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perinatal trauma

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28472859/lifestyle-interventions-for-the-treatment-of-women-with-gestational-diabetes
#1
REVIEW
Julie Brown, Nisreen A Alwan, Jane West, Stephen Brown, Christopher Jd McKinlay, Diane Farrar, Caroline A Crowther
BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes (GDM) is glucose intolerance, first recognised in pregnancy and usually resolving after birth. GDM is associated with both short- and long-term adverse effects for the mother and her infant. Lifestyle interventions are the primary therapeutic strategy for many women with GDM. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of combined lifestyle interventions with or without pharmacotherapy in treating women with gestational diabetes. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (14 May 2016), ClinicalTrials...
May 4, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28438209/selective-episiotomy-vs-implementation-of-a-non-episiotomy-protocol-a-randomized-clinical-trial
#2
M M Amorim, Isabela Cristina Coutinho, Inês Melo, Leila Katz
BACKGROUND: Despite all the evidence corroborating the selective use of episiotomy and although routine use of the procedure is contraindicated, there are no evidences corroborating if episiotomy is necessary in any circumstance. The present clinical randomized trial was performed to compare maternal and perinatal outcomes in women submitted to a non-episiotomy protocol versus one of selective episiotomy. METHODS: An open-labelled, randomized clinical trial was carried out in a tertiary teaching hospital in Recife, Northeastern Brazil...
April 24, 2017: Reproductive Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437216/posttraumatic-symptom-reporting-and-reported-cigarette-smoking-during-pregnancy
#3
Sara L Kornfield, Marian Moseley, Dina Appleby, Courtney L McMickens, Mary D Sammel, C Neill Epperson
INTRODUCTION: Increased prevalence of nicotine dependence among individuals suffering from posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is well established. However, there are limited studies on the prevalence of smoking during pregnancy in relation to prepregnancy history of trauma exposures and active PTSD symptoms during pregnancy. Prenatal smoking has been implicated in a host of negative outcomes for mother and baby. Given maternal and fetal risk, it is critical to define predictors of continued cigarette smoking during pregnancy...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Women's Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418090/natural-mortality-and-cause-of-death-analysis-of-the-captive-chimpanzee-pan-troglodytes-a-35-year-review
#4
REVIEW
Hannah Laurence, Shyamesh Kumar, Michael A Owston, Robert E Lanford, Gene B Hubbard, Edward J Dick
We present the spontaneous causes of mortality for 137 chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) over a 35-year period. A record review of the pathology database was performed and a primary cause of mortality was determined for each chimpanzee. The most common causes of mortality were as follows: cardiomyopathy (40% of all mortalities), stillbirth/abortion, acute myocardial necrosis, chimpanzee-induced trauma, amyloidosis, and pneumonia. Five morphologic diagnoses accounted for 61% of mortalities: cardiomyopathy, hemorrhage, acute myocardial necrosis, amyloidosis, and pneumonia...
June 2017: Journal of Medical Primatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28389927/post-mortem-imaging-of-the-infant-and-perinatal-dura-mater-and-superior-sagittal-sinus-using-optical-coherence-tomography
#5
Emma C Cheshire, Roger D G Malcomson, Shiju Joseph, Asif Adnan, David Adlam, Guy N Rutty
Infants and young children are likely to present with subdural haemorrhage (SDH) if they are the victims of abusive head trauma. In these cases, the most accepted theory for the source of bleeding is the bridging veins traversing from the surface of the brain to the dura mater. However, some have suggested that SDH may result from leakage of blood from a dural vascular plexus. As post-mortem examination of the bridging veins and dura is challenging, and imaging modalities such as magnetic resonance and computed tomography do not have the resolution capabilities to image small blood vessels, we have trialled the use of intravascular and benchtop optical coherence tomography (OCT) systems for imaging from within the superior sagittal sinus (SSS) and through the dura during five infant/perinatal autopsies...
April 7, 2017: International Journal of Legal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28337354/facial-asymmetry-in-a-crying-newborn-a-comparison-of-two-cases-and-review-of-literature
#6
Shreyas Arya, Sunil K Jain, Carol J Richardson
Facial asymmetry in a crying newborn can be due to a variety of different causes. Neonatal asymmetric crying facies (NACF) is a specific phenotype, which is often underrecognized. It is defined as asymmetry of the mouth and lips with grimacing or smiling, but a symmetric appearance at rest. NACF needs to be differentiated from complete facial palsy in a newborn, which can occur due to traumatic or developmental etiologies. Developmental causes can be present in isolation or may be a part of a recognized syndrome...
2017: Case Reports in Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320352/a-comparison-of-intrapartum-interventions-and-adverse-outcomes-by-parity-in-planned-freestanding-midwifery-unit-and-alongside-midwifery-unit-births-secondary-analysis-of-low-risk-births-in-the-birthplace-in-england-cohort
#7
Jennifer Hollowell, Yangmei Li, Kathryn Bunch, Peter Brocklehurst
BACKGROUND: For low risk women, there is good evidence that planned birth in a midwifery unit is associated with a reduced risk of maternal interventions compared with planned birth in an obstetric unit. Findings from the Birthplace cohort study have been interpreted by some as suggesting a reduced risk of interventions in planned births in freestanding midwifery units (FMUs) compared with planned births in alongside midwifery units (AMUs). However, possible differences have not been robustly investigated using individual-level Birthplace data...
