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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792935/lp533401-restores-bone-health-in-5-6-nephrectomized-rats-by-a-decrease-of-gut-derived-serotonin-and-regulation-of-serum-phosphate-through-the-inhibition-of-phosphate-co-transporters-expression-in-the-kidneys
#1
Dariusz Pawlak, Beata Znorko, Bartlomiej Kalaska, Tomasz Domaniewski, Radosław Zawadzki, Paweł Lipowicz, Michał Doroszko, Urszula Łebkowska, Piotr Grabowski, Krystyna Pawlak
LP533401 is an orally bioavailable small molecule that inhibits tryptophan hydroxylase-1, an enzyme responsible for the synthesis of gut-derived serotonin (GDS). Recently, we showed that increased GDS in rats with chronic kidney disease (CKD) affected bone strength and metabolism. We tested the hypothesis that treatment with LP533401 could reverse CKD-induced bone loss in uremia. Sixteen weeks after 5/6 nephrectomy, rats were randomized into untreated (CKD), treated with vehicle (VEH) and LP533401 at a dose of 30 or 100 mg/kg daily for 8 weeks...
May 21, 2018: Bone
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792866/cardiac-extracellular-matrix-hydrogel-together-with-or-without-inducer-cocktail-improves-human-adipose-tissue-derived-stem-cells-differentiation-into-cardiomyocyte-like-cells
#2
Masoumeh Baghalishahi, Seyed Hasan Efthekhar-Vaghefi, Abbas Piryaei, S N Nematolahi-Mahani, Hamid Reza Mollaei, Yousef Sadeghi
Studies have demonstrated that differentiation of stem cells into cardiomyocytes is a complex phenomenon that requires sufficient inducing factors at various time points. Cardiac extracellular matrix (cECM) could provide tissue specific microenvironment and act as an inductive template for efficient cell differentiation. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cECM on differentiation of human adipose tissue-derived stem cells (hADSCs) into cardiomyocytes using cECM hydrogel in combination with a cardiac inductive cocktail...
May 21, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792726/i-like-them%C3%A2-will-they-like-me-evidence-for-the-role-of-the-ventrolateral-prefrontal-cortex-during-mismatched-social-appraisals-in-anxious-youth
#3
Ashley R Smith, Eric E Nelson, Brent I Rappaport, Daniel S Pine, Ellen Leibenluft, Johanna M Jarcho
OBJECTIVE: Socially anxious adolescents report distress during social decision-making, wherein their favorable view of peers directly conflicts with their expectation to be viewed negatively by peers; a phenomenon we refer to as "mismatch bias." The present study utilizes a novel paradigm with dynamic social stimuli to explore the correlates of mismatch biases in anxious and healthy youth. METHOD: The behavioral and neural correlates of mismatch biases were assessed in healthy (N = 17) and anxious (N = 14) youth during functional MRI...
May 24, 2018: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792573/inherent-resistance-to-14%C3%AE-demethylation-inhibitor-fungicides-in-colletotrichum-truncatum-is-likely-linked-to-cyp51a-and-or-cyp51b-gene-variants
#4
Shuning Chen, Yunyun Wang, Guido Schnabel, Congyue Annie Peng, Satyanarayana Lagishetty, Kerry Smith, Chao-Xi Luo, Huizhu Yuan
Anthracnose disease, caused by Colletotrichum truncatum, affects marketable yield during preharvest production and postharvest storage of fruits and vegetables worldwide. Demethylation inhibitor fungicides (DMIs) are among the very few chemical classes of single-site mode of action fungicides that are effective in controlling anthracnose disease. However, some species are inherently resistant to DMIs and more information is needed to understand this phenomenon. Isolates of C. truncatum were collected from the USA and China from peach, soybean, citrus, and begonia and sensitivity to six DMIs (difenoconazole, propiconazole, metconazole, tebuconazole, flutriafol and fenbuconazole) was determined...
