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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340922/prevention-of-internal-hernia-during-robotic-total-gastrectomy-for-gastric-cancer
#1
Toshiyasu Ojima, Masaki Nakamura, Mikihito Nakamori, Keiji Hayata, Masahiro Katsuda, Toshiaki Tsuji, Shimpei Maruoka, Hiroki Yamaue
BACKGROUND: Postoperative internal hernia (IH) is a potentially life-threatening acute protrusion of viscus through an iatrogenic mesenteric defect. In our retrospective study of 1943 consecutive gastric cancer (GC) patients who had undergone surgery, the incidence of IH after laparoscopic total gastrectomy (LTG) was 4.9%.1 This high incidence seems to be caused by decreased adhesion formation after LTG. There is no consensus regarding orifice management during robotic total gastrectomy (RTG)...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Gastrointestinal Surgery: Official Journal of the Society for Surgery of the Alimentary Tract
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29340732/-electronic-decision-support-to-promote-medication-safety
#2
REVIEW
Walter E Haefeli, Hanna M Seidling
Because of its inherent complexity, it is a considerable challenge to tailor drug treatment to a prevalent disease and its subgroups, which are increasingly defined by genomic variability (personalized medicine) and require consideration of context information such as co-morbidity, co-medication, patient preferences, and the specific characteristics of the healthcare sector. Thus, optimum treatment decisions might not be taken intuitively any longer, because decisions must be made both rapidly and increasingly based on analyses of complex relations of numerous variables that exceed the processing performance of a human brain...
January 16, 2018: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339817/cooperating-with-machines
#3
Jacob W Crandall, Mayada Oudah, Tennom, Fatimah Ishowo-Oloko, Sherief Abdallah, Jean-François Bonnefon, Manuel Cebrian, Azim Shariff, Michael A Goodrich, Iyad Rahwan
Since Alan Turing envisioned artificial intelligence, technical progress has often been measured by the ability to defeat humans in zero-sum encounters (e.g., Chess, Poker, or Go). Less attention has been given to scenarios in which human-machine cooperation is beneficial but non-trivial, such as scenarios in which human and machine preferences are neither fully aligned nor fully in conflict. Cooperation does not require sheer computational power, but instead is facilitated by intuition, cultural norms, emotions, signals, and pre-evolved dispositions...
January 16, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29339232/diapause-in-drosophila-melanogaster-photoperiodicity-cold-tolerance-and-metabolites
#4
Ane Martin Anduaga, Dora Nagy, Rodolfo Costa, Charalambos P Kyriacou
Unlike many insects where photoperiod per se induces diapause, reproductive arrest in Drosophila melanogaster adult females is observed at colder temperatures and can be enhanced by shorter photoperiods. Traditional experimental protocols raise flies at 25°C from the larval stage and then the adults are placed at 12°C for between 12 and 28 days. After 12 days diapause levels are usually higher than at 28 days, suggesting that the flies are in a cold induced quiescence, rather than a true diapause. By raising flies at more realistic lower temperatures, we observe quite dramatic and counter-intuitive effects on diapause, whose levels nevertheless correlate with various indices of cryoprotectant metabolites as well as resistance to chill shock...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Insect Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337877/virtual-environments-for-visualizing-structural-health-monitoring-sensor-networks-data-and-metadata
#5
Rebecca Napolitano, Anna Blyth, Branko Glisic
Visualization of sensor networks, data, and metadata is becoming one of the most pivotal aspects of the structural health monitoring (SHM) process. Without the ability to communicate efficiently and effectively between disparate groups working on a project, an SHM system can be underused, misunderstood, or even abandoned. For this reason, this work seeks to evaluate visualization techniques in the field, identify flaws in current practices, and devise a new method for visualizing and accessing SHM data and metadata in 3D...
January 16, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337724/statistical-significance-versus-clinical-importance-of-observed-effect-sizes-what-do-p-values-and-confidence-intervals-really-represent
#6
Patrick Schober, Sebastiaan M Bossers, Lothar A Schwarte
Effect size measures are used to quantify treatment effects or associations between variables. Such measures, of which >70 have been described in the literature, include unstandardized and standardized differences in means, risk differences, risk ratios, odds ratios, or correlations. While null hypothesis significance testing is the predominant approach to statistical inference on effect sizes, results of such tests are often misinterpreted, provide no information on the magnitude of the estimate, and tell us nothing about the clinically importance of an effect...
