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Concepts of Environmental Health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917962/human-and-animal-health-surveys-among-pastoralists
#1
E Schelling, H Greter, H Kessely, M F Abakar, B N Ngandolo, L Crump, B Bold, J Kasymbekov, Z Baljinnyam, G Fokou, J Zinsstag, B Bonfoh, J Hattendorf, M Béchir
Valid human and livestock health surveys, including longitudinal follow-up, are feasible among mobile pastoralists and provide fundamental information to agencies for interventions that are responsive to realities and effective in addressing the needs of pastoralists. However, pastoralists are often excluded from studies, surveillance systems and health programmes. The occurrence of preventable and treatable diseases such as perinatal tetanus, measles and tuberculosis are indicative of limited access to health providers and information...
November 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917960/a-vision-for-the-future-of-pastoralism
#2
J Zinsstag, B Bonfoh, G Zinsstag, L Crump, I O Alfaroukh, M F Abakar, J Kasymbekov, Z Baljinnyam, K Liechti, M A Seid, E Schelling
Pastoral regions are challenged by social and ecological changes. Yet, there is increasingly robust evidence that pastoralism is a viable and sustainable livelihood and that pastoralists play a role in attaining the United Nations Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). In this issue of the Scientific and Technical Review of the World Organisation for Animal Health (OIE), the authors take a broad view of pastoralism and pastoral livestock production from a number of different perspectives, taking into account societal and ecological viewpoints as well as issues of animal and human health...
November 2016: Revue Scientifique et Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27917378/the-human-nature-relationship-and-its-impact-on-health-a-critical-review
#3
REVIEW
Valentine Seymour
Within the past four decades, research has been increasingly drawn toward understanding whether there is a link between the changing human-nature relationship and its impact on people's health. However, to examine whether there is a link requires research of its breadth and underlying mechanisms from an interdisciplinary approach. This article begins by reviewing the debates concerning the human-nature relationship, which are then critiqued and redefined from an interdisciplinary perspective. The concept and chronological history of "health" is then explored, based on the World Health Organization's definition...
2016: Frontiers in Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27916383/disentangling-interactions-in-the-microbiome-a-network-perspective
#4
REVIEW
Mehdi Layeghifard, David M Hwang, David S Guttman
Microbiota are now widely recognized as being central players in the health of all organisms and ecosystems, and subsequently have been the subject of intense study. However, analyzing and converting microbiome data into meaningful biological insights remain very challenging. In this review, we highlight recent advances in network theory and their applicability to microbiome research. We discuss emerging graph theoretical concepts and approaches used in other research disciplines and demonstrate how they are well suited for enhancing our understanding of the higher-order interactions that occur within microbiomes...
December 1, 2016: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906124/one-health-in-china
#5
REVIEW
Jianyong Wu, Lanlan Liu, Guoling Wang, Jiahai Lu
As a result of rapid economic growth over the previous three decades, China has become the second largest economy worldwide since 2010. However, as a developing country with the largest population, this rapid economic growth primarily based on excessive consumption and waste of resources. Thus, China has been facing particularly severe ecological and environmental problems in speeding up industrialization and urbanization. The impact of the health risk factors is complex and difficult to accurately predict...
2016: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906121/one-health-training-and-research-activities-in-western-europe
#6
REVIEW
Reina Sikkema, Marion Koopmans
INTRODUCTION: The increase in emerging human infectious diseases that have a zoonotic origin and the increasing resistance of microorganisms to antimicrobial drugs have shown the need for collaborations between the human, animal and environmental health sectors. The One Health concept increasingly receives recognition from policy makers and researchers all over the world. This overview compiled research and education activities in the area of One Health in Western Europe (Austria, Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Iceland, Ireland, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Monaco, the Netherlands, Portugal, Scandinavia, Spain, Switzerland, and the United Kingdom (UK), with a focus on infectious diseases...
2016: Infection Ecology & Epidemiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27905285/the-current-status-of-ticks-in-turkey-a-100-year-period-review-from-1916-to-2016
#7
Abdullah İnci, Alparslan Yıldırım, Önder Düzlü
Environmental and bio-ecological changes, some administrative and political mistakes, and global warming seriously affect the behaviors of ticks in Turkey and globally. The global public sensitivity toward tick infestations has increased along with increases in tick-borne diseases (TBDs). Recently, the World Health Organization (WHO) developed a new political concept, "One Health," for specific struggle strategies against tick infestations and TBDs. To highlight the importance of the issue, the WHO had declared the year 2015 for vector-borne diseases and adopted the slogan "small bites big threat"...
