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Masahiko Mukaino, Kei Ohtsuka, Hiroki Tanikawa, Fumihiro Matsuda, Junya Yamada, Norihide Itoh, Eiichi Saitoh
Three-dimensional gait analysis (3DGA) is shown to be a useful clinical tool for the evaluation of gait abnormality due to movement disorders. However, the use of 3DGA in actual clinics remains uncommon. Possible reasons could include the time-consuming measurement process and difficulties in understanding measurement results, which are often presented using a large number of graphs. Here we present a clinician-friendly 3DGA method developed to facilitate the clinical use of 3DGA. This method consists of simplified preparation and measurement processes that can be performed in a short time period in clinical settings and intuitive results presentation to facilitate clinicians' understanding of results...
March 4, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
John W Finney
OBJECTIVE: In recent years, a shift has occurred from identifying variables that mediate the effects of psychosocial interventions for problematic alcohol use to trying to identify effective mechanisms of behavior change (MOBCs) that lead to better drinking-related and other outcomes. Although implementing interventions targeting specific MOBCs has considerable conceptual and intuitive appeal, it is important that strong empirical evidence be available that supports such implementation...
March 2018: Journal of Studies on Alcohol and Drugs
Luisa Flohr, Shaylene Beaudry, K Taneille Johnson, Nicholas West, Catherine M Burns, J Mark Ansermino, Guy A Dumont, David Wensley, Peter Skippen, Matthias Gorges
The pediatric intensive care unit (ICU) is a complex environment, in which a multidisciplinary team of clinicians (registered nurses, respiratory therapists, and physicians) continually observe and evaluate patient information. Data are provided by multiple, and often physically separated sources, cognitive workload is high, and team communication can be challenging. Our aim is to combine information from multiple monitoring and therapeutic devices in a mobile application, the VitalPAD , to improve the efficiency of clinical decision-making, communication, and thereby patient safety...
2018: IEEE Journal of Translational Engineering in Health and Medicine
Jung-Un Kim, Hang-Bong Kang
In object detection systems for autonomous driving, LIDAR sensors provide very useful information. However, problems occur because the object representation is greatly distorted by changes in distance. To solve this problem, we propose a LIDAR shape set that reconstructs the shape surrounding the object more clearly by using the LIDAR point information projected on the object. The LIDAR shape set restores object shape edges from a bird's eye view by filtering LIDAR points projected on a 2D pixel-based front view...
March 16, 2018: Sensors
Saskia Reibe, Marit Hjorth, Mark A Febbraio, Martin Whitham
Exercise stimulates a wide array of biological processes, but the mechanisms involved are incompletely understood. Many previous studies have adopted transcriptomic analyses of skeletal muscle to address particular research questions, a process that ultimately results in the collection of large amounts of publicly available data that has not been fully integrated or interrogated. To maximize the use of these available transcriptomic exercise data sets, we have downloaded and re-analyzed them and formulated the data into a searchable online tool, geneXX...
March 16, 2018: Physiological Genomics
Petr Zach, Petra Zimmelová, Jana Mrzílková, Martina Kutová
We present here significant difference in the evocation capability between sensory memories (visual, taste, and olfactory) throughout certain categories of the population. As object for this memory recall we selected French fries that are simple and generally known. From daily life we may intuitively feel that there is much better recall of the visual and auditory memory compared to the taste and olfactory ones. Our results in young (age 12-21 years) mostly females and some males show low capacity for smell and taste memory recall compared to far greater visual memory recall...
2018: BioMed Research International
Roger W Nightingale, Cameron R Bass, Barry S Myers
BACKGROUND: Cervical bilateral facet dislocations are among the most devastating spine injuries in terms of likelihood of severe neurological sequelae. More than half of patients with tetraparesis had sustained some form of bilateral facet fracture dislocation. They can occur at any level of the sub-axial cervical spine, but predominate between C5 and C7. The mechanism of these injuries has long been thought to be forceful flexion of the chin towards the chest. This "hyperflexion" hypothesis comports well with intuition and it has become dogma in the clinical literature...
