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Concepts of Environmental Health

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441119/diagnosis-monitoring-and-prevention-of-exposure-related-non-communicable-diseases-in-the-living-and-working-environment-dimopex-project-is-designed-to-determine-the-impacts-of-environmental-exposure-on-human-health
#1
REVIEW
Lygia Therese Budnik, Balazs Adam, Maria Albin, Barbara Banelli, Xaver Baur, Fiorella Belpoggi, Claudia Bolognesi, Karin Broberg, Per Gustavsson, Thomas Göen, Axel Fischer, Dorota Jarosinska, Fabiana Manservisi, Richard O'Kennedy, Johan Øvrevik, Elizabet Paunovic, Beate Ritz, Paul T J Scheepers, Vivi Schlünssen, Heidi Schwarzenbach, Per E Schwarze, Orla Sheils, Torben Sigsgaard, Karel Van Damme, Ludwine Casteleyn
The WHO has ranked environmental hazardous exposures in the living and working environment among the top risk factors for chronic disease mortality. Worldwide, about 40 million people die each year from noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) including cancer, diabetes, and chronic cardiovascular, neurological and lung diseases. The exposure to ambient pollution in the living and working environment is exacerbated by individual susceptibilities and lifestyle-driven factors to produce complex and complicated NCD etiologies...
2018: Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29436169/rethinking-developmental-toxicity-testing-evolution-or-revolution
#2
Anthony R Scialli, George Daston, Connie Chen, Prägati S Coder, Susan Y Euling, Jennifer Foreman, Alan M Hoberman, Julia Hui, Thomas Knudsen, Susan L Makris, LaRonda Morford, Aldert H Piersma, Dinesh Stanislaus, Kary E Thompson
BACKGROUND: Current developmental toxicity testing adheres largely to protocols suggested in 1966 involving the administration of test compound to pregnant laboratory animals. After more than 50 years of embryo-fetal development testing, are we ready to consider a different approach to human developmental toxicity testing? METHODS: A workshop was held under the auspices of the Developmental and Reproductive Toxicology Technical Committee of the ILSI Health and Environmental Sciences Institute to consider how we might design developmental toxicity testing if we started over with 21st century knowledge and techniques (revolution)...
February 12, 2018: Birth Defects Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433763/linking-commonly-used-hand-therapy-outcome-measures-to-individual-areas-of-the-international-classification-of-functioning-a-systematic-review
#3
Nancy Naughton, Lori Algar
STUDY DESIGN: Systematic review. INTRODUCTION: Identifying outcome measures that correspond to the International Classification of Functioning (ICF) provides insight into selecting appropriate outcome tools in hand therapy practice. PURPOSE OF THE STUDY: The objective of this study is to systematically review patient-reported outcome measures commonly used in hand therapy to determine the extent to which the content represents the biopsychosocial view of the ICF...
February 9, 2018: Journal of Hand Therapy: Official Journal of the American Society of Hand Therapists
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430964/challenges-in-sex-and-gender-centered-prevention-and-management-of-cardiovascular-disease-implications-of-genetic-metabolic-and-environmental-paths
#4
Matina Kouvari, Mary Yannakoulia, Kyriakos Souliotis, Demosthenes B Panagiotakos
The recognition of cardiovascular disease (CVD) as a "male" privilege has been a commonly held concept. However, emerging data describe another reality. Heterogeneities have been convincingly demonstrated regarding CVD manifestations, risk factor burden, and prognosis between males and females. The aim of the present narrative review was to highlight sex- and gender-related discrepancies in primary and secondary CVD prevention, underscoring plausible underlying mechanisms. Manifestation of CVD in women is characterized by atypical symptoms/signs and inadequately studied pathophysiology features challenging accurate diagnosis and effective treatment...