May 24, 2018: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792488/asian-americans-and-materialism-exploring-the-phenomenon-and-its-why-and-when
#5
Jia Wei Zhang
OBJECTIVES: Consumer values, including but not limited to materialism, have received much less attention than other topics within research on Asian Americans. METHODS: Across 3 studies (N = 6,955), the author explored the difference between Asian Americans and White/European Americans on materialism, and the mediating and moderating mechanisms. RESULTS: Studies 1a-1c found Asian Americans, compared to White/European Americans, more strongly endorsed materialistic values...
May 24, 2018: Cultural Diversity & Ethnic Minority Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792449/the-science-of-teamwork-introduction-to-the-special-issue
#6
Susan H McDaniel, Eduardo Salas
Provides an introduction to this special issue which explores the Science of Teamwork-what psychological science in 2018 tells us about the process and outcomes of teamwork in a variety of contexts. This work draws from and affects all areas of psychology. The science and practice of teamwork is now an interdisciplinary activity. Teamwork is a complex phenomenon requiring multiple lenses and approaches. What follows is a description of our process in putting together the issue and a brief description of the articles that compose it...
May 2018: American Psychologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29792441/human-memory-reconsolidation-a-guiding-framework-and-critical-review-of-the-evidence
#7
James W B Elsey, Vanessa A Van Ast, Merel Kindt
Research in nonhuman animals suggests that reactivation can induce a transient, unstable state in a previously consolidated memory, during which the memory can be disrupted or modified, necessitating a process of restabilization in order to persist. Such findings have sparked a wave of interest into whether this phenomenon, known as reconsolidation, occurs in humans. Translating research from animal models to human experiments and even to clinical interventions is an exciting prospect, but amid this excitement, relatively little work has critically evaluated and synthesized existing research regarding human memory reconsolidation...
May 24, 2018: Psychological Bulletin
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791943/the-growing-reality-of-the-neurological-complications-of-global-stem-cell-tourism
#8
Katie Julian, Nick Yuhasz, Ethan Hollingsworth, Jaime Imitola
"Stem cell tourism" is defined as the unethical practice of offering unproven cellular preparations to patients suffering from various medical conditions. This phenomenon is rising in the field of neurology as patients are requesting information and opportunities for treatment with stem cells for incurable conditions such as multiple sclerosis and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, despite their clinical research and experimental designation. Here, we review the recent trends in "stem cell tourism" in both the United States and abroad, and discuss the recent reports of neurological complications from these activities...
April 2018: Seminars in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791865/executive-and-arousal-vigilance-decrement-in-the-context-of-the-attentional-networks-the-anti-vea-task
#9
Fernando Gabriel Luna, Julián Marino, Javier Roca, Juan Lupiáñez
BACKGROUND: Vigilance is generally understood as the ability to detect infrequent critical events through long time periods. In tasks like the Sustained Attention to Response Task (SART), participants tend to detect fewer events across time, a phenomenon known as "vigilance decrement". However, vigilance might also involve sustaining a tonic arousal level. In the Psychomotor Vigilance Test (PVT), the vigilance decrement corresponds to an increment across time in both mean and variability of reaction time...
May 20, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791718/alopecia-areata-a-review-of-disease-pathogenesis
#10
REVIEW
F Rajabi, L A Drake, M M Senna, N Rezaei
Alopecia areata is a disorder that results in non-scarring hair loss. The psychological impact can be significant, leading to feelings of depression and social isolation. The disease remains incurable though it has been studied for years. Available treatment options at best, are beneficial for milder cases, and the rate of relapse is high. Understanding the exact mechanisms of hair loss in alopecia areata is therefore of utmost importance to help identify potential therapeutic targets. The main theory of alopecia areata pathogenesis is that it is an autoimmune phenomenon resulting from a disruption in hair follicle immune privilege...
