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Concepts of Environmental Health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673875/intervention-strategies-to-improve-nutrition-and-health-behaviours-before-conception
#1
REVIEW
Mary Barker, Stephan U Dombrowski, Tim Colbourn, Caroline H D Fall, Natasha M Kriznik, Wendy T Lawrence, Shane A Norris, Gloria Ngaiza, Dilisha Patel, Jolene Skordis-Worrall, Falko F Sniehotta, Régine Steegers-Theunissen, Christina Vogel, Kathryn Woods-Townsend, Judith Stephenson
The nutritional status of both women and men before conception has profound implications for the growth, development, and long-term health of their offspring. Evidence of the effectiveness of preconception interventions for improving outcomes for mothers and babies is scarce. However, given the large potential health return, and relatively low costs and risk of harm, research into potential interventions is warranted. We identified three promising strategies for intervention that are likely to be scalable and have positive effects on a range of health outcomes: supplementation and fortification; cash transfers and incentives; and behaviour change interventions...
April 16, 2018: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29673874/origins-of-lifetime-health-around-the-time-of-conception-causes-and-consequences
#2
REVIEW
Tom P Fleming, Adam J Watkins, Miguel A Velazquez, John C Mathers, Andrew M Prentice, Judith Stephenson, Mary Barker, Richard Saffery, Chittaranjan S Yajnik, Judith J Eckert, Mark A Hanson, Terrence Forrester, Peter D Gluckman, Keith M Godfrey
Parental environmental factors, including diet, body composition, metabolism, and stress, affect the health and chronic disease risk of people throughout their lives, as captured in the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease concept. Research across the epidemiological, clinical, and basic science fields has identified the period around conception as being crucial for the processes mediating parental influences on the health of the next generation. During this time, from the maturation of gametes through to early embryonic development, parental lifestyle can adversely influence long-term risks of offspring cardiovascular, metabolic, immune, and neurological morbidities, often termed developmental programming...
April 16, 2018: Lancet
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29650058/roles-of-instrumented-farm-scale-trials-in-trade-off-assessments-of-pasture-based-ruminant-production-systems
#3
T Takahashi, P Harris, M S A Blackwell, L M Cardenas, A L Collins, J A J Dungait, J M B Hawkins, T H Misselbrook, G A McAuliffe, J N McFadzean, P J Murray, R J Orr, M J Rivero, L Wu, M R F Lee
For livestock production systems to play a positive role in global food security, the balance between their benefits and disbenefits to society must be appropriately managed. Based on the evidence provided by field-scale randomised controlled trials around the world, this debate has traditionally centred on the concept of economic-environmental trade-offs, of which existence is theoretically assured when resource allocation is perfect on the farm. Recent research conducted on commercial farms indicates, however, that the economic-environmental nexus is not nearly as straightforward in the real world, with environmental performances of enterprises often positively correlated with their economic profitability...
April 13, 2018: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29629385/barriers-to-medication-adherence-in-patients-with-hypertension-a-qualitative-study
#4
Arash Najimi, Firoozeh Mostafavi, Gholamreza Sharifirad, Parastoo Golshiri
INTRODUCTION: Barriers to medication adherence in patients with hypertension can have significant differences that made researchers confute to conclude that medication adherence is required to be more explored, and then, beneficial interventions develop to decrease these barriers. Thus, the current study was aimed to identify barriers to adherence in Iranian society. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A qualitative content analysis was carried out. Participants were as follow: Patients with hypertension who had clinic records in the health centers of Isfahan University of Medical Science...
2018: Journal of Education and Health Promotion
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29625094/conceptual-underpinnings-of-the-quality-of-life-in-neurological-disorders-neuro-qol-comparisons-of-core-sets-for-stroke-multiple-sclerosis-spinal-cord-injury-and-traumatic-brain-injury
#5
Alex W K Wong, Stephen C L Lau, Mandy W M Fong, David Cella, Jin-Shei Lai, Allen W Heinemann
OBJECTIVE: To determine the extent to which the content of the Quality of Life in Neurological Disorders (Neuro-QoL) covers the ICF core sets for multiple sclerosis (MS), stroke, spinal cord injury (SCI), and traumatic brain injury (TBI) using summary linkage indicators. DESIGN: Content analysis by linking content of the Neuro-QoL to corresponding ICF codes of each core set for MS, stroke, SCI, and TBI. SETTING: Three academic centers PARTICIPANTS: None INTERVENTIONS: None MAIN OUTCOME MEASURE: Four summary linkage indicators proposed by MacDermid and colleagues were estimated to compare the content coverage between Neuro-QoL and the ICF codes of core sets for MS, stroke, MS, and TBI...
