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Concepts of Environmental Health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28108991/mucosal-immune-tolerance-at-the-ocular-surface-in-health-and-disease
#1
REVIEW
Jeremías G Galletti, Mauricio Guzmán, Mirta N Giordano
The ocular surface is constantly exposed to environmental irritants, allergens and pathogens, against which it can mount a prompt immune response to preserve its integrity. But to avoid unnecessary inflammation, the ocular surface's mucosal immune system must also discriminate between harmless and potentially dangerous antigens, a seemingly complicated task. Despite its unique features, the ocular surface is a mucosal lining, and as such, it shares some homeostatic and pathophysiological mechanisms with other mucosal surfaces...
January 20, 2017: Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28101730/concepts-for-studying-urban-environmental-justice
#2
REVIEW
Jason Corburn
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This paper offers research frameworks for understanding and acting to address urban environmental justice. Urban neighborhoods tend to concentrate and colocate vulnerable people and toxic environments. Cities are also where the poor and people of color tend to be disproportionately exposed to environmental hazards, such as air pollution, lead in paint and water, and polluting industries. RECENT FINDINGS: Researchers and government agencies are increasingly recognizing the need to document cumulative exposures that the urban poor and people of color experience in addition to environmental hazards...
January 18, 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28092712/-global-bioethics-and-biocultural-ethics
#3
Ricardo Rozzi
The biocultural ethic recovers an understanding of the vital links between the life habits of the coinhabitants (humans and other-than-human) that share a habitat. The ″3Hs″ formal framework of the biocultural ethics provides a conceptual and methodological tool to understand and to better manage complex eco-social or biocultural systems in heterogeneous regions of the planet. From the global bioethics originally proposed by V.R. Potter, the integration of theory and praxis promoted by Alfredo Pradenas in the Bioethics Society of Chile, and the conceptual framework of biocultural ethics (including traditions of philosophical thought, scientific and Amerindians), I develop a comparative analysis of: 1...
September 2016: Cuadernos de Bioética: Revista Oficial de la Asociación Española de Bioética y Ética Médica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28091347/changes-in-the-seroprevalence-of-cysticercosis-in-suspected-patients-in-chandigarh-india-between-1998-and-2014-analysis-of-17-years-of-data
#4
L J Robertson, H Joshi, K S Utaaker, A Kumar, S Chaudhary, K Goyal, R Sehgal
Changes in seroprevalence of cysticercosis diagnosed in Chandigarh, India between 1998 and 2014 were investigated by extraction and analysis of data from records held at the Postgraduate Institute of Medical Education and Research in Chandigarh. Among the total number of samples for which cysticercosis had been suspected during this period (N = 9650), 1716 (17·8%) were seropositive. Adults were more likely to be seropositive than children, and women were more likely to be seropositive than men. In addition to there being fewer patients with suspicion of cysticercosis over the data analysis period, the proportion of patients seropositive also reduced significantly...
January 16, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28079614/the-role-of-gene-environment-interplay-in-occupational-and-environmental-diseases-current-concepts-and-knowledge-gaps
#5
Elizabeth Kwo, David Christiani
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The interplay between genetic susceptibilities and environmental exposures in the pathogenesis of a variety of diseases is an area of increased scientific, epidemiologic, and social interest. Given the variation in methodologies used in the field, this review aims to create a framework to help understand occupational exposures as they currently exist and provide a foundation for future inquiries into the biological mechanisms of the gene-environment interactions. Understanding of this complex interplay will be important in the context of occupational health, given the public health concerns surrounding a variety of occupational exposures...
January 11, 2017: Current Opinion in Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28077827/-development-of-the-developmental-support-competency-scale-for-nurses-caring-for-preterm-infants
#6
Jeong Soon Kim, Hee Sun Shin
PURPOSE: Developmental care has been recognized as a very important component for the development and health promotion of preterm infants. However, research on how to assess developmental nursing competency has not been studied as expected. This study was done to develop and evaluate a new scale to measure nursing competency for developmental support of preterm infants. METHODS: Concept analysis was done with using the Hybrid model of Schwartz-Barcott and Kim (2000), from which a preliminary new scale (30 items) was developed...
December 2016: Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28056495/novel-rosaceae-plant-elicitor-peptides-as-sustainable-tools-to-control-xanthomonas-arboricola-pv-pruni-in-prunus-spp
#7
Cristina Ruiz, Anna Nadal, Emilio Montesinos, Maria Pla
Fruit crops are regarded as important health promoters and constitute a major part of global agricultural production, and Rosaceae species are of high economic impact. Their culture is threatened by bacterial diseases, which control is only based on preventive treatment with compounds with limited efficacy and a negative environmental impact. One of the most economically relevant examples is the pathogen Xanthomonas arboricola pv. pruni (Xap) affecting Prunus spp. Plant immune response against pathogens can be triggered and amplified by plant elicitor peptides (Peps), perceived by specific receptors (PEPRs)...