March 8, 2018: Clinical Biomechanics
Marit Johansen, Gabriel Rada, Sarah Rosenbaum, Elizabeth Paulsen, Nkengafac Villyen Motaze, Newton Opiyo, Charles S Wiysonge, Yunpeng Ding, Fidele K Mukinda, Andrew D Oxman
BACKGROUND: A strategy for minimising the time and obstacles to accessing systematic reviews of health system evidence is to collect them in a freely available database and make them easy to find through a simple 'Google-style' search interface. PDQ-Evidence was developed in this way. The objective of this study was to compare PDQ-Evidence to six other databases, namely Cochrane Library, EVIPNet VHL, Google Scholar, Health Systems Evidence, PubMed and Trip. METHODS: We recruited healthcare policy-makers, managers and health researchers in low-, middle- and high-income countries...
March 15, 2018: Health Research Policy and Systems
Hythem Sidky, Jonathan K Whitmer
Existing adaptive bias techniques, which seek to estimate free energies and physical properties from molecular simulations, are limited by their reliance on fixed kernels or basis sets which hinder their ability to efficiently conform to varied free energy landscapes. Further, user-specified parameters are in general non-intuitive yet significantly affect the convergence rate and accuracy of the free energy estimate. Here we propose a novel method, wherein artificial neural networks (ANNs) are used to develop an adaptive biasing potential which learns free energy landscapes...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Chemical Physics
Mario Fleischer, Alexander Mainka, Steffen Kürbis, Peter Birkholz
Recently, 3D printing has been increasingly used to create physical models of the vocal tract with geometries obtained from magnetic resonance imaging. These printed models allow measuring the vocal tract transfer function, which is not reliably possible in vivo for the vocal tract of living humans. The transfer functions enable the detailed examination of the acoustic effects of specific articulatory strategies in speaking and singing, and the validation of acoustic plane-wave models for realistic vocal tract geometries in articulatory speech synthesis...
2018: PloS One
Tongyang Li, Shaoping Wang, Enrico Zio, Jian Shi, Wei Hong
Leakage is the most important failure mode in aircraft hydraulic systems caused by wear and tear between friction pairs of components. The accurate detection of abrasive debris can reveal the wear condition and predict a system's lifespan. The radial magnetic field (RMF)-based debris detection method provides an online solution for monitoring the wear condition intuitively, which potentially enables a more accurate diagnosis and prognosis on the aviation hydraulic system's ongoing failures. To address the serious mixing of pipe abrasive debris, this paper focuses on the superimposed abrasive debris separation of an RMF abrasive sensor based on the degenerate unmixing estimation technique...
March 15, 2018: Sensors
Zachary H Marion, James A Fordyce, Benjamin M Fitzpatrick
Recently there have been major theoretical advances in the quantification and partitioning of diversity within and among communities, regions, and ecosystems. However, applying those advances to real data remains a challenge. Ecologists often end up describing their samples rather than estimating the diversity components of an underlying study system, and existing approaches do not easily provide statistical frameworks for testing ecological questions. Here we offer one avenue to do all of the above using a hierarchical Bayesian approach...
March 15, 2018: Ecology
Jingxin Zhang, Eike Langbehn, Dennis Krupke, Nicholas Katzakis, Frank Steinicke
Telepresence systems have the potential to overcome limits and distance constraints of the real-world by enabling people to remotely visit and interact with each other. However, current telepresence systems usually lack natural ways of supporting interaction and exploration of remote environments (REs). In particular, single webcams for capturing the RE provide only a limited illusion of spatial presence, and movement control of mobile platforms in today's telepresence systems are often restricted to simple interaction devices...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Okan Erat, Werner Alexander Isop, Denis Kalkofen, Dieter Schmalstieg
Drones allow exploring dangerous or impassable areas safely from a distant point of view. However, flight control from an egocentric view in narrow or constrained environments can be challenging. Arguably, an exocentric view would afford a better overview and, thus, more intuitive flight control of the drone. Unfortunately, such an exocentric view is unavailable when exploring indoor environments. This paper investigates the potential of drone-augmented human vision, i.e., of exploring the environment and controlling the drone indirectly from an exocentric viewpoint...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Dov Lichtenberg, Ilya Pinchuk, Daniela Weber
The commonly used term "oxidative stress" (OS) is intuitively defined as an excess of pro-oxidative compounds, over antioxidants. The redox status is homeostatically controlled because on one hand, pro-oxidants are essential for normal body function, whereas, on the other hand, pro-oxidants (and OS) are associated with many diseases due to the risk of oxidative damage. One reason "to monitor the OS" is to identify people under OS and treat people under high OS by antioxidants, because it is believed that people under OS benefit from antioxidant supplementation more than others...
