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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923740/parvalbumin-neurons-and-perineuronal-nets-in-the-mouse-prefrontal-cortex
#1
Hiroshi Ueno, Shunsuke Suemitsu, Motoi Okamoto, Yosuke Matsumoto, Takeshi Ishihara
The prefrontal cortex (PFC) plays a key role in cognitive functions, memory, and attention. Alterations in parvalbumin interneurons (PV neurons) and perineuronal nets (PNNs) within the PFC have been implicated in schizophrenia and autism spectrum disorder pathology. However, it remains unclear why PV neurons and PNNs in the PFC are selectively impaired. Here we aimed to clarify if PV neurons and PNNs in the PFC have region-specific features. We found that PV neurons and PNNs were increased in a region-specific manner in the PFC during postnatal development...
December 3, 2016: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920745/mother-child-play-a-comparison-of-autism-spectrum-disorder-down-syndrome-and-typical-development
#2
Arianna Bentenuto, Simona De Falco, Paola Venuti
The purpose of the present study was to analyze mother-child collaborative play in children with Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD) compared to children with Down Syndrome (DS) and typical developing children (TD). Children with ASD are often described as having deficient play skills, particularly in the symbolic domain. Caregivers' involvement in child play activities increases the structural complexity of playing in both typically developing children and children with disabilities. Participants included 75 mothers and their children with ASD (n = 25), with down syndrome (n = 25) and with typical development (n = 25)...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27919678/individual-differences-in-high-level-biological-motion-tasks-correlate-with-autistic-traits
#3
Jeroen J A van Boxtel, Yujia Peng, Junzhu Su, Hongjing Lu
Human actions are rich in social cues and play an essential role in interacting with the social environment. Hence, the perception of biological motion (i.e., movement elicited by humans and other animals) is considered to be an important gauge of a person's social cognition capacities. It has been well-documented that Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) is associated with difficulties in social interactions. In the present study, we examined whether individual differences in biological motion perception relate to the degree of autistic traits among people in the typically-developing population...
December 2, 2016: Vision Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910235/the-impact-of-caregiver-mediated-jasper-on-child-restricted-and-repetitive-behaviors-and-caregiver-responses
#4
Clare Harrop, Amanda Gulsrud, Wendy Shih, Lilit Hovsepyan, Connie Kasari
Restricted and repetitive behaviors (RRBs) are a core feature of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Compared to the social-communication impairments children show, we know less about why children engage in these repetitive actions and behaviors and how to help children (and their caregivers) with these behaviors. As a result, early intervention has typically focused on social-communication. In this study, we were interested in understanding how child RRBs changed following an intervention that targeted social-communication behaviors and if the training caregivers received changed how they responded to their child's RRBs...
December 2, 2016: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902989/plasma-levels-of-leptin-and-adiponectin-in-fragile-x-syndrome
#5
Małgorzata Zofia Lisik, Ewa Gutmajster, Aleksander L Sieroń
: Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is the most common form of familial mental retardation and one of the leading known causes of autism. The mutation responsible for FXS is a large expansion of the CGG repeats in the promoter region of the FMR1 gene, resulting in the transcriptional silencing of the gene. Leptin may be considered a cytokine-like hormone with pleiotropic actions since it may be involved in the regulation of neuroendocrine functions and the immune system response, in addition to playing a role in development...
December 1, 2016: Neuroimmunomodulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27899709/the-art-of-camouflage-gender-differences-in-the-social-behaviors-of-girls-and-boys-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#6
Michelle Dean, Robin Harwood, Connie Kasari
This study examined the extent to which gender-related social behaviors help girls with autism spectrum disorder to seemingly mask their symptoms. Using concurrent mixed methods, we examined the social behaviors of 96 elementary school children during recess (autism spectrum disorder = 24 girls and 24 boys, typically developing = 24 girls and 24 boys). Children with autism spectrum disorder had average intelligence (IQ ⩾ 70), a confirmed diagnosis, and were educated in the general education classroom...
November 29, 2016: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27897003/de-novo-mutations-in-autism-implicate-the-synaptic-elimination-network
#7
Guhan Ram Venkataraman, Chloe O'Connell, Fumiko Egawa, Dorna Kashef-Haghighi, Dennis P Wall
Autism has been shown to have a major genetic risk component; the architecture of documented autism in families has been over and again shown to be passed down for generations. While inherited risk plays an important role in the autistic nature of children, de novo (germline) mutations have also been implicated in autism risk. Here we find that autism de novo variants verified and published in the literature are Bonferroni-significantly enriched in a gene set implicated in synaptic elimination. Additionally, several of the genes in this synaptic elimination set that were enriched in protein-protein interactions (CACNA1C, SHANK2, SYNGAP1, NLGN3, NRXN1, and PTEN) have been previously confirmed as genes that confer risk for the disorder...
