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Concepts of Environmental Health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645969/protocol-for-the-residents-in-action-pilot-cluster-randomised-controlled-trial-riat-evaluating-a-behaviour-change-intervention-to-promote-walking-reduce-sitting-and-improve-mental-health-in-physically-inactive-older-adults-in-retirement-villages
#1
Cecilie Thøgersen-Ntoumani, Ashlene Wright, Eleanor Quested, Elissa Burton, Keith D Hill, Ester Cerin, Stuart J H Biddle, Nikos Ntoumanis
INTRODUCTION: Ageing is accompanied by increased risks of chronic disease, declined functioning and increased dependency. Physical activity is critical to retaining health and independence, but the majority of older people are insufficiently physically active to achieve these benefits and have high levels of sedentary (sitting) time. Activity programmes are often offered in retirement villages; however, their uptake is limited. Furthermore, although the physical environment in and around these villages can play an important role in decisions to be physically active, its role is often overlooked by research in these settings...
June 23, 2017: BMJ Open
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28644792/what-moral-distress-in-nursing-history-could-suggest-about-the-future-of-health-care
#2
Andrew Jameton
The concept of moral distress was defined in 1984 as (a) the psychological distress of (b) being in a situation in which one is constrained from acting (c) on what one knows to be right. A substantial literature on the subject has developed, primarily in nursing ethics. The aforementioned elements of distress are applied here to areas of clinical and organizational significance: (a) distress from causing intimate pain during care of the dying, (b) constraints stemming from proximate and background challenges of health care organizations, and (c) changing perspectives on therapeutic technologies derived from global environmental perspectives...
June 1, 2017: AMA Journal of Ethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643560/design-quality-in-the-context-of-healthcare-environments-a-scoping-review
#3
Anna Anåker, Ann Heylighen, Susanna Nordin, Marie Elf
OBJECTIVE: We explored the concept of design quality in relation to healthcare environments. In addition, we present a taxonomy that illustrates the wide range of terms used in connection with design quality in healthcare. BACKGROUND: High-quality physical environments can promote health and well-being. Developments in healthcare technology and methodology put high demands on the design quality of care environments, coupled with increasing expectations and demands from patients and staff that care environments be person centered, welcoming, and accessible while also supporting privacy and security...
July 2017: HERD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642878/the-complexity-of-zoonotic-filariasis-episystem-and-its-consequences-a-multidisciplinary-view
#4
REVIEW
Fernando Simón, Javier González-Miguel, Alicia Diosdado, Paula Josefina Gómez, Rodrigo Morchón, Vladimir Kartashev
Vector-borne transmitted helminthic zoonosis affects the health and economy of both developing and developed countries. The concept of episystem includes the set of biological, environmental, and epidemiological elements of these diseases in defined geographic and temporal scales. Dirofilariasis caused by different species of the genus Dirofilaria is a disease affecting domestic and wild canines and felines and man, transmitted by different species of culicid mosquitoes. This complexity is increased because Dirofilaria species harbor intracellular symbiont Wolbachia bacteriae, which play a key role in the embryogenesis and development of dirofilariae and in the inflammatory pathology of the disease...
2017: BioMed Research International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626231/the-resilience-of-the-intestinal-microbiota-influences-health-and-disease
#5
REVIEW
Felix Sommer, Jacqueline Moltzau Anderson, Richa Bharti, Jeroen Raes, Philip Rosenstiel
The composition of the intestinal microbiota varies among individuals and throughout development, and is dependent on host and environmental factors. However, although the microbiota is constantly exposed to environmental challenges, its composition and function in an individual are stable against perturbations, as microbial communities are resilient and resistant to change. The maintenance of a beneficial microbiota requires a homeostatic equilibrium within microbial communities, and also between the microorganisms and the intestinal interface of the host...
June 19, 2017: Nature Reviews. Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28624966/molecular-mechanisms-underlying-th1-like-treg-generation-and-function
#6
REVIEW
Alexandra Kitz, Margarita Dominguez-Villar
Since their 're-discovery' more than two decades ago, FOXP3(+) regulatory T cells (Tregs) have been an important subject of investigation in the biomedical field and our understanding of the mechanisms that drive their phenotype and function in health and disease has advanced tremendously. During the past few years it has become clear that Tregs are not a terminally differentiated population but show some degree of plasticity, and can, under specific environmental conditions, acquire the phenotype of effector T cells...
June 17, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623791/exposure-profile-of-volatile-organic-compounds-receptor-associated-with-paints-consumption
#7
Di Wang, Lei Nie, Xia Shao, Hongbing Yu
Epidemiologic studies regarding solvent-based paints (SBPs) containing VOCs have demonstrated a strong correlation between chronic and acute adverse health effects and the SBPs. Therefore, new environmentally friendly paints as substitutes containing less or none VOCs have been rapidly developed in research for future sustainable use. However, a few studies focusing on penetration and exposure condition of the substitute have been reported duo to the complexity and inaccessibility of painting industry. Surveys specifically looking at the present status of exposure condition were conducted to ascertain the popularization of water-based paints (WBPs) which concluded that markers of SBPs were detected in all 134 samples indicating bad industrial penetration...