May 23, 2018: British Journal of Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791712/surgical-management-after-hysteroscopic-sterilization-minimally-invasive-approach-incorporating-intraoperative-fluoroscopy-for-symptomatic-patients-with-2-essure%C3%A2-devices
#11
E Scott Sills, Natalie S Rickers, Xiang Li
OBJECTIVE: To describe a non-hysterectomy surgical technique for symptomatic patients with >2 Essure® (Bayer Healthcare, Whippany, New Jersey) devices. DESIGN: Patients (n=4) presented with sharp pelvic pain, irregular vaginal bleeding, dyspareunia, weight gain, hair loss, fatigue, and/or diffuse skin rash, all of which were absent before undergoing hysteroscopic sterilization (HS). Hysterosalpingogram obtained before surgical excision of contraceptive tubal implants confirmed more than two Essure® devices in all patients...
June 1, 2018: Surgical Technology International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791646/repercussions-of-hospitalization-due-to-fall-of-the-elderly-health-care-and-prevention
#12
Adriana Remião Luzardo, Newton Ferreira de Paula Júnior, Marcelo Medeiros, Paula Carolina Bejo Wolkers, Silvia Maria Azevedo Dos Santos
OBJECTIVE: To know the repercussions of the fall reported by the elderly and their caregiver during hospitalization in a public hospital in Florianópolis city from October to December 2014. METHOD: Exploratory research with a qualitative approach, conducted by depth interviews with 16 participants, the eight elderly were hospitalized for falls and eight elderly caregivers. Data analysis were performed through the Thematic Content Analysis. RESULTS: It was evidenced the thematic axis: Faller Elderly supported by four thematic categories: Changes caused by Falls, I am a faller, I take care of me and Prevention of the Fall...
2018: Revista Brasileira de Enfermagem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791405/local-blur-analysis-and-phase-error-correction-method-for-fringe-projection-profilometry-systems
#13
Li Rao, Feipeng Da
We introduce a flexible error correction method for fringe projection profilometry (FPP) systems in the presence of local blur phenomenon. Local blur caused by global light transport such as camera defocus, projector defocus, and subsurface scattering will cause significant systematic errors in FPP systems. Previous methods, which adopt high-frequency patterns to separate the direct and global components, fail when the global light phenomenon occurs locally. In this paper, the influence of local blur on phase quality is thoroughly analyzed, and a concise error correction method is proposed to compensate the phase errors...
May 20, 2018: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791274/cathodal-tdcs-of-the-left-posterior-parietal-cortex-increases-proprioceptive-drift
#14
João Roberto Ventura de Oliveira, Marco Aurélio Romano-Silva, Herbert Ugrinowitsch, Tércio Apolinário-Souza, Lidiane Aparecida Fernandes, Juliana Otoni Parma, Guilherme Menezes Lage
In aiming movements the limb position drifts away from the defined target after some trials without visual feedback, a phenomenon defined as proprioceptive drift (PD). There are no studies investigating the association between the posterior parietal cortex (PPC) and PD in aiming movements. Therefore, cathodal and sham transcranial direct current stimulation (tDCS) were applied to the left PPC concomitantly with the performance of movements with or without vision. Cathodal tDCS applied without vision produced a higher level of PD and higher rates of drift accumulation while it decreased peak velocity and maintained the number of error corrections, not affecting movement amplitude...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Motor Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791262/flow-recirculation-in-cartilaginous-ring-cavities-of-human-trachea-model
#15
Jose Montoya Segnini, Humberto Bocanegra Evans, Luciano Castillo
BACKGROUND: Despite the prevailing assumption of "smooth trachea walls" in respiratory fluid dynamics research, recent investigations have demonstrated that cartilaginous rings in the trachea and main bronchi have a significant effect on the flow behavior and in particle deposition. However, there is not enough detailed information about the underlying physics of the interaction between the cartilage rings and the flow. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This study presents an experimental observation of a simplified Weibel-based model of the human trachea and bronchi with cartilaginous rings...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Aerosol Medicine and Pulmonary Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29791189/late-onset-stress-symptomatology-loss-scale-short-form-development-and-validation
#16
Christopher B Brady, Anica Pless Kaiser, Avron Spiro, Eve Davison, Daniel King, Lynda King
OBJECTIVES: Late-onset stress symptomatology (LOSS) is a phenomenon observed in older combat veterans who experience increased combat-related thoughts, feelings, and reminiscences corresponding with the changes and challenges of aging. Previously, we developed the LOSS Scale to assess LOSS. This paper describes the development and validation of a LOSS Scale short form (LOSS-SF) to screen veterans in various settings who may be actively re-examining their past wartime experiences. METHOD: Three studies examined the reliability and validity of the LOSS-SF in separate samples of male combat veterans age 55 and older (total N = 346)...
