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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339281/gate-tunable-band-structure-of-the-laalo_-3-srtio_-3-interface
#1
A E M Smink, J C de Boer, M P Stehno, A Brinkman, W G van der Wiel, H Hilgenkamp
The two-dimensional electron system at the interface between LaAlO_{3} and SrTiO_{3} has several unique properties that can be tuned by an externally applied gate voltage. In this work, we show that this gate tunability extends to the effective band structure of the system. We combine a magnetotransport study on top-gated Hall bars with self-consistent Schrödinger-Poisson calculations and observe a Lifshitz transition at a density of 2.9×10^{13}cm^{-2}. Above the transition, the carrier density of one of the conducting bands decreases with increasing gate voltage...
March 10, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28339220/experimental-bayesian-quantum-phase-estimation-on-a-silicon-photonic-chip
#2
S Paesani, A A Gentile, R Santagati, J Wang, N Wiebe, D P Tew, J L O'Brien, M G Thompson
Quantum phase estimation is a fundamental subroutine in many quantum algorithms, including Shor's factorization algorithm and quantum simulation. However, so far results have cast doubt on its practicability for near-term, nonfault tolerant, quantum devices. Here we report experimental results demonstrating that this intuition need not be true. We implement a recently proposed adaptive Bayesian approach to quantum phase estimation and use it to simulate molecular energies on a silicon quantum photonic device...
March 10, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334293/what-s-behind-a-sign-perceiving-an-arithmetic-operator-recruits-brain-circuits-for-spatial-orienting
#3
Romain Mathieu, Justine Epinat-Duclos, Monica Sigovan, Audrey Breton, Anne Cheylus, Michel Fayol, Catherine Thevenot, Jérôme Prado
Do mathematical symbols evoke spatial representations? Although behavioral studies have long demonstrated interactions between space and the processing of Arabic digits, how to interpret these results remains controversial. Here, we tested whether activity in regions supporting spatial processing contributes to the processing of symbols conveying fundamental arithmetic concepts-such as operation signs-even in the absence of associated digits. Using functional magnetic resonance imaging, we show that merely perceiving a "+" sign triggers activity in brain regions that support the orienting of spatial attention in adults...
March 14, 2017: Cerebral Cortex
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334266/phenopolis-an-open-platform-for-harmonization-and-analysis-of-genetic-and-phenotypic-data
#4
Nikolas Pontikos, Jing Yu, Ismail Moghul, Lucy Withington, Fiona Blanco-Kelly, Tom Vulliamy, Tsz Lun Wong, Cian Murphy, Valentina Cipriani, Alessia Fiorentino, Gavin Arno, Daniel Greene, Julius Ob Jacobsen, Tristan Clark, David S Gregory, Andrea Nemeth, Stephanie Halford, Chris F Inglehearn, Susan Downes, Graeme C Black, Andrew R Webster, Alison J Hardcastle, Vincent Plagnol
Summary: Phenopolis is an open-source web server providing an intuitive interface to genetic and phenotypic databases. It integrates analysis tools such as variant filtering and gene prioritisation based on phenotype. The Phenopolis platform will accelerate clinical diagnosis, gene discovery and encourage wider adoption of the Human Phenotype Ontology in the study of rare genetic diseases. Availability and Implementation: A demo of the website is available at https://phenopolis...
March 15, 2017: Bioinformatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334051/dissecting-the-relationships-of-igg-subclasses-and-complements-in-membranous-lupus-nephritis-and-idiopathic-membranous-nephropathy
#5
Woong Na, Kijong Yi, Young Soo Song, Moon Hyang Park
Membranous lupus nephritis (MLN) and idiopathic membranous nephropathy (IMN) are kidney diseases with similar morphology, but distinct etiologies, both producing glomeruli with immune deposits. Immunoglobulins and complements, the main components of the deposits, can be detected by immunofluorescence (IF) microscopy. Previous researches characterized the immune deposits only individually, but not the interactions between them. To study these relationships we analyzed an IF profile of IgG subclasses and complements (IgG1, IgG2, IgG3, IgG4, C3, C1q, and C4) in 53 and 95 cases of biopsy-confirmed MLNs and IMNs, respectively, mainly using information theory and Bayesian networks...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333526/learning-higher-order-generalizations-through-free-play-evidence-from-2-and-3-year-old-children
#6
Zi L Sim, Fei Xu
Constructivist views of cognitive development often converge on 2 key points: (a) the child's goal is to build large conceptual structures for understanding the world, and (b) the child plays an active role in developing these structures. While previous research has demonstrated that young children show a precocious capacity for concept and theory building when they are provided with helpful data within training settings, and that they explore their environment in ways that may promote learning, it remains an open question whether young children are able to build larger conceptual structures using self-generated evidence, a form of active learning...