June 14, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616503/a-framework-for-one-health-research
#8
REVIEW
J Lebov, K Grieger, D Womack, D Zaccaro, N Whitehead, B Kowalcyk, P D M MacDonald
The need for multidisciplinary research to address today's complex health and environmental challenges has never been greater. The One Health (OH) approach to research ensures that human, animal, and environmental health questions are evaluated in an integrated and holistic manner to provide a more comprehensive understanding of the problem and potential solutions than would be possible with siloed approaches. However, the OH approach is complex, and there is limited guidance available for investigators regarding the practical design and implementation of OH research...
June 2017: One Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616494/community-based-surveillance-of-zoonotic-parasites-in-a-one-health-world-a-systematic-review
#9
REVIEW
J M Schurer, E Mosites, C Li, S Meschke, P Rabinowitz
The One Health (OH) concept provides an integrated framework for observing and improving health issues involving human, animal, and environmental factors, and has been applied in particular to zoonotic disease problems. We conducted a systematic review of English and Chinese language peer-reviewed and grey literature databases to identify zoonotic endoparasite research utilizing an OH approach in community-based settings. Our review identified 32 articles where specimens collected simultaneously from all three OH domains (people, animals, and the environment) were assessed for endoparasite infection or exposure...
December 2016: One Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616492/the-role-of-environmental-health-in-one-health-a-uganda-perspective
#10
David Musoke, Rawlance Ndejjo, Edwinah Atusingwize, Abdullah Ali Halage
BACKGROUND: One Health is the integrative effort of multiple disciplines working locally, nationally and globally to attain optimal health for people, animals and the environment. As the human population continues to increase across the world, the interface of people, animals and the environment becomes more significant and impactful. For the past few years, the One Health concept has brought together experts in the areas of animal and human health. It has provided a new synthesis for public health and veterinary communities across the world...
December 2016: One Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28616476/proteobacteria-from-the-human-skin-microbiota-species-level-diversity-and-hypotheses
#11
C Cosseau, S Romano-Bertrand, H Duplan, O Lucas, I Ingrassia, C Pigasse, C Roques, E Jumas-Bilak
The human skin microbiota is quantitatively dominated by Gram-positive bacteria, detected by both culture and metagenomics. However, metagenomics revealed a huge variety of Gram-negative taxa generally considered from environmental origin. For species affiliation of bacteria in skin microbiota, clones of 16S rRNA gene and colonies growing on diverse culture media were analyzed. Species-level identification was achieved for 81% of both clones and colonies. Fifty species distributed in 26 genera were identified by culture, mostly belonging to Actinobacteria and Firmicutes, while 45 species-level operational taxonomic units distributed in 30 genera were detected by sequencing, with a high diversity of Proteobacteria...
December 2016: One Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28613232/off-the-shelf-fouling-management
#12
REVIEW
Daniel Rittschof
This chapter tells the story of a research thread that identified and modified a pharmaceutical that could be a component of environmentally benign fouling management coatings. First, I present the background context of biofouling and how fouling is managed. The major target of the research is disrupting transduction of a complex process in all macrofouling organisms: metamorphosis. Using a bioassay directed approach we first identified a pharmaceutical candidate. Then, based on structure function studies coupled with laboratory and field bioassays, we simplified the molecule, eliminating halogens and aromatic rings to a pharmacophore that could be readily broken down by bacteria...
June 14, 2017: Marine Drugs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28611354/chronic-low-dose-exposure-to-a-mixture-of-environmental-endocrine-disruptors-induces-micrornas-isomirs-deregulation-in-mouse-concomitant-with-intratesticular-estradiol-reduction
#13
Julio Buñay, Eduardo Larriba, Ricardo D Moreno, Jesús Del Mazo
Humans are environmentally exposed not only to single endocrine-disrupting chemicals (EDCs) but to mixtures that affect their reproductive health. In reproductive tissues, microRNAs (miRNAs) are emerging as key targets of EDCs. Here, we analysed changes in the testis "miRNome" (and their biogenesis mechanism) in chronically exposed adult mice to a cocktail of five EDCs containing 0.3 mg/kg-body weight (BW)/day of each phthalate (DEHP, DBP, BBP) and 0.05 mg/kg-BW/day of each alkylphenol (NP, OP), from conception to adulthood...
