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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28917111/-11-c-pf-3274167-as-a-pet-radiotracer-of-oxytocin-receptors-radiosynthesis-and-evaluation-in-rat-brain
#1
Benjamin Vidal, Iuliia A Karpenko, François Liger, Sylvain Fieux, Caroline Bouillot, Thierry Billard, Marcel Hibert, Luc Zimmer
INTRODUCTION: Oxytocin plays a major role in the regulation of social interactions in mammals by interacting with the oxytocin receptor (OTR) expressed in the brain. Furthermore, the oxytocin system appears as a possible therapeutic target in autism spectrum disorders and other psychiatric troubles, justifying current pharmacological researches. Since no specific PET radioligand is currently available to image OTR in the brain, the aim of this study was to radiolabel the specific OTR antagonist PF-3274167 and to evaluate [(11)C]PF-3274167 as a potential PET tracer for OTR in rat brains...
August 2, 2017: Nuclear Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28915148/adult-fmr1-knockout-mice-present-with-deficiencies-in-hippocampal-interleukin-6-and-tumor-necrosis-factor-%C3%AE-expression
#2
Samantha L Hodges, Suzanne O Nolan, Joseph H Taube, Joaquin N Lugo
Fragile X syndrome (FXS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder caused by a single genetic mutation in the FMR1 gene. Mutations in the FMR1 gene are the largest monogenic cause of autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and thus both disorders share many of the same cognitive and behavioral impairments. There is increasing evidence suggesting that dysregulated immune responses play a role in the pathophysiology of ASD; however, the association between FXS and altered immunity requires further investigation. This study examined whether Fmr1 knockout (KO) and wild-type mice on a FVB/NJ background strain had altered cytokine expression at baseline levels in the hippocampus...
September 14, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914977/autism-theory-of-mind-and-the-reactive-attitudes
#3
Kenneth A Richman, Raya Bidshahri
Whether to treat autism as exculpatory in any given circumstance appears to be influenced both by models of autism and by theories of moral responsibility. This article looks at one particular combination of theories: autism as theory of mind challenges and moral responsibility as requiring appropriate experience of the reactive attitudes. In pursuing this particular combination of ideas, we do not intend to endorse them. Our goal is, instead, to explore the implications of this combination of especially prominent ideas about autism and about moral responsibility...
September 15, 2017: Bioethics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28914082/characterizing-psychiatric-comorbidity-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-receiving-publicly-funded-mental-health-services
#4
Lauren Brookman-Frazee, Nicole Stadnick, Colby Chlebowski, Mary Baker-Ericzén, William Ganger
Publicly funded mental health programs play a significant role in serving children with autism spectrum disorder. Understanding patterns of psychiatric comorbidity for this population within mental health settings is important to implement appropriately tailored interventions. This study (1) describes patterns of psychiatric comorbidity in children with autism spectrum disorder who present to mental health services with challenging behaviors and (2) identifies child characteristics associated with comorbid conditions...
September 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28913566/adar-rna-editing-in-human-disease-more-to-it-than-meets-the-i
#5
REVIEW
Angela Gallo, Dragana Vukic, David Michalík, Mary A O'Connell, Liam P Keegan
We review the structures and functions of ADARs and their involvements in human diseases. ADAR1 is widely expressed, particularly in the myeloid component of the blood system, and plays a prominent role in promiscuous editing of long dsRNA. Missense mutations that change ADAR1 residues and reduce RNA editing activity cause Aicardi-Goutières Syndrome, a childhood encephalitis and interferonopathy that mimics viral infection and resembles an extreme form of Systemic Lupus Erythmatosus (SLE). In Adar1 mouse mutant models aberrant interferon expression is prevented by eliminating interferon activation signaling from cytoplasmic dsRNA sensors, indicating that unedited cytoplasmic dsRNA drives the immune induction...
