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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551869/impact-of-chronic-stress-on-the-spatial-learning-and-gr-pkac-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-in-the-hippocampus-and-cortex-in-rats-following-cholinergic-depletion
#1
Sun-Young Lee, Woo-Hyun Cho, Yo-Seob Lee, Jung-Soo Han
Studies have shown that the removal of the cholinergic innervation to the hippocampus induces dysfunction of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenocortical axis and decreases the number of glucocorticoid receptors (GRs). Subsequent studies have revealed that the loss of cholinergic input to the hippocampus reduces the expression of GRs and activates nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signaling through interactions with the cytoplasmic catalytic subunit of protein kinase A (PKAc). We examined the effects of chronic stress on cognitive status and GR-PKAc-NF-κB signaling in rats with a loss of cholinergic input to the hippocampus and cortex...
May 27, 2017: Molecular Neurobiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551802/mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-cardiovascular-aging
#2
Charles L Hoppel, Edward J Lesnefsky, Qun Chen, Bernard Tandler
Mitochondria are the prime source of ATP in cardiomyocytes. Impairment of mitochondrial metabolism results in damage to existing proteins and DNA. Such deleterious effects are part and parcel of the aging process, reducing the ability of cardiomyocytes to counter stress, such as myocardial infarction and consequent reperfusion. In such conditions, mitochondria in the heart of aged individuals exhibit decreased oxidative phosphorylation, decreased ATP production, and increased net reactive oxygen species production; all of these effects are independent of the decrease in number of mitochondria that occurs in these situations...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551798/mitochondrial-proton-leak-plays-a-critical-role-in-pathogenesis-of-cardiovascular-diseases
#3
Jiali Cheng, Gayani Nanayakkara, Ying Shao, Ramon Cueto, Luqiao Wang, William Y Yang, Ye Tian, Hong Wang, Xiaofeng Yang
Mitochondrial proton leak is the principal mechanism that incompletely couples substrate oxygen to ATP generation. This chapter briefly addresses the recent progress made in understanding the role of proton leak in the pathogenesis of cardiovascular diseases. Majority of the proton conductance is mediated by uncoupling proteins (UCPs) located in the mitochondrial inner membrane. It is evident that the proton leak and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated from electron transport chain (ETC) in mitochondria are linked to each other...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551797/peripheral-blood-mitochondrial-dna-and-myocardial-function
#4
Tatiana Kuznetsova, Judita Knez
Heart failure is a complex progressive clinical syndrome which is initiated by risk factors (e.g., hypertension, obesity, and diabetes), then proceeds to asymptomatic maladaptive left ventricular remodeling and dysfunction, and finally evolves into clinically overt, symptomatic heart failure, disability, and death. The progression of left ventricular dysfunction is associated with changes in cardiac energy metabolism. Mitochondria play a central role in a variety of cardiomyocytes functions, including oxidative energy production, storage of calcium ions, and programmed cell death...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551792/mechanistic-role-of-thioredoxin-2-in-heart-failure
#5
Chaofei Chen, Haixuan Chen, Huanjiao Jenny Zhou, Weidong Ji, Wang Min
Thioredoxin 2 (Trx2) is a pivotal mitochondrial protein that regulates redox signaling. The mitochondrial Trx2 is expressed ubiquitously, but it is found at the highest levels in metabolically active tissues like the heart. Global gene knockout of Trx2 results in embryonic lethality, likely due to the increased cellular oxidative stress. Moreover, mice with cardiac-specific Trx2 deletion develop spontaneous dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), correlating with increased apoptosis stress kinase-1 (ASK1) signaling and increased cardiomyocyte apoptosis...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551789/mitochondria-and-cardiac-hypertrophy
#6
Heberty di Tarso Fernandes Facundo, Robert Eli Brainard, Francisco Rodrigo de Lemos Caldas, Aline Maria Brito Lucas
Cardiac tissue responds to long-term hemodynamic load through initiation of a hypertrophic remodeling program. Importantly, if not counteracted this response will eventually lead to organ failure. Cardiac hypertrophic adaptations are complex, and involve multiple cellular events and the mechanisms underlying the development of cardiac hypertrophy are not well understood. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been indicated as a potential and important player in the development of cardiac hypertrophy. Additionally, substantial evidence shows that a significant portion of mitochondrial processes, necessary for normal cardiomyocyte physiology, are impacted by these hypertrophic changes...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551720/effect-of-paricalcitol-on-pancreatic-oxidative-stress-inflammatory-markers-and-glycemic-status-in-diabetic-rats
#7
T M Ali, B El Esawy, A Elaskary
OBJECTIVES: This study is designed to explore the effect of paricalcitol (vitamin D receptor agonist) on pancreatic oxidative stress, inflammatory markers, and adiponectin and glycemic status in diabetic rats. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Forty Sprague-Dawley male rats aged 10-12 weeks (150-250 g) were used in this study. Type 2 diabetes was developed by providing 4 weeks of high-fat-diet feeding before one shot of streptozotocin injection (40 mg/kg i.p.). Four study groups were designed as normal control rats, diabetic control vehicle-treated, diabetic paricalcitol-treated (0...