April 3, 2018: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29623270/re-aim-in-clinical-community-and-corporate-settings-perspectives-strategies-and-recommendations-to-enhance-public-health-impact
#6
Samantha M Harden, Matthew Lee Smith, Marcia G Ory, Renae L Smith-Ray, Paul A Estabrooks, Russell E Glasgow
The RE-AIM Framework is a planning and evaluation model that has been used in a variety of settings to address various programmatic, environmental, and policy innovations for improving population health. In addition to the broad application and diverse use of the framework, there are lessons learned and recommendations for the future use of the framework across clinical, community, and corporate settings. The purposes of this article are to: (A) provide a brief overview of the RE-AIM Framework and its pragmatic use for planning and evaluation; (B) offer recommendations to facilitate the application of RE-AIM in clinical, community, and corporate settings; and (C) share perspectives and lessons learned about employing RE-AIM dimensions in the planning, implementation, and evaluation phases within these different settings...
2018: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29614388/who-are-the-european-youths-willing-to-engage-in-radicalisation-a-multidisciplinary-review-of-their-psychological-and-social-profiles
#7
Nicolas Campelo, Alice Oppetit, Françoise Neau, David Cohen, Guillaume Bronsard
BACKGROUND: A new model of radicalisation has appeared in Western countries since the 2010s. Radical groups are smaller, less hierarchical and are mainly composed of young, homegrown individuals. The aim of this review is to decipher the profiles of the European adolescents and young adults who have embraced the cause of radical Islamism and to define the role of psychiatry in dealing with this issue. METHODS: We performed a systematic search in several databases from January 2010 to July 2017 and reviewed the relevant studies that included European adolescents and/or young adults and presented empirical data...
March 31, 2018: European Psychiatry: the Journal of the Association of European Psychiatrists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29608871/from-crowdsourcing-to-extreme-citizen-science-participatory-research-for-environmental-health
#8
P B English, M J Richardson, C Garzón-Galvis
Environmental health issues are becoming more challenging, and addressing them requires new approaches to research design and decision-making processes. Participatory research approaches, in which researchers and communities are involved in all aspects of a research study, can improve study outcomes and foster greater data accessibility and utility as well as increase public transparency. Here we review varied concepts of participatory research, describe how it complements and overlaps with community engagement and environmental justice, examine its intersection with emerging environmental sensor technologies, and discuss the strengths and limitations of participatory research...
April 1, 2018: Annual Review of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29590493/longitudinal-twin-study-of-subjective-health-differences-in-genetic-and-environmental-components-of-variance-across-age-and-sex
#9
Deborah Finkel, Carol E Franz, Kaare Christensen, Chandra A Reynolds, Nancy L Pedersen
Objective: The current analysis examines sex differences in longitudinal changes in genetic and environmental influences on three measures of subjective health. Method: Sample includes 7372 twins (mean intake age = 73.22) with up to 8 waves of measurement (mean = 3.1). Three subjective health (SH) items were included: general self-rated health (SRH), health compared to age peers (COMP), and impact of health on activities (ACT) which previous research shows capture different frames of reference...
