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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738620/proteins-in-microbial-synthesis-of-selenium-nanoparticles
#1
Anna V Tugarova, Alexander A Kamnev
Biogenic formation of nano-sized particles composed of various materials (in particular, selenium) by live microorganisms is widespread in nature. This phenomenon has been increasingly attracting the attention of researchers over the last decade not only owing to a range of diverse applications of such nanoparticles (NPs) in nanobiotechnology, but also because of the specificity of methodologies and mechanisms of NPs formation related to "green synthesis". In this mini-review, recent data are discussed on the multifaceted role of proteins in the processes of microbial reduction of selenium oxyanions and the formation of Se NPs...
November 1, 2017: Talanta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738504/prevention-of-melanin-formation-during-aryl-alcohol-oxidase-production-under-growth-limited-conditions-using-an-aspergillus-nidulans-cell-factory
#2
Oscar Pardo-Planas, Rolf A Prade, Michael Müller, Hasan K Atiyeh, Mark R Wilkins
An Aspergillus nidulans cell factory was genetically engineered to produce an aryl alcohol oxidase (AAO). The cell factory initiated production of melanin when growth-limited conditions were established using stationary plates and shaken flasks. This phenomenon was more pronounced when the strain was cultured in a trickle bed reactor (TBR). This study investigated different approaches to reduce melanin formation in fungal mycelia and liquid medium in order to increase the enzyme production yield. Removal of copper from the medium recipe reduced melanin formation in agar cultures and increased enzyme activities by 48% in agitated liquid cultures...
July 8, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738340/novel-positional-devices-for-the-treatment-of-positional-obstructive-sleep-apnea-and-how-this-relates-to-sleep-surgery
#3
Madeline J L Revesloot, Linda Benoist, Peter van Maanen, Nico de Vries
If untreated, obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) develops as a gradual progressive disease. In the early stage of the disease most patients with OSA are positional. The archetypical patient might progress from simple positional snoring via positional early-stage mild disease to less positional moderate and finally nonpositional severe OSA. At first, the apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) is high only in the supine position, and later is high in all sleeping positions. The phenomenon is reversible. After partial effective treatment, patients with severe OSA can reverse to less severe positional OSA or, in other words, the AHI drops more in the lateral position than in supine position...
2017: Advances in Oto-rhino-laryngology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28738159/light-and-electrically-induced-phase-segregation-and-its-impact-on-the-stability-of-quadruple-cation-high-bandgap-perovskite-solar-cells
#4
The Duong, Hemant Kumar Mulmudi, Yiliang Wu, Xiao Fu, Heping Shen, Jun Peng, Nandi Wu, Hieu T Nguyen, Daniel MacDonald, Mark N Lockrey, Thomas P White, Klaus Weber, Kylie R Catchpole
Perovskite material with a bandgap of 1.7 eV - 1.8 eV is highly desirable for the top cell in a tandem configuration with a lower bandgap bottom cell, such as a silicon cell. This can be achieved by alloying iodide and bromide anions, but light-induced phase segregation phenomena is often observed in perovskite films of this kind, with implications for solar cell efficiency. Here we investigate light-induced phase segregation inside quadruple cation perovskite material in a complete cell structure, and find that the magnitude of this phenomenon is dependent on the operating condition of the solar cell...
July 24, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737353/-neonaticides-in-france-analysis-of-357%C3%A2-cases-identified-in-the-press-1993-2012
#5
Laurence Simmat-Durand
Background and objectives: Despite easy access to contraception and child abandonment in France, neonaticides continue to occur and, although rare, are widely publicized. The objective of this study was to characterize neonaticides and their perpetrators over a twenty-year period in France based on cases reported in the press. Methods: 2,319 press articles describing the discovery of a newborn corpse in the regional and national press were extracted from electronic databases or other digital supports. A total of 357 neonaticides were described, corresponding to a mean annual rate of 2...
July 10, 2017: Santé Publique: Revue Multidisciplinaire Pour la Recherche et L'action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737122/preserved-heart-function-after-left-ventricular-pressure-overload-in-adult-mice-subjected-to-neonatal-cardiac-hypoplasia
#6
K Heinecke, A Heuser, F Blaschke, C Jux, L Thierfelder, J-D Drenckhahn
Intrauterine growth restriction in animal models reduces heart size and cardiomyocyte number at birth. Such incomplete cardiomyocyte endowment is believed to increase susceptibility toward cardiovascular disease in adulthood, a phenomenon referred to as developmental programming. We have previously described a mouse model of impaired myocardial development leading to a 25% reduction of cardiomyocyte number in neonates. This study investigated the response of these hypoplastic hearts to pressure overload in adulthood, applied by abdominal aortic constriction (AAC)...
July 24, 2017: Journal of Developmental Origins of Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737057/commercial-transactions-in-children-the-case-of-ghana
#7
Mensah Adinkrah
The current article represents an examination of commercial transactions involving the sale of children in contemporary Ghana. It presents the results of a criminological analysis of 20 cases of commercial transactions in children in Ghana. It describes the sociodemographic characteristics of offenders and victims, victim-offender relationships, offender motivations, public reactions to the phenomenon, as well as the criminal justice system's responses to the crime. The data were extracted from Ghanaian print and electronic presses...
