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Concepts of Environmental Health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28228144/incorporating-one-health-into-medical-education
#1
EDITORIAL
Peter M Rabinowitz, Barbara J Natterson-Horowitz, Laura H Kahn, Richard Kock, Marguerite Pappaioanou
One Health is an emerging concept that stresses the linkages between human, animal, and environmental health, as well as the need for interdisciplinary communication and collaboration to address health issues including emerging zoonotic diseases, climate change impacts, and the human-animal bond. It promotes complex problem solving using a systems framework that considers interactions between humans, animals, and their shared environment. While many medical educators may not yet be familiar with the concept, the One Health approach has been endorsed by a number of major medical and public health organizations and is beginning to be implemented in a number of medical schools...
February 23, 2017: BMC Medical Education
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225911/clean-air-matters-an-overview-of-traffic-related-air-pollution-and-pregnancy
#2
Anne Dorothée Slovic, Carmen Simone Diniz, Helena Ribeiro
The right to a healthy pregnancy and to giving birth in a safe environment is source of comprehensive research. Decent birth facilities, respect, and no discrimination are already recognized as fundamental rights, but an accurate look at the outdoor environment is required. Air pollution is a dangerous factor to pregnant women and newborns, many of whom highly exposed to traffic-related atmospheric pollutants in urban areas. Such exposure can lead to low birth weight and long-lasting effects, such as respiratory diseases and premature death...
February 16, 2017: Revista de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28225781/chronic-pain-depression-and-cardiovascular-disease-linked-through-a-shared-genetic-predisposition-analysis-of-a-family-based-cohort-and-twin-study
#3
Oliver van Hecke, Lynne J Hocking, Nicola Torrance, Archie Campbell, Sandosh Padmanabhan, David J Porteous, Andrew M McIntosh, Andrea V Burri, Haruka Tanaka, Frances M K Williams, Blair H Smith
BACKGROUND: Depression and chronic pain are the two most important causes of disability (Global Burden of Disease Study 2013). They occur together more frequently than expected and both conditions have been shown to be co-morbid with cardiovascular disease. Although shared socio-demographic risk factors (e.g. gender, deprivation) might explain the co-morbidity of these three conditions, we hypothesised that these three long-term, highly prevalent conditions co-occur and may be due to shared familial risk, and/or genetic factors...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222976/-five-paradoxes-in-health-promotion
#4
Olga López-Dicastillo, Navidad Canga-Armayor, Agurtzane Mujika, Miren Idoia Pardavila-Belio, Maider Belintxon, Inmaculada Serrano-Monzó, María J Pumar-Méndez
The World Health Organization states that health promotion is a key strategy to improve health, and it is conceived as a global process of enabling people to increase control over, and to improve, their health. Health promotion does not focus solely on empowering individuals dealing with their knowledge, attitudes and skills, but it also takes political, social, economic and environmental aspects influencing health and wellbeing into account. The complexity of applying these concepts is reflected in the five paradoxes in health promotion; these arise in between the rhetoric in health promotion and implementation...
February 17, 2017: Gaceta Sanitaria
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222077/association-of-smoking-in-the-home-with-lung-cancer-worry-perceived-risk-and-synergistic-risk
#5
Karen M Butler, Mary Kay Rayens, Amanda T Wiggins, Kathy B Rademacher, Ellen J Hahn
PURPOSE/OBJECTIVES: To examine the association of smoking in the home with lung cancer worry, perceived risk, and synergistic risk, controlling for sociodemographics, family history of lung cancer, and health-related self-concept. The hypothesis is that participants with smoking in the home would have higher scores for lung cancer worry, perceived risk, and synergistic risk.
. DESIGN: Cross-sectional baseline survey. 
. SETTING: Participants recruited from an outpatient clinic and pharmacy at University of Kentucky HealthCare, an academic medical center...
March 1, 2017: Oncology Nursing Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211834/is-active-design-changing-the-workplace-a-natural-pre-post-experiment-looking-at-health-behaviour-and-workplace-perceptions
#6
Lina Engelen, Josephine Chau, Erika Bohn-Goldbaum, Sarah Young, Dominique Hespe, Adrian Bauman
BACKGROUND: Active Design is a relatively new concept and evaluation on its effects on healthy behaviour is lacking. OBJECTIVE: To investigate Active Design influence on workplace physical activity, sedentary behaviour, musculoskeletal complaints, and perceptions of the workplace and productivity. METHODS: Participants (n = 118 adults) moving from 14 workplaces into a new building completed an online questionnaire pre- and post-move. The questions related to health behaviours (physical activity, sitting time and sleep); musculoskeletal issues; perceptions of the office environment; productivity; and engagement...