May 27, 2017: Irish Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551710/on-the-mechanisms-of-melatonin-in-protection-of-aluminum-phosphide-cardiotoxicity
#8
Mohammad Hossein Asghari, Milad Moloudizargari, Maryam Baeeri, Amir Baghaei, Mahban Rahimifard, Reza Solgi, Abbas Jafari, Hamed Haghi Aminjan, Shokoufeh Hassani, Ali Akbar Moghadamnia, Seyed Nasser Ostad, Mohammad Abdollahi
Aluminum phosphide (AlP), one of the most commonly used pesticides worldwide, has been the leading cause of self-poisoning mortalities among many Asian countries. The heart is the main organ affected in AlP poisoning. Melatonin has been previously shown to be beneficial in reversing toxic changes in the heart. The present study reveals evidence on the probable protective effects of melatonin on AlP-induced cardiotoxicity in rats. The study groups included a control (almond oil only), ethanol 5% (solvent), sole melatonin (50 mg/kg), AlP (16...
May 27, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551684/exhaled-breath-condensate-acidification-occurs-during-surgery-for-abdominal-cancer
#9
Archontia Mahairidou, Sophia Rodopoulou, Ioannis Tomos, Eirini Maratou, Effrosyni Manali, Thomas Raptakis, Spyros A Papiris, Anna Karakatsani
BACKGROUND/AIM: Acidification of exhaled breath condensate (EBC), reflecting airway inflammation and oxidative stress, has been reported in lung cancer patients undergoing lobectomy. We undertook this study to examine EBC pH changes during surgery for abdominal cancer. PATIENTS AND METHODS: EBC pH was measured from 20 patients undergoing abdominal cancer resection before and during surgery. Repeated-measures of ANOVA and random-effects linear models were applied to compare mean EBC pH values in samples collected at different times...
June 2017: Anticancer Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551561/oxidative-stress-and-respiratory-symptoms-due-to-human-exposure-to-polycyclic-aromatic-hydrocarbons-pahs-in-kumasi-ghana
#10
Nesta Bortey-Sam, Yoshinori Ikenaka, Osei Akoto, Shouta M M Nakayama, Kwadwo A Asante, Elvis Baidoo, Christian Obirikorang, Aksorn Saengtienchai, Norikazu Isoda, Collins Nimako, Hazuki Mizukawa, Mayumi Ishizuka
Studies of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and its metabolites in PM10, soils, rat livers and cattle urine in Kumasi, Ghana, revealed high concentrations and cancer potency. In addition, WHO and IARC have reported an increase in cancer incidence and respiratory diseases in Ghana. Human urine were therefore collected from urban and control sites to: assess the health effects associated with PAHs exposure using malondialdehyde (MDA) and 8-hydroxy-2-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG); identify any association between OH-PAHs, MDA, 8-OHdG with age and sex; and determine the relationship between PAHs exposure and occurrence of respiratory diseases...
