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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214420/prevention-of-radiotherapy-induced-neurocognitive-dysfunction-in-survivors-of-paediatric-brain-tumours-the-potential-role-of-modern-imaging-and-radiotherapy-techniques
#1
REVIEW
Thankamma Ajithkumar, Stephen Price, Gail Horan, Amos Burke, Sarah Jefferies
Neurocognitive dysfunction is the leading cause of reduced quality of life in long-term survivors of paediatric brain tumours. Radiotherapy is one of the main contributors to neurocognitive sequelae. Current approaches for prevention and reduction of neurocognitive dysfunction include avoidance of radiotherapy in young children and reduction of the radiotherapy dose and volume of brain irradiated. Substantial advances have been made in brain imaging, especially with functional imaging and fibre tracking with the use of diffusion tensor imaging...
February 2017: Lancet Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214130/stability-of-sensory-topographies-in-adult-cortex
#2
REVIEW
Tamar R Makin, Sliman J Bensmaia
Textbooks teach us that the removal of sensory input to sensory cortex, for example, following arm amputation, results in massive reorganisation in the adult brain. In this opinion article, we critically examine evidence for functional reorganisation of sensory cortical representations, focusing on the sequelae of arm amputation on somatosensory topographies. Based on literature from human and non-human primates, we conclude that the cortical representation of the limb remains remarkably stable despite the loss of its main peripheral input...
February 14, 2017: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28214061/open-physeal-fracture-of-the-distal-phalanx-of-the-hallux-case-study-diagnosis-and-management
#3
Brandon Morris, Scott Mullen, Paul Schroeppel, Bryan Vopat
Open physeal fractures of the distal phalanx of the hallux are the lesser described counterpart to the same fracture of the finger, known by its eponym as a "Seymour fracture". Displaced Salter-Harris phalangeal fractures present with a concomitant nailbed or soft tissue injury. Often these fractures occur in the summer months when open-toe footwear can be worn, however, they may occur indoors as well. Frequently, the injury results from direct axial load of the toe, or "stubbing", which causes the fracture and associated soft tissue injury...
February 6, 2017: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213803/first-experiences-with-neuropsychological-effects-of-oxytocin-administration-in-childhood-onset-craniopharyngioma
#4
Anika Hoffmann, Jale Özyurt, Kristin Lohle, Julia Reichel, Christiane M Thiel, Hermann L Müller
PURPOSE: The hypothalamic hormone oxytocin plays a major role in regulation of behavior and body composition. Quality of survival is frequently impaired in childhood craniopharyngioma patients due to sequelae such as behavioral deficits and severe obesity caused by tumor or treatment-related hypothalamic lesions. METHODS: In our pilot cross-sectional study, we analyzed emotion recognition abilities and oxytocin concentrations in saliva and urine before and after single nasal administration of 24 IU oxytocin in 10 craniopharyngioma patients...
February 17, 2017: Endocrine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213557/tension-pneumocephalus-induced-by-high-flow-nasal-cannula-ventilation-in-a-neonate
#5
Alicia Iglesias-Deus, Alejandro Pérez-Muñuzuri, Olalla López-Suárez, Pilar Crespo, Maria-Luz Couce
The use of high-flow nasal cannula (HFNC) therapy as respiratory support for preterm infants has increased rapidly worldwide. The evidence available for the use of HFNC is as an alternative to nasal continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) and in particular to prevent postextubation failure. We report a case of tension pneumocephalus in a preterm infant as a complication during HFNC ventilation. Significant neurological impairment was detected and support was eventually withdrawn. Few cases of pneumocephalus as a complication of positive airway pressure have been reported in the neonatal period, and they all have been related to CPAP...
March 2017: Archives of Disease in Childhood. Fetal and Neonatal Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28213402/a-novel-method-of-standardized-myocardial-infarction-in-aged-rabbits
#6
Patrick J Morrissey, Kevin R Murphy, Jean M Daley, Lorraine Schofield, Nilufer N Turan, Karuppiah Arunachalam, J Dawn Abbott, Gideon Koren
The incidence of myocardial infarction (MI) and sudden cardiac death increases with age. Here we describe the development of a minimally invasive large animal model of MI that can be applied to young or aged animals. We demonstrate that rabbit coronary anatomy is highly variable, more so than described in previous literature. In this work we categorize the coronary pattern of 37 young and 63 aged rabbits. Aged rabbits had a higher degree of branching from the left main coronary artery. Standardizing the model across age cohorts required a new approach, targeting an area of myocardium rather than a specific vessel...
February 17, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28212362/the-management-of-psychological-issues-in-oncology
#7
Daniel C McFarland, Jimmie C Holland
Psychological issues in the cancer setting are highly prevalent and well documented, and can lead to adverse outcomes. Several series of guidelines have been put forth to ensure that both psychological and psychiatric issues are addressed. The management of psychological issues in cancer is relevant for clinicians whose patients are identified clinically or via screening mechanisms with psychological or psychiatric sequelae from cancer. This review describes the psychological impact of cancer, distress screening as a triage mechanism, and the presentation and management of several specific comorbid psychological/psychiatric diagnoses in the oncology setting...