January 1, 2018: Angiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29429640/neurotoxicity-of-manganese-indications-for-future-research-and-public-health-intervention-from-the-manganese-2016-conference
#5
EDITORIAL
Roberto G Lucchini, Michael Aschner, Philip J Landrigan, Joan M Cranmer
Manganese is an essential trace element, but also at high levels a neurotoxicant. Manganese neurotoxicity has been extensively studied since its discovery in highly exposed workers. The International conference MANGANESE2016 held at the Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai in New York provided relevant updates on manganese research in relation to both occupational and environmental exposures. Epidemiological, toxicological and cellular studies reported at the conference have yielded new insights on mechanisms of manganese toxicity and on opportunities for preventive intervention...
January 2018: Neurotoxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424436/predictors-of-saudi-nursing-students-attitudes-towards-environment-and-sustainability-in-health-care
#6
J P Cruz, F Alshammari, R F D Felicilda-Reynaldo
AIM: This study aimed to investigate the predictors of Saudi nursing students' attitudes towards the environment and sustainability in health care. BACKGROUND: With rising temperature and decreasing annual rainfall, Saudi Arabia is threatened by the harmful effects of climate change on its population. In response to these threats, the Ministry of Health adapted sustainable development and environmental preservation in their National E-Health strategy. INTRODUCTION: To implement these policies successfully, healthcare practitioners should be educated on how climate change could impact human health negatively...
February 9, 2018: International Nursing Review
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423550/resilience-concepts-in-psychiatry-demonstrated-with-bipolar-disorder
#7
REVIEW
David G Angeler, Craig R Allen, Maj-Liz Persson
BACKGROUND: The term resilience describes stress-response patterns of subjects across scientific disciplines. In ecology, advances have been made to clearly distinguish resilience definitions based on underlying mechanistic assumptions. Engineering resilience (rebound) is used for describing the ability of subjects to recover from adverse conditions (disturbances), and is the rate of recovery. In contrast, the ecological resilience definition considers a systemic change: when complex systems (including humans) respond to disturbances by reorganizing into a new regime (stable state) where structural and functional aspects have fundamentally changed relative to the prior regime...
February 9, 2018: International Journal of Bipolar Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29422205/the-intergrowth-21st-fetal-growth-standards-toward-the-global-integration-of-pregnancy-and-pediatric-care
#8
REVIEW
Aris T Papageorghiou, Stephen H Kennedy, Laurent J Salomon, Douglas G Altman, Eric O Ohuma, William Stones, Michael G Gravett, Fernando C Barros, Cesar Victora, Manorama Purwar, Yasmin Jaffer, Julia A Noble, Enrico Bertino, Ruyan Pang, Leila Cheikh Ismail, Ann Lambert, Zulfiqar A Bhutta, José Villar
The purpose of the INTERGROWTH-21st project was to develop international, prescriptive standards for fetal growth assessed by ultrasound and fundal height, preterm postnatal growth, newborn size and body composition, maternal weight gain, and infant development at the age of 2 years. Hence, we have produced, based on World Health Organization recommendations, the first comprehensive set of international standards of optimal fetal and newborn growth that perfectly match the existing World Health Organization child growth standards...
February 2018: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29421468/differentiating-the-effect-of-social-enterprise-activities-on-health
#9
Bobby Macaulay, Micaela Mazzei, Michael J Roy, Simon Teasdale, Cam Donaldson
An emerging stream of literature has focused on the ways in which social enterprises might act on the social determinants of health. However, this previous work has not taken a sufficiently broad account of the wide range of stakeholders involved in social enterprises and has also tended to reduce and simplify a complex and heterogeneous set of organisations to a relatively homogenous social enterprise concept. In an attempt to address these gaps, we conducted an empirical investigation between August 2014 and October 2015 consisting of qualitative case studies involving in-depth semi-structured interviews and a focus group with a wide variety of stakeholders from three social enterprises in different regions of Scotland...
February 2, 2018: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29412317/-territory-places-and-health-resizing-spatiality-in-public-health
#10
Astrid Natalia Molina Jaramillo
The aim of this study is to extend the reading of the health-disease process from the territorial perspective. Theoretical production on the link between health and the environment should go beyond medical typologies and their emphasis on the distribution of environmental risks (physical, biological, and chemical) to acknowledge the social and subjective production of territories. In order to make progress with this theoretical production, public health should draw on the integration of concepts from the social sciences such as the appropriation of space, territory-territorialities, and places...
