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Concepts of Environmental Health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28813695/risk-based-remediation-of-polluted-sites-a-critical-perspective
#1
REVIEW
Saranya Kuppusamy, Kadiyala Venkateswarlu, Mallavarapu Megharaj, Srinithi Mayilswami, Yong Bok Lee
Sites contaminated with chemical pollutants represent a growing challenge, and remediation of such lands is of international concern. Risk-based land management (RBLM) is an emerging approach that integrates risk assessment practices with more traditional site-specific investigations and remediation activities. Developing countries are yet to adopt RBLM strategies for remediation. RBLM is considered to be practical, scientifically defensible and cost-efficient. However, it is inherently limited by: firstly, the accuracy of risk assessment models used; secondly, ramifications of the fact that they are more likely to leave contamination in place; and thirdly, uncertainties involved and having to consider the total concentrations of all contaminants in soils that overestimate the potential risks from exposure to the contaminants...
August 9, 2017: Chemosphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28810960/talk-to-the-hand-u-s-army-biophysical-testing
#2
William R Santee, Adam W Potter, Karl E Friedl
BACKGROUND: Many people are unaware of the science underlying the biophysical properties of Soldier clothing and personal protective equipment, yet there is a well-refined biomedical methodology initiated by Army physiologists in World War II. This involves a methodical progression of systematic material testing technologies, computer modeling, and human testing that enables more efficient development and rapid evaluation of new concepts for Soldier health and performance. Sophisticated manikins that sweat and move are a central part of this testing continuum...
July 2017: Military Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28806486/farmworker-vulnerability-to-heat-hazards-a-conceptual-framework
#3
Valerie Vi Thien Mac, Linda A McCauley
PURPOSE: To review factors that impact the effect of hot environments on the human body in order to develop a conceptual model of human biological response. METHODS: The organizing concept for the model development was the multilevel integration of three major factors, exposure to heat, sensitivity and adaptive capacity, and the heat stress response. Exposure of a vulnerable occupational group was used to illustrate the components of the model. FINDINGS: Components of this framework include the hazard (environmental heat stress), vulnerability factors (workplace exposure, sensitivity and adaptive capacity), and the heat stress response...
August 14, 2017: Journal of Nursing Scholarship
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28789572/family-members-and-health-professionals-perspectives-on-future-life-planning-of-ageing-people-with-down-syndrome-a-qualitative-study
#4
Venusia Covelli, Alberto Raggi, Chiara Paganelli, Matilde Leonardi
OBJECTIVES: To address the way in which primary caregivers of people over 45 with Down syndrome describe daily life activities and context and foresee their future. METHODS: Thirteen family members and 15 health professionals participated to four focus groups. Meaningful concepts were identified and linked to the International Classification of Functioning, Disability and Health using established linking rules. RESULTS: A total of 258 relevant concepts were identified and linked to 75 categories of the classification: 38 were from activity and participation and 17 from environmental factors domains...
August 8, 2017: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28768067/-this-illness-diminishes-me-what-it-does-is-like-theft-a%C3%A2-qualitative-meta-synthesis-of-people-s-experiences-of-living%C3%A2-with-asthma
#5
REVIEW
Kristen Pickles, Daniela Eassey, Helen K Reddel, Louise Locock, Susan Kirkpatrick, Lorraine Smith
BACKGROUND: What matters to people in their everyday experiences of living with asthma is influenced by a diverse range of personal, social, medical and environmental factors. Previous reviews of the asthma literature have largely focused on medical aspects of asthma or specific population groups with particular needs. OBJECTIVE: To identify, describe and synthesize from the available qualitative literature the views and experiences of adults living with asthma...