2016: Pacific Symposium on Biocomputing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27896947/reduced-modulation-of-thalamocortical-connectivity-during-exposure-to-sensory-stimuli-in-asd
#8
Shulamite A Green, Leanna Hernandez, Susan Y Bookheimer, Mirella Dapretto
Recent evidence for abnormal thalamic connectivity in autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and sensory processing disorders suggests the thalamus may play a role in sensory over-responsivity (SOR), an extreme negative response to sensory stimuli, which is common in ASD. However, there is yet little understanding of changes in thalamic connectivity during exposure to aversive sensory inputs in individuals with ASD. In particular, the pulvinar nucleus of the thalamus is implicated in atypical sensory processing given its role in selective attention, regulation, and sensory integration...
November 29, 2016: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891068/can-mouse-imaging-studies-bring-order-to-autism-connectivity-chaos
#9
Adam Liska, Alessandro Gozzi
Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI) has consistently highlighted impaired or aberrant functional connectivity across brain regions of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) patients. However, the manifestation and neural substrates of these alterations are highly heterogeneous and often conflicting. Moreover, their neurobiological underpinnings and etiopathological significance remain largely unknown. A deeper understanding of the complex pathophysiological cascade leading to aberrant connectivity in ASD can greatly benefit from the use of model organisms where individual pathophysiological or phenotypic components of ASD can be recreated and investigated via approaches that are either off limits or confounded by clinical heterogeneity...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27888397/synaptosome-associated-protein-25-snap25-gene-association-analysis-revealed-risk-variants-for-asd-in-iranian-population
#10
Mohammad Reza Safari, Mir Davood Omrani, Rezvan Noroozi, Arezou Sayad, Shaghayegh Sarrafzadeh, Alireza Komaki, Fateme Asadzadeh Manjili, Mehrdokht Mazdeh, Ali Ghaleiha, Mohammad Taheri
Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a common, complex neurological condition, affecting approximately 1% of people worldwide. Monogenic neurodevelopmental disorders which showed autistic behavior patterns have suggested synaptic dysfunction, as a key mechanism in the pathophysiology of ASD. Subsequently, genes involved in synaptic signaling have been investigated with a priority for candidate gene studies. A synaptosomal-associated protein 25 (SNAP25) gene plays a crucial role in the central nervous system, contributing to exocytosis by targeting and fusion of vesicles to the cell membrane...
November 26, 2016: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27880953/deletion-of-top3b-is-associated-with-cognitive-impairment-and-facial-dysmorphism
#11
Carolyn S Kaufman, Ann Genovese, Merlin G Butler
Deletions of different regions of chromosome 22q11 have been extensively characterized in the literature, with a recent review outlining common deletions with a standardized system proposed for classification and nomenclature. The genotype-phenotype relationships have not been sufficiently elucidated for these deletions, and it remains unclear which specific genes play the dominant roles in producing associated clinical features. Several deletions involve entirely distinct regions of chromosome 22q11 but do not overlap, suggesting that a number of different genes contribute to the clinical features...
November 24, 2016: Cytogenetic and Genome Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878742/brief-report-diminished-gaze-preference-for-dynamic-social-interaction-scenes-in-youth-with-autism-spectrum-disorders
#12
Rebecca C Shaffer, Ernest V Pedapati, Frederick Shic, Kristina Gaietto, Katherine Bowers, Logan K Wink, Craig A Erickson
In this study, we present an eye-tracking paradigm, adapted from previous work with toddlers, for assessing social-interaction looking preferences in youth ages 5-17 with ASD and typically-developing controls (TDC). Videos of children playing together (Social Scenes, SS) were presented side-by-side with animated geometric shapes (GS). Participants with ASD demonstrated reduced SS preferences compared to TDC, results also represented continuously by associations between higher SS preferences and fewer social difficulties across the combined sample...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878740/brief-report-a-comparison-of-the-preference-for-viewing-social-and-non-social-movies-in-typical-and-autistic-adolescents
#13
Indu Dubey, Danielle Ropar, Antonia F de C Hamilton
The recently proposed Social Motivation theory (Chevallier et al., Trends in cognitive sciences 16(4):231-239, 2012) suggests that social difficulties in Autism Spectrum Condition (ASC) might be caused by a difference in the motivation to engage with other people. Here we compared adolescents with (N = 31) and without (N = 37) ASC on the Choose-a-Movie paradigm that measures the social seeking. The results showed a preference for viewing objects over smiling faces in ASC, which is in line with the theory of low social motivation...
