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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28229923/epigenetic-regulation-of-reln-and-gad1-in-the-frontal-cortex-fc-of-autism-spectrum-disorder-asd-subjects
#1
Adrian Zhubi, Ying Chen, Alessandro Guidotti, Dennis R Grayson
Both Reelin (RELN) and glutamate decarboxylase 67 (GAD1) have been implicated in the pathophysiology of Autism Spectrum Disorders (ASD). We have previously shown that both mRNAs are reduced in the cerebella (CB) of ASD subjects through a mechanism that involves increases in the amounts of MECP2 binding to the corresponding promoters. In the current study, we examined the expression of RELN, GAD1, GAD2, and several other mRNAs implicated in this disorder in the frontal cortices (FC) of ASD and CON subjects. We also focused on the role that epigenetic processes play in the regulation of these genes in ASD brain...
February 13, 2017: International Journal of Developmental Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28223318/a-drosophila-model-of-fragile-x-syndrome-exhibits-defects-in-phagocytosis-by-innate-immune-cells
#2
Reed M O'Connor, Elizabeth F Stone, Charlotte R Wayne, Emily V Marcinkevicius, Matt Ulgherait, Rebecca Delventhal, Meghan M Pantalia, Vanessa M Hill, Clarice G Zhou, Sophie McAllister, Anna Chen, Jennifer S Ziegenfuss, Wesley B Grueber, Julie C Canman, Mimi M Shirasu-Hiza
Fragile X syndrome, the most common known monogenic cause of autism, results from the loss of FMR1, a conserved, ubiquitously expressed RNA-binding protein. Recent evidence suggests that Fragile X syndrome and other types of autism are associated with immune system defects. We found that Drosophila melanogaster Fmr1 mutants exhibit increased sensitivity to bacterial infection and decreased phagocytosis of bacteria by systemic immune cells. Using tissue-specific RNAi-mediated knockdown, we showed that Fmr1 plays a cell-autonomous role in the phagocytosis of bacteria...
February 21, 2017: Journal of Cell Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28222093/active-zone-proteins-are-transported-via-distinct-mechanisms-regulated-by-par-1-kinase
#3
Kara R Barber, Julia Tanquary, Keegan Bush, Amanda Shaw, Michael Woodson, Michael Sherman, Yogesh P Wairkar
Disruption of synapses underlies a plethora of neurodevelopmental and neurodegenerative disease. Presynaptic specialization called the active zone plays a critical role in the communication with postsynaptic neuron. While the role of many proteins at the active zones in synaptic communication is relatively well studied, very little is known about how these proteins are transported to the synapses. For example, are there distinct mechanisms for the transport of active zone components or are they all transported in the same transport vesicle? Is active zone protein transport regulated? In this report we show that overexpression of Par-1/MARK kinase, a protein whose misregulation has been implicated in Autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) and neurodegenerative disorders, lead to a specific block in the transport of an active zone protein component- Bruchpilot at Drosophila neuromuscular junctions...
February 21, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28221900/mental-health-disorders-associated-with-foodborne-pathogens
#4
Declan J Bolton, Lucy J Robertson
Human infections with foodborne pathogenic organisms are relatively well described in terms of their overt physical symptoms, such as diarrhea, abdominal cramps, vomiting, fever, and associated sequelae. Indeed, some of these are key for diagnosis and treatment, although it should be noted that, for some foodborne pathogens, the physical symptoms might be more diffuse, particularly those associated with some of the foodborne parasites. In contrast, the impact of these pathogens on mental health is less well described, and symptoms such as depression, anxiety, and general malaise are usually ignored when foodborne infections are recorded...
November 2016: Journal of Food Protection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218869/child-behaviors-of-young-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-across-play-settings
#5
Megan MacDonald, Bridget Hatfield, Erica Twardzik
The hallmark characteristics of a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are deficits in social communicative skills and the use of repetitive and/or stereotyped behaviors. In addition, children with ASD experience known motor-skill delays. The purpose of this study was to examine salient child behaviors of young children with and without ASD in 2 distinctly different play settings: a traditional social-play-based setting and a motor-behavior-based play setting. Child behavior (engagement toward parent, negativity, and attention) and dyad characteristics (connectedness) were examined in 2 distinctly different play settings...
