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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346906/long-term-exposure-to-high-air-pollution-induces-cumulative-dna-damages-in-traffic-policemen
#1
Chaochao Tan, Shijie Lu, Yupeng Wang, Yan Zhu, Ting Shi, Mingyue Lin, Zhonghua Deng, Zhu Wang, Nana Song, Shuna Li, Pingting Yang, Liyan Yang, Yuanyuan Liu, Zhiheng Chen, Keqian Xu
The specific effects of long-term exposure to high air pollution on human health and biological remain unclear. To explore the adverse health effects as well as biological mechanisms and biomarkers for durative exposure to air pollution, 183 traffic policemen and 88 office policemen were enrolled in this study. The concentration of PM2.5 in both the traffic and office policemen's working environments were obtained. Detailed personal questionnaires were completed and levels of inflammation, oxidative stress and DNA damage markers of all participants were analyzed in this study...
March 24, 2017: Science of the Total Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346888/oxidative-and-nitrosative-stress-biomarkers-in-chronic-schizophrenia
#2
Karine Maria Boll, Cristiano Noto, Kamila Landucci Bonifácio, Chiara Cristina Bortolasci, Ary Gadelha, Rodrigo Affonseca Bressan, Décio Sabbatini Barbosa, Michael Maes, Estefania Gastaldello Moreira
There is evidence that the acute phase of schizophrenia (SCZ) is accompanied by specific changes in oxidative and nitrosative stress (O&NS) biomarkers. There are, however, no firm data regarding these biomarkers in chronic SCZ. Therefore, this study aimed to delineate O&NS biomarkers in patients with chronic SCZ. 125 outpatients with SCZ and 118 controls were enrolled. The markers included lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH), advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), nitric oxide metabolites (NOx), total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter (TRAP) and paraoxonase 1 (PON-1) activity...
March 21, 2017: Psychiatry Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346613/protective-effect-of-met12-a-small-peptide-inhibitor-of-fas-on-the-retinal-pigment-epithelium-and-photoreceptor-after-sodium-iodate-injury
#3
Jianhui Xiao, Jingyu Yao, Lin Jia, Chengmao Lin, David N Zacks
Purpose: A major problem in macular degeneration is the inability to reduce RPE and photoreceptor death. These cells die by necroptosis and apoptosis, respectively, but the upstream activator(s) of these death pathways is unknown. In this study, we use the sodium iodate (NaIO3) model of oxidative stress to test the hypothesis that activation of the Fas receptor contributes to the death of the RPE and photoreceptors. Methods: Sodium iodate was injected in Brown-Norway rats via femoral vein injection...
March 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346481/edaravone-protects-against-hyperosmolarity-induced-oxidative-stress-and-apoptosis-in-primary-human-corneal-epithelial-cells
#4
Yanwei Li, Haifeng Liu, Wei Zeng, Jing Wei
An increase in the osmolarity of tears induced by excessive evaporation of the aqueous tear phase is a major pathological mechanism behind dry eye. Exposure of epithelial cells on the surface of the human eye to hyperosmolarity leads to oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and apoptosis. Edaravone, a hydroxyl radical scavenging agent, is clinically used to reduce neuronal damage following ischemic stroke. In this study, we found that treatment with hyperosmotic media at 400 and 450 mOsM increased the levels of ROS and mitochondrial oxidative damage, which were ameliorated by edaravone treatment in a dose-dependent manner...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346433/a-cytosolic-ezh1-isoform-modulates-a-prc2-ezh1-epigenetic-adaptive-response-in-postmitotic-cells
#5
Beatrice Bodega, Federica Marasca, Valeria Ranzani, Alessandro Cherubini, Francesco Della Valle, Maria Victoria Neguembor, Michel Wassef, Alessio Zippo, Chiara Lanzuolo, Massimiliano Pagani, Valerio Orlando
The evolution of chromatin-based epigenetic cell memory may be driven not only by the necessity for cells to stably maintain transcription programs, but also by the need to recognize signals and allow plastic responses to environmental stimuli. The mechanistic role of the epigenome in adult postmitotic tissues, however, remains largely unknown. In vertebrates, two variants of the Polycomb repressive complex (PRC2-Ezh2 and PRC2-Ezh1) control gene silencing via methylation of histone H3 on Lys27 (H3K27me). Here we describe a reversible mechanism that involves a novel isoform of Ezh1 (Ezh1β)...