September 14, 2017: Human Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28902457/the-role-of-clock-gene-in-psychiatric-disorders-evidence-from-human-and-animal-research
#6
REVIEW
Jaqueline B Schuch, Julia P Genro, Clarissa R Bastos, Gabriele Ghisleni, Luciana Tovo-Rodrigues
The circadian clock system drives daily rhythms in physiology, metabolism, and behavior in mammals. Molecular mechanisms of this system consist of multiple clock genes, with Circadian Locomotor Output Cycles Kaput (CLOCK) as a core member that plays an important role in a wide range of behaviors. Alterations in the CLOCK gene are associated with common psychiatric disorders as well as with circadian disturbances comorbidities. This review addresses animal, molecular, and genetic studies evaluating the role of the CLOCK gene on many psychiatric conditions, namely autism spectrum disorder, schizophrenia, attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder, major depressive disorder, bipolar disorder, anxiety disorder, and substance use disorder...
September 13, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part B, Neuropsychiatric Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901545/teaching-children-with-autism-to-respond-to-disguised-mands
#7
Adel C Najdowski, Ryan Bergstrom, Jonathan Tarbox, Megan St Clair
Children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) often have difficulty inferring the private events of others, including private verbal behavior (e.g., thoughts), private emotional responses, and private establishing operations, often referred to as "perspective taking" by the general psychology community. Children with ASD also have difficulty responding to disguised mands. Skinner's description of the "disguised mand" is verbal behavior wherein the speaker's mand directly describes neither its reinforcer nor the corresponding establishing operations...
September 13, 2017: Journal of Applied Behavior Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901249/proteins-commonly-linked-to-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-alzheimer-s-disease
#8
Athanasios Alexiou, Georgia Soursou, Nagendra Sastry Yarla, Ghulam Md Ashraf
Several years after the first publication of Barker's Hypothesis the identification of common patterns and pathways between genetic and epigenetic risk factors in neurodegenerative disorders is still an open problem. For the cases of Alzheimer's disease and Autism and by taking into consideration the increasing number of diagnosed cases globally, scientists focused on commonly expressed and related proteins like Amyloid beta and the mechanisms of their underlying dysfunctionalities. In this review paper, an attempt to specify significant correlations between proteins linked to Autism Spectrum Disorders and Alzheimer's Disease is presented...
September 11, 2017: Current Protein & Peptide Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901162/imagining-autism-feasibility-of-a-drama-based-intervention-on-the-social-communicative-and-imaginative-behaviour-of-children-with-autism
#9
Julie Beadle-Brown, David Wilkinson, Lisa Richardson, Nicola Shaughnessy, Melissa Trimingham, Jennifer Leigh, Beckie Whelton, Julian Himmerich
We report the feasibility of a novel, school-based intervention, coined 'Imagining Autism', in which children with autism engage with drama practitioners though participatory play and improvisation in a themed multi-sensory 'pod' resembling a portable, tent-like structure. A total of 22 children, aged 7-12 years, from three UK schools engaged in the 10-week programme. Measures of social interaction, communication and emotion recognition, along with parent and teacher ratings, were collected before and up to 12 months after the intervention...
