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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141047/is-species-richness-driving-intra-and-interspecific-interactions-and-temporal-activity-overlap-of-a-hantavirus-host-an-experimental-test
#1
André V Rubio, Ivan Castro-Arellano, James N Mills, Rurik List, Rafael Ávila-Flores, Gerardo Suzán
High species diversity of the potential animal host community for a zoonotic pathogen may reduce pathogen transmission among the most competent host, a phenomenon called the "dilution effect", but the mechanisms driving this effect have been little studied. One proposed mechanism is "encounter reduction" where host species of low-competency decrease contact rates between infected and susceptible competent hosts, especially in directly transmitted diseases. We conducted an experiment in outdoor enclosures in northwestern Mexico where we manipulated rodent assemblages to assess the effect of species richness on the frequency of intra- and interspecific interactions and activity patterns of a hantavirus reservoir host (North American deermouse; Peromyscus maniculatus)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29141009/evidence-for-proactive-and-reactive-helping-in-two-to-five-year-olds-from-a-small-scale-society
#2
Hilary Aime, Tanya Broesch, Lara B Aknin, Felix Warneken
Humans are unique in their propensity for helping. Not only do we help others in need by reacting to their requests, we also help proactively by assisting in the absence of a request. Proactive helping requires the actor to detect the need for help, recognize the intention of the other, and remedy the situation. Very little is known about the development of this social phenomenon beyond an urban, industrialized setting. We examined helping in nineteen two- to five-year old children in small-scale rural villages of Vanuatu...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140929/tactile-acuity-dys-function-in-acute-nociceptive-low-back-pain-a-doubleblind-experiment
#3
Wacław M Adamczyk, Oskar Saulicz, Edward Saulicz, Kerstin Luedtke
Research shows that chronic pain is related to cortical alterations that can be reflected in reduced tactile acuity, but whether acute pain perception influences tactile acuity has not been tested. Considering the biological role of nociception, it was hypothesized that nociceptive pain will lead to a rapid improvement in tactile acuity and that this effect is correlated with pain intensity and pain distribution. In this randomised double-blind controlled experiment (trial no. NCT03021278), healthy participants were exposed to one of three experimental conditions: acute, nociceptive low back pain induced by saline injection, a sham-injection (without piercing the skin) potentially inducing nocebo pain, or no intervention...
November 13, 2017: Pain
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140884/ovarian-sex-cord-stromal-tumors-with-melanin-pigment-report-of-a-previously-undescribed-phenomenon
#4
Jennifer Taylor, W Glenn McCluggage
We report 2 ovarian sex cord-stromal tumors, a luteinized adult granulosa cell tumor and a cellular fibroma, with melanin pigment. These occurred in 44 and 61-yr-old patients, respectively. As far as we are aware, melanin pigment has not been described previously in an ovarian sex cord-stromal tumor, although it has been reported in a testicular Sertoli cell tumor. We review ovarian neoplasms containing melanin pigment.
November 14, 2017: International Journal of Gynecological Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140879/metastatic-endocervical-adenocarcinoma-in-a-mature-cystic-teratoma-a-case-of-a-tumor-to-tumor-metastasis
#5
Filipa Santos, Catarina Oliveira, João P Caldeira, Ana Coelho, Ana Félix
Tumor-to-tumor metastasis is a rare phenomenon defined as a to metastasis in a histologically distinct tumor. We report an unusual case of a 51-yr-old woman who presented with a cervical, bleeding lesion diagnosed as a poorly differentiated adenocarcinoma, HPV18+. Imaging studies revealed an unresectable cervical carcinoma with an associated left ovarian multicystic teratoma. A suspicious solid nodule within the teratoma was also reported. Bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy was performed before the cervical tumor was treated...