March 27, 2017: Nature Structural & Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346428/autophagy-is-required-for-cell-survival-under-l-asparaginase-induced-metabolic-stress-in-acute-lymphoblastic-leukemia-cells
#6
H Takahashi, J Inoue, K Sakaguchi, M Takagi, S Mizutani, J Inazawa
L-asparaginase has been used for more than three decades in acute lymphoblastic leukemia (ALL) patients and remains an essential drug in the treatment of ALL. Poor response to L-asparaginase is associated with increased risk of therapeutic failure in ALL. However, both the metabolic perturbation and molecular context of L-asparaginase-treated ALL cells has not been fully elucidated. Here we identify that treatment with L-asparaginase results in metabolic shutdown via the reduction of both glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation, accompanied by mitochondrial damage and activation of autophagy...
March 27, 2017: Oncogene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346397/the-process-and-regulatory-components-of-inflammation-in-brain-oncogenesis
#7
REVIEW
A G M Mostofa, Surendra R Punganuru, Hanumantha Rao Madala, Mohammad Al-Obaide, Kalkunte S Srivenugopal
Central nervous system tumors comprising the primary cancers and brain metastases remain the most lethal neoplasms and challenging to treat. Substantial evidence points to a paramount role for inflammation in the pathology leading to gliomagenesis, malignant progression and tumor aggressiveness in the central nervous system (CNS) microenvironment. This review summarizes the salient contributions of oxidative stress, interleukins, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), cyclooxygenases, and transcription factors such as signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) and nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B-cells (NF-κB) and the associated cross-talks to the inflammatory signaling in CNS cancers...
March 27, 2017: Biomolecules
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346358/genomic-evidence-for-bacterial-determinants-influencing-obesity-development
#8
Raphael D Isokpehi, Shaneka S Simmons, Matilda O Johnson, Marinelle Payton
Obesity is a major global public health problem requiring multifaceted interventional approaches including dietary interventions with probiotic bacteria. High-throughput genome sequencing of microbial communities in the mammalian gastrointestinal system continues to present diverse protein function information to understand the bacterial determinants that influence obesity development. The goal of the research reported in this article was to identify biological processes in probiotic bacteria that could influence the mechanisms for the extraction of energy from diet in the human gastrointestinal system...
March 26, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346230/glutaminase-and-poly-adp-ribose-polymerase-inhibitors-suppress-pyrimidine-synthesis-and-vhl-deficient-renal-cancers
#9
Arimichi Okazaki, Paulo A Gameiro, Danos Christodoulou, Laura Laviollette, Meike Schneider, Frances Chaves, Anat Stemmer-Rachamimov, Stephanie A Yazinski, Richard Lee, Gregory Stephanopoulos, Lee Zou, Othon Iliopoulos
Many cancer-associated mutations that deregulate cellular metabolic responses to hypoxia also reprogram carbon metabolism to promote utilization of glutamine. In renal cell carcinoma (RCC), cells deficient in the von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) tumor suppressor gene use glutamine to generate citrate and lipids through reductive carboxylation (RC) of α-ketoglutarate (αKG). Glutamine can also generate aspartate, the carbon source for pyrimidine biosynthesis, and glutathione for redox balance. Here we have shown that VHL-/- RCC cells rely on RC-derived aspartate to maintain de novo pyrimidine biosynthesis...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345767/nlrp3-inflammasome-its-regulation-and-involvement-in-atherosclerosis
#10
REVIEW
Zahra Hoseini, Fatemeh Sepahvand, Bahman Rashidi, Amirhossein Sahebkar, Aria Masoudifar, Hamed Mirzaei
Inflammasomes are intracellular complexes involved in the innate immunity that convert proIL-1β and proIL-18 to mature forms and initiate pyroptosis via cleaving procaspase-1. The most well-known inflammasome is NLRP3. Several studies have indicated a decisive and important role of NLRP3 inflammasome, IL-1β, IL-18, and pyroptosis in atherosclerosis. Modern hypotheses introduce atherosclerosis as an inflammatory/lipid-based disease and NLRP3 inflammasome has been considered as a link between lipid metabolism and inflammation because crystalline cholesterol and oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL) (two abundant components in atherosclerotic plaques) activate NLRP3 inflammasome...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Cellular Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345766/%C3%AE-linolenic-acid-and-exercise-training-independently-and-additively-decreases-blood-pressure-and-prevents-diastolic-dysfunction-in-obese-zucker-rats
