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Concepts of Environmental Health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29017193/-the-environmental-burden-of-disease-concept
#1
Myriam Tobollik, Dietrich Plaß, Nadine Steckling, Hajo Zeeb, Dirk Wintermeyer, Claudia Hornberg
Goal of the study Environmental risk factors are of great importance for public health with a considerable but often unused potential for prevention. However, knowledge about the complex associations between the environment and health effects is limited for some risk factors. A concept, which is using the existing evidence on associations between the impact of environmental factors and health effects, is the environmental burden of disease (EBD) concept. The aim of this article is to present the quantification method of the EBD concept and to discuss the advantages and its points of criticism...
October 10, 2017: Das Gesundheitswesen
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28994744/multi-contextual-segregation-and-environmental-justice-research-toward-fine-scale-spatiotemporal-approaches
#2
REVIEW
Yoo Min Park, Mei-Po Kwan
Many environmental justice studies have sought to examine the effect of residential segregation on unequal exposure to environmental factors among different social groups, but little is known about how segregation in non-residential contexts affects such disparity. Based on a review of the relevant literature, this paper discusses the limitations of traditional residence-based approaches in examining the association between socioeconomic or racial/ethnic segregation and unequal environmental exposure in environmental justice research...
October 10, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28993012/can-microalgae-remove-pharmaceutical-contaminants-from-water
#3
REVIEW
Jiu-Qiang Xiong, Mayur B Kurade, Byong-Hun Jeon
The increase in worldwide water contamination with numerous pharmaceutical contaminants (PCs) has become an emerging environmental concern due to their considerable ecotoxicities and associated health issues. Microalgae-mediated bioremediation of PCs has recently gained scientific attention, as microalgal bioremediation is a solar-power driven, ecologically comprehensive, and sustainable reclamation strategy. In this review, we comprehensively describe the current research on the possible roles and applications of microalgae for removing PCs from aqueous media...
October 6, 2017: Trends in Biotechnology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28971071/how-do-the-nurses-cope-with-job-stress-a-study-with-grounded-theory-approach
#4
Rasool Eslami Akbar, Nasrin Elahi, Eesa Mohammadi, Masoud Fallahi Khoshknab
Introduction: Due to the adverse effects of job stress on health of nurses and the importance of coping process of nurses in management of job stress, the present study was carried out with the aim of exploring the experiences of the nurses in order to reveal the original coping process of the nurses in the case of encountering occupational stress. Methods: This qualitative study was conducted with grounded theory approach. Research participants were 15 clinical nurses and four directors of nursing. Sampling method of study were purposive and theoretical sampling...
September 2017: Journal of Caring Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28969366/systems-biology-of-personalized-nutrition
#5
Ben van Ommen, Tim van den Broek, Iris de Hoogh, Marjan van Erk, Eugene van Someren, Tanja Rouhani-Rankouhi, Joshua C Anthony, Koen Hogenelst, Wilrike Pasman, André Boorsma, Suzan Wopereis
Personalized nutrition is fast becoming a reality due to a number of technological, scientific, and societal developments that complement and extend current public health nutrition recommendations. Personalized nutrition tailors dietary recommendations to specific biological requirements on the basis of a person's health status and goals. The biology underpinning these recommendations is complex, and thus any recommendations must account for multiple biological processes and subprocesses occurring in various tissues and must be formed with an appreciation for how these processes interact with dietary nutrients and environmental factors...
August 1, 2017: Nutrition Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28959677/elements-of-kitchen-toxicology-to-exploit-the-value-of-traditional-african-recipes-the-case-of-egusi-okra-meal-in-the-diet-of-hiv-aids-subjects
#6
Chiara Frazzoli, Francesca Mazzanti, Mercy Bih Achu, Guy Bertrand Pouokam, Elie Fokou
The Egusi Okra soup is a traditional African meal that is considered of high nutritional value and protective against weight loss. We introduce the concept of "kitchen toxicology" to analyse the recipe of the Egusi Okra soup and highlight possible mitigation measures for toxic and/or antinutritional effects in the wide spectrum of health and nutritional needs of HIV+/AIDS subjects. In particular, we focus on toxicants (environmental contaminants, process contaminants, substances leaching from food contact materials) dysregulating the immune status, as well as on interactions between nutrients, contaminants, and/or antinutrients which may lead to secondary/conditioned nutritional deficiencies or imbalances; in their turn, these can modulate the ability to cope with toxicants, and increase nutritional requirements...
2017: Toxicology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951073/biofilm-formation-and-multidrug-resistant-aeromonas-spp-from-wild-animals
#7
Carla Dias, Anabela Borges, Maria José Saavedra, Manuel Simões
OBJECTIVES: The "One Health" concept recognizes that the health of humans, animals and the environment are interconnected. Therefore, the knowledge on the behavior of microorganisms from the most diverse environmental niches is important to prevent the emergence and dissemination of antimicrobial resistance. Wild animals are known to carry antimicrobial resistant microorganisms with potential public health impact. However, no data is available on the sessile behavior of bacteria from wild animals, even if antimicrobial resistance is amplified in biofilms...
