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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915379/nr2a-and-nr2b-nmda-receptors-and-drebrin-within-postsynaptic-spines-of-the-hippocampus-correlate-with-hunger-evoked-exercise
#1
Yi-Wen Chen, Hannah Actor-Engel, Ang Doma Sherpa, Lauren Klingensmith, Tara G Chowdhury, Chiye Aoki
Hunger evokes foraging. This innate response can be quantified as voluntary wheel running following food restriction (FR). Paradoxically, imposing severe FR evokes voluntary FR, as some animals choose to run rather than eat, even during limited periods of food availability. This phenomenon, called activity-based anorexia (ABA), has been used to identify brain changes associated with FR and excessive exercise (EX), two core symptoms of anorexia nervosa (AN), and to explore neurobiological bases of AN vulnerability...
December 3, 2016: Brain Structure & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915368/touch-contingent-visual-motion-perception-tactile-events-drive-visual-motion-perception
#2
Ryo Teraoka, Wataru Teramoto
It has recently been demonstrated that the brain rapidly forms an association between concurrently presented sound sequences and visual motion. Once this association has been formed, the associated sound sequence can drive visual motion perception. This phenomenon is known as "sound-contingent visual motion perception" (SCVM). In the present study, we addressed the possibility of a similar association involving touch instead of audition. In a 9-min exposure session, two circles placed side by side were alternately presented to produce apparent motion in a horizontal direction...
December 3, 2016: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915320/retinopathy-of-prematurity-aiims-new-delhi-experience
#3
Sindhu Sivanandan, Parijat Chandra, Ashok K Deorari, Ramesh Agarwal
Retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) is a leading cause of potentially avoidable childhood blindness worldwide. With improvement in neonatal care, more preterm infants are surviving with a resultant increase in the number of ROP cases. In low-middle income countries, the disease epidemiology is characterized by the occurrence of ROP at higher birthweight in premature babies with greater severity at presentation. In this article, we describe the ROP screening and management program at the All India Institute of Medical Sciences (AIIMS), New Delhi that has evolved over last three decades...
November 7, 2016: Indian Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915289/codon-usage-is-less-optimized-in-eukaryotic-gene-segments-encoding-intrinsically-disordered-regions-than-in-those-encoding-structural-domains
#4
Keiichi Homma, Tamotsu Noguchi, Satoshi Fukuchi
Codon usage tends to be optimized in highly expressed genes. A plausible explanation for this phenomenon is that translational accuracy is increased in highly expressed genes with infrequent use of rare codons. Besides structural domains (SDs), eukaryotic proteins generally have intrinsically disordered regions (IDRs) that by themselves do not assume unique three-dimensional structures. As IDRs are free from structural constraint, they can probably accommodate more translational errors than SDs can. Thus, codon usage in IDRs is likely to be less optimized than that in SDs...
December 1, 2016: Nucleic Acids Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27915103/ammonia-modified-graphene-sheets-decorated-with-magnetic-fe3o4-nanoparticles-for-the-photocatalytic-and-photo-fenton-degradation-of-phenolic-compounds-under-sunlight-irradiation
#5
Purna K Boruah, Bhagyasmeeta Sharma, Indrapal Karbhal, Manjusha V Shelke, Manash R Das
Synthesis of easily separable and eco-friendly efficient catalyst with both photocatalytic and photo-Fenton degradation properties is of great importance for environment remediation application. Herein, ammonia-modified graphene (AG) sheets decorated with Fe3O4 nanoparticles (AG/Fe3O4) as a magnetically recoverable photocatalyst by a simple in situ solution chemistry approach. First, we have functionalized graphene oxide (GO) sheets by amide functional group and then Fe3O4 nanoparticles (NPs) are doped onto the functionalized GO surface...
