Dewitt, Alexander J Hish, Sarah Jordan, William Eward, Herbert Levine, Andrew J Armstrong, Jason A Somarelli
Phenotypic plasticity refers to a phenomenon in which cells transiently gain traits of another lineage. During carcinoma progression, phenotypic plasticity drives invasion, dissemination and metastasis. Indeed, while most of the studies of phenotypic plasticity have been in the context of epithelial-derived carcinomas, it turns out sarcomas, which are mesenchymal in origin, also exhibit phenotypic plasticity, with a subset of sarcomas undergoing a phenomenon that resembles a mesenchymal-epithelial transition (MET)...
April 7, 2017: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447603/efficient-self-emulsification-via-cooling-heating-cycles
#11
Slavka Tcholakova, Zhulieta Valkova, Diana Cholakova, Zahari Vinarov, Ivan Lesov, Nikolai Denkov, Stoyan K Smoukov
In self-emulsification higher-energy micrometre and sub-micrometre oil droplets are spontaneously produced from larger ones and only a few such methods are known. They usually involve a one-time reduction in oil solubility in the continuous medium via changing temperature or solvents or a phase inversion in which the preferred curvature of the interfacial surfactant layer changes its sign. Here we harness narrow-range temperature cycling to cause repeated breakup of droplets to higher-energy states. We describe three drop breakup mechanisms that lead the drops to burst spontaneously into thousands of smaller droplets...
April 27, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447478/pulsatile-kisspeptin-effectively-stimulates-gonadotropin-releasing-hormone-gnrh-producing-neurons
#12
Haruhiko Kanasaki, Mijiddorj Tselmeg, Aki Oride, Unurjargal Sukhbaatar, Tomomi Hara, Satoru Kyo
Hypothalamic kisspeptin is integral to the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis by stimulating gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) release. GnRH is released from the hypothalamus in a pulsatile manner and determines the output of the gonadotropins. However, the effect of kisspeptin on GnRH-secreting cells remains unknown. In an experiment using static cultures of GT1-7 cells, kisspeptin did not significantly increase GnRH mRNA expression. However, when kisspeptin was administered to the cells in a pulsatile manner, GnRH mRNA expression was significantly increased...
April 27, 2017: Gynecological Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447468/induction-of-apoptosis-in-the-bursa-of-fabricius-by-vaccination-against-gumboro-disease
#13
Marcelo Pablo Killian, Juan David Boviez, Mariana Gambarotta, Daniel Marcelo Lombardo
Infectious bursal disease is a severe acute viral disease of young chicken, affecting mainly the B-lymphocytes in the bursa of Fabricius, leading to severe immunosuppression as a result, on the death of lymphoid cells. In the bursa infected with infectious bursal disease virus, viral replication is associated with apoptosis of lymphoid cells, inflammatory change, and atrophy. Vaccination has appeared to be a crucial factor for control and prevention, being the live attenuated vaccines the most used. However, the apoptotic effect of these vaccines over the bursa has not been tested...
April 27, 2017: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447446/highly-conductive-transparent-and-flexible-electrodes-including-double-stacked-thin-metal-films-for-transparent-flexible-electronics
#14
Jun Hee Han, Do-Hong Kim, Eun Gyo Jeong, Tae-Woo Lee, Myung Keun Lee, Jeong Woo Park, Hoseung Lee, Kyung Cheol Choi
In order to keep pace with the era of transparent and deformable electronics, the electrode functions should be improved. In this paper, an innovative structure is suggested to overcome the tradeoff between optical and electrical properties that commonly arises with transparent electrodes. The structure of double stacked metal films showed high conductivity (< 3 Ω/sq.) and high transparency (~90 %) simultaneously. A proper space between two metal films led to high transmittance by an optical phenomenon...