September 22, 2017: Journal of Global Antimicrobial Resistance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28941880/alternative-theories-pregnancy-and-immune-tolerance
#8
Elizabeth A Bonney
For some time, reproductive immunologists have worked to understand the balance between maternal tolerance of the fetus, maternal health, and fetal protection which leads to successful pregnancy in mammalian species. We have always understood the potential importance of multiple factors, including nutrition, genetics, anatomy, hormonal regulation, environmental insult and many others. Yet, we still struggle to combine our knowledge of these factors and immunology to finally understand complex diseases of pregnancy, such as preeclampsia...
September 2017: Journal of Reproductive Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28932221/diversity-of-vibrio-navarrensis-revealed-by-genomic-comparison-veterinary-isolates-are-related-to-strains-associated-with-human-illness-and-sewage-isolates-while-seawater-strains-are-more-distant
#9
Keike Schwartz, Cindy Kukuc, Nadja Bier, Karin Taureck, Jens A Hammerl, Eckhard Strauch
Strains of Vibrio navarrensis are present in aquatic environments like seawater, rivers, and sewage. Recently, strains of this species were identified in human clinical specimens. In this study, V. navarrensis strains isolated from livestock in Germany were characterized that were found in aborted fetuses and/or placentas after miscarriages. The veterinary strains were analyzed using phenotypical and genotypical methods and compared to isolates from marine environments of the Baltic Sea and North Sea. The investigated phenotypical traits were similar in all German strains...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28926971/mini-review-the-contribution-of-intermediate-phenotypes-to-gxe-effects-on-disorders-of-body-composition-in-the-new-omics-era
#10
REVIEW
Edna J Nava-Gonzalez, Esther C Gallegos-Cabriales, Irene Leal-Berumen, Raul A Bastarrachea
Studies of gene-environment (GxE) interactions describe how genetic and environmental factors influence the risk of developing disease. Intermediate (molecular or clinical) phenotypes (IPs) are traits or metabolic biomarkers that mediate the effects of gene-environment influences on risk behaviors. Functional systems genomics discovery offers mechanistic insights into how DNA variations affect IPs in order to detect genetic causality for a given disease. Disorders of body composition include obesity (OB), Type 2 diabetes (T2D), and osteoporosis (OSTP)...
September 17, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902724/validation-of-the-integrated-model-of-health-literacy-in-patients-with-breast-cancer
#11
Wen-Hsuan Hou, Yi-Jing Huang, Yen Lee, Cheng-Te Chen, Gong-Hong Lin, Ching-Lin Hsieh
BACKGROUND: Health literacy (HL) enables patients with breast cancer to actively participate in health decisions and promote positive health outcomes. The Integrated Model of Health Literacy (IMHL), defined as the personal, situational, and societal/environmental factors that predict the level of HL that can influence health outcomes, incorporates the concepts, determinants, and consequences of HL. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to examine the mechanisms and completeness of the IMHL in patients with breast cancer...
September 11, 2017: Cancer Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894128/microbial-colonization-is-required-for-normal-neurobehavioral-development-in-zebrafish
#12
Drake Phelps, Nichole E Brinkman, Scott P Keely, Emily M Anneken, Tara R Catron, Doris Betancourt, Charles E Wood, Scott T Espenschied, John F Rawls, Tamara Tal
Changes in resident microbiota may have wide-ranging effects on human health. We investigated whether early life microbial disruption alters neurodevelopment and behavior in larval zebrafish. Conventionally colonized, axenic, and axenic larvae colonized at 1 day post fertilization (dpf) were evaluated using a standard locomotor assay. At 10 dpf, axenic zebrafish exhibited hyperactivity compared to conventionalized and conventionally colonized controls. Impairment of host colonization using antibiotics also caused hyperactivity in conventionally colonized larvae...
September 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28889134/pesticide-applicators-questionnaire-content-validation-a-fuzzy-delphi-method
#13
S K Manakandan, I Rosnah, J Mohd Ridhuan, R Priya
BACKGROUND: The most crucial step in forming a set of survey questionnaire is deciding the appropriate items in a construct. Retaining irrelevant items and removing important items will certainly mislead the direction of a particular study. This article demonstrates Fuzzy Delphi method as one of the scientific analysis technique to consolidate consensus agreement within a panel of experts pertaining to each item's appropriateness. This method reduces the ambiguity, diversity, and discrepancy of the opinions among the experts hence enhances the quality of the selected items...