April 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333473/enhanced-versus-simply-positive-a-new-condition-based-regression-analysis-to-disentangle-effects-of-self-enhancement-from-effects-of-positivity-of-self-view
#7
Sarah Humberg, Michael Dufner, Felix D Schönbrodt, Katharina Geukes, Roos Hutteman, Maarten H W van Zalk, Jaap J A Denissen, Steffen Nestler, Mitja D Back
Despite a large body of literature and ongoing refinements of analytical techniques, research on the consequences of self-enhancement (SE) is still vague about how to define SE effects, and empirical results are inconsistent. In this paper, we point out that part of this confusion is due to a lack of conceptual and methodological differentiation between effects of individual differences in how much people enhance themselves (SE) and in how positively they view themselves (positivity of self-view; PSV). We show that methods commonly used to analyze SE effects are biased because they cannot differentiate between the effects of PSV and the effects of SE...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Personality and Social Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332886/inhaler-technique-mastery-and-maintenance-in-healthcare-professionals-trained-on-different-devices
#8
Sinthia Bosnic-Anticevich, Christina Callan, Henry Chrystyn, Federico Lavorini, Vasilis Nikolaou, Vicky Kritikos, P N Richard Dekhuijzen, Nicolas Roche, Leif Bjermer, Cynthia Rand, Nicholas Zwar, David B Price
OBJECTIVE: Healthcare professionals (HCPs) are required to assess and train patients in the correct use of inhalers but are often unable to demonstrate correct technique themselves. We sought to assess the level of training required for HCPs to master and maintain device mastery when using two different dry powder inhalers (DPIs). METHODS: We conducted a randomised, un-blinded, cross-over study in undergraduate HCPs who undertook a six-step training procedure (intuitive use, patient information leaflet, instructional video, individual tuition from expert, then two repeats of individual tuition) for the use of Turbuhaler® (an established device) and Spiromax® (a newer device, reportedly easier to use)...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Asthma: Official Journal of the Association for the Care of Asthma
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332867/age-related-changes-in-thoracic-skeletal-geometry-of-elderly-females
#9
Sven A Holcombe, Stewart C Wang, James B Grotberg
OBJECTIVE: Both females and the elderly have been identified as vulnerable populations with increased injury and mortality risk in multiple crash scenarios. Particularly in frontal impacts, older females show higher risk to the chest and thorax than their younger or male counterparts. Thoracic geometry plays a role in this increase, and this study aims to quantify key parts of that geometry in a way that can directly inform human body models that incorporate the concept of person age...
March 23, 2017: Traffic Injury Prevention
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332551/europe-can-build-on-scientific-intuition
#10
Carlos Moedas
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 21, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332303/measure-accurately-act-rapidly-and-partner-with-patients-an-intuitive-and-practical-three-part-framework-to-guide-efforts-to-improve-hypertension-control
#11
Romsai T Boonyasai, Michael K Rakotz, Lisa H Lubomski, Donna M Daniel, Jill A Marsteller, Kathryn S Taylor, Lisa A Cooper, Omar Hasan, Matthew K Wynia
Hypertension is the leading cause of cardiovascular disease in the United States and worldwide. It also provides a useful model for team-based chronic disease management. This article describes the M.A.P. checklists: a framework to help practice teams summarize best practices for providing coordinated, evidence-based care to patients with hypertension. Consisting of three domains-Measure Accurately; Act Rapidly; and Partner With Patients, Families, and Communities-the checklists were developed by a team of clinicians, hypertension experts, and quality improvement experts through a multistep process that combined literature review, iterative feedback from a panel of internationally recognized experts, and pilot testing among a convenience sample of primary care practices in two states...
March 23, 2017: Journal of Clinical Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332130/if-you-re-a-rawlsian-how-come-you-re-so-close-to-utilitarianism-and-intuitionism-a-critique-of-daniels-s-accountability-for-reasonableness
#12
Gabriele Badano
Norman Daniels's theory of 'accountability for reasonableness' is an influential conception of fairness in healthcare resource allocation. Although it is widely thought that this theory provides a consistent extension of John Rawls's general conception of justice, this paper shows that accountability for reasonableness has important points of contact with both utilitarianism and intuitionism, the main targets of Rawls's argument. My aim is to demonstrate that its overlap with utilitarianism and intuitionism leaves accountability for reasonableness open to damaging critiques...
March 22, 2017: Health Care Analysis: HCA: Journal of Health Philosophy and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28330915/co-evolution-of-cooperation-and-cognition-the-impact-of-imperfect-deliberation-and-context-sensitive-intuition
#13
Adam Bear, Ari Kagan, David G Rand
How does cognitive sophistication impact cooperation? We explore this question using a model of the co-evolution of cooperation and cognition. In our model, agents confront social dilemmas and coordination games, and make decisions using intuition or deliberation. Intuition is automatic and effortless, but relatively (although not necessarily completely) insensitive to context. Deliberation, conversely, is costly but relatively (although not necessarily perfectly) sensitive to context. We find that regardless of the sensitivity of intuition and imperfection of deliberation, deliberating undermines cooperation in social dilemmas, whereas deliberating can increase cooperation in coordination games if intuition is sufficiently sensitive...