September 1, 2017: Autism: the International Journal of Research and Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899869/autism-like-behavior-caused-by-deletion-of-vaccinia-related-kinase-3-is-improved-by-trkb-stimulation
#10
Myung-Su Kang, Tae-Yong Choi, Hye Guk Ryu, Dohyun Lee, Seung-Hyun Lee, Se-Young Choi, Kyong-Tai Kim
Vaccinia-related kinases (VRKs) are multifaceted serine/threonine kinases that play essential roles in various aspects of cell signaling, cell cycle progression, apoptosis, and neuronal development and differentiation. However, the neuronal function of VRK3 is still unknown despite its etiological potential in human autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Here, we report that VRK3-deficient mice exhibit typical symptoms of autism-like behavior, including hyperactivity, stereotyped behaviors, reduced social interaction, and impaired context-dependent spatial memory...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28894610/maturation-refinement-and-serotonergic-modulation-of-cerebellar-cortical-circuits-in-normal-development-and-in-murine-models-of-autism
#11
REVIEW
Eriola Hoxha, Pellegrino Lippiello, Bibiana Scelfo, Filippo Tempia, Mirella Ghirardi, Maria Concetta Miniaci
The formation of the complex cerebellar cortical circuits follows different phases, with initial synaptogenesis and subsequent processes of refinement guided by a variety of mechanisms. The regularity of the cellular and synaptic organization of the cerebellar cortex allowed detailed studies of the structural plasticity mechanisms underlying the formation of new synapses and retraction of redundant ones. For the attainment of the monoinnervation of the Purkinje cell by a single climbing fiber, several signals are involved, including electrical activity, contact signals, homosynaptic and heterosynaptic interaction, calcium transients, postsynaptic receptors, and transduction pathways...
2017: Neural Plasticity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28892071/a-novel-rare-variant-r292h-in-rtn4r-affects-growth-cone-formation-and-possibly-contributes-to-schizophrenia-susceptibility
#12
H Kimura, Y Fujita, T Kawabata, K Ishizuka, C Wang, Y Iwayama, Y Okahisa, I Kushima, M Morikawa, Y Uno, T Okada, M Ikeda, T Inada, A Branko, D Mori, T Yoshikawa, N Iwata, H Nakamura, T Yamashita, N Ozaki
Reticulon 4 receptor (RTN4R) plays an essential role in regulating axonal regeneration and plasticity in the central nervous system through the activation of rho kinase, and is located within chromosome 22q11.2, a region that is known to be a hotspot for schizophrenia (SCZ) and autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Recently, rare variants such as copy-number variants and single-nucleotide variants have been a focus of research because of their large effect size associated with increased susceptibility to SCZ and ASD and the possibility of elucidating the pathophysiology of mental disorder through functional analysis of the discovered rare variants...
August 22, 2017: Translational Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890936/object-play-in-infants-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-a-longitudinal-retrospective-video-analysis
#13
Kaitlyn P Wilson, Mary W Carter, Heather L Wiener, Margaret L DeRamus, John C Bulluck, Linda R Watson, Elizabeth R Crais, Grace T Baranek
BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Early play behaviors may provide important information regarding later-diagnosed developmental delays. Play behaviors of young children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are restricted in diversity, frequency, and complexity. Most ASD research focuses on play in children over 18 months of age. This study examined three groups of infants (later diagnosed with ASD, later diagnosed with other developmental disorders, and typically developing) with the aims of: (1) describing the play behaviors of the three groups of infants at two time points (9-12 months and 15-18 months); (2) examining group differences in four hierarchical levels of play at both time points; (3) comparing groups with respect to the highest level of play achieved; and (4) determining if the highest level of play achieved by infants with developmental delays, including ASD, correlated with later developmental outcomes...
January 2017: Autism Dev Lang Impair
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28890420/perinatal-inflammation-and-adult-psychopathology-from-preclinical-models-to-humans
#14
REVIEW
Amaicha Mara Depino
Perinatal environment plays a crucial role in brain development and determines its function through life. Epidemiological studies and clinical reports link perinatal exposure to infection and/or immune activation to various psychiatric disorders. In addition, accumulating evidence from animal models shows that perinatal inflammation can affect various behaviors relevant to psychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia, autism, anxiety and depression. Remarkably, the effects on behavior and brain function do not always depend on the type of inflammatory stimulus or the perinatal age targeted, so diverse inflammatory events can have similar consequences on the brain...
