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immunodeficiency and calcium

D T Laura Vo Ngoc, Lizette Krist, Frans J van Overveld, Ger T Rijkers
The most common humoral immunodeficiency is IgA deficiency. One of the first papers addressing the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying IgA deficiency indicated that immature IgA-positive B-lymphocytes are present in these patients. This suggests that the genetic background for IgA is still intact and that class switching can take place. At this moment, it cannot be ruled out that genetic as well as environmental factors are involved. Areas covered: A clinical presentation, the biological functions of IgA, and the management of IgA deficiency are reviewed...
October 25, 2016: Expert Review of Clinical Immunology
Rajesh Krishna, Lilly East, Patrick Larson, Chandni Valiathan, Kristin Butterfield, Yang Teng, Martha Hernandez-Illas
OBJECTIVES: Raltegravir is a human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 integrase strand transfer inhibitor currently marketed at a dose of 400 mg twice daily (BID). Raltegravir for once-daily regimen (QD) at a dose of 1200 mg is under development. The effect of calcium carbonate and magnesium/aluminium hydroxide antacids on the pharmacokinetics of a 1200 mg dose of raltegravir was assessed in this study. METHODS: An open-label, four-period, four-treatment, fixed-sequence study in 20 HIV-infected patients was performed...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmacology
Christina N Kraus, Lance W Chapman, Dorota Z Korta, Christopher B Zachary
Facial lipoatrophy (FLA), characterized by a decrease in facial volume, has a high prevalence in patients with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection treated with long-term highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART). The social stigmatization that results from such changes in facial appearance has led some HIV patients to discontinue HAART. The use of fillers is one method of restoring facial volume. A critical outcome of treatment concerns the patient's quality of life (QoL). Although many studies have assessed patient satisfaction, as well as the social and psychological outcomes associated with the correction of HIV FLA, fewer studies have assessed QoL...
August 6, 2016: International Journal of Dermatology
Sankaran Sriram, Rajeswari Sankaralingam, Madeshwaran Mani, Tiruchengode Natesan Tamilselvam
AIM: To determine the role and efficacy of platelet rich plasma (PRP) in the healing of recalcitrant vasculitic ulcers and to study the rapidity of ulcer healing with respect to platelet concentration in the prepared PRP. METHODS: This is a pilot study which included 20 patients with biopsy-proven vasculitic ulcers after excluding human immunodeficiency virus, uncontrolled diabetes mellitus, hypertension, obesity, active smoking and platelet abnormalities in peripheral smear...
July 26, 2016: International Journal of Rheumatic Diseases
Frank J Palella, Rebeccah McKibben, Wendy S Post, Xiuhong Li, Matthew Budoff, Lawrence Kingsley, Mallory D Witt, Lisa P Jacobson, Todd T Brown
Methods.  In a cross-sectional substudy of the Multicenter AIDS Cohort Study, noncontrast cardiac computed tomography (CT) scanning for coronary artery calcium (CAC) scoring was performed on all men, and, for men with normal renal function, coronary CT angiography (CTA) was performed. Associations between fat depots (visceral adipose tissue [VAT], abdominal subcutaneous adipose tissue [aSAT], and thigh subcutaneous adipose tissue [tSAT]) with coronary plaque presence and extent were assessed with logistic and linear regression adjusted for age, race, cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk factors, body mass index (BMI), and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) parameters...
April 2016: Open Forum Infectious Diseases
J E Cooper, D Natarajan, C J McCann, S Choudhury, H Godwin, A J Burns, N Thapar
The prospect of using neural cell replacement for the treatment of severe enteric neuropathies has seen significant progress in the last decade. The ability to harvest and transplant enteric neural crest cells (ENCCs) that functionally integrate within recipient intestine has recently been confirmed by in vivo murine studies. Although similar cells can be harvested from human fetal and postnatal gut, no studies have as yet verified their functional viability upon in vivo transplantation. We sought to determine whether ENCCs harvested from human fetal bowel are capable of engraftment and functional integration within recipient intestine following in vivo transplantation into postnatal murine colon...
July 6, 2016: Neurogastroenterology and Motility: the Official Journal of the European Gastrointestinal Motility Society
Johnson C Lee, Z Paul Lorenc
Soft tissue filler procedures have increased dramatically in popularity in the United States. Synthetic fillers such as calcium hydroxyapatite (CaHA), polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA), and poly-l-lactic acid (PLLA), and silicone provide initial volume replacement but have an additional biostimulatory effect to supplement facial volumization. Indications include human immunodeficiency virus lipoatrophy and nasolabial folds for CaHA and PLLA and atrophic acne scars for PMMA. Most clinical use of these synthetic fillers is in an off-label fashion...