January 2017: Adapted Physical Activity Quarterly: APAQ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28218587/child-s-sensory-profile-and-adult-playfulness-as-predictors-of-parental-self-efficacy
#6
Rosa Román-Oyola, Stacey Reynolds, Ivonnellys Soto-Feliciano, Laura Cabrera-Mercader, Jessica Vega-Santana
Parents of children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) may have difficulty engaging their children through play, thus affecting the parent-child relationship and parental self-efficacy. This study intended to examine children's sensory profile and adults' playfulness as predictors of parental self-efficacy. A total of 136 parents of children ages 3-7 yr completed the Short Sensory Profile, the Playfulness Scale for Adults, and the Tool to Measure Parenting Self-Efficacy. For the parental couples of children with ASD, the most relevant predictor of general parental self-efficacy was the child's sensory profile...
March 2017: American Journal of Occupational Therapy: Official Publication of the American Occupational Therapy Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214378/calcium-signaling-through-l-type-calcium-channels-role-in-pathophysiology-of-spinal-nociceptive-transmission
#7
REVIEW
Olivier Roca-Lapirot, Houda Radwani, Franck Aby, Frédéric Nagy, Marc Landry Pascal Fossat
L-type voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) are ubiquitous channels in the central nervous system. L-type calcium channels (LTCs) are mostly post-synaptic channels regulating neuronal firing and gene expression. They play a role in important physio-pathological processes such as learning and memory, Parkinson's disease, autism and, as recognized more recently, in the pathophysiology of pain processes. Classically, the fundamental role of these channels in cardiovascular functions has limited the use of classical molecules to treat LTC-dependent disorders...
February 18, 2017: British Journal of Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213839/the-role-of-theory-of-mind-on-social-information-processing-in-children-with-autism-spectrum-disorders-a-mediation-analysis
#8
Monica Mazza, Melania Mariano, Sara Peretti, Francesco Masedu, Maria Chiara Pino, Marco Valenti
Individuals with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) show significant impairments in social skills and theory of mind (ToM). The aim of this study was to evaluate ToM and social information processing abilities in 52 children with ASD compared to 55 typically developing (TD) children. A mediation analysis evaluated whether social information processing abilities can be mediated by ToM competences. In our results, children with autism showed a deficit in social skills and ToM components. The innovative results of our study applying mediation analysis demonstrate that ToM plays a key role in the development of social abilities, and the lack of ToM competences in children with autism impairs their competent social behavior...
February 18, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213183/a-role-for-the-serotonin-reuptake-transporter-in-the-brain-and-intestinal-features-of-autism-spectrum-disorders-and-developmental-antidepressant-exposure
#9
REVIEW
Kara Gross Margolis
Many disease conditions considered CNS-predominant harbor significant intestinal comorbidities. Serotonin (5-HT) and the serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT) have increasingly been shown to play important roles in both brain and intestinal development and long-term function. 5-HT and SERT may thus modulate critical functions in the development and perpetuation of brain-gut axis disease. We discuss the potential roles of 5-HT and SERT in the brain and intestinal manifestations of autism spectrum disorders and developmental antidepressant exposure...
February 14, 2017: Journal of Chemical Neuroanatomy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191795/simulation-modeling-analysis-of-sequential-relations-among-therapeutic-alliance-symptoms-and-adherence-to-child-centered-play-therapy-between-a-child-with-autism-spectrum-disorder-and-two-therapists
#10
Geoff Goodman, Hyewon Chung, Leah Fischel, Laura Athey-Lloyd
This study examined the sequential relations among three pertinent variables in child psychotherapy: therapeutic alliance (TA) (including ruptures and repairs), autism symptoms, and adherence to child-centered play therapy (CCPT) process. A 2-year CCPT of a 6-year-old Caucasian boy diagnosed with autism spectrum disorder was conducted weekly with two doctoral-student therapists, working consecutively for 1 year each, in a university-based community mental-health clinic. Sessions were video-recorded and coded using the Child Psychotherapy Process Q-Set (CPQ), a measure of the TA, and an autism symptom measure...