January 5, 2017: Molecular Plant Pathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28052141/impact-of-environmental-conditions-on-bacterial-photoreactivation-in-wastewater-effluents
#8
Shirin Shafaei, Nikolaus Klamerth, Yanyan Zhang, Kerry McPhedran, James R Bolton, Mohamed Gamal El-Din
Photoreactivation is a process where ultraviolet (UV)-induced damage to the DNA of microorganisms can be reversed by exposure to near UV and visible light. To date, most photoreactivation experiments have been carried out under laboratory conditions using standard microorganisms that do not reflect the natural conditions of municipal wastewater effluents. Photoreactivation could increase the concentration of pathogens released into natural systems, leading to negative impacts on fish, shellfish, and clams. In addition, pathogen release can increase health risks of downstream activities, such as swimming...
January 4, 2017: Environmental Science. Processes & Impacts
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28051947/early-life-effects-on-adult-physical-activity-concepts-relevance-and-experimental-approaches
#9
Theodore Garland, Marcell D Cadney, Robert A Waterland
Locomotion is a defining characteristic of animal life and plays a crucial role in most behaviors. Locomotion involves physical activity, which can have far-reaching effects on physiology and neurobiology, both acutely and chronically. In human populations and in laboratory rodents, higher levels of physical activity are generally associated with positive health outcomes, although excessive exercise can have adverse consequences. Whether and how such relationships occur in wild animals is unknown. Behavioral variation among individuals arises from genetic and environmental factors and their interactions as well as from developmental programming (persistent effects of early-life environment)...
January 2017: Physiological and Biochemical Zoology: PBZ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28049354/the-life-course-model-as-a-framework-for-post-conflict-health-analysis-reflections-on-the-gulf-war-critical-period
#10
Charles W Cange
In the Kuwait context, from January 1991 to December 1991, there were a series of chemical and psychological Gulf War-era exposures that left persistent, long-term damage. Extreme stress from a critical event speeds up the usual disease latency period, and may be part of a synergistic effect that leads to higher disease rates over a shorter period of time. I am interested in the impact of armed conflict on health outcomes over the life course in Kuwait, and particularly the pathways through which armed conflict causes changes in health on a population level...
January 3, 2017: Medicine, Conflict, and Survival
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042844/sealdh-ii-an-autonomous-holistically-controlled-first-principles-tdlas-hygrometer-for-field-and-airborne-applications-design-setup-accuracy-stability-stress-test
#11
Bernhard Buchholz, Sören Kallweit, Volker Ebert
Instrument operation in harsh environments often significantly impacts the trust level of measurement data. While commercial instrument manufacturers clearly define the deployment conditions to achieve trustworthy data in typical standard applications, it is frequently unavoidable in scientific field applications to operate instruments outside these commercial standard application specifications. Scientific instrumentation, however, is employing cutting-edge technology and often highly optimized but also lacks long-term field tests to assess the field vs...
December 30, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034593/one-health-proof-of-concept-bringing-a-transdisciplinary-approach-to-surveillance-for-zoonotic-viruses-at-the-human-wild-animal-interface
#12
Terra R Kelly, William B Karesh, Christine Kreuder Johnson, Kirsten V K Gilardi, Simon J Anthony, Tracey Goldstein, Sarah H Olson, Catherine Machalaba, Jonna A K Mazet
As the world continues to react and respond inefficiently to emerging infectious diseases, such as Middle Eastern Respiratory Syndrome and the Ebola and Zika viruses, a growing transdisciplinary community has called for a more proactive and holistic approach to prevention and preparedness - One Health. Such an approach presents important opportunities to reduce the impact of disease emergence events and also to mitigate future emergence through improved cross-sectoral coordination. In an attempt to provide proof of concept of the utility of the One Health approach, the US Agency for International Development's PREDICT project consortium designed and implemented a targeted, risk-based surveillance strategy based not on humans as sentinels of disease but on detecting viruses early, at their source, where intervention strategies can be implemented before there is opportunity for spillover and spread in people or food animals...
December 14, 2016: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28034321/comorbidity-in-allergic-asthma-and-allergic-rhinitis-functional-somatic-syndromes
#13
Georgios Tsiakiris, Gregory Neely, Nina Lind, Steven Nordin
Based on the concept of central sensitisation, the present study tested the hypothesis of comorbidity in allergic asthma and allergic rhinitis with diagnoses of functional somatic syndromes (FSSs), including fibromyalgia, irritable bowel syndrome and migraine. Data were used from the population-based Västerbotten Environmental Health Study (n = 3406). The participants consisted of 164 individuals with allergic asthma and 298 individuals with allergic rhinitis as well as 2876 individuals without allergic or non-allergic asthma, allergic rhinitis or atopic dermatitis...