November 23, 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27878658/role-of-matricellular-proteins-in-disorders-of-the-central-nervous-system
#14
A R Jayakumar, A Apeksha, M D Norenberg
Matricellular proteins (MCPs) are actively expressed non-structural proteins present in the extracellular matrix, which rapidly turnover and possess regulatory roles, as well as mediate cell-cell interactions. MCPs characteristically contain binding sites for other extracellular proteins, cell surface receptors, growth factors, cytokines and proteases, that provide structural support for surrounding cells. MCPs are present in most organs, including brain, and play a major role in cell-cell interactions and tissue repair...
November 23, 2016: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27874266/meta-analysis-of-neuropsychological-measures-of-executive-functioning-in-children-and-adolescents-with-high-functioning-autism-spectrum-disorder
#15
Chun Lun Eric Lai, Zoe Lau, Simon S Y Lui, Eugenia Lok, Venus Tam, Quinney Chan, Koi Man Cheng, Siu Man Lam, Eric F C Cheung
Existing literature on the profile of executive dysfunction in autism spectrum disorder showed inconsistent results. Age, comorbid attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and cognitive abilities appeared to play a role in confounding the picture. Previous meta-analyses have focused on a few components of executive functions. This meta-analysis attempted to delineate the profile of deficit in several components of executive functioning in children and adolescents with high-functioning autism spectrum disorder (HFASD)...
November 22, 2016: Autism Research: Official Journal of the International Society for Autism Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873285/prescription-drug-use-and-polypharmacy-among-medicaid-enrolled-adults-with-autism-a-retrospective-cross-sectional-analysis
#16
Rini Vohra, Suresh Madhavan, Usha Sambamoorthi, Claire StPeter, Susannah Poe, Nilanjana Dwibedi, Mayank Ajmera
BACKGROUND: A lack of gold standard treatment for autism spectrum disorders (ASD), no clear ASD management guidelines, and lack of evidence-based pharmacological interventions other than aripiprazole and risperidone elevate the risk of off-label prescribing and adverse effects among individuals with ASD, more so among adults. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to identify and compare the types of prescription drug use, rates of polypharmacy, and characteristics associated with polypharmacy among adults with and without ASD in a retrospective cross-sectional analysis of a three-state Medicaid Analytic eXtract database (2000-2008)...
December 2016: Drugs—Real World Outcomes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27866351/social-referencing-gaze-behavior-during-a-videogame-task-eye-tracking-evidence-from-children-with-and-without-asd
#17
Erinn H Finke, Krista M Wilkinson, Benjamin D Hickerson
The purpose of this study was to understand the social referencing behaviors of children with and without autism spectrum disorder (ASD) while visually attending to a videogame stimulus depicting both the face of the videogame player and the videogame play action. Videogames appear to offer a uniquely well-suited environment for the emergence of friendships, but it is not known if children with and without ASD attend to and play videogames similarly. Eyetracking technology was used to investigate visual attention of participants matched based on chronological age...
November 19, 2016: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863928/a-scoping-review-of-the-role-of-lego-%C3%A2-therapy-for-improving-inclusion-and-social-skills-among-children-and-youth-with-autism
#18
REVIEW
Sally Lindsay, Kara Grace Hounsell, Celia Cassiani
BACKGROUND: LEGO(®) therapy uses children's natural interest in play to help motivate behavioural change and may be an effective teaching tool to increase social competency and communication skills. Although the literature is growing it has not been synthesized. OBJECTIVES: To review the literature on the role of LEGO(®) therapy on social skills and inclusion among children and youth with Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD). METHODS: A scoping review was conducted, involving comprehensive searches of international databases...
November 10, 2016: Disability and Health Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27861783/risk-of-epilepsy-and-autism-in-full-and-half-siblings-a-population-based-cohort-study
#19
Jakob Christensen, Morten Overgaard, Erik T Parner, Mogens Vestergaard, Diana Schendel
OBJECTIVE: Epilepsy and autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often occur together in the same individual. However, it remains unknown whether siblings of children with ASD have an increased risk of epilepsy and vice versa. This study determines the risk of ASD and epilepsy among younger siblings of children with ASD and epilepsy. DESIGN: The study included all children born in Denmark between January 1, 1980 and 31 December 2006 who participated in follow-up until December 31, 2012 (1,663,302 children)...
November 8, 2016: Epilepsia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27836435/vaccine-safety-evaluation-practical-aspects-in-assessing-benefits-and-risks
#20
Alberta Di Pasquale, Paolo Bonanni, Nathalie Garçon, Lawrence R Stanberry, Mostafa El-Hodhod, Fernanda Tavares Da Silva
Vaccines are different from most medicines in that they are administered to large and mostly healthy populations including infants and children, so there is a low tolerance for potential risks or side-effects. In addition, the long-term benefits of immunisation in reducing or eliminating infectious diseases may induce complacency due to the absence of cases. However, as demonstrated in recent measles outbreaks in Europe and United States, reappearance of the disease occurs as soon as vaccine coverage falls...
December 20, 2016: Vaccine
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