April 27, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446863/peptides-as-quorum-sensing-molecules-measurement-techniques-and-obtained-levels-in-vitro-and-in-vivo
#15
REVIEW
Frederick Verbeke, Severine De Craemer, Nathan Debunne, Yorick Janssens, Evelien Wynendaele, Christophe Van de Wiele, Bart De Spiegeleer
The expression of certain bacterial genes is regulated in a cell-density dependent way, a phenomenon called quorum sensing. Both Gram-negative and Gram-positive bacteria use this type of communication, though the signal molecules (auto-inducers) used by them differ between both groups: Gram-negative bacteria use predominantly N-acyl homoserine lacton (AHL) molecules (autoinducer-1, AI-1) while Gram-positive bacteria use mainly peptides (autoinducer peptides, AIP or quorum sensing peptides). These quorum sensing molecules are not only involved in the inter-microbial communication, but can also possibly cross-talk directly or indirectly with their host...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446699/polydomy-enhances-foraging-performance-in-ant-colonies
#16
N Stroeymeyt, P Joye, L Keller
Collective foraging confers benefits in terms of reduced predation risk and access to social information, but it heightens local competition when resources are limited. In social insects, resource limitation has been suggested as a possible cause for the typical decrease in per capita productivity observed with increasing colony size, a phenomenon known as Michener's paradox. Polydomy (distribution of a colony's brood and workers across multiple nests) is believed to help circumvent this paradox through its positive effect on foraging efficiency, but there is still little supporting evidence for this hypothesis...
April 26, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446678/differential-involvement-during-latent-hsv-1-infection-of-the-superior-and-inferior-divisions-of-the-vestibular-ganglia-implications-for-vestibular-neuritis
#17
Susanne Himmelein, Anja Lindemann, Inga Sinicina, Anja K E Horn, Thomas Brandt, Michael Strupp, Katharina Hüfner
Controversy still surrounds both the etiology and pathophysiology of vestibular neuritis (VN). Especially uncertain is why the superior vestibular nerve (SVN) is more frequently affected than the inferior part (IVN), which is partially or totally spared. To address this question we developed an improved method for preparing human vestibular ganglia (VG) and nerve. Subsequently macro- and micro-anatomical as well as PCR studies were performed on 38 human ganglia from 38 individuals. The SVN was 2.4 mm longer than the IVN, and in 65% of the cases the IVN ran in two separate bony canals, which was not the case for the SVN...
April 26, 2017: Journal of Virology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446617/is-embryonic-hypothermia-tolerance-common-in-birds
#18
Jin-Ming Zhao, Zhi-Ming Han, Yue-Hua Sun
Avian incubation temperatures oscillate within narrow limits to ensure proper embryonic development. However, field observations and experimental studies have found that some species can tolerate very low incubation temperatures, either regularly or occasionally. We artificially incubated eggs from five domestic species, which represent a range of egg sizes, to examine whether a diversity of avian species could exhibit an unusual hypothermia tolerance, as observed in the field. We found that eggs of the chicken (Gallus gallus domesticus), pigeon (Columba livia domestica), Japanese quail (Coturnix japonica) and budgerigar (Melopsittacus undulatus) survived the incubation period and hatched after experiencing 10°C hypothermia for 6 h each day...
April 2017: Biology Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446330/automated-identification-of-relevant-frontier-orbitals-for-chemical-compounds-and-processes
#19
Christopher J Stein, Markus Reiher
Quantum-chemical multi-configurational methods are required for a proper description of static electron correlation, a phenomenon inherent to the electronic structure of molecules with multiple (near-)degenerate frontier orbitals. Here, we review how a property of these frontier orbitals, namely the entanglement entropy is related to static electron correlation. A subset of orbitals, the so-called active orbital space is an essential ingredient for all multi-configurational methods. We proposed an automated selection of this active orbital space, that would otherwise be a tedious and error prone manual procedure, based on entanglement measures...
April 26, 2017: Chimia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28446329/state-of-the-art-nanofabrication-in-catalysis
#20
Waiz Karim, Simon A Tschupp, Juan Herranz, Thomas J Schmidt, Yasin Ekinci, Jeroen A van Bokhovenac
We present recent developments in top-down nanofabrication that have found application in catalysis research. To unravel the complexity of catalytic systems, the design and use of models with control of size, morphology, shape and inter-particle distances is a necessity. The study of well-defined and ordered nanoparticles on a support contributes to the understanding of complex phenomena that govern reactions in heterogeneous and electro-catalysis. We review the strengths and limitations of different nanolithography methods such as electron beam lithography (EBL), photolithography, extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography and colloidal lithography for the creation of such highly tunable catalytic model systems and their applications in catalysis...
April 26, 2017: Chimia
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