March 21, 2017: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28295746/posttraumatic-stress-disorder-in-the-perinatal-period-pptsd-a-concept-analysis
#8
REVIEW
Julie Vignato, Jane M Georges, Ruth A Bush, Cynthia D Connelly
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: To report an analysis of the concept of perinatal posttraumatic stress disorder (PPTSD). BACKGROUND: Prevalence of PPTSD is rising in the United States, with 9% of the U.S. perinatal population diagnosed with the disorder and an additional 18% being at risk for the condition. Left untreated, adverse maternal-child outcomes result in increased morbidity, mortality, and healthcare costs. DESIGN: Concept analysis via Walker and Avant's approach...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28263726/prevalence-and-predictors-of-breastfeeding-after-childhood-abuse
#9
Meghan Eagen-Torkko, Lisa Kane Low, Ruth Zielinski, Julia S Seng
OBJECTIVE: To describe the prevalence and predictors of breastfeeding intent and outcomes in women with histories of childhood maltreatment trauma (CMT), including those with posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). DESIGN: Secondary analysis of a prospective observational cohort study of the effects of PTSD on perinatal outcomes. SETTING: Prenatal clinics in three health systems in the Midwestern United States. PARTICIPANTS: Women older than 18 years expecting their first infants, comprising three groups: women who experienced CMT but did not have PTSD (CMT-resilient), women with a history of CMT and PTSD (CMT-PTSD), and women with no history of CMT (CMT-nonexposed)...
May 2017: Journal of Obstetric, Gynecologic, and Neonatal Nursing: JOGNN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28236296/different-types-of-dietary-advice-for-women-with-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#10
REVIEW
Shanshan Han, Philippa Middleton, Emily Shepherd, Emer Van Ryswyk, Caroline A Crowther
BACKGROUND: Dietary advice is the main strategy for managing gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). It remains unclear what type of advice is best. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of different types of dietary advice for women with GDM for improving health outcomes for women and babies. SEARCH METHODS: We searched Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth's Trials Register (8 March 2016), PSANZ's Trials Registry (22 March 2016) and reference lists of retrieved studies...
February 25, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231607/position-in-the-second-stage-of-labour-for-women-with-epidural-anaesthesia
#11
REVIEW
Marion Kibuka, Jim G Thornton
BACKGROUND: Epidural analgesia for pain relief in labour prolongs the second stage of labour and results in more instrumental deliveries. It has been suggested that a more upright position of the mother during all or part of the second stage may counteract these adverse effects. This is an update of a Cochrane review first published in 2013. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of different birthing positions (upright and recumbent) during the second stage of labour, on important maternal and fetal outcomes for women with epidural analgesia...
February 24, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28197657/gestational-diabetes-and-adverse-perinatal-outcomes-from-716-152-births-in-france-in-2012
#12
Cécile Billionnet, Delphine Mitanchez, Alain Weill, Jacky Nizard, François Alla, Agnès Hartemann, Sophie Jacqueminet
AIMS/HYPOTHESIS: The aim of this study was to assess the risk of adverse perinatal outcomes in gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) in a large national cohort. METHODS: All deliveries taking place after 22 weeks in France in 2012 were included by extracting data from the hospital discharge database and the national health insurance system. The diabetic status of mothers was determined by the use of glucose-lowering agents and by hospital diagnosis. Outcomes were analysed according to the type of diabetes and, in the GDM group, whether or not diabetes was insulin-treated...
February 15, 2017: Diabetologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28182668/cross-sectional-study-of-mode-of-delivery-and-maternal-and-perinatal-outcomes-in-mainland-china
#13
Lei Hou, Susan Hellerstein, Allison Vitonis, Liying Zou, Yan Ruan, Xin Wang, Weiyuan Zhang
BACKGROUND: Cesarean delivery (CD) rates have risen globally with nearly 50% of the non-indicated CDs worldwide in China and Brazil. In China's One Child Policy era (1979-2015) most deliveries were women having their only child. Family size is a major determinant of the safety of medically non-indicated CD or CD on maternal request. The goal of this study is to document CD rates, indications, and analyze the relative safety of non-indicated CD compared to SVD and intrapartum CD. METHODS: Univariate and multivariate logistic regression analyses of the association between mode of delivery and short-term maternal and perinatal outcomes were performed on a cross-section of all deliveries at 39 hospitals in 14 provinces of China in 2011, presented as adjusted odds ratio (aOR), 99% confidence intervals (CI)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28156005/different-insulin-types-and-regimens-for-pregnant-women-with-pre-existing-diabetes
#14
REVIEW
Sinéad M O'Neill, Louise C Kenny, Ali S Khashan, Helen M West, Rebecca Md Smyth, Patricia M Kearney
BACKGROUND: Insulin requirements may change during pregnancy, and the optimal treatment for pre-existing diabetes is unclear. There are several insulin regimens (e.g. via syringe, pen) and types of insulin (e.g. fast-acting insulin, human insulin). OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of different insulin types and different insulin regimens in pregnant women with pre-existing type 1 or type 2 diabetes. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (30 October 2016), ClinicalTrials...