February 5, 2018: Cadernos de Saúde Pública
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29405590/from-conventional-lewis-acids-to-heterogeneous-montmorillonite-k10-eco-friendly-plant-based-catalysts-used-as-green-lewis-acids
#11
Marie Hechelski, Alina Ghinet, Brice Louvel, Pierrick Dufrenoy, Benoît Rigo, Adam Daïch, Christophe Waterlot
The concept of green chemistry was appeared in the USA in the nineties. Since the publication of the 12 principles of this concept, many reactions in organic chemistry have been developed, chemical products have been synthesized under environmentally friendly conditions. Lewis acids-mediated synthetic transformations are by far the most numerous, best studied. However, the use of certain Lewis acids may cause environmental and human health hazards problems. The aim of this review is to point out the evolution of the Lewis acid catalyzed reactions from homogeneous liquid phase to solid phase in order to obtain the expected organic molecules under green, safe conditions...
February 6, 2018: ChemSusChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29398918/using-watershed-boundaries-to-map-adverse-health-outcomes-examples-from-nebraska-usa
#12
Brittany Corley, Shannon Bartelt-Hunt, Eleanor Rogan, Donald Coulter, John Sparks, Lorena Baccaglini, Madeline Howell, Sidra Liaquat, Rex Commack, Alan S Kolok
In 2009, a paper was published suggesting that watersheds provide a geospatial platform for establishing linkages between aquatic contaminants, the health of the environment, and human health. This article is a follow-up to that original article. From an environmental perspective, watersheds segregate landscapes into geospatial units that may be relevant to human health outcomes. From an epidemiologic perspective, the watershed concept places anthropogenic health data into a geospatial framework that has environmental relevance...
2018: Environmental Health Insights
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29397779/content-comparison-of-guideline-recommended-instruments-used-in-treatment-for-alcohol-use-disorders
#13
Maren Spies, Anna Levke Brütt, Angela Buchholz
PURPOSE: Practice guidelines recommend the use of standardized instruments in the treatment of alcohol use disorders (AUDs); however, the extent to which these instruments assess patients' functioning is unclear. The aim of this study was to examine the domains of functioning and contextual factors contained in guideline-recommended instruments, using the International Classification of Functioning, Disability, and Health (ICF) as a reference. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We identified instruments by reviewing AUD treatment guidelines used in Germany, Canada, Australia and New Zealand, United Kingdom, and United States...
February 4, 2018: Disability and Rehabilitation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29396321/conceptual-endophentoypes-a-strategy-to-advance-the-impact-of-psychoneuroendocrinology-in-precision-medicine
#14
REVIEW
Dirk Hellhammer, Gunther Meinlschmidt, Jens C Pruessner
Psychobiological research has generated a tremendous amount of findings on the psychological, neuroendocrine, molecular and environmental processes that are directly relevant for mental and physical health, but have overwhelmed our capacity to meaningfully absorb, integrate, and utilize this knowledge base. Here, we reflect about suitable strategies to improve the translational success of psychoneuroendocrinological research in the era of precision medicine. Following a strategy advocated by the National Research Council and the tradition of endophenotype-based research, we advance here a new approach, termed "conceptual endophenotypes"...
January 9, 2018: Psychoneuroendocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392186/environmental-toxicant-exposures-and-type-2-diabetes-mellitus-two-interrelated-public-health-problems-on-the-rise
#15
Marcelo G Bonini, Robert M Sargis
Rates of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) are rising rapidly across the globe and the impact of this devastating disease threatens to plague the 21st century. While some contributing factors are well-recognized (e.g. sedentary lifestyles and caloric excess), others diabetes-promoting risk factors are less established or poorly appreciated. The latter category includes environmental exposures to diabetogenic contaminants. Herein we review some of the latest concepts and mechanisms by which environmental exposures may contribute to rising rates of T2DM with a particular focus on mechanisms involving mitochondrial dysfunction and imbalances in reactive oxygen species (ROS)...