June 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28610633/health-care-users-key-community-informants-and-primary-health-care-workers-views-on-health-health-promotion-health-assets-and-deficits-qualitative-study-in-seven-spanish-regions
#14
Mariona Pons-Vigués, Anna Berenguera, Núria Coma-Auli, Haizea Pombo-Ramos, Sebastià March, Angela Asensio-Martínez, Patricia Moreno-Peral, Sara Mora-Simón, Maria Martínez-Andrés, Enriqueta Pujol-Ribera
BACKGROUND: Although some articles have analysed the definitions of health and health promotion from the perspective of health-care users and health care professionals, no published studies include the simultaneous participation of health-care users, primary health care professionals and key community informants. Understanding the perception of health and health promotion amongst these different stakeholders is crucial for the design and implementation of successful, equitable and sustainable measures that improve the health and wellbeing of populations...
June 13, 2017: International Journal for Equity in Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28604791/challenges-in-developing-methods-for-quantifying-the-effects-of-weather-and-climate-on-water-associated-diseases-a-systematic-review
#15
Giovanni Lo Iacono, Ben Armstrong, Lora E Fleming, Richard Elson, Sari Kovats, Sotiris Vardoulakis, Gordon L Nichols
Infectious diseases attributable to unsafe water supply, sanitation and hygiene (e.g. Cholera, Leptospirosis, Giardiasis) remain an important cause of morbidity and mortality, especially in low-income countries. Climate and weather factors are known to affect the transmission and distribution of infectious diseases and statistical and mathematical modelling are continuously developing to investigate the impact of weather and climate on water-associated diseases. There have been little critical analyses of the methodological approaches...
June 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28595670/healthy-cognitive-ageing-in-the-lothian-birth-cohort-studies-marginal-gains-not-magic-bullet
#16
J Corley, S R Cox, I J Deary
In the face of shifting demographics and an increase in human longevity, it is important to examine carefully what is known about cognitive ageing, and to identify and promote possibly malleable lifestyle and health-related factors that might mitigate age-associated cognitive decline. The Lothian Birth Cohorts of 1921 (LBC1921, n = 550) and 1936 (LBC1936, n = 1091) are longitudinal studies of cognitive and brain ageing based in Scotland. Childhood IQ data are available for these participants, who were recruited in later life and then followed up regularly...
June 9, 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588763/proof-of-concept-of-faecal-egg-nematode-counting-as-a-practical-means-of-veterinary-engagement-with-planned-livestock-health-management-in-a-lower-income-country
#17
Eithne Leahy, Barend Bronsvoort, Luke Gamble, Andrew Gibson, Henderson Kaponda, Dagmar Mayer, Stella Mazeri, Kate Shervell, Neil Sargison
BACKGROUND: The wellbeing and livelihood of farmers in impoverished regions of the world is intrinsically linked to the health and welfare of their livestock; hence improved animal health is a pragmatic component of poverty alleviation. Prerequisite knowledge and understanding of the animal health challenges facing cattle keepers in Malawi is constrained by the lack of veterinary infrastructure, which inevitably accompanies under-resourced rural development in a poor country. METHODS: We collaborated with public and private paraveterinary services to locate 62 village Zebu calves and 60 dairy co-operative calves dispersed over a wide geographical area...
2017: Irish Veterinary Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588754/endocrine-disrupting-chemicals-in-mixture-and-obesity-diabetes-and-related-metabolic-disorders
#18
REVIEW
Brigitte Le Magueresse-Battistoni, Emmanuel Labaronne, Hubert Vidal, Danielle Naville
Obesity and associated metabolic disorders represent a major societal challenge in health and quality of life with large psychological consequences in addition to physical disabilities. They are also one of the leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Although, different etiologic factors including excessive food intake and reduced physical activity have been well identified, they cannot explain the kinetics of epidemic evolution of obesity and diabetes with prevalence rates reaching pandemic proportions...
May 26, 2017: World Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587554/quality-of-life-and-spirituality
#19
Raquel Gehrke Panzini, Bruno Paz Mosqueiro, Rogério R Zimpel, Denise Ruschel Bandeira, Neusa S Rocha, Marcelo P Fleck
Spirituality has been identified as an important dimension of quality-of-life. The objective of this study was to review the literature on quality-of-life and spirituality, their association, and assessment tools. A search was conducted of the keyterms 'quality-of-life' and 'spirituality' in abstract or title in the databases PsycINFO and PubMed/Medline between 1979-2005, complemented by a new search at PUBMED from 2006-2016. Quality-of-life is a new concept, which encompasses and transcends the concept of health, being composed of multiple domains: physical, psychological, environmental, among others...
June 2017: International Review of Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28584170/one-health-for-a-changing-world-new-perspectives-from-africa
#20
Andrew A Cunningham, Ian Scoones, James L N Wood
The concept of One Health, which aims to drive improvements in human, animal and ecological health through an holistic approach, has been gaining increasing support and attention in recent years. While this concept has much appeal, there are few examples where it has been successfully put into practice. This Special Issue explores the challenges in African contexts, with papers looking at the complex interactions between ecosystems, diseases and poverty dynamics; at underlying social and political dimensions; at the potentials for integrative modelling; and at the changes in policy and practice required to realise a One Health approach...
July 19, 2017: Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences
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