November 14, 2017: International Journal of Gynecological Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140878/clear-cell-renal-cell-carcinoma-metastatic-to-the-gynecologic-tract-a-clinicopathologic-analysis-of-17-cases
#6
Oluwole Fadare, Mohamed M Desouki, Katja Gwin, Krisztina Z Hanley, Elke A Jarboe, Sharon X Liang, Charles M Quick, Kojo R Rawish, Andres A Roma, Wenxin Zheng, Jonathan L Hecht, Vinita Parkash, Adeboye O Osunkoya
Clear cell renal cell carcinomas (CCRCC) rarely metastasizes to the gynecologic tract. In this study, we analyzed a multi-institutional data set to provide insights into the clinical, morphologic, and immunophenotypic features of this phenomenon. Seveteen metastatic CCRCC involving the gynecologic tract [ovary/fallopian tube (n=9), vulva (n=2), uterine corpus (n=3), cervix (n=2), uterine serosa (n=1)] were analyzed. Mean patient age was 62 yr (range: 45-79 yr). Most cases (15/17) presented as a recurrence 6 to 72 mo postnephrectomy, 1 case was concurrently diagnosed, and 1 case (a cervical metastasis) was diagnosed prenephrectomy...
November 14, 2017: International Journal of Gynecological Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29140362/coupling-in-a-dual-metallo-dielectric-nanolaser-system
#7
Suruj S Deka, Si Hui Pan, Qing Gu, Yeshaiahu Fainman, Abdelkrim El Amili
To achieve high packing density in on-chip photonic integrated circuits, subwavelength scale nanolasers that can operate without crosstalk are essential components. Metallo-dielectric nanolasers are especially suited for this type of dense integration due to their lower Joule loss and nanoscale dimensions. Although coupling between optical cavities when placed in proximity to one another has been widely reported, whether the phenomenon is induced for metal-clad cavities has not been investigated thus far. We demonstrate coupling between two metallo-dielectric nanolasers by reducing the separation between the two cavities...
November 15, 2017: Optics Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139589/severe-fasting-hypoglycemia-in-a-child-after-total-pancreatectomy-with-islet-autotransplantation
#8
Jacob M Redel, Jaimie D Nathan, Maisam Abu-El-Haija, Tom K Lin, Joseph J Palermo, Deborah A Elder
TPIAT is an increasingly utilized treatment option for select children with CP. Post-TPIAT fasting hypoglycemia, unrelated to exogenous insulin, is a complication recently reported in adults. This phenomenon has not been described in children. We review a case of severe fasting hypoglycemia in an adolescent female occurring 10 months post-TPIAT. A 12-year-old girl underwent TPIAT for CP. Ten months postoperatively she developed recurrent hypoglycemia on a total daily insulin dose of 0.03 units/kg. Consequently, insulin therapy was discontinued...
November 15, 2017: Pediatric Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139149/under-recognized-entity-of-the-transient-rise-in-the-atrial-capture-threshold-early-after-dual-chamber-pacemaker-implantation
#9
Yoshiko Uehara, Kentaro Yoshida, Akira Kimata, Kojiro Ogawa, Daisuke Abe, Yasuaki Tsumagari, Hidekazu Tsuneoka, Yoshiaki Yui, Yoko Ito, Mari Ebine, Noriyuki Takeyasu, Kazutaka Aonuma, Akihiko Nogami
BACKGROUND: Steroid-eluting pacemaker leads suppress acute rises in pacing threshold by preventing inflammatory processes. However, we occasionally encounter not persistent but transient rise in the atrial capture threshold (TRACT) early after pacemaker implantation. We believe that this phenomenon is under-recognized in clinical practice and may potentially lead to unnecessary re-intervention. We aimed to clarify the prevalence, predictors, and possible mechanisms of TRACT. METHODS AND RESULTS: We reviewed clinical records from 239 consecutive patients who underwent dual-chamber pacemaker implantation for sick sinus syndrome (SSS) (N = 102) or atrioventricular block (AVB) (N = 137)...