August 2, 2017: Health Expectations: An International Journal of Public Participation in Health Care and Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28763380/environmental-public-health-tracking-program-advances-and-successes-highlights-from-the-first-15-years
#6
Holly R Wilson, Alex E Charleston
Over the past 15 years, the National Environmental Public Health Tracking Program (Tracking Program) has advanced technologically and programmatically, evolving from an abstract concept to a mature program. The Tracking Program, in collaboration with national, state, and local partners, uses data and expertise to identify and address environmental public health needs and improve public health capacity across the United States. Examples of the successful application of environmental public health tracking include informing health impact assessments and filling data gaps...
September 2017: Journal of Public Health Management and Practice: JPHMP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28752018/project-house-water-a-novel-interdisciplinary-framework-to-assess-the-environmental-and-socioeconomic-consequences-of-flood-related-impacts
#7
Sarah E Crawford, Catrina Brüll Nee Cofalla, Benedikt Aumeier, Markus Brinkmann, Elisa Classen, Verena Esser, Caroline Ganal, Elena Kaip, Roger Häussling, Frank Lehmkuhl, Peter Letmathe, Anne-Katrin Müller, Ilja Rabinovitch, Klaus Reicherter, Jan Schwarzbauer, Marco Schmitt, Georg Stauch, Matthias Wessling, Süleyman Yüce, Markus Hecker, Karen A Kidd, Rolf Altenburger, Werner Brack, Holger Schüttrumpf, Henner Hollert
Protecting our water resources in terms of quality and quantity is considered one of the big challenges of the twenty-first century, which requires global and multidisciplinary solutions. A specific threat to water resources, in particular, is the increased occurrence and frequency of flood events due to climate change which has significant environmental and socioeconomic impacts. In addition to climate change, flooding (or subsequent erosion and run-off) may be exacerbated by, or result from, land use activities, obstruction of waterways, or urbanization of floodplains, as well as mining and other anthropogenic activities that alter natural flow regimes...
2017: Environmental Sciences Europe
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28749596/climate-change-climate-justice-and-environmental-health-implications-for-the-nursing-profession
#8
Patrice K Nicholas, Suellen Breakey
PURPOSE: Climate change is an emerging challenge linked to negative outcomes for the environment and human health. Since the 1960s, there has been a growing recognition of the need to address climate change and the impact of greenhouse gas emissions implicated in the warming of our planet. There are also deleterious health outcomes linked to complex climate changes that are emerging in the 21st century. This article addresses the social justice issues associated with climate change and human health and discussion of climate justice...
July 27, 2017: Journal of Nursing Scholarship
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28743678/the-saliva-exposome-for-monitoring-of-individuals-health-trajectories
#9
Vincent Bessonneau, Janusz Pawliszyn, Stephen M Rappaport
BACKGROUND: There is increasing evidence that environmental, rather than genetic, factors are the major causes of most chronic diseases. By measuring entire classes of chemicals in archived biospecimens, exposome-wide association studies (EWAS) are being conducted to investigate associations between a myriad of exposures received during life and chronic diseases. OBJECTIVES: Because the intraindividual variability in biomarker levels, arising from changes in environmental exposures from conception onwards, leads to attenuation of exposure-disease associations, we posit that saliva can be collected repeatedly in longitudinal studies to reduce exposure-measurement errors in EWAS...
July 20, 2017: Environmental Health Perspectives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28735028/protein-only-antimicrobial-peptide-containing-recombinant-nanoparticles-with-inherent-built-in-antibacterial-activity
#10
Naroa Serna, Laura Sánchez-García, Alejandro Sánchez-Chardi, Ugutz Unzueta, Mónica Roldán, Ramón Mangues, Esther Vázquez, Antonio Villaverde
The emergence of bacterial antibiotic resistances is a serious concern in human and animal health. In this context, naturally occurring cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) might play a main role in a next generation of drugs against bacterial infections. Taking an innovative approach to design self-organizing functional proteins, we have generated here protein-only nanoparticles with intrinsic AMP microbicide activity. Using a recombinant version of the GWH1 antimicrobial peptide as building block, these materials show a wide antibacterial activity spectrum in absence of detectable toxicity on mammalian cells...