March 24, 2018: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29587223/hallmarks-of-alzheimer-disease-are-evolving-relentlessly-in-metropolitan-mexico-city-infants-children-and-young-adults-apoe4-carriers-have-higher-suicide-risk-and-higher-odds-of-reaching-nft-stage-v-at-%C3%A2-40-years-of-age
#10
Lilian Calderón-Garcidueñas, Angélica Gónzalez-Maciel, Rafael Reynoso-Robles, Ricardo Delgado-Chávez, Partha S Mukherjee, Randy J Kulesza, Ricardo Torres-Jardón, José Ávila-Ramírez, Rodolfo Villarreal-Ríos
Exposures to fine particulate matter (PM2.5 ) and ozone (O3 ) above USEPA standards are associated with Alzheimer's disease (AD) risk. Metropolitan Mexico City (MMC) residents have life time exposures to PM2.5 and O3 above USEPA standards. We investigated AD intra and extracellular protein aggregates and ultrastructural neurovascular pathology in 203 MMC residents age 25.36 ± 9.23 y. Immunohistochemical methods were used to identify AT8 hyperphosphorilated tau (Htau) and 4G8 (amyloid β 17-24). Primary outcomes: staging of Htau and amyloid, per decade and cumulative PM2...
March 24, 2018: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29580848/human-biomonitoring-reference-values-for-some-non-persistent-chemicals-in-blood-and-urine-derived-from-the-canadian-health-measures-survey-2009-2013
#11
Cheryl Khoury, Kate Werry, Douglas Haines, Mike Walker, Morie Malowany
The Canadian Health Measures Survey collects nationally representative human biomonitoring data on a suite of chemicals and their metabolites, including many non-persistent chemicals. Data has been collected on non-persistent chemicals, including acrylamide, chlorophenols, environmental phenols and triclocarban, organophosphate insecticides, phthalates, polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon, pyrethroid insecticides, and volatile organic compounds from 2009 to 2013. Using a systematic approach building on the reference interval concept proposed by the International Federation of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine and the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry, we derive human biomonitoring reference values (RV95 s) for these classes of non-persistent chemicals in blood and urine for the general Canadian population...
March 16, 2018: International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29577296/oral-prebiotics-and-the-influence-of-environmental-conditions-in-vitro
#12
Vera Slomka, Esteban Rodriguez Herrero, Nico Boon, Kristel Bernaerts, Harsh M Trivedi, Carlo Daep, Marc Quirynen, Wim Teughels
BACKGROUND: Only recently the concept of prebiotics has been introduced in oral health. Few potential oral prebiotics have already been identified in dual species competition assays, showing a stimulatory effect on beneficial bacteria and by this suppressing the outgrowth of pathogenic species. This study aimed to validate the effect of previously identified potential prebiotic substrates on multispecies cultures by shifting the biofilm composition towards a more beneficial species dominated microbiota...
March 25, 2018: Journal of Periodontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29575053/captive-chimpanzee-pan-troglodytes-behavior-as-a-function-of-space-per-animal-and-enclosure-type
#13
Sarah J Neal Webb, Jann Hau, Steven J Schapiro
Space per animal, or animal density, and enclosure type are important elements of functionally appropriate captive environments (FACEs) for chimpanzees. The National Institutes of Health (NIH) recommends that captive chimpanzees be maintained in areas of >250 ft2 /animal. Several studies have investigated chimpanzee behavior in relation to space per animal, but only two studies have examined these variables while attempting to hold environmental complexity constant. Both have found few, if any, significant differences in behavior associated with increased space per animal...
March 25, 2018: American Journal of Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29573218/understanding-environmental-contributions-to-autism-causal-concepts-and-the-state-of-science
#14
REVIEW
Irva Hertz-Picciotto, Rebecca J Schmidt, Paula Krakowiak
The complexity of neurodevelopment, the rapidity of early neurogenesis, and over 100 years of research identifying environmental influences on neurodevelopment serve as backdrop to understanding factors that influence risk and severity of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). This Keynote Lecture, delivered at the May 2016 annual meeting of the International Society for Autism Research, describes concepts of causation, outlines the trajectory of research on nongenetic factors beginning in the 1960s, and briefly reviews the current state of this science...
March 23, 2018: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29565102/white-book-on-physical-and-rehabilitation-medicine-prm-in-europe-chapter-1-definitions-and-concepts-of-prm
#15
(no author information available yet)
In the context of the White Book of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine (PRM) in Europe, this paper deals with the definitions and concepts relevant for PRM. Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine is the primary medical specialty responsible for the prevention, medical diagnosis, treatment and rehabilitation management of persons of all ages with disabling health conditions and their co-morbidities, specifically addressing their impairments and activity limitations in order to facilitate their physical and cognitive functioning (including behavior), participation (including quality of life) and modifying personal and environmental factors...