February 1, 2017: Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28190998/quantitative-nucleotide-level-analysis-of-regulation-of-translation-in-response-to-depolarization-of-cultured-neural-cells
#11
Jasbir S Dalal, Chengran Yang, Darshan Sapkota, Allison M Lake, David R O'Brien, Joseph D Dougherty
Studies on regulation of gene expression have contributed substantially to understanding mechanisms for the long-term activity-dependent alterations in neural connectivity that are thought to mediate learning and memory. Most of these studies, however, have focused on the regulation of mRNA transcription. Here, we utilized high-throughput sequencing coupled with ribosome footprinting to globally characterize the regulation of translation in primary mixed neuronal-glial cultures in response to sustained depolarization...
2017: Frontiers in Molecular Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28185043/exploring-the-cognitive-foundations-of-the-shared-attention-mechanism-evidence-for-a-relationship-between-self-categorization-and-shared-attention-across-the-autism-spectrum
#12
Daniel P Skorich, Tahlia B Gash, Katie L Stalker, Lidan Zheng, S Alexander Haslam
The social difficulties of autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are typically explained as a disruption in the Shared Attention Mechanism (SAM) sub-component of the theory of mind (ToM) system. In the current paper, we explore the hypothesis that SAM's capacity to construct the self-other-object relations necessary for shared-attention arises from a self-categorization process, which is weaker among those with more autistic-like traits. We present participants with self-categorization and shared-attention tasks, and measure their autism-spectrum quotient (AQ)...
February 9, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28181052/implications-of-social-groups-on-sedentary-behavior-of-children-with-autism-a-pilot-study
#13
Michaela A Schenkelberg, Richard R Rosenkranz, George A Milliken, Kristi Menear, David A Dzewaltowski
This pilot study compared sedentary behavior (SB) of children with autism (ASD) to typically developing peers (TD), and evaluated the influence of social contexts within free play (FP) and organized activity settings on SB of children with ASD during an inclusive summer camp. Participants with ASD were matched with TD peers by age and gender, and a modified OSRAC-P was utilized to assess SB and social context by setting. SB did not differ by diagnosis (ASD, TD), setting, or social contexts. In FP, children with ASD spent significantly more time in SB within social contexts compared to solitary contexts...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28171816/the-western-disease-autism-and-somali-parents-embodied-health-movements
#14
Claire Laurier Decoteau
There is some statistical evidence indicating that Somali refugees and immigrants have high rates of autism spectrum disorder (ASD). Somalis in North America call autism the "Western disease" because there is no word for autism in the Somali language and because many believe it does not exist in Somalia. In Toronto, Somali parents have forged an "epistemic community," united around a coherent theory of the development of autism, its defining features, and most successful therapies. They work together with researchers to support the theory that gut bacteria is a causal factor for the development of autism...
