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perinatal trauma

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231607/position-in-the-second-stage-of-labour-for-women-with-epidural-anaesthesia
#1
REVIEW
Marion Kibuka, Jim G Thornton
BACKGROUND: Epidural analgesia for pain relief in labour prolongs the second stage of labour and results in more instrumental deliveries. It has been suggested that a more upright position of the mother during all or part of the second stage may counteract these adverse effects. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2013. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of different birthing positions (upright and recumbent) during the second stage of labour, on important maternal and fetal outcomes for women with epidural analgesia...
February 24, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197657/gestational-diabetes-and-adverse-perinatal-outcomes-from-716-152-births-in-france-in-2012
#2
Cécile Billionnet, Delphine Mitanchez, Alain Weill, Jacky Nizard, François Alla, Agnès Hartemann, Sophie Jacqueminet
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to assess the risk of adverse perinatal outcomes in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in a large national cohort. METHODS: All deliveries taking place after 22 weeks in France in 2012 were included by extracting data from the hospital discharge database and the national health insurance system. The diabetic status of mothers was determined by the use of glucose-lowering agents and by hospital diagnosis. Outcomes were analysed according to the type of diabetes and, in the GDM group, whether or not diabetes was insulin-treated...
February 15, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182668/cross-sectional-study-of-mode-of-delivery-and-maternal-and-perinatal-outcomes-in-mainland-china
#3
Lei Hou, Susan Hellerstein, Allison Vitonis, Liying Zou, Yan Ruan, Xin Wang, Weiyuan Zhang
BACKGROUND: Cesarean delivery (CD) rates have risen globally with nearly 50% of the non-indicated CDs worldwide in China and Brazil. In China's One Child Policy era (1979-2015) most deliveries were women having their only child. Family size is a major determinant of the safety of medically non-indicated CD or CD on maternal request. The goal of this study is to document CD rates, indications, and analyze the relative safety of non-indicated CD compared to SVD and intrapartum CD. METHODS: Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses of the association between mode of delivery and short-term maternal and perinatal outcomes were performed on a cross-section of all deliveries at 39 hospitals in 14 provinces of China in 2011, presented as adjusted odds ratio (aOR), 99% confidence intervals (CI)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156005/different-insulin-types-and-regimens-for-pregnant-women-with-pre-existing-diabetes
#4
REVIEW
Sinéad M O'Neill, Louise C Kenny, Ali S Khashan, Helen M West, Rebecca Md Smyth, Patricia M Kearney
BACKGROUND: Insulin requirements may change during pregnancy, and the optimal treatment for pre-existing diabetes is unclear. There are several insulin regimens (e.g. via syringe, pen) and types of insulin (e.g. fast-acting insulin, human insulin). OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of different insulin types and different insulin regimens in pregnant women with pre-existing type 1 or type 2 diabetes. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 October 2016), ClinicalTrials...
February 3, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122653/delivery-as-trauma-a-prospective-time-cohort-study-of-maternal-and-perinatal-mortality-in-rural-cambodia
#5
Chandy Houy, Sam Ol Ha, Margit Steinholt, Eystein Skjerve, Hans Husum
OBJECTIVE: The majority of maternal and perinatal deaths are preventable, but still women and newborns die due to insufficient Basic Life Support in low-resource communities. Drawing on experiences from successful wartime trauma systems, a three-tier chain-of-survival model was introduced as a means to reduce rural maternal and perinatal mortality. METHODS: A study area of 266 villages in landmine-infested Northwestern Cambodia were selected based on remoteness and poverty...
January 26, 2017: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120427/oral-anti-diabetic-pharmacological-therapies-for-the-treatment-of-women-with-gestational-diabetes
#6
REVIEW
Julie Brown, Ruth Martis, Brenda Hughes, Janet Rowan, Caroline A Crowther
BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a major public health issue with rates increasing globally. Gestational diabetes, glucose intolerance first recognised during pregnancy, usually resolves after birth and is associated with short- and long-term complications for the mother and her infant. Treatment options can include oral anti-diabetic pharmacological therapies. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of oral anti-diabetic pharmacological therapies for treating women with GDM...
January 25, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117880/intrapartum-predictors-of-maternal-levator-ani-injury
#7
Jessica Caudwell-Hall, Ixora Kamisan Atan, Andrew Martin, Rodrigo Guzman Rojas, Susanne Langer, Kalai Shek, Hans Peter Dietz
INTRODUCTION: Damage to the pelvic floor during vaginal childbirth is common, and may take the form of levator avulsion or irreversible over-distention of the levator hiatus (microtrauma). Such trauma is a major risk factor for pelvic organ prolapse later in life. In this study we aimed to identify intrapartum risk factors for levator trauma. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of data obtained in two perinatal studies on primiparous women. Between 2005 and 2014, 1148 patients carrying an uncomplicated singleton pregnancy in the late third trimester were seen for 4D pelvic floor ultrasound and an interview...