November 15, 2017: Pacing and Clinical Electrophysiology: PACE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139123/new-insights-into-the-mechanisms-of-phytochrome-cryptochrome-coaction
#10
REVIEW
Qin Wang, Qing Liu, Xu Wang, Zecheng Zuo, Yoshito Oka, Chentao Lin
Contents I. II. III. IV. SUMMARY: Plants perceive and respond to light signals by multiple sensory photoreceptors, including phytochromes and cryptochromes, which absorb different wavelengths of light to regulate genome expression and plant development. Photophysiological analyses have long revealed the coordinated actions of different photoreceptors, a phenomenon referred to as the photoreceptor coaction. The mechanistic explanations of photoreceptor coactions are not fully understood...
November 15, 2017: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138786/electroconvection-of-pure-nematic-liquid-crystals-without-free-charge-carriers
#11
Kuang-Wu Lee, Thorsten Pöschel
We consider electroconvection as a response of nematic liquid crystals to an external electric AC field, in the absence of free charge carriers. Previous experimental and theoretical results emphasized charge carriers as a necessary precondition of electroconvection because free-charges in the fluid can respond to an external electric field. Therefore, ionized molecules are considered as responsible for the driving of electroconvective flows. In experiments, finite conductivity is achieved by adding charge-carrying dye molecules or in non-dyed liquid crystals by impurities of the samples...
November 15, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138574/cancer-cell-dormancy-mechanisms-and-implications-of-cancer-recurrence-and-metastasis
#12
REVIEW
Xiao-Lei Gao, Mei Zhang, Ya-Ling Tang, Xin-Hua Liang
More recently, disease metastasis and relapse in many cancer patients several years (even some decades) after surgical remission are regarded as tumor dormancy. However, the knowledge of this phenomenon is cripplingly limited. Substantial quantities of reviews have summarized three main potential models that can be put forth to explain such process, including angiogenic dormancy, immunologic dormancy, and cellular dormancy. In this review, newly uncovered mechanisms governing cancer cell dormancy are discussed, with an emphasis on the cross talk between dormant cancer cells and their microenvironments...
2017: OncoTargets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138478/magnetic-bragg-dip-and-bragg-edge-in-neutron-transmission-spectra-of-typical-spin-superstructures
#13
Hiroaki Mamiya, Yojiro Oba, Noriki Terada, Norimichi Watanabe, Kosuke Hiroi, Takenao Shinohara, Kenichi Oikawa
Neutron diffractometry has been a critical tool for clarifying spin structures. In contrast, little attention has been paid to neutron transmission spectroscopy, even though they are different types of the same phenomenon. Soon, it will be possible to measure the wavelength dependence of transmissions easily using accelerator-driven neutron facilities. Therefore, we have started studying the potential of spectroscopy in magnetism, and in this paper, we report the first observation of a magnetic Bragg dip and Bragg edge in the neutron transmission spectra of a typical spin superstructure; clear antiferromagnetic Bragg dips and Bragg edges are found for a single crystal and powder of nickel oxide, respectively...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138424/structure-function-relationships-in-abcg2-insights-from-molecular-dynamics-simulations-and-molecular-docking-studies
#14
Ricardo J Ferreira, Cátia A Bonito, M Natália D S Cordeiro, Maria-José U Ferreira, Daniel J V A Dos Santos
Efflux pumps of the ATP-binding cassette transporters superfamily (ABC transporters) are frequently involved in the multidrug-resistance (MDR) phenomenon in cancer cells. Herein, we describe a new atomistic model for the MDR-related ABCG2 efflux pump, also named breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP), based on the recently published crystallographic structure of the ABCG5/G8 heterodimer sterol transporter, a member of the ABCG family involved in cholesterol homeostasis. By means of molecular dynamics simulations and molecular docking, a far-reaching characterization of the ABCG2 homodimer was obtained...
November 14, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138301/genomic-variation-and-evolution-of-vibrio-parahaemolyticus-st36-over-the-course-of-a-transcontinental-epidemic-expansion
#15
Jaime Martinez-Urtaza, Ronny van Aerle, Michel Abanto, Julie Haendiges, Robert A Myers, Joaquin Trinanes, Craig Baker-Austin, Narjol Gonzalez-Escalona
Vibrio parahaemolyticus is the leading cause of seafood-related infections with illnesses undergoing a geographic expansion. In this process of expansion, the most fundamental change has been the transition from infections caused by local strains to the surge of pandemic clonal types. Pandemic clone sequence type 3 (ST3) was the only example of transcontinental spreading until 2012, when ST36 was detected outside the region where it is endemic in the U.S. Pacific Northwest causing infections along the U.S. northeast coast and Spain...
