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Concepts of Environmental Health

Siobhan M Mor, Jacqueline M Norris, Katrina L Bosward, Jenny-Ann L M L Toribio, Michael P Ward, Jaime Gongora, Meg Vost, Peter C Higgins, Paul D McGreevy, Peter J White, Sanaa Zaki
Background: New educational approaches are needed to improve student understanding of the wider sociological and ecological determinants of health as well as professional responsibilities in related areas. Field trips allow students to observe interaction between plant, animal and human communities, making them an ideal tool for teaching One Health concepts. Methods: Veterinary medical students participated in a field trip to a local parklands area, frequented by humans, dogs, horses, and wildlife...
June 2018: One Health
Carla Dias, Anabela Borges, Diana Oliveira, Antonio Martinez-Murcia, Maria José Saavedra, Manuel Simões
Background: The "One Health" concept recognizes that human health and animal health are interdependent and bound to the health of the ecosystem in which they (co)exist. This interconnection favors the transmission of bacteria and other infectious agents as well as the flow of genetic elements containing antibiotic resistance genes. This problem is worsened when pathogenic bacteria have the ability to establish as biofilms. Therefore, it is important to understand the characteristics and behaviour of microorganisms in both planktonic and biofilms states from the most diverse environmental niches to mitigate the emergence and dissemination of resistance...
2018: PeerJ
Julie Polisena, Gino De Angelis, David Kaunelis, Iñaki Gutierrez-Ibarluzea
INTRODUCTION: The Health Technology Expert Review Panel is an advisory body to Canadian Agency for Drugs and Technologies in Health (CADTH) that develops recommendations on health technology assessments (HTAs) for nondrug health technologies using a deliberative framework. The framework spans several domains, including the environmental impact of the health technology(ies). Our research objective was to identify articles on frameworks, methods or case studies on the environmental impact assessment of health technologies...
June 13, 2018: International Journal of Technology Assessment in Health Care
Daniel Bello-Gil, Emma Roig-Molina, Jennifer Fonseca, María Dolores Sarmiento-Ferrández, Marcela Ferrándiz, Esther Franco, Elena Mira, Beatriz Maestro, Jesús M Sanz
The presence of synthetic dyes in wastewaters generated by the textile industry constitutes a serious environmental and health problem that urges the scientific community on an appropriate action. As a proof-of-concept, we have developed a novel approach to design enzymatic bioreactors with the ability to decolorize dye solutions through the immobilization of the bacterial CueO laccase-like multicopper oxidase from Escherichia coli on polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) beads by making use of the BioF affinity tag. The decolorization efficiency of the system was characterized by a series of parameters, namely maximum enzyme adsorption capacity, pH profile, kinetic constants, substrate range, temperature and bioreactor recycling...
June 12, 2018: Microbial Biotechnology
Lisa Chedik, Arnaud Bruyere, Astrid Bacle, Sophie Potin, Marc Le Vée, Olivier Fardel
Drug transporters are now recognized as major actors of pharmacokinetics. They are also likely implicated in toxicokinetics and toxicology of environmental pollutants, notably pesticides, to which humans are widely exposed and which are known to exert various deleterious effects towards health. Interactions of pesticides with drug transporters are therefore important to consider. Areas covered: This review provides an overview of the interactions of pesticides with membrane drug transporters, i.e., inhibition of their activity, regulation of their expression and handling of pesticides...
June 10, 2018: Expert Opinion on Drug Metabolism & Toxicology
Hui-Yi Yeh, Kou-Huang Chen, Kow-Tong Chen
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
June 6, 2018: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Yao-Chuen Li, Matthew Y W Kwan, John Cairney
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: The Environmental Stress Hypothesis (ESH) has been used to examine how the relationship between poor motor coordination and psychological distress is affected by physical health and psychosocial factors. However, work applying the ESH is still limited, and no studies have used this framework with adults. The current investigation aims to examine the association between motor coordination and psychological distress among emerging adults, and examine potential mediators to this relationship based on the ESH...