May 25, 2017: Environmental Pollution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551552/standardized-mori-ramulus-extract-improves-insulin-secretion-and-insulin-sensitivity-in-c57blks-j-db-db-mice-and-ins-1-cells
#11
Soo-Yeon Park, Bora Jin, Jae-Ho Shin, Sirichai Adisakwattana, Oran Kwon
Abnormalities in the hyperbolic relationship between insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion may cause oxidative stress and non-enzymatic glycation, resulting in an increased risk of type 2 diabetes. Here, we performed a 14-week study to investigate the effects of ethanolic extract of Mori ramulus (MRE; 0, 800, and 1600mg/kg body weight) and its signature component oxyresveratrol (OXY; 800mg/kg body weight) on β-cell dysfunction and insulin resistance in C57BLKS/J db/db mice fed with a high-fat diet. Compared with the diabetic control group, the high-dose MRE group showed a significant decrease in fasting blood glucose (p=0...
May 25, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551551/the-protective-effect-of-quercetin-on-cyclophosphamide-induced-lung-toxicity-in-rats
#12
Emin Şengül, Volkan Gelen, Semin Gedikli, Seçkin Özkanlar, Cihan Gür, Fikret Çelebi, Ali Çınar
Cyclophosphamide (CYP) is an anticancer agent widely used in chemotherapy. It has been suggested that CYP causes toxicity in many organs, including the lungs and testes. Many studies have indicated that some antioxidants have possible protective effects against CYP's side effects. This study aimed to investigate the protective effect of quercetin (QUE) on CYP-induced lung toxicity in rats using histologic and biochemical methods. In the study, 50 male Sprague-Dawley rats weighing 220-250g were used. There were 4 experimental groups and 1 control group...
May 25, 2017: Biomedicine & Pharmacotherapy, Biomédecine & Pharmacothérapie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551354/targeting-free-radicals-in-oxidative-stress-related-human-diseases
#13
REVIEW
Patrik Poprac, Klaudia Jomova, Miriama Simunkova, Vojtech Kollar, Christopher J Rhodes, Marian Valko
Cancer and Alzheimer's disease (AD) are characterized by (i) opposing biological mechanisms, (ii) an inverse correlation between their incidences, and (iii) oxidative stress being a common denominator of both diseases. Increased formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in cancer cells from oncogenic signaling and/or metabolic disturbances leads to upregulation of cellular antioxidant capacity to maintain ROS levels below a toxic threshold. Combining drugs that induce high levels of ROS with compounds that suppress cellular antioxidant capacity by depleting antioxidant systems [glutathione (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and thioredoxin (TRX)] and/or targeting glucose metabolism represents a potential anticancer strategy...
May 24, 2017: Trends in Pharmacological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551192/differences-in-liver-functionality-indexes-in-peripartal-dairy-cows-fed-rumen-protected-methionine-or-choline-are-associated-with-performance-oxidative-stress-status-and-plasma-amino-acid-profiles
#14
Z Zhou, E Trevisi, D N Luchini, J J Loor
The liver functionality index (LFI) represents an assessment of transition cow metabolic health by measuring changes in biomarkers associated with liver plasma protein synthesis (albumin), lipoprotein synthesis (cholesterol), and heme catabolism (bilirubin). The present analysis was conducted to determine the role of peripartal rumen-protected Met or choline (CHOL) supplementation on LFI groupings, and to assess relationships with performance, inflammation, oxidative stress status, and plasma AA profiles. A cohort of 40 multiparous Holstein cows that were part of a randomized complete block design with 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of Met (Smartamine M, Adisseo NA, Alpharetta, GA) and CHOL (ReaShure, Balchem Inc...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551182/identification-and-functional-analysis-of-bull-bos-taurus-cauda-epididymal-fluid-proteome
#15
B Westfalewicz, M A Dietrich, A Mostek, A Partyka, W Bielas, W Niżański, A Ciereszko
Despite recent advances in bull epididymal fluid proteome research, significant numbers of proteins secreted to epididymal lumen remain unidentified. The objective of this study was to expand the number of identified cauda epididymal fluid proteins in bulls and to contextualize them in a broader view of their mutual interactions and involvement in biological processes and pathways, to fully elucidate the ways in which epididymal fluid proteins are involved in storage and maturation of spermatozoa in epididymis...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551178/antioxidant-status-and-gut-microbiota-change-in-an-aging-mouse-model-as-influenced-by-exopolysaccharide-produced-by-lactobacillus-plantarum-yw11-isolated-from-tibetan-kefir
#16
Jian Zhang, Xiao Zhao, Yunyun Jiang, Wen Zhao, Ting Guo, Yongqiang Cao, Junwei Teng, Xiaona Hao, Juan Zhao, Zhennai Yang
This study investigated the effect of exopolysaccharide (EPS) produced by Lactobacillus plantarum YW11 on the oxidative status and gut microbiota in an aging mouse model induced with d-galactose. The in vitro assay of the antioxidant activity of the EPS showed concentration-dependent (0.25-3.0 mg/mL) activities. At 3.0 mg/mL, the EPS reached the highest scavenging activities with half maximal inhibitory concentration values against hydroxyl radicals at 75.10% and 1.22 mg/mL, superoxide anion at 62.71% and 1...