May 23, 2018: Aging & Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790969/microcatheter-first-pass-effect-predicts-acute-intracranial-artery-atherosclerotic-disease-related-occlusion
#17
Ting-Yu Yi, Wen-Huo Chen, Yan-Min Wu, Mei-Fang Zhang, A-Lai Zhan, Yue-Hong Chen, Zong-Zhong Wu, Yan-Chuan Shi, Bai-Ling Chen
BACKGROUND: The differentiation between intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis (ICAS) and intracranial embolism as the immediate cause of acute ischemic stroke requiring endovascular therapy is important but challenging. In cases of ICAS, we often observe a phenomenon we call the microcatheter "first-pass effect," which is temporary blood flow through the occluded intracranial artery when the angiographic microcatheter is initially advanced through the site of total occlusion and immediately retrieved proximally...
May 22, 2018: Neurosurgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790967/common-genetic-basis-of-eye-and-pigment-loss-in-two-distinct-cave-populations-of-the-isopod-crustacean-asellus-aquaticus
#18
Cassandra Re, Žiga Fišer, Justin Perez, Allyson Tacdol, Peter Trontelj, Meredith E Protas
Repeated evolution of similar phenotypes is a widespread phenomenon found throughout the living world and it can proceed through the same or different genetic mechanisms. Cave animals with their convergent traits such as eye and pigment loss, as well as elongated appendages, are a striking example of the evolution of similar phenotypes. Yet, few cave species are amenable to genetic crossing and mapping techniques making it challenging to determine the genetic mechanisms causing their similar phenotypes. To address this limitation, we have been developing Asellus aquaticus, a freshwater isopod crustacean, as a genetic model...
May 21, 2018: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790942/exposing-the-science-in-citizen-science-fitness-to-purpose-and-intentional-design
#19
Julia K Parrish, Hillary Burgess, Jake F Weltzin, Lucy Fortson, Andrea Wiggins, Brooke Simmons
Citizen science is a growing phenomenon. With millions of people involved and billions of in-kind dollars contributed annually, this broad extent, fine grain approach to data collection should be garnering enthusiastic support in the mainstream science and higher education communities. However, many academic researchers demonstrate distinct biases against the use of citizen science as a source of rigorous information. To engage the public in scientific research, and the research community in the practice of citizen science, a mutual understanding is needed of accepted quality standards in science, and the corresponding specifics of project design and implementation when working with a broad public base...
May 21, 2018: Integrative and Comparative Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29790632/rapid-and-non-invasive-quality-control-of-anhydrous-milk-fat-by-ptr-ms-the-effect-of-storage-time-and-packaging
#20
M Pedrotti, I Khomenko, L Cappellin, M Fontana, M Somenzi, L Falchero, M Arveda, V Fogliano, F Biasioli
In this study, Proton Transfer Reaction - Mass Spectrometry (PTR-MS), coupled with a time-of-flight mass analyzer and a multipurpose automatic sampler, was evaluated as a rapid and non-destructive tool for the quality control (QC) of anhydrous milk fat (AMF). AMFs packed in cardboard and bag-in-box were compared during refrigerated shelf-life at 4°C for 9 months. AMF samples were taken at 120, 180 and 240 days and measured by PTR-MS during storage at 50°C for 11 days. Univariate and multivariate data analysis were performed in order to classify samples according to the packaging type and compare aromatic profiles...
May 23, 2018: Journal of Mass Spectrometry: JMS
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