November 14, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138095/kinetics-and-thermodynamics-of-the-thermal-inactivation-and-chaperone-assisted-folding-of-zebrafish-dihydrofolate-reductase
#16
Charu Thapliyal, Neha Jain, Naira Rashid, Pratima Chaudhuri
The maintenance of thermal stability is a major issue in protein engineering as many proteins tend to form inactive aggregates at higher temperatures. Zebrafish DHFR, an essential protein for the survival of cells, shows irreversible thermal unfolding transition. The protein exhibits complete unfolding and loss of activity at 50 °C as monitored by UV-Visible, fluorescence and far UV-CD spectroscopy. The heat induced inactivation of zDHFR follows first-order kinetics and Arrhenius law. The variation in the value of inactivation rate constant, k with increasing temperatures depicts faster inactivation at elevated temperatures...
November 11, 2017: Archives of Biochemistry and Biophysics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137735/superiority-of-sonochemical-processing-method-for-the-synthesis-of-barium-titanate-nanocrystals-in-contrast-to-the-mechanochemical-approach
#17
A Moghtada, R Ashiri
The results indicated that the ultrasonic sonochemistry which brings into play the acoustic cavitation phenomenon is more powerful and feasible in synthesizing the mixed oxides in contrast to the conventional solid-state approaches. The obtained results demonstrated that the sonochemical approach is able to obtain highly pure powder product at a much lower processing temperature of about 323K (50°C) in contrast to 1173K (900°C) which is essential for the synthesis by the mechanochemical approach. Sonochemical synthesis benefits from homogenous ordering the reactant ions (which have been dissolved in the solution mixture) into perovskite structure using ultrasonication...
March 2018: Ultrasonics Sonochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137670/modelling-and-mapping-tick-dynamics-using-volunteered-observations
#18
Irene Garcia-Martí, Raúl Zurita-Milla, Arnold J H van Vliet, Willem Takken
BACKGROUND: Tick populations and tick-borne infections have steadily increased since the mid-1990s posing an ever-increasing risk to public health. Yet, modelling tick dynamics remains challenging because of the lack of data and knowledge on this complex phenomenon. Here we present an approach to model and map tick dynamics using volunteered data. This approach is illustrated with 9 years of data collected by a group of trained volunteers who sampled active questing ticks (AQT) on a monthly basis and for 15 locations in the Netherlands...
November 14, 2017: International Journal of Health Geographics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137509/explicit-bias-toward-high-income-country-research-a-randomized-blinded-crossover-experiment-of-english-clinicians
#19
Matthew Harris, Joachim Marti, Hillary Watt, Yasser Bhatti, James Macinko, Ara W Darzi
Unconscious bias may interfere with the interpretation of research from some settings, particularly from lower-income countries. Most studies of this phenomenon have relied on indirect outcomes such as article citation counts and publication rates; few have addressed or proven the effect of unconscious bias in evidence interpretation. In this randomized, blinded crossover experiment in a sample of 347 English clinicians, we demonstrate that changing the source of a research abstract from a low- to a high-income country significantly improves how it is viewed, all else being equal...
November 2017: Health Affairs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29137492/a-guide-to-topical-vehicle-formulations
#20
Julia N Mayba, Melinda J Gooderham
Adherence to topical treatment for a variety of chronic skin conditions, such as psoriasis, acne, and atopic dermatitis, is known to be very poor. A number of factors contribute to this phenomenon, including lack of treatment efficacy and patient concerns regarding side effects, among others. At the forefront of barriers facing optimal patient adherence to topical treatment is choosing the ideal topical vehicle formulation. Medical professionals have demonstrated a lack of understanding with respect to the composition and nomenclature of the various topical formulations...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery
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