February 17, 2017: Work: a Journal of Prevention, Assessment, and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208786/policy-research-and-residents-perspectives-on-built-environments-implicated-in-heart-disease-a-concept-mapping-approach
#7
Ivana Stankov, Natasha J Howard, Mark Daniel, Margaret Cargo
An underrepresentation of stakeholder perspectives within urban health research arguably limits our understanding of what is a multi-dimensional and complex relationship between the built environment and health. By engaging a wide range of stakeholders using a participatory concept mapping approach, this study aimed to achieve a more holistic and nuanced understanding of the built environments shaping disease risk, specifically cardiometabolic risk (CMR). Moreover, this study aimed to ascertain the importance and changeability of identified environments through government action...
February 9, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205158/understanding-food-fussiness-and-its-implications-for-food-choice-health-weight-and-interventions-in-young-children-the-impact-of-professor-jane-wardle
#8
REVIEW
E Leigh Gibson, Lucy Cooke
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: This review examines the concepts of fussy eating and food neophobia in the context of key determinants of the development of children's food preferences. We discuss the evidence for genetic versus parental and other environmental influences on the ontogeny of these behavioural traits and the implications of current knowledge for interventions that attempt to lessen the impact of these traits on children's diets. Finally, we consider whether these traits increase the risk of a child becoming obese, or alternatively, underweight and malnourished...
February 16, 2017: Current Obesity Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28195528/sustainable-diets-within-sustainable-food-systems
#9
Alexandre Meybeck, Vincent Gitz
Sustainable diets and sustainable food systems are increasingly explored by diverse scientific disciplines. They are also recognised by the international community and called upon to orient action towards the eradication of hunger and malnutrition and the fulfilment of sustainable development goals. The aim of the present paper is to briefly consider some of the links between these two notions in order to facilitate the operationalisation of the concept of sustainable diet. The concept of sustainable diet was defined in 2010 combining two totally different perspectives: a nutrition perspective, focused on individuals, and a global sustainability perspective, in all its dimensions: environmental, economic and social...
February 2017: Proceedings of the Nutrition Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28188604/-contextualizing-context-reconciling-environmental-exposures-social-networks-and-location-preferences-in-health-research
#10
REVIEW
Yan Kestens, Rania Wasfi, Alexandre Naud, Basile Chaix
PURPOSE OF REVIEW: The aim of this paper is to review the recent advances in health and place research and discuss concepts useful to explore how context affects health. More specifically, it reviews measures and tools used to account for place; concepts relating to daily mobility and multiple exposure to places, and further points to the intertwining between social and spatial networks to help further our understanding of how context translates into health profiles. RECENT FINDINGS: Significant advances in environmental or neighborhood effects have been made in the last decades...
February 10, 2017: Current Environmental Health Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187165/the-influence-of-resilience-based-management-on-coral-reef-monitoring-a-systematic-review
#11
Vivian Y Y Lam, Christopher Doropoulos, Peter J Mumby
With rapid changes taking place on coral reefs, managers and scientists are faced with prioritising interventions that might avoid undesirable losses in ecosystem health. The property of resilience captures how reefs react and respond to stressors and environmental changes. Therefore, in principle, management goals are more likely to be realised if resilience theory is used to inform decision making and help set realistic expectations for reef outcomes. Indeed, a new approach to reef management has been termed 'resilience-based management' (RBM)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185857/do-prominent-quality-measurement-surveys-capture-the-concerns-of-persons-with-disability
#12
Lisa I Iezzoni, Sarah A Marsella, Tiffany Lopinsky, Dennis Heaphy, Kimberley S Warsett
BACKGROUND: Demonstration programs nationwide aim to control costs and improve care for people dually-eligible for Medicare and Medicaid, including many persons with disability. Ensuring these initiatives maintain or improve care quality requires comprehensive evaluation of quality of care. OBJECTIVES: To examine whether the common quality measures being used to evaluate the Massachusetts One Care duals demonstration program comprehensively address the concerns of persons with disability...
January 28, 2017: Disability and Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183374/experiences-of-codeine-use-misuse-and-dependence-application-of-liese-and-franz-s-cognitive-developmental-model-of-substance-abuse
#13
Marie Claire Van Hout, Ian Norman, Eileen Rich, Michael Bergin
BACKGROUND: Misuse of codeine-containing medicines is an emerging public health issue. AIMS: We present the application of Liese and Franz's (1996) cognitive developmental model of substance abuse to the trajectory from legitimate codeine use for pain, towards that of therapeutic and other forms of misuse, and physical and psychological dependence. It illustrates a cognitive behavioural analysis of the experiences of codeine misusers - which 'surfaces' the specific beliefs, thoughts, emotions and behaviours of this group of hidden codeine dependent individuals, who are distinct and unique from other opioid-dependent cohorts...