September 2016: Türkiye Parazitolojii Dergisi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901392/assessment-of-frailty-in-aged-dogs
#8
Julie Hua, Sara Hoummady, Claude Muller, Jean-Louis Pouchelon, Marc Blondot, Caroline Gilbert, Loic Desquilbet
OBJECTIVE To define a frailty-related phenotype-a clinical syndrome associated with the aging process in humans-in aged dogs and to investigate its association with time to death. ANIMALS 116 aged guide dogs. PROCEDURES Dogs underwent a clinical geriatric assessment (CGA) and were followed to either time of death or the study cutoff date. A 5-component clinical definition of a frailty phenotype was derived from clinical items included in a geriatric health evaluation scoresheet completed by veterinarians during the CGA...
December 2016: American Journal of Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892721/social-aspects-in-additive-manufacturing-of-pharmaceutical-products
#9
Johanna Lind, Sofia Kälvemark Sporrong, Susanne Kaae, Jukka Rantanen, Natalja Genina
Additive manufacturing (AM) techniques, such as drug printing, represent a new engineering approach that can implement the concept of personalized medicine via on-demand manufacturing of dosage forms with individually adjusted doses. Implementation of AM principles, such as pharmacoprinting, will challenge the entire drug distribution chain and affect the society at different levels. Areas covered: This work summarizes the concept of personalized medicine and gives an overview of possibilities for monitoring patients' health...
November 28, 2016: Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889875/development-of-an-educational-program-integrating-concepts-of-genetic-risk-and-preventive-strategies-for-children-with-a-family-history-of-melanoma
#10
Yelena P Wu, Lisa G Aspinwall, Elizabeth Nagelhout, Wendy Kohlmann, Kimberly A Kaphingst, Sheila Homburger, Ryan D Perkins, Douglas Grossman, Garrett Harding, Pamela Cassidy, Sancy A Leachman
Efforts to prevent melanoma, especially for those at elevated risk for the disease, should ideally begin during childhood. However, there are few preventive interventions targeting children who are at higher risk for melanoma due to a family history of the disease. Further, there are no educational interventions that aim to help these at-risk children understand their risk for melanoma and the ways in which preventive behaviors, such as sun protection, can mitigate their risk. The current paper describes a multidisciplinary team's process for creating a developmentally appropriate educational intervention about melanoma risk and prevention for children ages 8-17 years who have a family history of melanoma...
November 26, 2016: Journal of Cancer Education: the Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888775/cost-energy-global-warming-eutrophication-and-local-human-health-impacts-of-community-water-and-sanitation-service-options
#11
Mary E Schoen, Xiaobo Xue, Alison Wood, Troy R Hawkins, Jay Garland, Nicholas J Ashbolt
We compared water and sanitation system options for a coastal community across selected sustainability metrics, including environmental impact (i.e., life cycle eutrophication potential, energy consumption, and global warming potential), equivalent annual cost, and local human health impact. We computed normalized metric scores, which we used to discuss the options' strengths and weaknesses, and conducted sensitivity analysis of the scores to changes in variable and uncertain input parameters. The alternative systems, which combined centralized drinking water with sanitation services based on the concepts of energy and nutrient recovery as well as on-site water reuse, had reduced environmental and local human health impacts and costs than the conventional, centralized option...
November 16, 2016: Water Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869503/social-health-and-dementia-a-european-consensus-on-the-operationalization-of-the-concept-and-directions-for-research-and-practice
#12
R M Dröes, R Chattat, A Diaz, D Gove, M Graff, K Murphy, H Verbeek, M Vernooij-Dassen, L Clare, A Johannessen, M Roes, F Verhey, K Charras, The Interdem Social Health Taskforce
BACKGROUND: Because the pattern of illnesses changes in an aging population and many people manage to live well with chronic diseases, a group of health care professionals recently proposed reformulating the static WHO definition of health towards a dynamic one based on the ability to physically, mentally and socially adapt and self-manage. This paper is the result of a collaborative action of the INTERDEM Social Health Taskforce to operationalize this new health concept for people with dementia, more specifically the social domain, and to formulate directions for research and practice to promote social health in dementia...
November 21, 2016: Aging & Mental Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27867322/a-certified-health-physicist-s-reflections-on-a-40-year-career-in-radiation-protection
#13
Mark L Miller
This is a reflection from a certified health physicist regarding his becoming aware, during his 40-year career, that the linear no-threshold (LNT) model and the associated As Low As Reasonably Achievable concept have no scientific basis and make no positive contribution to radiation safety. They should be replaced by an alternative, scientifically based model that includes a threshold, below which there is no harm, and recognition of hormesis and the adaptive response, which reflect the benefits of low-dose and low-dose-rate radiation exposure...
October 2016: Dose-response: a Publication of International Hormesis Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862249/a-critical-caring-theory-of-protection-for-migrants-and-seasonal-farmworkers
#14
Jennifer E Shearer
Pesticide exposures represent inequities among a vulnerable population of migrant and seasonal farmworkers. A social justice theory synthesized from an environmental health research framework, a middle range theory of critical caring, and literature on pesticide exposure is presented as a situation-specific public health practice theory. Concepts from the physiological, epistemological, vulnerability, and health protection domains are related to concepts of critical caring revealing protective strategies for vulnerable populations exposed to pesticides...
