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Nam-Gyu Kim, Eun-Young Seo, Sang-Hyuk Han, Jun-Su Gong, Cheol-Nam Park, Ho-Seop Park, Leslie L Domier, John Hammond, Hyoun-Sub Lim
Efforts to control viral diseases in crop production include several types of physical or chemical treatments; antiviral extracts of a number of plants have also been examined to inhibit plant viral infection. However, treatments utilizing naturally selected microorganisms with activity against plant viruses are poorly documented. Here we report isolation of a soil inhabiting bacterium, Pseudomonas oleovorans strain KBPF-004 (developmental code KNF2016) which showed antiviral activity against mechanical transmission of tobamoviruses...
August 2017: Plant Pathology Journal
Xena Brooks, Thomas H Cribb, Russell Q-Y Yong, Scott C Cutmore
The aporocotylid fauna of the mottled spinefoot, Siganus fuscescens (Houttuyn), from Moreton Bay, Queensland, Australia, was characterised using a combined morphological and molecular approach. Four aporocotylid species were identified, three belonging to the genus Ankistromeces Nolan & Cribb, 2006 and one to Cardicola Short, 1953. Specimens of Cardicola matched an undescribed species from the same host and locality; this species is described as Cardicola mogilae n. sp. Phylogenetic analyses of ITS2 and 28S data showed that C...
August 2, 2017: Systematic Parasitology
R Aravintharaj, C G Balaji, K Nagendran, R Priyanka, G Karthikeyan
Lily samples collected from commercial cut flower growing field at Nilgiris, Tamil Nadu, India were serologically tested through direct antigen coating-ELISA and dot immuno binding assay for the infection of potyvirus through potyvirus group specific polyclonal antibody. The RT-PCR using potyvirus universal degenerate primers (PNIbF1/PCPR1) showed the presence of a potyvirus and the sequencing results showed the association of lily mottle virus (LMoV). Further LMoV was confirmed by RT-PCR amplification using newly designed primer pair covering entire coat protein gene and sequence results showed 100% nucleotide identity with the LMoV reported from South Korean...
June 2017: Virusdisease
K P Deeshma, A I Bhat
Some badnaviruses are known to occur as endogenous viruses integrated into their host genome. In the present study, Piper yellow mottle virus (PYMoV), a badnavirus infecting black pepper was shown to occur as endogenous virus based on the PCR, reverse transcription (RT)-PCR, ELISA and Southern hybridization tests. Black pepper plants that tested positive in PCR for PYMoV gave negative reaction in RT-PCR indicating that they harbour endogenous PYMoV (ePYMoV) sequences. The RT-PCR (-ve) plants tested negative in ELISA and also in PCR using outword primers to amplify the full circular genome...
June 2017: Virusdisease
Haokun Zhang, Takashi Kiuchi, Lingyan Wang, Munetaka Kawamoto, Yutaka Suzuki, Sumio Sugano, Yutaka Banno, Susumu Katsuma, Toru Shimada
"Tanaka's mottled translucent" (otm) is a mutation of the silkworm Bombyx mori that exhibits translucent skin during larval stages. We performed positional cloning of the gene responsible for otm and mapped it to a 364-kb region on chromosome 5 that contains 22 hypothetical protein-coding genes. We performed RNA-seq analysis of the epidermis and fat body of otm larvae and determined that the gene BGIBMGA002619 may be responsible for the otm mutation. BGIBMGA002619 encodes the biosynthesis of lysosome-related organelles complex 1 (BLOC-1) subunit 5, whose ortholog is responsible for the Muted mutant in mouse...
July 30, 2017: Gene
Xiangdong Yang, Lu Niu, Wei Zhang, Jing Yang, Guojie Xing, Hongli He, Dongquan Guo, Qian Du, Xueyan Qian, Yao Yao, Qiyun Li, Yingshan Dong
Robust RNAi-mediated resistance to multiple Potyvirus strains and isolates, but not to Secovirus BPMV, was conferred by expressing a short SMV P3 hairpin in soybean plants. Engineering resistance to multiple Potyvirus strains is of great interest because of a wide variability of the virus strains, and mixed infections of multiple viruses or strains commonly associated with field grown soybean. In this study, RNAi-mediated silencing of the soybean mosaic virus (SMV) P3 cistron, which is reported to participate in virus movements and pathogenesis and to be the putative determinant of SMV virulence, was used to induce resistance to multiple Potyvirus strains and isolates in soybean...
July 29, 2017: Plant Cell Reports
Tiffany L Jenkins, Ryan N Jennings
Pulmonary capillary hemangiomatosis (PCH) and pulmonary veno-occlusive disease (PVOD) are rare causes of primary pulmonary hypertension in humans, and, in 2016, were reported in dogs. A 1-y-old, neutered male Persian cat was presented for autopsy after sudden death several hours after grooming. Grossly, the lungs were mottled red-to-pink, contained rubbery-to-firm nodular foci, and there was moderate-to-marked left-sided cardiomegaly and left atrial dilation, consistent with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy. Microscopically, there was multifocal to regionally extensive capillary proliferation within pulmonary alveolar septa and around respiratory bronchioles, with nodular aggregates of densely arranged capillaries that replaced pulmonary alveolar spaces...