February 2018: Current Opinion in Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29373300/-the-filter-is-kind-of-broken-family-caregivers-attributions-about-behavioral-and-psychological-symptoms-of-dementia
#16
Courtney A Polenick, Laura M Struble, Barbara Stanislawski, Molly Turnwald, Brianna Broderick, Laura N Gitlin, Helen C Kales
OBJECTIVES: Behavioral and psychological symptoms of dementia (BPSD) are common, often challenging to manage, and may erode caregivers' well-being. Few studies have explored caregivers' perspectives of what causes these behaviors, but such attributions may be important-particularly if they negatively impact the care dyad. This study examined causal attributions about BPSD among individuals caring for a family member with dementia. DESIGN: In-depth qualitative data were obtained from family caregivers of older adults with dementia...
December 13, 2017: American Journal of Geriatric Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29363463/the-psychoexposome-a-holistic-perspective-beyond-health-and-disease
#17
María-Teresa Colomina, Fernando Sánchez-Santed, Nélida M Conejo, Paloma Collado, Alicia Salvador, Milagros Gallo, Helena Pinos, Cosme Salas, José F Navarro, Ana Adán, Arantza Azpiroz, Jorge L Arias
BACKGROUND: The concept of the exposome has emerged as a new strategy for studying all environmental exposures throughout an individual’s life and their impact on human health. Nowadays, electronic devices are available to collect data about an individual’s geolocation, biological function, or exposure biomarkers. The appearance of “omic” sciences and advances in bioinformatics have allowed massive data-gathering and analysis from various scientific fields. OBJECTIVE: to propose the term Psychoexposome in line with the concept of the exposome from the field of environmental sciences...
February 2018: Psicothema
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29359193/ecological-stability-properties-of-microbial-communities-assessed-by-flow-cytometry
#18
Zishu Liu, Nicolas Cichocki, Fabian Bonk, Susanne Günther, Florian Schattenberg, Hauke Harms, Florian Centler, Susann Müller
Natural microbial communities affect human life in countless ways, ranging from global biogeochemical cycles to the treatment of wastewater and health via the human microbiome. In order to probe, monitor, and eventually control these communities, fast detection and evaluation methods are required. In order to facilitate rapid community analysis and monitor a community's dynamic behavior with high resolution, we here apply community flow cytometry, which provides single-cell-based high-dimensional data characterizing communities with high acuity over time...
January 2018: MSphere
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350763/molecular-allergen-profiling-in-horses-by-microarray-reveals-fag-e-2-from-buckwheat-as-a-frequent-sensitizer
#19
L Einhorn, G Hofstetter, S Brandt, E K Hainisch, I Fukuda, K Kusano, A Scheynius, I Mittermann, Y Resch-Marat, S Vrtala, R Valenta, E Marti, C Rhyner, R Crameri, R Satoh, R Teshima, A Tanaka, H Sato, H Matsuda, I Pali-Schöll, E Jensen-Jarolim
BACKGROUND: Companion animals are also affected by IgE-mediated allergies, but the eliciting molecules are largely unknown. We aimed at refining an allergen microarray to explore sensitization in horses and compare it to the human IgE reactivity profiles. METHODS: Custom-designed allergen microarray was produced on the basis of the IimmunoCAP ISAC technology containing 131 allergens. Sera from 51 horses derived from Europe or Japan were tested for specific IgE reactivity...
January 19, 2018: Allergy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29343412/implementing-genome-driven-personalized-cardiology-in-clinical-practice
#20
REVIEW
Ares Pasipoularides
Genomics designates the coordinated investigation of a large number of genes in the context of a biological process or disease. It may be long before we attain comprehensive understanding of the genomics of common complex cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) such as inherited cardiomyopathies, valvular diseases, primary arrhythmogenic conditions, congenital heart syndromes, hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerotic heart disease, hypertensive syndromes, and heart failure with preserved/reduced ejection fraction. Nonetheless, as genomics is evolving rapidly, it is constructive to survey now pertinent concepts and breakthroughs...
January 16, 2018: Journal of Molecular and Cellular Cardiology
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