July 1, 2017: International Journal of Offender Therapy and Comparative Criminology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28737039/effect-of-solvent-quality-on-laminar-slip-flow-penetration-of-poly-n-isopropylacrylamide-films-with-an-exploration-of-the-mass-transport-mechanism
#8
Huan Wang, Jeanne E Pemberton
The effect of solvent quality on the slip flow penetration of polymer films was evaluated by monitoring small-molecule mass transport under varying laminar flow rates using Förster resonance energy transfer in combination with total internal reflectance fluorescence microscopy (FRET-TIRFM). For thin films of poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (pNIPAM), solvents with solvent quality ranging from good to poor were studied. The solvents used were composed of varying mole ratios of methanol and water in order to take advantage of the unique cononsolvency phenomenon of pNIPAM such that differences in the physicochemical properties of these solvents were insignificant for fluorescence detection...
July 24, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736916/hyaluronate-effect-on-bacterial-biofilm-in-ent-district-infections-a-review
#9
REVIEW
Alberto Vito Marcuzzo, Margherita Tofanelli, Francesca Boscolo Nata, Annalisa Gatto, Giancarlo Tirelli
Bacterial resistance is a growing phenomenon which led the scientific community to search for new therapeutic targets, such as biofilm. A bacterial biofilm is a surface-associated agglomerate of microorganisms embedded in a self-produced extracellular polymeric matrix made of polysaccharides, nucleic acids, and proteins. Scientific literature offers several reports on a biofilm's role in infections regarding various body districts. The presence of a bacterial biofilm is responsible for poor efficacy of antibiotic therapies along with bacterial infections in ear, nose, and throat (ENT) districts such as the oral cavity, ear, nasal cavities, and nasal sinuses...
July 24, 2017: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736534/self-organizing-complex-networks-individual-versus-global-rules
#10
Korosh Mahmoodi, Bruce J West, Paolo Grigolini
We introduce a form of Self-Organized Criticality (SOC) inspired by the new generation of evolutionary game theory, which ranges from physiology to sociology. The single individuals are the nodes of a composite network, equivalent to two interacting subnetworks, one leading to strategy choices made by the individuals under the influence of the choices of their nearest neighbors and the other measuring the Prisoner's Dilemma Game payoffs of these choices. The interaction between the two networks is established by making the imitation strength K increase or decrease according to whether the last two payoffs increase or decrease upon increasing or decreasing K...
2017: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736517/resolution-of-cochlear-inflammation-novel-target-for-preventing-or-ameliorating-drug-noise-and-age-related-hearing-loss
#11
REVIEW
Gilda M Kalinec, Gwen Lomberk, Raul A Urrutia, Federico Kalinec
A significant number of studies support the idea that inflammatory responses are intimately associated with drug-, noise- and age-related hearing loss (DRHL, NRHL and ARHL). Consequently, several clinical strategies aimed at reducing auditory dysfunction by preventing inflammation are currently under intense scrutiny. Inflammation, however, is a normal adaptive response aimed at restoring tissue functionality and homeostasis after infection, tissue injury and even stress under sterile conditions, and suppressing it could have unintended negative consequences...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736233/continued-increase-in-melanoma-incidence-across-all-socioeconomic-status-groups-in-california-1998-2012
#12
Christina A Clarke, Meg McKinley, Susan Hurley, Robert W Haile, Sally L Glaser, Theresa H M Keegan, Susan M Swetter
Melanoma incidence has been increasing in light-skinned populations worldwide, but the reasons for the increase have been controversial. Our prior assessment in California non-Hispanic whites showed substantial increases in invasive melanoma incidence for tumors of all thicknesses in all neighborhoods categorized by socioeconomic status (SES) between 1988-1992 and 1998-2002. To understand whether these trends continued, we updated our assessment to include the diagnosis period 2008-2012 and more accurate pathologic stage at diagnosis...
July 20, 2017: Journal of Investigative Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736185/effect-of-coa-cl-on-transforming-growth-factor-%C3%AE-1-induced-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-in-rle-abca3-cells
#13
Masashi Kawami, Junya Deguchi, Ryoko Yumoto, Norikazu Sakakibara, Ikuko Tsukamoto, Ryoji Konishi, Mikihisa Takano
Transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 has received much attention as a major inducer of epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in pathological conditions such as cancer and organ fibrosis. In this study, we examined the effect of a novel nucleic acid analog, COA-Cl, on TGF-β1-induced EMT using RLE/Abca3, a cell line having alveolar type II cell-like phenotype. Changes in the cell morphology consistent with EMT were induced by TGF-β1, whereas, this response was suppressed by co-treatment of the cells with COA-Cl...