December 30, 2016: Psychology, Health & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28033658/multiple-exposures-to-environmental-pollutants-and-oxidative-stress-is-there-a-sex-specific-risk-of-developmental-complications-for-fetuses
#14
REVIEW
Kaïs H Al-Gubory
Medically assisted procreation significantly contributes to an increase in twin pregnancies. One of the major factors contributing to more twin births is the use of fertility treatments. Twin pregnancy is not without a risk for fetal organ development and the health outcome of new-borns, children, and adults. Multiple pregnancies are associated with an increased risk of developmental complications, such as perinatal mortality, premature births, and low birth weight. Oxidative stress is involved in pregnancy disorders such as abortion, intrauterine growth retardation, and prenatal mortality...
December 2016: Birth Defects Research. Part C, Embryo Today: Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28029514/planning-a-radiotherapy-department
#15
D van der Merwe
The master planning of new radiotherapy facilities requires the input and engagement of a range of highly specialised professionals, both in the construction and health sector. Although radiation protection and safety aspects of radiotherapy services are universal, low and middle income countries are often presented with unique challenges that also need to be considered, e.g. competing needs within the health sector, lack of financial and human resources, environmental factors like poor provision of transport or electrical power, inadequate regulatory infrastructure, etc...
February 2017: Clinical Oncology: a Journal of the Royal College of Radiologists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28025717/functioning-in-patients-with-schizophrenia-a-systematic-review-of-the-literature-using-the-international-classification-of-functioning-disability-and-health-icf-as-a-reference
#16
A Gorostiaga, N Balluerka, G Guilera, J Aliri, M Barrios
PURPOSE: To identify and quantify the main concepts included in published studies focusing on individuals with schizophrenia using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health (ICF). METHODS: Searches (limited to those published from 2008 to 2012) were performed in MEDLINE, PsycINFO and CINAHL. Included studies described participants with schizophrenia, were original articles and included only subjects who were at least 18 years of age at study entry...
December 26, 2016: Quality of Life Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28000242/the-concept-of-exposure-in-environmental-health-for-nursing
#17
Marcella Remer Thompson, Donna Schwartz Barcott
AIM: To report an analysis of the concept of exposure in environmental health for nursing. BACKGROUND: The importance of the environment has long been recognized in nursing, although the nature and scope of the concept and how it influences health has varied over time. Exposure is the sufficient and necessary link between environment and health. In nursing practice, the word 'exposure' has been used frequently with no clear standard definition. DESIGN: Concept analysis using Kim's first level analytics...
December 21, 2016: Journal of Advanced Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27997454/-dementia-friendly-communities-and-being-dementia-friendly-in-healthcare-settings
#18
Shih-Yin Lin
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review discusses the concept of 'dementia-friendly communities' and summarizes the latest research and practice around such communities. This review also highlights important topic areas to be considered to promote dementia friendliness in healthcare settings. RECENT FINDINGS: Definitions of 'dementia-friendly communities' reflect the contemporary thinking of living with dementia (e.g., dementia as a disability, equal human rights, a sense of meaning)...
December 16, 2016: Current Opinion in Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988482/toward-a-more-comprehensive-concept-of-successful-aging-disability-and-care-needs
#19
Clemens Tesch-Römer, Hans-Werner Wahl
Rowe and Kahn's model of Successful Aging 2.0 argues that changing environmental settings, societal policies, and individual life styles will lead to a significant extension of healthy life years. Recent epidemiological research, however, confirms the dilemma that the ongoing extension of life expectancy prolongs not only the years in good health but also those in poor health. We see it as a major limitation that Rowe and Kahn's model is not able to cover the emerging linkage between increasing life expectation and aging with disability and care needs...
December 16, 2016: Journals of Gerontology. Series B, Psychological Sciences and Social Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27981160/a-brief-encounter-with-the-middle-east-a-narrative-of-one-muslim-woman-diagnosed-with-breast-cancer
#20
Lea Baider, Gil Goldzweig
One of the major challenges the healthcare profession face is understanding the variability and different meanings of the concepts of age and aging within different cultural, social, religious, and ethical contexts. People over the age of 65 in the Middle Eastern countries are estimated to comprise 4.7% of the population and are expected to grow rapidly. In the Middle East, cancer is the leading cause of death among women aged 40-79 and one of the leading causes of death for women over 70 years of age. Many women in the Middle East live within a system of religious values and moral perceptions based on an intergenerational family structure and clear family roles...
April 2016: Asia-Pacific Journal of Oncology Nursing
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