February 3, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28122653/delivery-as-trauma-a-prospective-time-cohort-study-of-maternal-and-perinatal-mortality-in-rural-cambodia
#15
Chandy Houy, Sam Ol Ha, Margit Steinholt, Eystein Skjerve, Hans Husum
OBJECTIVE: The majority of maternal and perinatal deaths are preventable, but still women and newborns die due to insufficient Basic Life Support in low-resource communities. Drawing on experiences from successful wartime trauma systems, a three-tier chain-of-survival model was introduced as a means to reduce rural maternal and perinatal mortality. METHODS: A study area of 266 villages in landmine-infested Northwestern Cambodia were selected based on remoteness and poverty...
January 26, 2017: Prehospital and Disaster Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28120427/oral-anti-diabetic-pharmacological-therapies-for-the-treatment-of-women-with-gestational-diabetes
#16
REVIEW
Julie Brown, Ruth Martis, Brenda Hughes, Janet Rowan, Caroline A Crowther
BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a major public health issue with rates increasing globally. Gestational diabetes, glucose intolerance first recognised during pregnancy, usually resolves after birth and is associated with short- and long-term complications for the mother and her infant. Treatment options can include oral anti-diabetic pharmacological therapies. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effects of oral anti-diabetic pharmacological therapies for treating women with GDM...
January 25, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28117880/intrapartum-predictors-of-maternal-levator-ani-injury
#17
MULTICENTER STUDY
Jessica Caudwell-Hall, Ixora Kamisan Atan, Andrew Martin, Rodrigo Guzman Rojas, Susanne Langer, Kalai Shek, Hans P Dietz
INTRODUCTION: Damage to the pelvic floor during vaginal childbirth is common, and may take the form of levator avulsion or irreversible overdistension of the levator hiatus (microtrauma). Such trauma is a major risk factor for pelvic organ prolapse later in life. In this study we aimed to identify intrapartum risk factors for levator trauma. MATERIAL AND METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of data obtained in two perinatal studies on primiparous women. Between 2005 and 2014, 1148 women carrying an uncomplicated singleton pregnancy in the late third trimester were seen for 4D pelvic floor ultrasound and an interview...
April 2017: Acta Obstetricia et Gynecologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28110156/maternal-childhood-trauma-postpartum-depression-and-infant-outcomes-avoidant-affective-processing-as-a-potential-mechanism
#18
Karmel W Choi, Kathleen J Sikkema, Bavi Vythilingum, Lut Geerts, Sheila C Faure, Melissa H Watt, Annerine Roos, Dan J Stein
BACKGROUND: Women who have experienced childhood trauma may be at risk for postpartum depression, increasing the likelihood of negative outcomes among their children. Predictive pathways from maternal childhood trauma to child outcomes, as mediated by postpartum depression, require investigation. METHODS: A longitudinal sample of South African women (N=150) was followed through pregnancy and postpartum. Measures included maternal trauma history reported during pregnancy; postpartum depression through six months; and maternal-infant bonding, infant development, and infant physical growth at one year...
March 15, 2017: Journal of Affective Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28071870/accessing-new-understandings-of-trauma-informed-care-with-queer-birthing-women-in-a-rural-context
#19
Jennifer Searle, Lisa Goldberg, Megan Aston, Sylvia Burrow
AIMS AND OBJECTIVES: Participant narratives from a feminist and queer phenomenological study aim to broaden current understandings of trauma. Examining structural marginalization within perinatal care relationships provides insights into the impact of dominant models of care on queer birthing women. More specifically, validation of queer experience as a key finding from the study offers trauma-informed strategies that reconstruct formerly disempowering perinatal relationships. BACKGROUND: Heteronormativity governs birthing spaces and presents considerable challenges for queer birthing women who may also have an increased risk of trauma due to structurally marginalizing processes that create and maintain socially constructed differences...
January 10, 2017: Journal of Clinical Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046205/dietary-advice-interventions-in-pregnancy-for-preventing-gestational-diabetes-mellitus
#20
REVIEW
Joanna Tieu, Emily Shepherd, Philippa Middleton, Caroline A Crowther
BACKGROUND: Gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM) is a form of diabetes occurring during pregnancy which can result in short- and long-term adverse outcomes for women and babies. With an increasing prevalence worldwide, there is a need to assess strategies, including dietary advice interventions, that might prevent GDM. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of dietary advice interventions for preventing GDM and associated adverse health outcomes for women and their babies...
January 3, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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