May 17, 2017: Drug Metabolism and Pharmacokinetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28736171/northern-elephant-seals-memorize-the-rhythm-and-timbre-of-their-rivals-voices
#14
Nicolas Mathevon, Caroline Casey, Colleen Reichmuth, Isabelle Charrier
The evolutionary origin of rhythm perception, a cognitive ability essential to musicality, remains unresolved [1-5]. The ability to perceive and memorize rhythmic sounds is widely shared among humans [6] but seems rare among other mammals [7, 8]. Although the perception of temporal metrical patterns has been found in a few species, this ability has only been demonstrated through behavioral training [9] (but see [10] for an example of spontaneous tempo coordination in a bonobo), and there is no experimental evidence to indicate its biological function...
July 18, 2017: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735898/genome-wide-single-molecule-footprinting-reveals-high-rna-polymerase-ii-turnover-at-paused-promoters
#15
Arnaud R Krebs, Dilek Imanci, Leslie Hoerner, Dimos Gaidatzis, Lukas Burger, Dirk Schübeler
Transcription initiation entails chromatin opening followed by pre-initiation complex formation and RNA polymerase II recruitment. Subsequent polymerase elongation requires additional signals, resulting in increased residence time downstream of the start site, a phenomenon referred to as pausing. Here, we harnessed single-molecule footprinting to quantify distinct steps of initiation in vivo throughout the Drosophila genome. This identifies the impact of promoter structure on initiation dynamics in relation to nucleosomal occupancy...
July 19, 2017: Molecular Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735837/coronary-artery-calcification-from-crystal-to-plaque-rupture
#16
REVIEW
Loïc Panh, Olivier Lairez, Jean-Bernard Ruidavets, Michel Galinier, Didier Carrié, Jean Ferrières
Epidemiological studies using coronary artery calcification measurement have linked calcification strongly with coronary events and mortality. Formerly considered as a passive age-related phenomenon, coronary artery calcification is now recognized as an active and regulated process. In fact, there is a local influence linked to the inflammation generated by the presence of oxidized lipids and, equally, a general influence from mineral metabolism factors, such as inorganic phosphate, calcium, pyrophosphate or fibroblast growth factor 23, which are regulators of cell differentiation and of phosphate and calcium deposition on the vascular layers...
July 20, 2017: Archives of Cardiovascular Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735813/atypical-memory-b-cells-in-human-chronic-infectious-diseases-an-interim-report
#17
Silvia Portugal, Nyamekye Obeng-Adjei, Susan Moir, Peter D Crompton, Susan K Pierce
Immunological memory is a remarkable phenomenon in which survival of an initial infection by a pathogen leads to life-long protection from disease upon subsequent exposure to that same pathogen. For many infectious diseases, long-lived protective humoral immunity is induced after only a single infection in a process that depends on the generation of memory B cells (MBCs) and long-lived plasma cells. However, over the past decade it has become increasingly evident that many chronic human infectious diseases to which immunity is not readily established, including HIV-AIDS, malaria and TB, are associated with fundamental alterations in the composition and functionality of MBC compartments...
July 11, 2017: Cellular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735779/a-systematic-review-of-variables-associated-with-sleep-paralysis
#18
REVIEW
Dan Denis, Christopher C French, Alice M Gregory
Sleep paralysis is a relatively common but under-researched phenomenon. While the causes are unknown, a number of studies have investigated potential risk factors. In this article, we conducted a systematic review on the available literature regarding variables associated with both the frequency and intensity of sleep paralysis episodes. A total of 42 studies met the inclusion criteria. For each study, sample size, study site, sex and age of participants, sleep paralysis measure, and results of analyses looking at the relationship(s) between sleep paralysis and associated variable(s) were extracted...
June 8, 2017: Sleep Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735717/real-time-cineangiography-visualization-of-cerebral-aneurysm-rupture-in-an-awake-patient-anatomic-physiological-and-functional-correlates
#19
Tasha L Welch, Waleed Brinjikji, Guiseppe Lanzino, William L Lanier
Intracranial aneurysms are common and, on a population-based perspective, are a major cause of morbidity and mortality as a result of mass effect or rupture. Cerebral angiography is the primary technique used for the diagnosis of cerebral aneurysms, and the imaging data have additional utility for planning medical, endovascular, or surgical treatments. An extremely rare periprocedural complication of cerebral angiography is rupture of the aneurysm, either as a chance phenomenon or as a result of some physiologic change or mechanical effect...
July 20, 2017: Mayo Clinic Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735649/dystonia-as-a-patterned-motor-malflow
#20
Takahiro Mezaki
The definition of dystonia has been renewed repeatedly but always within the context of overactive muscle contractions. In dystonia the muscles unnecessary for a motion fail to be adequately suppressed because of the loss of central motor control, resulting in inappropriate movements or abnormal postures ("overflow phenomenon"). This represents, however, only one side of the disrupted motor control. Some patients complain of the inability to activate muscles necessary for the intended task despite the lack of motor paresis, as best exemplified by the apraxia of eyelid opening...
August 2017: Medical Hypotheses
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