July 1, 2017: Journal of Veterinary Diagnostic Investigation
I Pecorella, T R Okello, G Ciardi, E Ochola, M D Ogwang
We report a case of follicular dendritic cell sarcoma (FDCS) in a 60-year-old Ugandan female who presented with a 6-year history of a progressive left sided tonsillary mass. General systemic examination was unrevealing and the patient underwent left tonsillectomy. She was subsequently lost to follow-up. Grossly, the mass measured 6 cm in diameter and had a mottled appearance due to tissue microhaemorrhages. Markers specific for follicular dendritic cell differentiation (CD21, CD35 and CD23), p53 and EGFR were expressed on immunohistochemical analysis...
June 2017: Pathologica
Stacy Hawkins, Jean Adamus, Chung-Yi Chiang, Edwin Covell, Jaime O'Leary, Jian-Ming Lee
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate a combination of retinyl propionate and climbazole (RPC) compared to 0.1% retinol for its efficacy, tolerance and aging appearance. METHOD: Forty-five healthy Caucasian females, ages 40-70, with moderately photodamaged facial skin, were recruited for a 16 week randomized, double-blind, IRB approved facial study. The efficacy of RPC treatment was compared to 0.1% retinol, in the same product base formulation, with twice daily, split-face product application...
July 22, 2017: International Journal of Cosmetic Science
Christian Beren, Lisa L Dreesens, Katherine N Liu, Charles M Knobler, William M Gelbart
Previous work has shown that purified capsid protein (CP) of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) is capable of packaging both purified single-stranded RNA molecules of normal composition (comparable numbers of A, U, G, and C nucleobases) and of varying length and sequence, and anionic synthetic polymers such as polystyrene sulfonate. We find that CCMV CP is also capable of packaging polyU RNAs, which-unlike normal-composition RNAs-do not form secondary structures and which act as essentially structureless linear polymers...
July 25, 2017: Biophysical Journal
Joseph R Michalski, Eldar Z Noe Dobrea, Paul B Niles, Javier Cuadros
The Eridania region in the southern highlands of Mars once contained a vast inland sea with a volume of water greater than that of all other Martian lakes combined. Here we show that the most ancient materials within Eridania are thick (>400 m), massive (not bedded), mottled deposits containing saponite, talc-saponite, Fe-rich mica (for example, glauconite-nontronite), Fe- and Mg-serpentine, Mg-Fe-Ca-carbonate and probable Fe-sulphide that likely formed in a deep water (500-1,500 m) hydrothermal setting...
July 10, 2017: Nature Communications
Sayanta Bera, Manuel G Moreno-Pérez, Sara García-Figuera, Israel Pagán, Aurora Fraile, Luis F Pacios, Fernando García-Arenal
In gene-for-gene host-virus interactions, virus evolution to infect and multiply in previously resistant host genotypes, i.e., resistance-breaking, is a case of host range expansion, predicted to be associated with fitness penalties. Negative effects of resistance-breaking mutations on within-host virus multiplication have been documented for several plant viruses. However, understanding virus evolution requires analyses of potential trade-offs between different fitness components. Here we analyze if coat protein (CP) mutations in Pepper mild mottle virus breaking L-gene resistance in pepper affect particle stability and, thus, survival in the environment...
July 5, 2017: Journal of Virology
Roopa Kanakatti Shankar, Lawrence M Dolan, Scott Isom, Sharon Saydah, David M Maahs, Dana Dabelea, Kristi Reynolds, Irl B Hirsch, Beatriz L Rodriguez, Elizabeth J Mayer-Davis, Santica Marcovina, Ralph D'Agostino, Michael Mauer, Amy K Mottl
AIMS: We compared cystatin C in youth with versus without diabetes and determined factors associated with cystatin C in youth with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and type 2 diabetes (T2D). METHODS: Youth (ages 12-19years) without diabetes (N=544) were ascertained from the NHANES Study 2000-2002 and those with T1D (N=977) and T2D (N=168) from the SEARCH for Diabetes in Youth Study. Adjusted means of cystatin C concentrations were compared amongst the 3 groups. Next, we performed multivariable analyses within the T1D and T2D SEARCH samples to determine the association between cystatin C and race, sex, age, diabetes duration, HbA1c, fasting glucose, and BMI...