November 9, 2016: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914777/polonium-210-accumulates-in-a-lake-receiving-coal-mine-discharges-anthropogenic-or-natural
#6
A W Nelson, E S Eitrheim, A W Knight, D May, M D Wichman, T Z Forbes, M K Schultz
Coal is an integral part of global energy production; however, coal mining is associated with numerous environmental health impacts. It is well documented that coal-mine waste can contaminate the environment with naturally-occurring radionuclides from the uranium-238 ((238)U) decay series. However, the behavior of the final radionuclide in the (238)U-series, i.e., polonium-210 ((210)Po) arising from coal-mine waste-water discharge is largely unexplored. Here, results of a year-long (2014-2015) field study, in which the concentrations of (210)Po in sediments and surface water of a lake that receives coal-mine waste-water discharge in West Virginia are presented...
November 30, 2016: Journal of Environmental Radioactivity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914563/differential-effects-of-testosterone-and-estradiol-on-clitoral-function-an-experimental-study-in-rats
#7
Paolo Comeglio, Ilaria Cellai, Sandra Filippi, Chiara Corno, Francesca Corcetto, Annamaria Morelli, Elena Maneschi, Elisa Maseroli, Edoardo Mannucci, Massimiliano Fambrini, Mario Maggi, Linda Vignozzi
INTRODUCTION: Female sexual response is a complex phenomenon in which psychological, neurologic, and vascular mechanisms and hormonal factors interact. During the arousal phase, they cooperate to increase genital blood flow, thus inducing engorgement of the clitoris and lubrication of the vagina. Regulation of vascular and non-vascular smooth muscle tone is the crucial event in the erectile process. Preclinical studies have suggested that nitric oxide (NO) is the main vasodilator neurotransmitter modulating, through the second messenger cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP), clitoral flow vessels...
December 2016: Journal of Sexual Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914454/-suppressor-factor-of-neutrophils-a-short-story-of-a-long-term-misconception
#8
I A Linge, E V Kondratieva, T K Kondratieva, V A Makarov, V I Polshakov, O Yu Savelyev, A S Apt
A large body of evidence obtained during the last decade has demonstrated that neutrophils suppress T cell proliferation in different models of inflammation and cell interaction. The commonly used method for assessing cell proliferation and proliferation inhibition is measuring [3H]thymidine incorporation into cells. Earlier, we observed inhibition of [3H]thymidine uptake in experiments on neutrophil-mediated regulation of T cell response in tuberculosis immunity. Here, we used different types of proliferating cells to analyze the nature of the soluble "neutrophil factor" by a variety of methods (dialysis, HPLC, mass spectrometry, and NMR) and unambiguously demonstrated that neutrophils do not synthesize a specific factor inhibiting cell proliferation, but secrete high concentrations of extracellular thymidine that competitively inhibit [3H]thymidine incorporation...
November 2016: Biochemistry. Biokhimii︠a︡
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914443/converting-sunlight-into-audible-sound-by-means-of-the-photoacoustic-effect-the-heliophone
#9
N B Roozen, C Glorieux, L Liu, M Rychtáriková, T Van der Donck, A Jacobs
One hundred and thirty-five years after Alexander Graham Bell and his assistant Charles Sumner Tainter explored the photoacoustic effect, and about 40 years after Rosencwaig and Gersho modeled the effect in a photoacoustic cell configuration, the phenomenon is revisited in a "Heliophone" device that converts sunlight into sound. The light is focused on a carbon blackened copper coated Kapton foil in an acoustic cell by means of a compound parabolic collimator, and its intensity is modulated by a mechanical chopper...
September 2016: Journal of the Acoustical Society of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914298/effects-of-environmental-noise-exposure-on-dna-methylation-in-the-brain-and-metabolic-health
#10
Liqiong Guo, Peng-Hui Li, Hua Li, Elena Colicino, Silvia Colicino, Yi Wen, Ruiping Zhang, Xiaotian Feng, Timothy M Barrow, Akin Cayir, Andrea A Baccarelli, Hyang-Min Byun
Environmental noise exposure is associated with adverse effects on human health including hearing loss, heart disease, and changes in stress-related hormone levels. Alteration in DNA methylation in response to environmental exposures is a well-known phenomenon and it is implicated in many human diseases. Understanding how environmental noise exposures affect DNA methylation patterns may help to elucidate the link between noise and adverse effects on health. In this pilot study we examined the effects of environmental noise exposure on DNA methylation of genes related to brain function and investigated whether these changes are related with metabolic health...