February 10, 2017: Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28155790/-physical-education-health-and-physical-activities-difficult-relationships
#14
Geneviève Cogérino
<ce:para>Physical education (PE) is an appropriate subject to investigate the links between physical activity (PA) and health. The current training of PE teachers tends to emphasize the link between PA and physical fitness, to the detriment of other health components. The occupational, environmental, cultural dimensions of PA are frequently overlooked. This article lists four topics related to PA-health links, which could be more extensively included in initial PE teacher training, on the basis of abundant scientific literature: 1...
June 8, 2016: Santé Publique: Revue Multidisciplinaire Pour la Recherche et L'action
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28154358/systemization-of-the-establishment-of-standards-and-future-prospects-toward-the-establishment-of-standards-in-nonstationary-states
#15
Michio Murakami
Although public interest on safety standards is increasing, the evidence and protocols associated with the standards are not known well to the public and even experts. Discussing the evidence of standards is essential for risk communication, and interdisciplinary and systematical understanding on how to establish standards are also beneficial for considering the set-up of new standards. In this article, on the basis of examples in environmental science, industrial health and safety, and radiological protection, I overview and systemize the establishment of the standards from the perspectives of three principles of risk management: 1) "zero-risk-like" standards, 2) "acceptable-risk-based" standards, and 3) "cost-balanced" standards...
2017: Nihon Eiseigaku Zasshi. Japanese Journal of Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134756/urban-place-and-health-equity-critical-issues-and-practices
#16
Jason Corburn
Urban places and health equity are two of the most challenging concepts for 21st century environmental health. More people live in cities than at any other time in human history and health inequities are increasing. Health inequities are avoidable differences in the social, environmental and political conditions that shape morbidity and mortality, and disproportionately burden the poor, racial, ethnic and religious minorities and migrants. By linking urban place and health inequities, research and action brings into sharp relief the challenges of achieving urban environmental justice...
January 26, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28133586/possible-health-impacts-of-bt-toxins-and-residues-from-spraying-with-complementary-herbicides-in-genetically-engineered-soybeans-and-risk-assessment-as-performed-by-the-european-food-safety-authority-efsa
#17
REVIEW
Christoph Then, Andreas Bauer-Panskus
BACKGROUND: MON89788 was the first genetically engineered soybean worldwide to express a Bt toxin. Under the brand name Intacta, Monsanto subsequently engineered a stacked trait soybean using MON89788 and MON87701-this stacked soybean expresses an insecticidal toxin and is, in addition, tolerant to glyphosate. After undergoing risk assessment by the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), the stacked event was authorised for import into the EU in June 2012, including for use in food and feed...
2017: Environmental Sciences Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129409/justice-is-the-missing-link-in-one-health-results-of-a-mixed-methods-study-in-an-urban-city-state
#18
Tamra Lysaght, Benjamin Capps, Michele Bailey, David Bickford, Richard Coker, Zohar Lederman, Sangeetha Watson, Paul Anantharajah Tambyah
BACKGROUND: One Health (OH) is an interdisciplinary collaborative approach to human and animal health that aims to break down conventional research and policy 'silos'. OH has been used to develop strategies for zoonotic Emerging Infectious Diseases (EID). However, the ethical case for OH as an alternative to more traditional public health approaches is largely absent from the discourse. To study the ethics of OH, we examined perceptions of the human health and ecological priorities for the management of zoonotic EID in the Southeast Asia country of Singapore...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28125387/toward-greater-implementation-of-the-exposome-research-paradigm-within-environmental-epidemiology
#19
Jeanette A Stingone, Germaine M Buck Louis, Shoji F Nakayama, Roel C H Vermeulen, Richard K Kwok, Yuxia Cui, David M Balshaw, Susan L Teitelbaum
Investigating a single environmental exposure in isolation does not reflect the actual human exposure circumstance nor does it capture the multifactorial etiology of health and disease. The exposome, defined as the totality of environmental exposures from conception onward, may advance our understanding of environmental contributors to disease by more fully assessing the multitude of human exposures across the life course. Implementation into studies of human health has been limited, in part owing to theoretical and practical challenges including a lack of infrastructure to support comprehensive exposure assessment, difficulty in differentiating physiologic variation from environmentally induced changes, and the need for study designs and analytic methods that accommodate specific aspects of the exposome, such as high-dimensional exposure data and multiple windows of susceptibility...
January 6, 2017: Annual Review of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28124101/-subjective-theories-on-quality-of-life-and-health-in-old-age-an-explorative-study-with-nursing-home-residents-and-their-nursing-personnel
#20
Olivia Kada, Marina Hedenik, Anna Griesser, Anna-Theresa Mark, Julia Trost
BACKGROUND: The terms "quality of life" and "health" are often used interchangeably even though there are indications to suggest that they are distinct constructs. Nevertheless, studies which would help to understand the difference between these constructs on the level of subjective theories of nursing home residents are lacking. Because nursing personnel can essentially contribute to the quality of life of residents, the comparison of subjective theories from residents and from nursing personnel can help to detect and understand potential discrepancies...
January 25, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Gerontologie und Geriatrie
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