June 12, 2017: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Islane Verçosa, Paula Carneiro, Reno Verçosa, Renata Girão, Erlane M Ribeiro, Andre Pessoa, Nadia G Almeida, Paloma Verçosa, Marcia B Tartarella
PURPOSE: To describe and analyze ocular features in infants with microcephaly due to presumed congenital Zika syndrome. METHODS: Ophthalmologic evaluation, including indirect ophthalmoscopy and eye fundus imaging, visual acuity testing with Teller Acuity Cards, and strabismus assessment were performed in infants with microcephaly at a nongovernmental organization clinic for visually disabled children. RESULTS: A total of 70 infants with microcephaly were referred to the clinic...
June 23, 2017: Journal of AAPOS: the Official Publication of the American Association for Pediatric Ophthalmology and Strabismus
Gabriela Rosiles-González, Gerardo Ávila-Torres, Oscar A Moreno-Valenzuela, Gilberto Acosta-González, Rosa María Leal-Bautista, Cinthya D Grimaldo-Hernández, Judith K Brown, Cristóbal Chaidez-Quiroz, Walter Q Betancourt, Charles P Gerba, Cecilia Hernández-Zepeda
The Yucatan Peninsula of Mexico hosts a karst aquifer system that is the only source of freshwater for the area; however, it is vulnerable to human-mediated contamination. Pepper mild mottle virus (PMMoV) is one of the most abundant RNA viruses associated with human feces, making it a viable indicator for tracking fecal pollution in aquatic environments, including groundwater. In this study, groundwater samples collected from a karst aquifer from fresh and brackish water locations were analyzed for fecal indicator bacteria, somatic and male F+ specific coliphages, and PMMoV during the rainy and dry seasons...
June 23, 2017: Food and Environmental Virology
Simon Bourcier, Jérémie Joffre, Vincent Dubée, Gabriel Preda, Jean-Luc Baudel, Naïke Bigé, Guillaume Leblanc, Bernard I Levy, Bertrand Guidet, Eric Maury, Hafid Ait-Oufella
BACKGROUND: Mottling around the knee, reflecting a reduced skin blood flow, is predictive of mortality in patients with septic shock. However, the causative pathophysiology of mottling remains unknown. We hypothesized that the cutaneous hypoperfusion observed in the mottled area is related to regional endothelial dysfunction. METHODS: This was a prospective, observational study in a medical ICU in a tertiary teaching hospital. Consecutive adult patients with sepsis admitted to ICU were included...
June 23, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
Zulal Ozkurt, Esra Cinar Tanriverdi
Zika virus (ZIKV) is an arbovirus of the Flavivirus genus, and it has an envelope and a single RNA molecule. In early 2016, the World Health Organization declared ZIKV infection to be an emerging global health threat. The major transmission route of the virus to humans is Aedes mosquitoes. ZIKV can be transmitted between humans by transplacental, perinatal, and sexual routes and via blood and body fluids. ZIKV infection usually results in a mild and self-limiting disease with low-grade fever, conjunctivitis, and periorbital edema...
June 2017: Eurasian Journal of Medicine
Mathieu Anatole Tele Ayenan, Agyemang Danquah, Léonard Essehou Ahoton, Kwadwo Ofori
BACKGROUND: Understanding factors driving farmers' uses of crop genetic resources is a key component not only to design appropriate conservation strategies but also to promote sustainable production. However, in Benin, limited information is available on farmers' knowledge related to pigeonpea uses and conservation. This study aimed at i) identifying and investigating the different uses of pigeonpea in relation with socio-cultural factors, namely age, gender, ethnic group and respondents' residence, ii) assessing pigeonpea varieties richness at household level and iii) evaluating the extent and distribution of pigeonpea varieties...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Ethnobiology and Ethnomedicine
Lise Schoonen, Sjors Maassen, Roeland J M Nolte, Jan C M van Hest
Virus-like particles are very interesting tools for application in bionanotechnology, due to their monodisperse features and biocompatibility. In particular, the cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) capsid has been studied extensively as it can be assembled and disassembled reversibly, facilitating cargo encapsulation. CCMV is, however, only stable at physiological conditions when its endogenous nucleic acid cargo is present. To gain more flexibility in the type of cargo encapsulated and to broaden the window of operation, it is interesting to improve the stability of the empty virus-like particles...
July 19, 2017: Biomacromolecules
Serena Mezzar, Evelyn De Schryver, Stanny Asselberghs, Els Meyhi, Petruta L Morvay, Myriam Baes, Paul P Van Veldhoven
2-Hydroxyacyl-CoA lyase (HACL1) is a key enzyme of the peroxisomal α-oxidation of phytanic acid. To better understand its role in health and disease, a mouse model lacking HACL1 was investigated. Under normal conditions, these mice did not display a particular phenotype. However, upon dietary administration of phytol, phytanic acid accumulated in tissues, mainly in liver and serum of KO mice. As a consequence of phytanic acid (or a metabolite) toxicity, KO mice displayed a significant weight loss, absence of abdominal white adipose tissue, enlarged and mottled liver and reduced hepatic glycogen and triglycerides...
June 17, 2017: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
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