June 4, 2018: Research in Developmental Disabilities
Robert D Furberg, Alexa M Ortiz, Rebecca R Moultrie, Melissa Raspa, Anne C Wheeler, Lauren A McCormack, Donald B Bailey
BACKGROUND: Challenges in the clinical and research consent process indicate the need to develop tailored, supportive interventions for all individuals, especially those with limited decisional capacity. We developed a tool to enhance shared decision making and the decisional capacity for individuals with fragile X syndrome engaged in the informed consent process for a clinical trial. OBJECTIVE: We describe the design and development process of a tablet-based decision support tool...
June 6, 2018: JMIR Research Protocols
Jamie L Young, Lu Cai, J Christopher States
Exposure to environmental stressors during susceptible windows of development can result in negative health outcomes later in life, a concept known as the Developmental Origins of Health and Disease (DOHaD). There is a growing body of evidence that exposures to metals early in life (in utero and postnatal) increase the risk of developing adult diseases such as cancer, cardiovascular disease, non-alcoholic fatty liver disease, and diabetes. Of particular concern is exposure to the metalloid arsenic, a drinking water contaminant and worldwide health concern...
June 6, 2018: Systems Biology in Reproductive Medicine
Chris G Buse, Maxwell Smith, Diego S Silva
Accelerated changes to the planet have created novel spaces to re-imagine the boundaries and foci of environmental health research. Climate change, mass species extinction, ocean acidification, biogeochemical disturbance, and other emergent environmental issues have precipitated new population health perspectives, including, but not limited to, one health, ecohealth, and planetary health. These perspectives, while nuanced, all attempt to reconcile broad global challenges with localized health impacts by attending to the reciprocal relationships between the health of ecosystems, animals, and humans...
June 4, 2018: Monash Bioethics Review
Roongroj Bhidayasiri, Onanong Jitkritsadakul, Jirada Sringean, Thitiporn Jantanapornchai, Nitinan Kantachadvanich, Saisamorn Phumphid, Kamolwan Boonpang, Sarawan Pensook, Nicharee Aungkab, Nobutaka Hattori, K Ray Chaudhuri
Background: Although bedrooms are identified as a major location for accidents among Parkinson's disease (PD) patients, there are no studies that specifically evaluate the bedroom environments of PD patients. Objective: To examine the physical bedroom environment of patients with PD by generating a home safety questionnaire to rate bedroom accessibility and usability specifically for PD patients, and piloting it in a small set of PD patients, to identify environmental barriers and recommend adaptations to reduce accident risks...
2018: Frontiers in Neurology
Alan C Logan, Susan L Prescott, Tari Haahtela, David L Katz
In 1980, Jonas Salk (1914-1995) encouraged professionals in anthropology and related disciplines to consider the interconnections between "planetary health," sociocultural changes associated with technological advances, and the biology of human health. The concept of planetary health emphasizes that human health is intricately connected to the health of natural systems within the Earth's biosphere; experts in physiological anthropology have illuminated some of the mechanisms by which experiences in natural environments (or the built environment) can promote or detract from health...
June 4, 2018: Journal of Physiological Anthropology
Umberto Simeoni, Jean-Baptiste Armengaud, Benazir Siddeek, Jean-François Tolsa
Epidemiological and experimental studies have shown that the peri-conception period, pregnancy, and infancy are windows of particular sensibility to environmental clues which influence lifelong trajectories across health and disease. Nutrition, stress, and toxins induce epigenetic marks that control long-term gene expression patterns and can be transmitted transgenerationally. Chronic diseases of adulthood such as hypertension, diabetes, and obesity thus have early, developmental origins in the perinatal period...
2018: Neonatology
Tamio Furuse, Shigeharu Wakana
OBJECTIVES: The developmental origins of health and disease paradigm (DOHaD) is a concept that fetal environmental factors affect adult phenotypes. We performed experiments to evaluate the DOHaD theory in developmental disorders using mouse models. METHODS: In vitro fertilization and embryo transfer techniques were used for mouse production. The AIN93G-control diet, which contains 20% protein (CD), 5% protein-restricted diet (PR), and PR with supplemental folic acid (FA) were provided as experimental diets to mothers...