#11
Pierre-Andre Barbeau, Tanya M Holloway, Jamie Whitfield, Brittany Baechler, Joe Quadrilatero, Luc J C van Loon, Adrian Chabowski, Graham P Holloway
While α-linolenic acid (ALA) and endurance exercise training independently attenuate hyperlipidemia-related cardiovascular derangements, there is a paucity of information pertaining to their mechanisms-of-action and efficacy when combined as a preventative therapeutic approach. Therefore, we used obese Zucker rats to investigate the independent and combined effects of these interventions on cardiovascular disease. Specifically, animals were randomly assigned to one of the following: control diet-sedentary (C-Sed), ALA supplemented-sedentary (ALA-Sed), control diet-exercise trained (C-Ex), or ALA supplemented-exercise trained (ALA-Ex)...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345685/-carbon-nanotubes-characteristic-of-the-substance-biological-effects-and-occupational-exposure-levels
#12
REVIEW
Anna Maria Świdwińska-Gajewska, Sławomir Czerczak
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are a diverse group of nano-objects in terms of structure, size (length, diameter), shape and characteristics. The growing interest in these structures is due to the increasing number of people working in exposure to CNTs. Occupational exposure to carbon nanotubes may occur in research laboratories, as well as in plants producing CNTs and their nanocomposites. Carbon nanotubes concentration at the emission source may reach 107 particles/cm<sup>3</sup>. These values, however, are considerably reduced after the application of adequate ventilation...
March 24, 2017: Medycyna Pracy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345394/association-of-novel-inflammatory-and-oxidative-stress-biomarkers-with-in-stent-restenosis
#13
Harun Kundi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 1, 2017: Angiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345337/light-up-mitophagy-in-live-cells-with-dual-functional-theranostic-phosphorescent-iridium-iii-complexes
#14
Mu-He Chen, Fang-Xin Wang, Jian-Jun Cao, Cai-Ping Tan, Liang-Nian Ji, Zong-Wan Mao
Phosphorescent Ir(III) complexes are ideal candidates to construct novel multifunctional theranostic platforms that enable the integration of imaging capabilities and anticancer properties. Selective autophagy of mitochondria, termed mitophagy, is an important cellular process that selectively degrades dysfunctional mitochondria. Until now, the regulation of mitophagy is still poorly understood. Herein, we present two phosphorescent cyclometalated iridium(III) complexes (Ir1 and Ir2) that can accumulate in mitochondria and induce mitophagy...
March 27, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345303/arterial-ageing-from-endothelial-dysfunction-to-vascular-calcification
#15
M Tesauro, A Mauriello, V Rovella, M Annicchiarico-Petruzzelli, C Cardillo, G Melino, N Di Daniele
Complex structural and functional changes occur in the arterial system with advancing age. The aged artery is characterized by changes in microRNA expression patterns, autophagy, smooth muscle cell migration and proliferation, and arterial calcification with progressively increased mechanical vessel rigidity and stiffness. With age the vascular smooth muscle cells modify their phenotype from contractile to 'synthetic' determining the development of intimal thickening as early as the second decade of life as an adaptive response to forces acting on the arterial wall...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345225/highly-potent-host-external-immunity-acts-as-a-strong-selective-force-enhancing-rapid-parasite-virulence-evolution
#16
Charlotte Rafaluk, Wentao Yang, Andreas Mitschke, Philip Rosenstiel, Hinrich Schulenburg, Gerrit Joop
Virulence is often under selection during host-parasite coevolution. In order to increase fitness, parasites are predicted to circumvent and overcome host immunity. A particular challenge for pathogens are external immune systems, chemical defence systems comprised of potent antimicrobial compounds released by prospective hosts into the environment. We carried out an evolution experiment, allowing for coevolution to occur, with the entomopathogenic fungus, Beauveria bassiana, and the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum, which has a well-documented external immune system with strong inhibitory effects against B...