November 30, 2016: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914168/short-term-trained-lexical-categories-affect-preattentive-shape-perception-evidence-from-vmm
#11
Mengxia Yu, Ce Mo, Tianyu Zeng, Sasa Zhao, Lei Mo
Perceptual processing of colors and shapes in the right visual field is modulated by the lexical category information of the stimuli, a phenomenon known as the lateralized Whorfian effect. For color stimuli, lateralized Whorfian effect is characterized by preattentive occurrence and dependency on acquired lexical information, but it remains unknown whether these key features are generalizable to other domains of perceptual processing. Here, we investigated whether lateralized Whorfian effect in the shape perception domain also depends on acquired lexical category and occurs preattentively using ERPs...
December 3, 2016: Psychophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914066/computational-tools-for-allosteric-drug-discovery-site-identification-and-focus-library-design
#12
Wenkang Huang, Ruth Nussinov, Jian Zhang
Allostery is an intrinsic phenomenon of biological macromolecules involving regulation and/or signal transduction induced by a ligand binding to an allosteric site distinct from a molecule's active site. Allosteric drugs are currently receiving increased attention in drug discovery because drugs that target allosteric sites can provide important advantages over the corresponding orthosteric drugs including specific subtype selectivity within receptor families. Consequently, targeting allosteric sites, instead of orthosteric sites, can reduce drug-related side effects and toxicity...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27914058/osprey-predicts-resistance-mutations-using-positive-and-negative-computational-protein-design
#13
Adegoke Ojewole, Anna Lowegard, Pablo Gainza, Stephanie M Reeve, Ivelin Georgiev, Amy C Anderson, Bruce R Donald
Drug resistance in protein targets is an increasingly common phenomenon that reduces the efficacy of both existing and new antibiotics. However, knowledge of future resistance mutations during pre-clinical phases of drug development would enable the design of novel antibiotics that are robust against not only known resistant mutants, but also against those that have not yet been clinically observed. Computational structure-based protein design (CSPD) is a transformative field that enables the prediction of protein sequences with desired biochemical properties such as binding affinity and specificity to a target...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913794/tlr-ligands-but-not-modulators-of-histone-modifiers-can-induce-the-complex-immune-response-pattern-of-endotoxin-tolerance-in-mammary-epithelial-cells
#14
Juliane Günther, Wolfram Petzl, Holm Zerbe, Hans-Joachim Schuberth, Hans-Martin Seyfert
Excessive stimulation of the TLR4 axis through LPS reduces the expression of some cytokine genes in immune cells, while stimulating the expression of immune defense genes during a subsequent bacterial infection. This endotoxin tolerance (ET) is mediated via epigenetic mechanisms. Priming the udder of cows with LPS was shown to induce ET in mammary epithelial cells (MEC), thereby protecting the udder against reinfection for some time. Seeking alternatives to LPS priming we tried to elicit ET by priming MEC with either lipopeptide (Pam2CSK4) via the TLR2/6 axis or inhibitors of histone-modifying enzymes...
December 1, 2016: Innate Immunity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913715/doping-among-professional-athletes-in-iran-a-test-of-akers-s-social-learning-theory
#15
Saeed Kabiri, John K Cochran, Bernadette J Stewart, Mahmoud Sharepour, Mohammad Mahdi Rahmati, Syede Massomeh Shadmanfaat
The use of performance-enhancing drugs (PED) is common among Iranian professional athletes. As this phenomenon is a social problem, the main purpose of this research is to explain why athletes engage in "doping" activity, using social learning theory. For this purpose, a sample of 589 professional athletes from Rasht, Iran, was used to test assumptions related to social learning theory. The results showed that there are positive and significant relationships between the components of social learning theory (differential association, differential reinforcement, imitation, and definitions) and doping behavior (past, present, and future use of PED)...