2018: Nihon Eiseigaku Zasshi. Japanese Journal of Hygiene
Claire Thompson, Ruth Ponsford, Daniel Lewis, Steven Cummins
The higher prevalence of fast food outlets in deprived areas has been associated with the production and maintenance of geographical inequalities in diet. In the UK one type of fast food outlet - the 'chicken shop' - has been the focus of intense public health and media interest. Despite ongoing concerns and initiatives around regulating these establishments, the 'chicken shop' is both a commercially successful and ubiquitous feature of disadvantaged urban neighbourhoods. However, little is known about how they are perceived by local residents...
May 26, 2018: Appetite
Mark Mimee, Phillip Nadeau, Alison Hayward, Sean Carim, Sarah Flanagan, Logan Jerger, Joy Collins, Shane McDonnell, Richard Swartwout, Robert J Citorik, Vladimir Bulović, Robert Langer, Giovanni Traverso, Anantha P Chandrakasan, Timothy K Lu
Biomolecular monitoring in the gastrointestinal tract could offer rapid, precise disease detection and management but is impeded by access to the remote and complex environment. Here, we present an ingestible micro-bio-electronic device (IMBED) for in situ biomolecular detection based on environmentally resilient biosensor bacteria and miniaturized luminescence readout electronics that wirelessly communicate with an external device. As a proof of concept, we engineer heme-sensitive probiotic biosensors and demonstrate accurate diagnosis of gastrointestinal bleeding in swine...
May 25, 2018: Science
Olayiwola Akin Akintola, Abimbola Yisau Sangodoyin, Foluso Oyedotun Agunbiade
We present a modelling concept for evaluating the impacts of anthropogenic activities suspected to be from gas flaring on the quality of the atmosphere using domestic roof-harvested rainwater (DRHRW) as indicator. We analysed seven metals (Cu, Cd, Pb, Zn, Fe, Ca, and Mg) and six water quality parameters (acidity, PO4 3- , SO4 2- , NO3 - , Cl- , and pH). These were used as input parameters in 12 sampling points from gas-flaring environments (Port Harcourt, Nigeria) using Ibadan as reference. We formulated the results of these input parameters into membership function fuzzy matrices based on four degrees of impact: extremely high, high, medium, and low, using regulatory limits as criteria...
May 24, 2018: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Savina Reid, Haley Thompson, Kiran T Thakur
Neurological complications of infectious diseases are associated with high rates of morbidity and mortality. It is imperative that neurologists be up-to-date on current developments including typical and atypical presentations of neurological infections in travelers, diagnostic and treatment recommendations, and emerging pathogen resistance patterns to avoid fatal outcomes and long-term sequelae. This article will address concepts of emerging and reemerging infectious diseases, and will provide updates on the neurological manifestations of select emerging and reemerging infections, including Ebola virus, bacterial meningitis, enterovirus 71, Zika virus, cerebral malaria, and Japanese encephalitis...
April 2018: Seminars in Neurology
Gabriele Bolte, Madlen David, Małgorzata Dębiak, Lotta Fiedel, Claudia Hornberg, Marike Kolossa-Gehring, Ute Kraus, Rebecca Lätzsch, Tatjana Paeck, Kerstin Palm, Alexandra Schneider
The comprehensive consideration of sex/gender in health research is essential to increase relevance and validity of research results. Contrary to other areas of health research, there is no systematic summary of the current state of research on the significance of sex/gender in environmental health. Within the interdisciplinary research network Sex/Gender-Environment-Health (GeUmGe-NET) the current state of integration of sex/gender aspects or, respectively, gender theoretical concepts into research was systematically assessed within selected topics of the research areas environmental toxicology, environmental medicine, environmental epidemiology and public health research on environment and health...
May 22, 2018: Bundesgesundheitsblatt, Gesundheitsforschung, Gesundheitsschutz
Abdullah İnci, Mehmet Doğanay, Aykut Özdarendeli, Önder Düzlü, Alparslan Yıldırım
Zoonotic infections are globally important diseases and lead to huge economic losses in both low- and middle-income and high-income countries. Global warming, environmental and ecological changes, illegal movement of animals and humans, regional civil wars, and poverty are predisposing factors for the emergence of zoonotic infections and their distribution worldwide; they are also a big threat for the future. In addition, environmental pollution and antimicrobial resistance are immense serious threats and dangers to prevent and control zoonotic infections...
March 2018: Türkiye Parazitolojii Dergisi
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