March 15, 2018: BioFactors
Zhao Pan, Floriane Weyer, William G Pitt, Nicolas Vandewalle, Tadd T Truscott
Inspired by the huge droplets attached on cypress tree leaf tips after rain, we find that a bent fibre can hold significantly more water in the corner than a horizontally placed fibre (typically up to three times or more). The maximum volume of the liquid that can be trapped is remarkably affected by the bending angle of the fibre and surface tension of the liquid. We experimentally find the optimal included angle (∼36°) that holds the most water. Analytical and semi-empirical models are developed to explain these counter-intuitive experimental observations and predict the optimal angle...
March 15, 2018: Soft Matter
Gordon Parker, Amelia Paterson, Mia Romano, Isabelle Granville Smith
OBJECTIVES: To increase awareness of the sensory changes experienced during hypo/manic and depressive states by those with a bipolar disorder and determine if the prevalence of such features is similar across differing bipolar sub-types. METHODS: We interviewed 66 patients who acknowledged sensory changes during hypo/manic states. They were allocated to bipolar I, bipolar II and soft bipolar diagnostic categories and the prevalence of 10 differing sensory changes was quantified during hypo/manic and depressive phases...
March 1, 2018: Australasian Psychiatry: Bulletin of Royal Australian and New Zealand College of Psychiatrists
Paul D Marasco, Jacqueline S Hebert, Jon W Sensinger, Courtney E Shell, Jonathon S Schofield, Zachary C Thumser, Raviraj Nataraj, Dylan T Beckler, Michael R Dawson, Dan H Blustein, Satinder Gill, Brett D Mensh, Rafael Granja-Vazquez, Madeline D Newcomb, Jason P Carey, Beth M Orzell
To effortlessly complete an intentional movement, the brain needs feedback from the body regarding the movement's progress. This largely nonconscious kinesthetic sense helps the brain to learn relationships between motor commands and outcomes to correct movement errors. Prosthetic systems for restoring function have predominantly focused on controlling motorized joint movement. Without the kinesthetic sense, however, these devices do not become intuitively controllable. We report a method for endowing human amputees with a kinesthetic perception of dexterous robotic hands...
March 14, 2018: Science Translational Medicine
James H Suh, Alexa B Schrock, Adrienne Johnson, Doron Lipson, Laurie M Gay, Shakti Ramkissoon, Jo-Anne Vergilio, Julia A Elvin, Abdur Shakir, Peter Ruehlman, Karen L Reckamp, Sai-Hong Ignatius Ou, Jeffrey S Ross, Philip J Stephens, Vincent A Miller, Siraj M Ali
BACKGROUND: In our recent study, of cases positive for epidermal growth factor receptor ( EGFR ) exon 19 deletions using comprehensive genomic profiling (CGP), 17/77 (22%) patients with prior standard of care (SOC) EGFR testing results available were previously negative for exon 19 deletion. Our aim was to compare the detection rates of CGP versus SOC testing for well-characterized sensitizing EGFR point mutations (pm) in our 6,832-patient cohort. MATERIALS AND METHODS: DNA was extracted from 40 microns of formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sections from 6,832 consecutive cases of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) of various histologies (2012-2015)...
March 14, 2018: Oncologist
Daniel Høyer Iversen, Lasse Løvstakken, Geirmund Unsgård, Ingerid Reinertsen
PURPOSE: In neurosurgery, reliable information about blood vessel anatomy and flow direction is important to identify, characterize, and avoid damage to the vasculature. Due to ultrasound Doppler angle dependencies and the complexity of the vascular architecture, clinically valuable 3-D flow direction information is currently not available. In this paper, we aim to clinically validate and demonstrate the intraoperative use of a fully automatic method for estimation of 3-D blood flow direction from freehand 2-D Doppler ultrasound...
March 13, 2018: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
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