July 2016: Clinics in Plastic Surgery
Christina E Khodr, Lihua Chen, Sonya Dave, Lena Al-Harthi, Xiu-Ti Hu
Human Immunodeficiency Virus type 1 (HIV-1) infection induces neurological and neuropsychological deficits, which are associated with dysregulation of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) and other vulnerable brain regions. We evaluated the impact of HIV infection in the mPFC and the therapeutic potential of targeting over-active voltage-gated L-type Ca(2+) channels (L-channel) and NMDA receptors (NMDAR), as modeled in HIV-1 transgenic (Tg) rats. Whole-cell patch-clamp recording was used to assess the membrane properties and voltage-sensitive Ca(2+) potentials (Ca(2+) influx) in mPFC pyramidal neurons...
October 2016: Neurobiology of Disease
Hiroko Okawa, Hiroki Kayashima, Jun-Ichi Sasaki, Jiro Miura, Yuya Kamano, Yukihiro Kosaka, Satoshi Imazato, Hirofumi Yatani, Takuya Matsumoto, Hiroshi Egusa
Three-dimensional (3D) cell constructs are expected to provide osteoinductive materials to develop cell-based therapies for bone regeneration. The proliferation and spontaneous aggregation capability of induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) thus prompted us to fabricate a scaffold-free iPSC construct as a transplantation vehicle. Embryoid bodies of mouse gingival fibroblast-derived iPSCs (GF-iPSCs) were seeded in a cell chamber with a round-bottom well made of a thermoresponsive hydrogel. Collected ball-like cell constructs were cultured in osteogenic induction medium for 30 days with gentle shaking, resulting in significant upregulation of osteogenic marker genes...
2016: Stem Cells International
Qian Liu, Catherina Pan, Lizbeeth Lopez, Jiliang Gao, Daniel Velez, Sandra Anaya-O'Brien, Jean Ulrick, Patricia Littel, John S Corns, Donald T Ellenburg, Harry L Malech, Philip M Murphy, David H McDermott
WHIM syndrome is an autosomal dominant immunodeficiency disease caused by mutations affecting the carboxy-terminus of CXCR4. To characterize novel genetic causes of the syndrome, we recruited a pediatric patient with possible WHIM syndrome, performed CXCR4 gene sequencing and compared his clinical phenotype and CXCR4 tail amino acid sequences with other patients with WHIM syndrome carrying CXCR4 (R334X) mutations. We identified and biochemically characterized a heterozygous 5 base pair deletion (nucleotides 986-990) located in the portion of the open reading frame (ORF) of CXCR4 that encodes the carboxy-terminal domain of the receptor...
May 2016: Journal of Clinical Immunology
Changqing Xu, Douglas J Hermes, Ken Mackie, Aron H Lichtman, Bogna M Ignatowska-Jankowska, Sylvia Fitting
In the era of combined antiretroviral therapy (cART), human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is now considered a chronic disease that specifically targets the brain and causes HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorders (HAND). Endocannabinoids exhibit neuroprotective and anti-inflammatory properties in several central nervous system (CNS) disease models, but their effects in HAND are poorly understood. To address this issue, whole-cell recordings were performed on young (14-24 day old) C57BL/6J mice. We investigated the actions of the synthetic cannabinoid WIN55,212-2 (1 μM) and the endocannabinoid N-arachidonoyl ethanolamine (anandamide; AEA, 1 μM) in the presence of HIV-1 Tat on GABAergic neurotransmission in mouse prefrontal cortex (PFC) slices...
June 2016: Journal of Neuroimmune Pharmacology: the Official Journal of the Society on NeuroImmune Pharmacology
Felicity M Davis, Eugenia H Goulding, Diane M D'Agostin, Kyathanahalli S Janardhan, Connie A Cummings, Gary S Bird, Edward M Eddy, James W Putney
Store-operated calcium entry (SOCE) is an important Ca(2+) influx pathway in somatic cells. In addition to maintaining endoplasmic reticulum (ER) Ca(2+) stores, Ca(2+) entry through store-operated channels regulates essential signaling pathways in numerous cell types. Patients with mutations in the store-operated channel subunit ORAI1 exhibit defects in store-operated Ca(2+) influx, along with severe immunodeficiency, congenital myopathy and ectodermal dysplasia. However, little is known about the functional role of ORAI1 in germ cells and reproductive function in mice, or in men, since men with loss-of-function or null mutations in ORAI1 rarely survive to reproductive age...
April 2016: Cell Calcium
Zhifa Wang, Zhijin Li, Taiqiang Dai, Chunlin Zong, Yanpu Liu, Bin Liu
To determine the effect of adipose-derived stem cells (ADSCs) added to bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell (MSC) sheets on bone formation at an ectopic site. We isolated MSCs and ADSCs from the same rabbits. We then prepared MSC sheets for implantation with or without ADSCs subcutaneously in the backs of severe combined immunodeficiency (SCID) mice. We assessed bone formation at eight weeks after implantation by micro-computed tomography and histological analysis. In osteogenic medium, MSCs grew to form multilayer sheets containing many calcium nodules...