November 14, 2016: Public Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27854311/care-seeking-for-diarrhoea-in-southern-malawi-attitudes-practices-and-implications-for-diarrhoea-control
#15
Salule Masangwi, Neil Ferguson, Anthony Grimason, Tracy Morse, Lawrence Kazembe
This paper examined care-seeking behaviour and its associated risk factors when a family member had diarrhoea. Data was obtained from a survey conducted in Chikwawa, a district in Southern Malawi. Chikwawa is faced with a number of environmental and socioeconomic problems and currently diarrhoea morbidity in the district is estimated at 24.4%, statistically higher than the national average of 17%. Using hierarchically built data from a survey of 1403 households nested within 33 communities, a series of two level binary logistic regression models with Bayesian estimation were used to determine predictors of care-seeking behaviour...
November 15, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852715/does-existential-unease-predict-adult-multimorbidity-analytical-cohort-study-on-embodiment-based-on-the-norwegian-hunt-population
#16
Margret Olafia Tomasdottir, Johann Agust Sigurdsson, Halfdan Petursson, Anna Luise Kirkengen, Tom Ivar Lund Nilsen, Irene Hetlevik, Linn Getz
OBJECTIVES: Multimorbidity is prevalent, and knowledge regarding its aetiology is limited. The general pathogenic impact of adverse life experiences, comprising a wide-ranging typology, is well documented and coherent with the concept allostatic overload (the long-term impact of stress on human physiology) and the notion embodiment (the conversion of sociocultural and environmental influences into physiological characteristics). Less is known about the medical relevance of subtle distress or unease...
November 16, 2016: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827941/polish-version-of-the-neighbourhood-environment-walkability-scale-news-poland
#17
Michał Jaśkiewicz, Tomasz Besta
The characteristics of built environments are the subject of intense consideration in the search for solutions to promote wellbeing and a higher quality of life among the inhabitants of cities. Walkability, defined as the extent to which the built environment is friendly to living and fulfilling the needs of the area, has become an important concept in sustainable urban design, public health and environmental psychology. This study systematically adapted the Neighbourhood Environment Walkability Scale (NEWS) for Poland, and evaluated the construct validity aspects of the adapted version among Polish adults...
November 4, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827896/transforming-life-a-broad-view-of-the-developmental-origins-of-health-and-disease-concept-from-an-ecological-justice-perspective
#18
Susan L Prescott, Alan C Logan
The influential scientist Rene J. Dubos (1901-1982) conducted groundbreaking studies concerning early-life environmental exposures (e.g., diet, social interactions, commensal microbiota, housing conditions) and adult disease. However, Dubos looked beyond the scientific focus on disease, arguing that "mere survival is not enough". He defined mental health as fulfilling human potential, and expressed concerns about urbanization occurring in tandem with disappearing access to natural environments (and elements found within them); thus modernity could interfere with health via "missing exposures"...
November 3, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27827529/a-design-thinking-approach-to-primary-ovarian-insufficiency
#19
Lisa A Martin, Alison G Porter, Vincent A Pelligrini, Peter A Schnatz, Xuezhi Jiang, Nicole Kleinstreuer, Janet E Hall, Sarah Verbiest, Jill Olmstead, Ryan Fair, Alberto Falorni, Luca Persani, Aleksandar Rajkovic, Khanjan Mehta, Lawrence M Nelson
Most clinicians are not prepared to provide integrated personal care to address all the clinical needs of women with primary ovarian insufficiency. Design thinking is an engineering methodology used to develop and evaluate novel concepts for systems operation. Here we articulate the need for a seamlessly integrated mobile health system to support genomic research as well as patient care. We also review the pathophysiology and management of primary ovarian insufficiency. Molecular understanding regarding the pathogenesis is essential to developing strategies for prevention, earlier diagnosis, and appropriate management of the disorder...
November 9, 2016: Panminerva Medica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27819199/operationalising-the-health-aspects-of-sustainable-diets-a-review
#20
Elly Mertens, Pieter Van't Veer, Gerrit J Hiddink, Jan Mjm Steijns, Anneleen Kuijsten
OBJECTIVE: Shifting towards a more sustainable food consumption pattern is an important strategy to mitigate climate change. In the past decade, various studies have optimised environmentally sustainable diets using different methodological approaches. The aim of the present review was to categorise and summarise the different approaches to operationalise the health aspects of environmentally sustainable diets. DESIGN: Conventional keyword and reference searches were conducted in PubMed, Scopus, Web of Knowledge and CAB Abstracts...
November 7, 2016: Public Health Nutrition
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