April 2018: European Journal of Physical and Rehabilitation Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29561891/using-systems-thinking-and-the-intervention-level-framework-to-analyse-public-health-planning-for-complex-problems-otitis-media-in-aboriginal-and-torres-strait-islander-children
#16
Jo Durham, Lisa Schubert, Lisa Vaughan, Cameron D Willis
BACKGROUND: Middle ear disease (otitis media) is endemic among Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children in Australia and represents an important cause of hearing loss. The disease is the result of a mix of biological, environmental and host risk factors that interact in complex, non-linear ways along a dynamic continuum. As such, it is generally recognised that a holistic, systems approach is required to reverse the high rates of otitis media in Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children...
2018: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29555026/assessing-health-risks-from-multiple-environmental-stressors-moving-from-g%C3%A3-e-to-i%C3%A3-e
#17
REVIEW
Cliona M McHale, Gwendolyn Osborne, Rachel Morello-Frosch, Andrew G Salmon, Martha S Sandy, Gina Solomon, Luoping Zhang, Martyn T Smith, Lauren Zeise
Research on disease causation often attempts to isolate the effects of individual factors, including individual genes or environmental factors. This reductionist approach has generated many discoveries, but misses important interactive and cumulative effects that may help explain the broad range of variability in disease occurrence observed across studies and individuals. A disease rarely results from a single factor, and instead results from a broader combination of factors, characterized here as intrinsic (I) and extrinsic (E) factors...
January 2018: Mutation Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29554951/the-mosquito-holobiont-fresh-insight-into-mosquito-microbiota-interactions
#18
REVIEW
Morgane Guégan, Karima Zouache, Colin Démichel, Guillaume Minard, Van Tran Van, Patrick Potier, Patrick Mavingui, Claire Valiente Moro
The holobiont concept was first developed for coral ecosystems but has been extended to multiple organisms, including plants and other animals. Studies on insect-associated microbial communities have produced strong evidence that symbiotic bacteria play a major role in host biology. However, the understanding of these symbiotic relationships has mainly been limited to phytophagous insects, while the role of host-associated microbiota in haematophagous insect vectors remains largely unexplored. Mosquitoes are a major global public health concern, with a concomitant increase in people at risk of infection...
March 20, 2018: Microbiome
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29551356/more-than-a-feeling-a-unified-view-of-stress-measurement-for-population-science
#19
REVIEW
Elissa S Epel, Alexandra D Crosswell, Stefanie E Mayer, Aric A Prather, George M Slavich, Eli Puterman, Wendy Berry Mendes
Stress can influence health throughout the lifespan, yet there is little agreement about what types and aspects of stress matter most for human health and disease. This is in part because "stress" is not a monolithic concept but rather, an emergent process that involves interactions between individual and environmental factors, historical and current events, allostatic states, and psychological and physiological reactivity. Many of these processes has alone been labeled as "stress." Stress science would be further advanced if researchers adopted a common conceptual model that incorporates epidemiological, affective, and psychophysiological perspectives, with more precise language for describing stress measures...
March 15, 2018: Frontiers in Neuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29550151/towards-a-standardized-nutrition-and-dietetics-terminology-for-clinical-practice-an-austrian-multicenter-clinical-documentation-analysis-based-on-the-international-classification-of-functioning-disability-and-health-icf-dietetics
#20
Gabriele Gäbler, Michaela Coenen, Deborah Lycett, Tanja Stamm
BACKGROUND: High quality, continuity and safe interdisciplinary healthcare is essential. Nutrition and dietetics plays an important part within the interdisciplinary team in many health conditions. In order to work more effectively as an interdisciplinary team, a common terminology is needed. This study investigates which categories of the ICF-Dietetics are used in clinical dietetic care records in Austria and which are most relevant to shared language in different medical areas. METHOD: A national multicenter retrospective study was conducted to collect clinical dietetic care documentation reports...
March 3, 2018: Clinical Nutrition: Official Journal of the European Society of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
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