March 29, 2017: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329756/functional-materials-discovery-using-energy-structure-function-maps
#14
Angeles Pulido, Linjiang Chen, Tomasz Kaczorowski, Daniel Holden, Marc A Little, Samantha Y Chong, Benjamin J Slater, David P McMahon, Baltasar Bonillo, Chloe J Stackhouse, Andrew Stephenson, Christopher M Kane, Rob Clowes, Tom Hasell, Andrew I Cooper, Graeme M Day
Molecular crystals cannot be designed in the same manner as macroscopic objects, because they do not assemble according to simple, intuitive rules. Their structures result from the balance of many weak interactions, rather than from the strong and predictable bonding patterns found in metal-organic frameworks and covalent organic frameworks. Hence, design strategies that assume a topology or other structural blueprint will often fail. Here we combine computational crystal structure prediction and property prediction to build energy-structure-function maps that describe the possible structures and properties that are available to a candidate molecule...
March 22, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329439/clinical-intuition-in-the-nursing-process-and-decision-making-a-mixed-studies-review
#15
REVIEW
Christina Melin-Johansson, Rebecca Palmqvist, Linda Rönnberg
AIM AND OBJECTIVES: To review what is characteristic of registered nurses' intuition in clinical settings, in relationships, and in the nursing process. BACKGROUND: Intuition is a controversial concept and nurses believe that there are difficulties in how they should explain their nursing actions or decisions based on intuition. Much of the evidence from the body of research indicates that nurses value their intuition in a variety of clinical settings. More information on how nurses integrate intuition as a core element in daily clinical work would contribute to an improved understanding on how they go about this...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28328493/a-balancing-act-scientists-seek-to-reduce-the-risk-of-falls-in-the-elderly
#16
Jennifer Berglund
It was the inaugural day of the study in 2005 when Brad Manor went out into the hot Louisiana sun to meet his first patient, a gentleman we'll call James. Manor, now director of the Mobility and Brain Function Lab at the Harvard-affiliated Institute for Aging Research, was, at that time, a Ph.D. student at Louisiana State University (Figure 1). James, a man in his early 70s, suffered from peripheral neuropathy, a condition that caused significant nerve damage in his legs and feet. James got out of his car, carrying his cane in his hand, and walked with Manor to the lab...
March 2017: IEEE Pulse
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327910/phenobook-an-open-source-software-for-phenotypic-data-collection
#17
Juan M Crescente, Fabio Guidobaldi, Melina Demichelis, Maria B Formica, Marcelo Helguera, Leonardo S Vanzetti
Background: Research projects often involves observation, registration and data processing starting from information obtained in field experiments. In many cases these tasks are carried out by several persons in different places, times and ways adding different levels of complexity and error in data collecting. Furthermore, data processing can be time consuming and input errors may produce unwanted results. Main text: We have developed a novel, open source software called Phenobook, an easy, flexible and intuitive tool to organize, collect and save experimental data for further analyses...
February 24, 2017: GigaScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327290/bayesian-brains-without-probabilities
#18
REVIEW
Adam N Sanborn, Nick Chater
Bayesian explanations have swept through cognitive science over the past two decades, from intuitive physics and causal learning, to perception, motor control and language. Yet people flounder with even the simplest probability questions. What explains this apparent paradox? How can a supposedly Bayesian brain reason so poorly with probabilities? In this paper, we propose a direct and perhaps unexpected answer: that Bayesian brains need not represent or calculate probabilities at all and are, indeed, poorly adapted to do so...
December 2016: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28326990/native-and-non-native-perception-of-stress-in-mapudungun-assessing-structural-maintenance-in-the-phonology-of-an-endangered-language
#19
Benjamin J Molineaux
Today, virtually all speakers of Mapudungun (formerly Araucanian), an endangered language of Chile and Argentina, are bilingual in Spanish. As a result, the firmness of native speaker intuitions-especially regarding perceptually complex issues such as word-stress-has been called into question. Even though native intuitions are unavoidable in the investigation of stress position, efforts can be made in order to clarify what the actual sources of the intuitions are, and how consistent and 'native' they remain given the language's asymmetrical contact conditions...
March 2017: Language and Speech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28325812/thecellmap-org-a-web-accessible-database-for-visualizing-and-mining-the-global-yeast-genetic-interaction-network
#20
Matej Usaj, Yizhao Tan, Wen Wang, Benjamin VanderSluis, Albert Zou, Chad L Myers, Michael Costanzo, Brenda Andrews, Charles Boone
Providing access to quantitative genomic data is key to ensure large-scale data validation and promote new discoveries. TheCellMap.org serves as a central repository for storing and analyzing quantitative genetic interaction data produced by genome-scale Synthetic Genetic Array (SGA) experiments with the budding yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae In particular, TheCellMap.org allows users to easily access, visualize, explore and functionally annotate genetic interactions, or to extract and reorganize sub-networks, using data-driven network layouts in an intuitive and interactive manner...
March 21, 2017: G3: Genes—Genomes—Genetics
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