August 2017: Medical Journal of Malaysia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888663/impact-of-air-manganese-on-child-neurodevelopment-in-east-liverpool-ohio
#14
Erin N Haynes, Heidi Sucharew, Timothy J Hilbert, Pierce Kuhnell, Alonzo Spencer, Nicholas C Newman, Roxanne Burns, Robert Wright, Patrick J Parsons, Kim N Dietrich
BACKGROUND: East Liverpool, Ohio, the site of a hazardous waste incinerator and a manganese (Mn) processor, has had air Mn concentrations exceeding United States Environmental Protection Agency reference levels for over a decade. Save Our County, Inc., a community organization, was formed to address community environmental health concerns related to local industry. Researchers from the University of Cincinnati partnered with Save Our County to determine if air Mn had an impact on the neurocognitive function of children in the community...
September 6, 2017: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886502/nature-based-solutions-in-the-eu-innovating-with-nature-to-address-social-economic-and-environmental-challenges
#15
Nicolas Faivre, Marco Fritz, Tiago Freitas, Birgit de Boissezon, Sofie Vandewoestijne
Contemporary societies are facing a broad range of challenges, from pressures on human health and well-being to natural capital depletion, and the security of food, water and energy. These challenges are deeply intertwined with global processes, such as climate change and with local events such as natural disasters. The EU's research & innovation (R&I) policy is now seeking to address these challenges from a new perspective, with Nature-Based Solutions, and turn them into innovation opportunities that optimise the synergies between nature, society and the economy...
November 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28886415/burden-of-higher-lead-exposure-in-african-americans-starts-in-utero-and-persists-into-childhood
#16
Andrea E Cassidy-Bushrow, Alexandra R Sitarik, Suzanne Havstad, Sung Kyun Park, Lawrence F Bielak, Christine Austin, Christine Cole Johnson, Manish Arora
BACKGROUND: Recent public health lead crises in urban areas emphasize the need to better understand exposure to environmental toxicants, particularly in higher risk groups. Although African-American children have the highest prevalence of elevated blood lead levels in the United States, little is known about when this trajectory of disproportionate burden of lead exposure first emerges. OBJECTIVES: Using tooth-matrix biomarkers that directly measure fetal and early childhood metal levels, the primary goal of this study was to determine if there were racial disparities in lead levels during fetal development and early childhood...
November 2017: Environment International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873981/-his-native-hot-country-1-racial-science-and-environment-in-antebellum-american-medical-thought
#17
Christopher D Willoughby
Relying on a close reading of more than 4,000 medicals student theses, this essay explores the evolving medical approaches to race and environment in the early national and antebellum United States and highlights the role that medical school pedagogy played in disseminating and elaborating racial theory. Specifically, it considers the influence of racial science on medical concepts of the relationship of bodies to climates. At their core, monogenesis-belief in a single, unified human race-and polygenesis-the belief that each race was created separately-were theories about the human body's connections to the natural world...
July 1, 2017: Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28867793/diet-gut-microbiome-and-epigenetics-emerging-links-with-inflammatory-bowel-diseases-and-prospects-for-management-and-prevention
#18
REVIEW
Krasimira Aleksandrova, Beatriz Romero-Mosquera, Vicent Hernandez
Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) represent a growing public health concern due to increasing incidence worldwide. The current notion on the pathogenesis of IBD is that genetically susceptible individuals develop intolerance to dysregulated gut microflora (dysbiosis) and chronic inflammation develops as a result of environmental triggers. Among the environmental factors associated with IBD, diet plays an important role in modulating the gut microbiome, influencing epigenetic changes, and, therefore, could be applied as a therapeutic tool to improve the disease course...
August 30, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864988/long-term-effects-of-the-periconception-period-on-embryo-epigenetic-profile-and-phenotype-the-role-of-stress-and-how-this-effect-is-mediated
#19
James Ord, Alireza Fazeli, Penelope J Watt
Stress represents an unavoidable aspect of human life, and pathologies associated with dysregulation of stress mechanisms - particularly psychiatric disorders - represent a significant global health problem. While it has long been observed that levels of stress experienced in the periconception period may greatly affect the offspring's risk of psychiatric disorders, the mechanisms underlying these associations are not yet comprehensively understood. In order to address this question, this chapter will take a 'top-down' approach, by first defining stress and associated concepts, before exploring the mechanistic basis of the stress response in the form of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis, and how dysregulation of the HPA axis can impede our mental and physical health, primarily via imbalances in glucocorticoids (GCs) and their corresponding receptors (GRs) in the brain...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864986/the-role-of-maternal-nutrition-during-the-periconceptional-period-and-its-effect-on-offspring-phenotype
#20
Tom P Fleming, Judith J Eckert, Oleg Denisenko
The early preimplantation embryo has been rigorously studied for decades to understand inherent reproductive and developmental mechanisms driving its morphogenesis from before fertilisation through to and beyond implantation. Recent research has demonstrated that this short developmental window is also critical for the embryo's interaction with external, maternal factors, particularly nutritional status. Here, maternal dietary quality has been shown to alter the pattern of development in an enduring way that can influence health throughout the lifetime...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
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