February 1, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28167942/distinct-cytokine-and-chemokine-profiles-in-autism-spectrum-disorders
#15
Yvonne M Y Han, Winnie K Y Cheung, Chun Kwok Wong, Sophia L Sze, Timmy W S Cheng, Michael K Yeung, Agnes S Chan
Previous studies have shown that immunological factors are involved in the pathogenesis of autism spectrum disorders (ASDs). However, this research has been conducted almost exclusively in Western contexts, and only a handful of studies on immune measures have been conducted in Asian populations, such as Chinese populations. The present study examined whether immunological abnormalities are associated with cognitive deficits and problem behaviors in Chinese children with ASD and whether these children show different immunological profiles...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146575/enhanced-fine-form-perception-does-not-contribute-to-gestalt-face-perception-in-autism-spectrum-disorder
#16
Takao Yamasaki, Toshihiko Maekawa, Yuka Miyanaga, Kenji Takahashi, Naomi Takamiya, Katsuya Ogata, Shozo Tobimatsu
Individuals with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show superior performance in processing fine detail, but often exhibit impaired gestalt face perception. The ventral visual stream from the primary visual cortex (V1) to the fusiform gyrus (V4) plays an important role in form (including faces) and color perception. The aim of this study was to investigate how the ventral stream is functionally altered in ASD. Visual evoked potentials were recorded in high-functioning ASD adults (n = 14) and typically developing (TD) adults (n = 14)...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141728/parental-influence-on-a-child-s-autistic-traits
#17
Randall Phelps, Robert Nickel, Debi Eisert, Martin T Stein
Robbie is a 4-year-old boy whose parents are concerned about his speech, social skills, and repetitive behaviors. He has poor articulation; at time, he is difficult to understand. On the other hand, he has a fair vocabulary, and he has good intent to communicate. He is generally able to communicate his needs and wants. He likes to tell his parents about his day.When he begins the day at preschool, Robbie initially stands by himself and watches. He slowly warms up and eventually participates in activities. He engages in parallel play or follows other children...
February 2017: Journal of Developmental and Behavioral Pediatrics: JDBP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28139724/accumulated-quiescent-neural-stem-cells-in-adult-hippocampus-of-the-mouse-model-for-the-mecp2-duplication-syndrome
#18
Zhifang Chen, Xiao Li, Jingjing Zhou, Bo Yuan, Bin Yu, Dali Tong, Cheng Cheng, Yinqi Shao, Shengnan Xia, Ran Zhang, Jingwen Lyu, Xiuya Yu, Chen Dong, Wen-Hao Zhou, Zilong Qiu
Duplications of Methyl CpG binding protein 2 (MECP2) -containing segments lead to the MECP2 duplication syndrome, in which severe autistic symptoms were identified. Whether adult neurogenesis may play a role in pathogenesis of autism and the role of MECP2 on state determination of adult neural stem cells (NSCs) remain largely unclear. Using a MECP2 transgenic (TG) mouse model for the MECP2 duplication syndrome, we found that adult hippocampal quiescent NSCs were significantly accumulated in TG mice comparing to wild type (WT) mice, the neural progenitor cells (NPCs) were reduced and the neuroblasts were increased in adult hippocampi of MECP2 TG mice...
January 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138831/brain-derived-neurotrophic-factor-levels-in-autism-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#19
Amene Saghazadeh, Nima Rezaei
Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an important role in activity-dependent synaptic plasticity. Altered blood BDNF levels have been frequently identified in people with autism spectrum disorders (ASD). There are however wide discrepancies in the evidence. Therefore, we performed the present systematic review and meta-analysis aimed at qualitative and quantitative synthesis of studies that measured blood BDNF levels in ASD and control subjects. Observational studies were identified through electronic database searching and also hand-searching of reference lists of relevant articles...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Autism and Developmental Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130356/a-novel-human-camk2a-mutation-disrupts-dendritic-morphology-and-synaptic-transmission-and-causes-asd-related-behaviors
#20
Jason R Stephenson, Xiaohan Wang, Tyler L Perfitt, Walker P Parrish, Brian C Shonesy, Christian R Marks, Douglas P Mortlock, Terunaga Nakagawa, James S Sutcliffe, Roger J Colbran
: Characterizing the functional impact of novel mutations linked to autism spectrum disorder (ASD) provides a deeper mechanistic understanding of the underlying pathophysiological mechanisms. Here we show that a de novo Glu183 to Val (E183V) mutation in the CaMKIIα catalytic domain, identified in a proband diagnosed with ASD, decreases both CaMKIIα substrate phosphorylation and regulatory autophosphorylation, and that the mutated kinase acts in a dominant-negative manner to reduce CaMKIIα-WT autophosphorylation...
January 27, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
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