January 24, 2017: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110156/maternal-childhood-trauma-postpartum-depression-and-infant-outcomes-avoidant-affective-processing-as-a-potential-mechanism
#8
Karmel W Choi, Kathleen J Sikkema, Bavi Vythilingum, Lut Geerts, Sheila C Faure, Melissa H Watt, Annerine Roos, Dan J Stein
BACKGROUND: Women who have experienced childhood trauma may be at risk for postpartum depression, increasing the likelihood of negative outcomes among their children. Predictive pathways from maternal childhood trauma to child outcomes, as mediated by postpartum depression, require investigation. METHODS: A longitudinal sample of South African women (N=150) was followed through pregnancy and postpartum. Measures included maternal trauma history reported during pregnancy; postpartum depression through six months; and maternal-infant bonding, infant development, and infant physical growth at one year...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071870/accessing-new-understandings-of-trauma-informed-care-with-queer-birthing-women-in-a-rural-context
#9
Jennifer Searle, Lisa Goldberg, Megan Aston, Sylvia Burrow
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: Participant narratives from a feminist and queer phenomenological study aim to broaden current understandings of trauma. Examining structural marginalization within perinatal care relationships provides insights into the impact of dominant models of care on queer birthing women. More specifically, validation of queer experience as a key finding from the study offers trauma-informed strategies that reconstruct formerly disempowering perinatal relationships. BACKGROUND: Heteronormativity governs birthing spaces and presents considerable challenges for queer birthing women who may also have an increased risk of trauma due to structurally marginalizing processes that create and maintain socially constructed differences...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046205/dietary-advice-interventions-in-pregnancy-for-preventing-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#10
REVIEW
Joanna Tieu, Emily Shepherd, Philippa Middleton, Caroline A Crowther
BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a form of diabetes occurring during pregnancy which can result in short- and long-term adverse outcomes for women and babies. With an increasing prevalence worldwide, there is a need to assess strategies, including dietary advice interventions, that might prevent GDM. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of dietary advice interventions for preventing GDM and associated adverse health outcomes for women and their babies...
January 3, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28042663/all-our-sons-the-developmental-neurobiology-and-neuroendocrinology-of-boys-at-risk
#11
Allan N Schore
Why are boys at risk? To address this question, I use the perspective of regulation theory to offer a model of the deeper psychoneurobiological mechanisms that underlie the vulnerability of the developing male. The central thesis of this work dictates that significant gender differences are seen between male and female social and emotional functions in the earliest stages of development, and that these result from not only differences in sex hormones and social experiences but also in rates of male and female brain maturation, specifically in the early developing right brain...
January 2017: Infant Mental Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27940036/maternal-history-of-child-maltreatment-and-maternal-depression-risk-in-the-perinatal-period-a-longitudinal-study
#12
Yang Li, Zhouting Long, Danfeng Cao, Fenglin Cao
Existing research is limited, with only a few studies considering each single type and multiple types of child maltreatment (CM) as well as multiple assessments of maternal depression throughout the perinatal period. The purpose of the study was to assess each type and accumulative types of CM in relation to the risk of maternal depression throughout the perinatal period. In total, 276 pregnant women were recruited from the prenatal clinic at a general hospital in China. Maternal CM history and depression risk were assessed at late pregnancy, postpartum week 1, and postpartum week 4 using the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire (CTQ) and Edinburgh Postnatal Depression Scale (EPDS)...
January 2017: Child Abuse & Neglect
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27889259/episiotomy-and-severe-perineal-trauma-among-eastern-african-immigrant-women-giving-birth-in-public-maternity-care-a-population-based-study-in-victoria-australia
#13
Fetene B Belihu, Rhonda Small, Mary-Ann Davey
BACKGROUND: Eastern African immigrants from countries affected by female genital mutilation have resettled in many developed countries, including Australia. Although possibly at risk of perineal trauma and episiotomy, research investigating their perineal status post-migration is sparse. AIM: To investigate variations in episiotomy use and incidence of severe perineal tear for women born in Eritrea, Ethiopia, Somalia and Sudan compared with Australian-born women...
November 23, 2016: Women and Birth: Journal of the Australian College of Midwives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27862246/a-retrospective-analysis-of-mortality-in-captive-pygmy-hippopotamus-choeropsis-liberiensis-from-1912-to-2014
#14
Gabriella L Flacke, Suzana Tkalčić, Beatrice Steck, Kristin Warren, Graeme B Martin
The pygmy hippopotamus (Choeropsis liberiensis) is an IUCN Red List Endangered species (CITES Appendix II) that has been housed in zoological collections since 1912. As wild populations continue to decline throughout the species' range, successful ex situ breeding and management, including an understanding of morbidity and mortality, are of utmost importance. This study is the first comprehensive review of mortality data from the captive population since 1982 and significantly expands on previous analyses. We solicited necropsy reports from 129/187 zoological institutions worldwide that currently or previously held pygmy hippos and received data for 404 animals (177 ♂, 220 ♀, 7 undermined sex), representing 43% of pygmy hippos that have died in captivity...