July 19, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733909/genetics-molecular-and-proteomics-advances-in-filamentous-fungi
#11
REVIEW
Prakriti Sharma Ghimire, Cheng Jin
Filamentous fungi play a dynamic role in health and the environment. In addition, their unique and complex hyphal structures are involved in their morphogenesis, integrity, synthesis, and degradation, according to environmental and physiological conditions and resource availability. However, in biotechnology, it has a great value in the production of enzymes, pharmaceuticals, and food ingredients. The beginning of nomenclature of overall fungi started in early 1990 after which the categorization, interior and exterior mechanism, function, molecular and genetics study took pace...
July 22, 2017: Current Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733024/ecohealth-research-in-africa-where-from-where-to
#12
EDITORIAL
Robert Bergquist, Norbert W Brattig, Moses J Chimbari, Jakob Zinsstag, Jürg Utzinger
Epidemiological mapping and risk profiling build on the idea that diseases are tied to social-ecological systems that govern the distribution and abundance of transmissible pathogens, vectors and hosts. This is the heart of the emerging field of ecohealth, which examines how biological, cultural, demographic, economic, physical, political and social environments change can affect the health and wellbeing of humans, animals and ecosystems and the services they provide. This paper is an overview of a special issue of Acta Tropica, whose 15 publications reflect a geographically and epidemiologically diverse landscape of ecohealth in Africa...
July 18, 2017: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28732686/health-conditions-impact-on-function-health-related-quality-of-life-and-life-satisfaction-following-traumatic-spinal-cord-injury-a-prospective-observational-registry-cohort-study
#13
Carly S Rivers, Nader Fallah, Vanessa K Noonan, David Gt Whitehurst, Carolyn Schwartz, Joel Finkelstein, B Catharine Craven, Karen Ethans, Colleen O'Connell, Catherine Truchon, Chester Ho, A Gary Linassi, Christine Short, Eve Tsai, Brian Drew, Henry Ahn, Marcel F Dvorak, Jérôme Paquet, Michael G Fehlings, Luc Noreau
OBJECTIVE: To analyze relationships among injury, demographic and environmental factors on function, HRQoL and life satisfaction in individuals with traumatic SCI. DESIGN: prospective observational registry cohort study SETTING: 31 acute and rehabilitation SCI centres PARTICIPANTS: Participants (N=340) from the Rick Hansen Spinal Cord Injury Registry (RHSCIR) who were prospectively recruited from 2004-2014 were included. The model cohort included 340 participants: 79...
July 18, 2017: Archives of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719406/toward-a-biopsychosocial-ecology-of-the-human-microbiome-brain-gut-axis-and-health
#14
Karl J Maier, Mustafa al'Absi
OBJECTIVE: Rapidly expanding insights to the human microbiome and health suggest that Western medicine is poised for significant evolution, or perhaps revolution - this while the field continues on a trajectory from reductionism to a biopsychosocial (BPS) paradigm recognizing biological, psychological, and social influences on health. The apparent sensitivity of the microbiota to perturbations across BPS domains suggests that a broad and inclusive framework is needed to develop applicable knowledge in this area...
July 18, 2017: Psychosomatic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28716338/changing-innovation-into-a-registered-product-from-concept-to-regulatory-approval
#15
Linda Rhodes
Innovation in animal health pharmaceuticals is important to address unmet and underserved medical needs, and often comes from products initially developed for human medicine. The purpose of the review is to help readers understand how breakthroughs from human biotechnology may be developed for use in veterinary medicine, while understanding the key drivers to success, the difficulties of regulatory approval, and the realistic risks and rewards of developing applications for animals. The types of human drugs which may be useful for veterinary applications are reviewed, including examples...