September 7, 2017: Seminars in Cell & Developmental Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28884888/foxp1-haploinsufficiency-phenotypes-beyond-behavior-and-intellectual-disability
#15
Angela Myers, Christèle du Souich, Connie L Yang, Lior Borovik, Jill Mwenifumbo, Rosemarie Rupps, Causes Study, Anna Lehman, Cornelius F Boerkoel
The forkhead box (FOX) transcription factors have roles in development, carcinogenesis, metabolism, and immunity. In humans FOXP1 mutations have been associated with language and speech defects, intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder, facial dysmorphisms, and congenital anomalies of the kidney and urinary tract. In mice, Foxp1 plays critical roles in development of the spinal motor neurons, lymphocytes, cardiomyocytes, foregut, and skeleton. We hypothesized therefore that mutations of FOXP1 affect additional tissues in some humans...
September 8, 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28878628/early-correlated-network-activity-in-the-hippocampus-its-putative-role-in-shaping-neuronal-circuits
#16
REVIEW
Marilena Griguoli, Enrico Cherubini
Synchronized neuronal activity occurring at different developmental stages in various brain structures represents a hallmark of developmental circuits. This activity, which differs in its specific patterns among animal species may play a crucial role in de novo formation and in shaping neuronal networks. In the rodent hippocampus in vitro, the so-called giant depolarizing potentials (GDPs) constitute a primordial form of neuronal synchrony preceding more organized forms of activity such as oscillations in the theta and gamma frequency range...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873888/can-automated-facial-expression-analysis-show-differences-between-autism-and-typical-functioning
#17
Zsófia Borsos, Miklos Gyori
Exploratory analyses of emotional expressions using a commercially available facial expression recognition software are reported, from the context of a serious game for screening purposes. Our results are based on a comparative analysis of two matched groups of kindergarten-age children (high-functioning children with autism spectrum condition: n=13; typically developing children: n=13). Results indicate that this technology has the potential to identify autism-specific emotion expression features, and may play a role in affective diagnostic and assistive technologies...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28873812/android-based-daily-routine-organizing-application-for-elementary-school-students-living-with-asd
#18
Eva A Barta, Tibor Guzsvinecz, Cecilia Sik Lanyi, Veronika Szucs
Today, more and more children with Autism Spectrum disorder are diagnosed, which means that around 1% of the population is concerned. Most of the concerned can acquire daily routine tasks by a bit of help and can fit in the society. As Besio et al. said, "…play is an instinctive need for both humans….In children with disabilities, depending on the type of functional limitations, the spontaneity of play is lost and the activity becomes problematic. Children with cognitive and intellectual impairments have a difficulties in communication, social interactions,…...
2017: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28871461/relationship-satisfaction-and-dyadic-coping-in-couples-with-a-child-with-autism-spectrum-disorder
#19
Angela Sim, Reinie Cordier, Sharmila Vaz, Richard Parsons, Torbjörn Falkmer
Dyadic coping strategies may play a pivotal role in relationship satisfaction and explain why some couples adapt positively to the challenges associated with raising a child with ASD and others do not. Survey data from 127 caregivers of a child with ASD were used in generalized estimating equation analyses to investigate the factors associated with relationship satisfaction, including socio-demographics, parenting stress and dyadic coping. Results showed that over two-thirds of the sample reported satisfaction, which was associated with low parenting stress, increased use of positive and decreased use of negative dyadic coping strategies...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28870209/bridging-autism-spectrum-disorders-and-schizophrenia-through-inflammation-and-biomarkers-pre-clinical-and-clinical-investigations
#20
REVIEW
Joana Prata, Susana G Santos, Maria Inês Almeida, Rui Coelho, Mário A Barbosa
In recent years, evidence supporting a link between inflammation and neuropsychiatric disorders has been mounting. Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and schizophrenia share some clinical similarities which we hypothesize might reflect the same biological basis, namely, in terms of inflammation. However, the diagnosis of ASD and schizophrenia relies solely on clinical symptoms, and to date, there is no clinically useful biomarker to diagnose or monitor the course of such illnesses.The focus of this review is the central role that inflammation plays in ASD and schizophrenia...
September 4, 2017: Journal of Neuroinflammation
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