May 24, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551162/association-of-sympathovagal-imbalance-with-cognitive-impairment-in-type-2-diabetes
#17
Pal Auroprajna, Basanta Manjari Naik, Jaya Prakash Sahoo, Gorantla Shravya Keerthi, Manohar Pavanya, Gopal Krushna Pal
OBJECTIVE: Sympathovagal imbalance (SVI) has been reported to be associated with metabolic derangements in type 2 diabetes. We investigated the association of SVI with cognitive impairment in patients with type 2 diabetes. METHODS: Patients with a new diagnosis of type 2 diabetes (n=43) and age-matched healthy control subjects (n=43) were recruited for the study. Body mass index and blood pressure measurements were recorded. SVI was assessed by spectral analysis of heart rate variability (HRV), and cognitive function was assessed by recording the positive wave that appears in 300 milliseconds from application of stimulus in event-related potential tracing (P300)...
May 24, 2017: Canadian Journal of Diabetes
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28551040/development-of-a-candidate-stabilizing-formulation-for-bulk-storage-of-a-double-mutant-heat-labile-toxin-dmlt-protein-based-adjuvant
#18
Vishal M Toprani, Neha Sahni, John M Hickey, George A Robertson, C Russell Middaugh, Sangeeta B Joshi, David B Volkin
This work describes the formulation design and development of a novel protein based adjuvant, a double mutant of heat labile toxin (dmLT), based on knowledge of the protein's structural integrity and physicochemical degradation pathways. Various classes of pharmaceutical excipients were screened for their stabilizing effect on dmLT during exposure to thermal and agitation stresses as monitored by high throughput analytical assays for dmLT degradation. Sucrose, phosphate, sodium chloride, methionine and polysorbate-80 were identified as potential stabilizers that protected dmLT against either conformational destabilization, aggregation/particle formation or chemical degradation (e...
May 24, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550976/cultivation-and-characterization-of-pterygium-as-an-ex-vivo-study-model-for-disease-and-therapy
#19
Natasha Josifovska, Dóra Júlia Szabó, Richárd Nagymihály, Zoltán Veréb, Andrea Facskó, Ketil Eriksen, Morten C Moe, Goran Petrovski
PURPOSE: Development of ex vivo model to study pathogenesis, inflammation and treatment modalities for pterygium. METHODS: Pterygium obtained from surgery was cultivated (3 months). Gravitational attachment method using viscoelastic facilitated adherence of graft and outgrowing cells. Medium contained serum as the only growth supplement with no use of scaffolds. Surface profiling of the multi-layered cells for hematopoietic- and mesenchymal stem cell markers was performed...
May 24, 2017: Contact Lens & Anterior Eye: the Journal of the British Contact Lens Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28550779/pathways-in-bacterial-and-archaeal-communities-dictated-by-ammonium-stress-in-a-high-solid-anaerobic-digester-with-dewatered-sludge
#20
Ning Li, Jin He, Han Yan, Sisi Chen, Xiaohu Dai
Metagenomic comparisons of microbial profiles were conducted to investigate differences between the samples from steady (Day 42), ammonium-adjusting (Day 63), and ammonium-stressed (Day 102) periods during the 110-day operation of a high solid anaerobic digester of sewage sludge. Comparing to the steady period, biogas production was slightly inhibited after ammonium adjustment, during which the microbes showed higher abundance in 6 of the total 22 ammonium-related genes. In addition, among the 19 amino-acid-related genes, 9 genes involved in amino acid generation and utilization were reduced, which partially revealed the reason of deterioration of volatile solids (VSs) degradation following ammonium stress...
May 18, 2017: Bioresource Technology
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