January 15, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337264/indirect-reciprocity-with-negative-assortment-and-limited-information-can-promote-cooperation
#7
Eleanor Brush, Åke Brännström, Ulf Dieckmann
Cooperation is ubiquitous in biological and social systems, even though cooperative behavior is often costly and at risk of exploitation by non-cooperators. Several studies have demonstrated that indirect reciprocity, whereby some members of a group observe the behaviors of their peers and use this information to discriminate against previously uncooperative agents in the future, can promote prosocial behavior. Some studies have shown that differential propensities of interacting among and between different types of agents (interaction assortment) can increase the effectiveness of indirect reciprocity...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29337199/designing-an-intuitive-web-application-for-drug-discovery-scientists
#8
Nikiforos Karamanis, Miguel Pignatelli, Denise Carvalho-Silva, Francis Rowland, Jennifer A Cham, Ian Dunham
Here, we discuss how we designed the Open Targets Platform (www.targetvalidation.org), an intuitive application for bench scientists working in early drug discovery. To meet the needs of our users, we applied lean user experience (UX) design methods: we started engaging with users very early and carried out research, design and evaluation activities within an iterative development process. We also emphasize the collaborative nature of applying lean UX design, which we believe is a foundation for success in this and many other scientific projects...
January 11, 2018: Drug Discovery Today
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336551/first-gut-instincts-are-always-right-the-resolution-required-for-a-mass-defect-analysis-of-polymer-ions-can-be-as-low-as-oligomeric
#9
Thierry Nicolas Jean Fouquet, Takaya Satoh, Hiroaki Sato
Its recent adaptation to low-resolution mass spectra of polymers using fractional base units raises the question of the minimal resolution needed for a Kendrick mass defect (KMD) analysis. Intuiting an oligomeric resolution since the mass of a repeat unit is the sole value to be known, it is challenged by the relative failure of the KMD plots computed from an isotopically resolved MALDI-TOF mass spectrum to display clear alignments in the high mass range. Another procedure based on the remainders of Kendrick mass (RKMs) overcomes this pitfall with oligomers perfectly aligned in a new RKM plot...
January 16, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29336231/a-new-and-universal-classification-system-of-skin-substitutes-inspired-by-factorial-design
#10
Evan Davison-Kotler, Vaibhav Sharma, Norbert Kang, Elena García-Gareta
The complexity of the dermal layer of skin means that damage to this section can result in permanent impairment of function. Partial or total dermal loss is a feature of deep burns and chronic wounds such as pressure sores or diabetic ulcers. The issues posed by traditional skin grafts have led to substantial research being carried out in the fields of tissue engineering and biomaterials science to develop a vast array of alternative skin substitutes. Given the large number of different materials, manufacturing methods, and techniques for implementation described for artificial skin substitutes, many classification systems have been created to simplify their categorization...
January 16, 2018: Tissue Engineering. Part B, Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29335139/-the-analogon-a-caregiving-resource-in-geriatric-psychiatry
#11
REVIEW
Cyril Hazif-Thomas, Philippe Thomas
Few caregivers know what analogons are, yet they use them on occasion, intuitively, for the benefit of their patients. An analogon, an identifying object, enables patients with cognitive disorders to 'decipher' their environment and find meaning in it. Caregivers sometimes use analogons without being aware of the theory behind them.
January 2018: Soins. Gérontologie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334951/the-surprising-implications-of-familial-association-in-disease-risk
#12
Morten Valberg, Mats Julius Stensrud, Odd O Aalen
BACKGROUND: A wide range of diseases show some degree of clustering in families; family history is therefore an important aspect for clinicians when making risk predictions. Familial aggregation is often quantified in terms of a familial relative risk (FRR), and although at first glance this measure may seem simple and intuitive as an average risk prediction, its implications are not straightforward. METHODS: We use two statistical models for the distribution of disease risk in a population: a dichotomous risk model that gives an intuitive understanding of the implication of a given FRR, and a continuous risk model that facilitates a more detailed computation of the inequalities in disease risk...
January 15, 2018: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334170/representing-causal-knowledge-in-environmental-policy-interventions-advantages-and-opportunities-for-qualitative-influence-diagram-applications
#13
John F Carriger, Brian E Dyson, William H Benson
This article develops and explores a methodology for using qualitative influence diagrams in environmental policy and management to support decision making efforts that minimize risk and increase resiliency. Influence diagrams are representations of the conditional aspects of a problem domain. Their graphical properties are useful for structuring causal knowledge relevant to policy interventions and can be used to enhance inference and inclusivity of multiple viewpoints. Qualitative components of influence diagrams are beneficial tools for identifying and examining the interactions among the critical variables in complex policy development and implementation...
January 15, 2018: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29334168/representing-causal-knowledge-in-environmental-policy-interventions-advantages-and-opportunities-for-qualitative-influence-diagram-applications
#14
John F Carriger, Brian E Dyson, William H Benson
This article develops and explores a methodology for using qualitative influence diagrams in environmental policy and management to support decision making efforts that minimize risk and increase resiliency. Influence diagrams are representations of the conditional aspects of a problem domain. Their graphical properties are useful for structuring causal knowledge relevant to policy interventions and can be used to enhance inference and inclusivity of multiple viewpoints. Qualitative components of influence diagrams are beneficial tools for identifying and examining the interactions among the critical variables in complex policy development and implementation...