December 1, 2016: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913691/exploring-the-chronic-illness-experience-of-rural-dwelling-latinos-of-mexican-origin
#16
Anissa Guzman
INTRODUCTION: Chronic illness is a complex and ever-growing phenomenon that is affecting millions of Americans every day, and it is disproportionately experienced by Latinos of Mexican origin. METHOD: In this quantitative study, the specific aims were to evaluate perceptions of chronic illness(es), locus of control (health and God), health status, and cultural orientation of rural-dwelling Latinos of Mexican origin in Colorado who have one or more chronic illnesses and to explore the relationships existing between these concepts...
December 2016: Hispanic Health Care International: the Official Journal of the National Association of Hispanic Nurses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913469/can-we-make-a-better-match-or-mismatch-with-kir-genotyping
#17
Rohtesh S Mehta, Katayoun Rezvani
Natural killer (NK) cell function is regulated by a fine balance between numerous activating and inhibitory receptors, of which killer-cell immunoglobulin-like receptors (KIRs) are among the most polymorphic and comprehensively studied. KIRs allow NK cells to recognize downregulation or the absence of HLA class I molecules on target cells (known as missing-self), a phenomenon that is commonly observed in virally infected cells or cancer cells. Because KIR and HLA genes are located on different chromosomes, in an allogeneic environment such as after hematopoietic stem cell transplantation, donor NK cells that express an inhibitory KIR for an HLA class I molecule that is absent on recipient targets (KIR/KIR-ligand mismatch), can recognize and react to this missing self and mediate cytotoxicity...
December 2, 2016: Hematology—the Education Program of the American Society of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913254/quetiapine-treatment-reverses-depressive-like-behavior-and-reduces-dna-methyltransferase-activity-induced-by-maternal-deprivation
#18
Zuleide M Ignácio, Gislaine Z Réus, Helena M Abelaira, Amanda L Maciel, Airam B de Moura, Danyela Matos, Júlia P Demo, Júlia B I da Silva, Fernanda F Gava, Samira S Valvassori, André F Carvalho, João Quevedo
Stress in early life has been appointed as an important phenomenon in the onset of depression and poor response to treatment with classical antidepressants. Furthermore, childhood trauma triggers epigenetic changes, which are associated with the pathophysiology of major depressive disorder (MDD). Treatment with atypical antipsychotics such as quetiapine, exerts therapeutic effect for MDD patients and induces epigenetic changes. This study aimed to analyze the effect of chronic treatment with quetiapine (20mg/kg) on depressive-like behavior of rats submitted to maternal deprivation (MD), as well as the activity of histone acetylation by the enzymes histone acetyl transferases (HAT) and deacetylases (HDAC) and DNA methylation, through DNA methyltransferase enzyme (DNMT) in the prefrontal cortex (PFC), nucleus accumbens (NAc) and hippocampus...
November 29, 2016: Behavioural Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27913053/intestinal-metaplasia-of-appendiceal-endometriosis-is-not-uncommon-and-may-mimic-appendiceal-mucinous-neoplasm
#19
Monika Vyas, Serena Wong, Xuchen Zhang
Endometriosis of the appendix can be an incidental finding or a cause of appendicitis, intussusception, perforation or retention mucocele. Intestinal metaplasia of appendiceal endometriosis may occur, which can lead to a misdiagnosis of low-grade appendiceal mucinous neoplasm. On a retrospective search of the pathology database from 2001 to 2015, we identified 78 appendiceal endometriosis cases and intestinal metaplasia was present in 10/78 (13%) cases. In most of the cases (90%), the foci of intestinal metaplasia were mainly localized close to the mucosa...
October 25, 2016: Pathology, Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27912854/immune-to-ageism-men-s-perceptions-of-age-based-discrimination-in-everyday-contexts
#20
Hanna Ojala, Ilkka Pietilä, Pirjo Nikander
Despite long-term, conceptually and theoretically refined discussions, the phenomenon of ageism still remains empirically under-developed. To better understand the diversity of ageism, its contextual variations and gender-specific dynamics in people's daily lives, this study focuses on how different interactional contexts shape men's perceptions of ageism. Using data from 67 thematic personal interviews with 23 middle and working class men aged 50-70, this study contributes to the sorely lacking, empirically based and nuanced understanding of how ageism is experienced, and adds to the research on the internalization of ageism which to date has primarily focused on older women's experiences...
December 2016: Journal of Aging Studies
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