2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
Mahesh C Sharma, George P Tuszynski, Marc R Blackman, Meena Sharma
There is considerable direct evidence that calcium binding protein ANX A2 is a potential target for treating aggressive breast cancer. The most compelling data are based on the finding of ANX A2 overexpression in aggressive triple negative human breast cancer (TNBC) cell lines and in human breast cancer tissues. Previously, we and others reported a unique role of ANX A2 in cancer invasion, including breast cancer. Moreover, we demonstrated that anti-ANX A2 mAb-mediated immunoneutralization of ANX A2 inhibited invasive human breast cancer growth in a xenograft model...
April 1, 2016: Cancer Letters
Carlos G Musso, Waldo H Belloso, Richard J Glassock
The clinical spectrum of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection associated disease has changed significantly over the past decade, mainly due to the wide availability and improvement of combination antiretroviral therapy regiments. Serious complications associated with profound immunodeficiency are nowadays fortunately rare in patients with adequate access to care and treatment. However, HIV infected patients, and particularly those with acquired immune deficiency syndrome, are predisposed to a host of different water, electrolyte, and acid-base disorders (sometimes with opposite characteristics), since they have a modified renal physiology (reduced free water clearance, and relatively increased fractional excretion of calcium and magnesium) and they are also exposed to infectious, inflammatory, endocrinological, oncological variables which promote clinical conditions (such as fever, tachypnea, vomiting, diarrhea, polyuria, and delirium), and may require a variety of medical interventions (antiviral medication, antibiotics, antineoplastic agents), whose combination predispose them to undermine their homeostatic capability...
January 6, 2016: World Journal of Nephrology
Jason J Paris, ShiPing Zou, Yun K Hahn, Pamela E Knapp, Kurt F Hauser
Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is associated with motor and mood disorders, likely influenced by reactive microgliosis and subsequent neural damage. We have recapitulated aspects of this pathology in mice that conditionally express the neurotoxic HIV-1 regulatory protein, trans-activator of transcription (Tat). Progestogens may attenuate Tat-related behavioral impairments and reduce neurotoxicity in vitro, perhaps via progesterone's 5α-reductase-dependent metabolism to the neuroprotective steroid, allopregnanolone...
July 2016: Brain, Behavior, and Immunity
Jennifer A Ohtola, Noor M Khaskhely, Jessica L Saul-Mcbeth, Anita S Iyer, David J Leggat, Sadik A Khuder, M A Julie Westerink
BACKGROUND: Advanced age and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection are associated with increased pneumococcal disease risk. The impact of these factors on cellular responses to vaccination is unknown. METHODS: HIV-infected (HIV+) individuals 50-65 years old with CD4(+) Tcells/μl (CD4) >200 on antiretroviral therapy (ART) ≥1 year received either the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine followed by the 23-valent pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine (PCV/PPV) or PPV only...
January 20, 2016: Vaccine
Ornella Lucchesi, María C Ruete, Matías A Bustos, María F Quevedo, Claudia N Tomes
Exocytosis of the sperm's single secretory granule, or acrosome, is a regulated exocytosis triggered by components of the egg's investments. In addition to external calcium, sperm exocytosis (termed the acrosome reaction) requires cAMP synthesized endogenously and calcium mobilized from the acrosome through IP3-sensitive channels. The relevant cAMP target is Epac. In the first part of this paper, we present a novel tool (the TAT-cAMP sponge) to investigate cAMP-related signaling pathways in response to progesterone as acrosome reaction trigger...
April 2016: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
Liz Simon, Andrew D Hollenbach, Jovanny Zabaleta, Patricia E Molina
BACKGROUND: There are more than 1 million persons living with HIV/AIDS (PLWHA) in the United States and approximately 40 % of them have a history of alcohol use disorders (AUD). Chronic heavy alcohol consumption and HIV/AIDS both result in reduced lean body mass and muscle dysfunction, increasing the incidence of comorbid conditions. Previous studies from our laboratory using rhesus macaques infected with Simian Immunodeficiency Virus (SIV) demonstrated that chronic binge alcohol (CBA) administration in the absence of antiretroviral therapy exacerbates skeletal muscle (SKM) wasting at end-stage SIV disease...
2015: BMC Genomics
Kelly A Dougherty, Joan I Schall, Babette S Zemel, Florin Tuluc, Xiaoling Hou, Richard M Rutstein, Virginia A Stallings
BACKGROUND: Suboptimal vitamin D (vitD) status is common in children and young adults infected with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). The vitD supplemental dose needed to normalize vitD status in this population is unknown. METHODS: In this double-blind trial, subjects infected with HIV ages 8.3 to 24.9 years were randomized to vitD3 supplementation of 4000 IU/day or 7000 IU/day and evaluated at 6 and 12 week for changes in vitD status and HIV indicators. A dose was considered unsafe if serum calcium was elevated (above age and sex-specific range) associated with elevated serum 25 hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D); >160 ng/mL)...
December 2014: Journal of the Pediatric Infectious Diseases Society
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