January 15, 2018: Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333754/a-guide-to-analysis-and-reconstruction-of-serial-block-face-scanning-electron-microscopy-data
#15
E Cocks, M Taggart, F C Rind, K White
Serial block face scanning electron microscopy (SBF-SEM) is a relatively new technique that allows the acquisition of serially sectioned, imaged and digitally aligned ultrastructural data. There is a wealth of information that can be obtained from the resulting image stacks but this presents a new challenge for researchers - how to computationally analyse and make best use of the large datasets produced. One approach is to reconstruct structures and features of interest in 3D. However, the software programmes can appear overwhelming, time-consuming and not intuitive for those new to image analysis...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Microscopy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333592/3d-models-of-female-pelvis-structures-reconstructed-and-represented-in-combination-with-anatomical-and-radiological-sections
#16
L Asensio Romero, M Asensio Gómez, A Prats-Galino, J A Juanes Méndez
We present a computer program designed to visualize and interact with three-dimensional models of the main anatomical structures of the female pelvis. They are reconstructed from serial sections of corpse, from the Visible Human project of the Medical Library of the United States and from serial sections of high-resolution magnetic resonance. It is possible to represent these three-dimensional structures in any spatial orientation, together with sectional images of corpse and magnetic resonance imaging, in the three planes of space (axial, coronal and sagittal) that facilitates the anatomical understanding and the identification of the set of visceral structures of this body region...
January 15, 2018: Journal of Medical Systems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29332984/white-matter-fiber-based-analysis-of-t1w-t2w-ratio-map
#17
Haiwei Chen, Francois Budin, Jean Noel, Juan Carlos Prieto, John Gilmore, Jerod Rasmussen, Pathik D Wadhwa, Sonja Entringer, Claudia Buss, Martin Styner
Purpose: To develop, test, evaluate and apply a novel tool for the white matter fiber-based analysis of T1w/T2w ratio maps quantifying myelin content. Background: The cerebral white matter in the human brain develops from a mostly non-myelinated state to a nearly fully mature white matter myelination within the first few years of life. High resolution T1w/T2w ratio maps are believed to be effective in quantitatively estimating myelin content on a voxel-wise basis...
February 2017: Proceedings of SPIE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330054/deterministic-stability-regimes-and-noise-induced-quasistable-behavior-in-a-pair-of-reciprocally-inhibitory-neurons
#18
Mainak Patel, Badal Joshi
Reciprocal inhibition is a common motif exploited by neuronal networks; an intuitive and tractable way to examine the behaviors produced by reciprocal inhibition is to consider a pair of neurons that synaptically inhibit each other and receive constant or noisy excitatory driving currents. In this work, we examine reciprocal inhibition using two models (a voltage-based and a current-based integrate-and-fire model with instantaneous or temporally structured input), and we use analytic and computational tools to examine the bifurcations that occur and study the various possible monostable, bistable, and tristable regimes that can exist; we find that, depending on system parameters (and on choice of neuron model), there can exist up to 3 distinct monostable regimes (denoted M0, M1, M2), 3 distinct bistable regimes (denoted B, B1, B2), and a single tristable regime (denoted T)...
January 9, 2018: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29329706/unattended-reaction-monitoring-using-an-automated-microfluidic-sampler-and-on-line-liquid-chromatography
#19
Darshan C Patel, Yaqi Fara Lyu, Jorge Gandarilla, Steve Doherty
In-process sampling and analysis is an important aspect of monitoring kinetic profiles and impurity formation or rejection, both in development and during commercial manufacturing. In pharmaceutical process development, the technology of choice for a substantial portion of this analysis is high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Traditionally, the sample extraction and preparation for reaction characterization have been performed manually. This can be time consuming, laborious, and impractical for long processes...
April 3, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328949/conditionals-and-inferential-connections-a-hypothetical-inferential-theory
#20
Igor Douven, Shira Elqayam, Henrik Singmann, Janneke van Wijnbergen-Huitink
Intuition suggests that for a conditional to be evaluated as true, there must be some kind of connection between its component clauses. In this paper, we formulate and test a new psychological theory to account for this intuition. We combined previous semantic and psychological theorizing to propose that the key to the intuition is a relevance-driven, satisficing-bounded inferential connection between antecedent and consequent. To test our theory, we created a novel experimental paradigm in which participants were presented with a soritical series of objects, notably colored patches (Experiments 1 and 4) and spheres (Experiment 2), or both (Experiment 3), and were asked to evaluate related conditionals embodying non-causal inferential connections (such as "If patch number 5 is blue, then so is patch number 4")...
January 9, 2018: Cognitive Psychology
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