November 2016: Zoo Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27843666/recurring-facial-erythema-in-an-infant
#15
Sam Hassan, Mary Jacqueline Saviour
Causes of facial rashes and erythema in infants are many but rarely only happen during feeding times which are commonly and sometimes wrongly attributed to food allergy. There is a rare condition called Auriculotemporal nerve syndrome that is characterized by recurrent episodes of gustatory facial flushing and sweating along the cutaneous distribution of Auriculotemporal nerve: the so-called Frey syndrome. This condition is most frequently observed in adults usually after parotid surgery. It is rare in children and is mostly attributed to forceps assisted delivery...
2016: Case Reports in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27813240/immediate-delivery-or-expectant-management-in-gestational-diabetes-at-term-the-ginexmal-randomised-controlled-trial
#16
S Alberico, A Erenbourg, M Hod, Y Yogev, E Hadar, F Neri, L Ronfani, G Maso
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate maternal and perinatal outcomes after induction of labour versus expectant management in pregnant women with gestational diabetes at term. DESIGN: Multicentre open-label randomised controlled trial. SETTING: Eight teaching hospitals in Italy, Slovenia, and Israel. SAMPLE: Singleton pregnancy, diagnosed with gestational diabetes by the International Association of Diabetes and Pregnancy Study Groups criteria (IADPSGC), between 38(+0) and 39(+0) weeks of gestation, without other maternal or fetal conditions...
November 4, 2016: BJOG: An International Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799420/public-health-implications-and-risks-for-children-and-families-resettled-after-exposure-to-armed-conflict-and-displacement
#17
Rachel Calam
Early adverse experiences can precede long-term negative effects on physical health. Children experiencing armed conflict, flight and displacement, and refugee life may be at enhanced risk. Recent psychobiological models integrating knowledge about perinatal and childhood stress with susceptibility to chronic illnesses in later life make clear the pressing need for protective provision for war-affected children, who experience multiple traumas and continuing stressors. There is increasing recognition of the mechanisms linking physical and mental health with adult diseases seen as developmental disorders with origins early in life...
October 30, 2016: Scandinavian Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27771202/-in-case-of-fetal-macrosomia-the-best-strategy-is-the-induction-of-labor-at-38%C3%A2-weeks-of-gestation
#18
REVIEW
P Rozenberg
Macrosomic fetuses are at increased risk of obstetric complications, and notably shoulder dystocia, responsible for a severe neonatal morbidity. In case of fetal macrosomia, three options are: (i) the elective cesarean delivery, but this is recommended only when the estimated fetal weight is≥4500g for diabetic women and 5000g for non-diabetic women; (ii) the expectative management, but children with birth weight≥4500 had significantly increased risk of perinatal mortality, neonatal asphyxia, trauma, and cesarean delivery; (iii) the induction of labor which, reducing the possibility of fetal growth, reduce the risk of cesarean delivery for cephalopelvic disproportion and shoulder dystocia...
November 2016: Journal de Gynécologie, Obstétrique et Biologie de la Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27750253/toward-a-theory-of-stuttering
#19
Anthony R Mawson, Nola T Radford, Binu Jacob
Stuttering affects about 1% of the general population and from 8 to 11% of children. The onset of persistent developmental stuttering (PDS) typically occurs between 2 and 4 years of age. The etiology of stuttering is unknown and a unifying hypothesis is lacking. Clues to the pathogenesis of stuttering include the following observations: PDS is associated with adverse perinatal outcomes and birth-associated trauma; stuttering can recur or develop in adulthood following traumatic events such as brain injury and stroke; PDS is associated with structural and functional abnormalities in the brain associated with speech and language; and stuttering resolves spontaneously in a high percentage of affected children...
2016: European Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27742148/pressure-ulcers-in-maturing-skin-a-clinical-perspective
#20
Anna-Barbara Schlüer
While the problem of Pressure Ulcers (PU) in adults has received a great deal of attention, far less is known about PUs in neonates and children. The overall health status of children is generally better and multi-morbidity is limited to a small percentage of patients, like very low term neonates (born before 32 weeks of gestation age), newborns with congenital abnormalities, genetic disorders, perinatal distress syndrome or children with a limited immunity. Survival rates of both critically and chronically ill neonates, infants and children have improved dramatically in recent years, introducing new challenges for medical and nursing care...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Tissue Viability
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