July 6, 2017: Theriogenology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28713068/implementation-of-good-laboratory-practices-glp-in-basic-scientific-research-translating-the-concept-beyond-regulatory-compliance
#16
REVIEW
G B Jena, Sapana Chavan
The principles of Good Laboratory Practices (GLPs) are mainly intended for the laboratories performing studies for regulatory compliances. However, today GLP can be applied to broad disciplines of science to cater to the needs of the experimental objectives, generation of quality data and assay reproducibility. Considering its significance, it can now be applied in academics; industries as well as government set ups throughout the world. GLP is the best way to promote the reliability, reproducibility of the test data and hence facilitates the international acceptability...
July 13, 2017: Regulatory Toxicology and Pharmacology: RTP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711809/assessing-the-impact-of-hazardous-waste-on-children-s-health-the-exposome-paradigm
#17
D A Sarigiannis
Assessment of the health impacts related to hazardous waste is a major scientific challenge with multiple societal implications. Most studies related to associations between hazardous waste and public health do not provide established of mechanistic links between environmental exposure and disease burden, resulting in ineffective waste management options. The exposome concept comes to overhaul the nature vs. nurture paradigm and embraces a world of dynamic interactions between environmental exposures, endogenous exposures and genetic expression in humans...
July 13, 2017: Environmental Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710141/perspective-improving-nutritional-guidelines-for-sustainable-health-policies-current-status-and-perspectives
#18
Paolo Magni, Dennis M Bier, Sergio Pecorelli, Carlo Agostoni, Arne Astrup, Furio Brighenti, Robert Cook, Emanuela Folco, Luigi Fontana, Robert A Gibson, Ranieri Guerra, Gordon H Guyatt, John Pa Ioannidis, Ann S Jackson, David M Klurfeld, Maria Makrides, Basil Mathioudakis, Alessandro Monaco, Chirag J Patel, Giorgio Racagni, Holger J Schünemann, Raanan Shamir, Niv Zmora, Andrea Peracino
A large body of evidence supports the notion that incorrect or insufficient nutrition contributes to disease development. A pivotal goal is thus to understand what exactly is appropriate and what is inappropriate in food ingestion and the consequent nutritional status and health. The effective application of these concepts requires the translation of scientific information into practical approaches that have a tangible and measurable impact at both individual and population levels. The agenda for the future is expected to support available methodology in nutrition research to personalize guideline recommendations, properly grading the quality of the available evidence, promoting adherence to the well-established evidence hierarchy in nutrition, and enhancing strategies for appropriate vetting and transparent reporting that will solidify the recommendations for health promotion...
July 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709428/a-systematic-comparison-of-statistical-methods-to-detect-interactions-in-exposome-health-associations
#19
Jose Barrera-Gómez, Lydiane Agier, Lützen Portengen, Marc Chadeau-Hyam, Lise Giorgis-Allemand, Valérie Siroux, Oliver Robinson, Jelle Vlaanderen, Juan R González, Mark Nieuwenhuijsen, Paolo Vineis, Martine Vrijheid, Roel Vermeulen, Rémy Slama, Xavier Basagaña
BACKGROUND: There is growing interest in examining the simultaneous effects of multiple exposures and, more generally, the effects of mixtures of exposures, as part of the exposome concept (being defined as the totality of human environmental exposures from conception onwards). Uncovering such combined effects is challenging owing to the large number of exposures, several of them being highly correlated. We performed a simulation study in an exposome context to compare the performance of several statistical methods that have been proposed to detect statistical interactions...
July 14, 2017: Environmental Health: a Global Access Science Source
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709012/de-escalation-of-aggressive-behaviour-in-healthcare-settings-concept-analysis
#20
REVIEW
Nutmeg Hallett, Geoffrey L Dickens
BACKGROUND: De-escalation is the recommended first-line response to potential violence and aggression in healthcare settings. Related scholarly activity has increased exponentially since the 1980s, but there is scant research about its efficacy and no guidance on what constitutes the gold standard for practice. OBJECTIVES: To clarify the concept of de-escalation of violence and aggression as described within the healthcare literature. DESIGN: Concept analysis guided by Rodgers' evolutionary approach...
July 4, 2017: International Journal of Nursing Studies
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