March 26, 2017: Environmental Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345128/rs9-a-novel-nrf2-activator-attenuates-light-induced-death-of-cells-of-photoreceptor-cells-and-m%C3%A3-ller-glia-cells
#17
Yuki Inoue, Masamitsu Shimazawa, Yasuhiro Noda, Ryota Nagano, Tomohiro Otsuka, Yoshiki Kuse, Yukimichi Nakano, Kazuhiro Tsuruma, Yasuhiro Nakagami, Hideaki Hara
The retina is highly sensitive to oxidative stress because of its high consumption of oxygen associated with the phototransductional processes. Recent findings have suggested that oxidative stress is involved in the pathology of age-related macular degeneration (AMD), a progressive degeneration of the central retina. A well-known environmental risk factor is light exposure, as excessive and continuous light exposure can damage photoreceptors. Nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) is a transcriptional factor that controls antioxidative responses and phase 2 enzymes...
March 27, 2017: Journal of Neurochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345118/effect-of-paullinia-cupana-mart-commercial-extract-during-the-aging-of-middle-age-wistar-rats-differential-effects-on-the-hippocampus-and-striatum
#18
Moara Rodrigues Mingori, Luana Heimfarth, Charles Francisco Ferreira, Henrique Mautone Gomes, Karla Suzana Moresco, Jeferson Delgado, Sabrina Roncato, Fares Zeidán-Chuliá, Daniel Pens Gelain, José Cláudio Fonseca Moreira
During aging, there is a marked decline in the antioxidant capacity of brain tissue, leading to a gradual loss of the antioxidant/oxidant balance, which causes oxidative damage. The effects of Paullinia cupana Mart. extract, which is described as being rich in caffeine and many polyphenol compounds, on the central nervous system have not been extensively investigated. The aim of this study was to therefore investigate the effect of a commercial guarana extract (CGE) on cognitive function, oxidative stress, and brain homeostasis proteins related to cognitive injury and senescence in middle age, male Wistar rats...
March 27, 2017: Neurochemical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28345060/genome-reduction-and-microbe-host-interactions-drive-adaptation-of-a-sulfur-oxidizing-bacterium-associated-with-a-cold-seep-sponge
#19
Ren-Mao Tian, Weipeng Zhang, Lin Cai, Yue-Him Wong, Wei Ding, Pei-Yuan Qian
As the most ancient metazoan, sponges have established close relationships with particular microbial symbionts. However, the characteristics and physiology of thioautotrophic symbionts in deep-sea sponges are largely unknown. Using a tailored "differential coverage binning" method on 22-Gb metagenomic sequences, we recovered the nearly complete genome of a sulfur-oxidizing bacterium (SOB) that dominates the microbiota of the cold seep sponge Suberites sp. Phylogenetic analyses suggested that this bacterium (an unclassified gammaproteobacterium termed "Gsub") may represent a new deep-sea SOB group...
March 2017: MSystems
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28344907/grape-seed-proanthocyanidin-extract-protects-lymphocytes-against-histone-induced-apoptosis
#20
Ping Chang, Bing Mo, David M Cauvi, Ying Yu, Zhenhui Guo, Jian Zhou, Qiong Huang, Qitao Yan, Guiming Chen, Zhanguo Liu
Apoptosis of lymphocytes is associated with immunosuppression and poor prognosis in sepsis. Our previous report showed that histones, nuclear proteins released from damaged or dying cells in sepsis, can mediate lymphocyte apoptosis via mitochondria damage. Grape seed proanthocyanidin extract (GSPE), a natural substance with protective properties against oxidative stress, plays a vital role in cell and mitochondria protection. We thus hypothesized that GSPE may play a protective role in histone-induced lymphocyte apoptosis through its anti-oxidative properties...
2017: PeerJ
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