December 2016: Clinical Advances in Hematology & Oncology: H&O
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211972/tsc2-c-1864c-t-variant-associated-with-mild-cases-of-tuberous-sclerosis-complex
#8
Laura S Farach, William T Gibson, Steven P Sparagana, Mark Nellist, Connie T R M Stumpel, Marja Hietala, Elliott Friedman, Deborah A Pearson, Susan P Creighton, Annemiek Wagemans, Reveel Segel, Efrat Ben-Shalom, Kit Sing Au, Hope Northrup
Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is an autosomal dominantly inherited disorder with variable expressivity associated with hamartomatous tumors, abnormalities of the skin, and neurologic problems including seizures, intellectual disability, and autism. TSC is caused by pathogenic variants in either TSC1 or TSC2. In general, TSC2 pathogenic variants are associated with a more severe phenotype than TSC1 pathogenic variants. Here, we report a pathogenic TSC2 variant, c.1864C>T, p.(Arg622Trp), associated with a mild phenotype, with most carriers meeting fewer than two major clinical diagnostic criteria for TSC...
March 2017: American Journal of Medical Genetics. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211648/cognitive-development-in-preterm-infants-multi-faceted-deficits-reflect-vulnerability-of-rigorous-neurodevelopmental-pathways
#9
Jessie R Maxwell, Tracylyn R Yellowhair, Akosua Y Oppong, Jenny E Camacho, Jean R Lowe, Lauren L Jantzie, Robin K Ohls
Prematurity remains the major cause of neonatal morbidity and mortality, with 15 million preterm births occurring worldwide in 2010. Infants born less than 37 weeks gestation are at high risk of abnormal neurodevelopmental outcomes, given that the central nervous system is extremely sensitive to an abnormal intra- and extra-uterine environment. Children born preterm have multiple neurodevelopmental sequelae involving dynamic and complex cognitive deficits. Former preterm infants have difficulty with each domain of cognition, including executive function, language, learning and memory, complex attention, perceptual-motor function and social cognition when compared to children born at term...
February 17, 2017: Minerva Pediatrica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211317/primary-human-cytomegalovirus-hcmv-infection-in-pregnancy
#10
Horst Buxmann, Klaus Hamprecht, Matthias Meyer-Wittkopf, Klaus Friese
BACKGROUND: In 0.5-4% of pregnancies, the prospective mother sustains a primary infection with human cytomegalovirus (HCMV). An HCMV infection of the fetus in the first or second trimester can cause complex post-encephalitic impairment of the infant brain, leading to motor and mental retardation, cerebral palsy, epilepsy, retinal defects, and progressive hearing loss. METHODS: This review is based on pertinent publications from January 2000 to October 2016 that were retrieved by a selective search in PubMed employing the terms "cytomegalovirus and pregnancy" and "congenital cytomegalovirus...
January 27, 2017: Deutsches Ärzteblatt International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28211287/efficacy-analysis-of-a-novel-sternoclavicular-hook-plate-for-treatment-of-unstable-sternoclavicular-joint-dislocation-or-fracture
#11
Chuanyi Zhang, Lie Lin, Junbo Liang, Bin Wang, Guofu Chen, Haixiao Chen
PURPOSE: Sternoclavicular joint is an amphiarthrodial joint formed by the clavicle and sternal manubrium. This joint becomes chronically unstable in case of a medial clavicle dislocation or fracture, and improper treatment could cause malformation and pain. We aimed to determine the efficacy of a novel sternoclavicular hook plate for treatment of unstable sternoclavicular joint dislocation or fracture. METHODS: Between June 2011 and December 2013, the sternoclavicular hook plate was used to surgically treat 32 adult patients with unstable sternoclavicular joint dislocation or fracture...
January 2017: Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210942/how-we-treat-chronic-active-epstein-barr-virus-infection
#12
REVIEW
Akihisa Sawada, Masami Inoue, Keisei Kawa
Chronic active Epstein-Barr virus infection (CAEBV) is a prototype of the EBV-associated T- or NK-cell lymphoproliferative diseases, which also include hypersensitivity to mosquito bites and severe-type hydroavacciniforme. The manifestations of CAEBV are often self-limiting with minimum supportive care or only prednisolone and cyclosporine A with or without etoposide. However, allogeneic hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is the only cure, without which patients with CAEBV die within several years...
February 16, 2017: International Journal of Hematology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210774/understanding-the-long-term-sequelae-of-ecmo-survivors
#13
Stacey Burns, Natalie Constantin, Priscila Robles
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
February 16, 2017: Intensive Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210413/orbital-adherence-syndrome-following-the-use-of-titanium-precontoured-orbital-mesh-for-the-reconstruction-of-posttraumatic-orbital-floor-defects
#14
Geraldine Hwee Ping Lee, Samuel Yew Ming Ho
Orbital blowout fractures are a common occurrence following orbital trauma. Depending on the size of the defect and the contents that have herniated or incarcerated, possible sequelae include enophthalmos, diplopia, dystopia, and entrapment. Surgical intervention aims to prevent or alleviate this through the use of a bone graft or an alloplastic implant to reconstitute the continuity of the orbit. However, in doing so, the implant itself may result in the unexpected adherence of the periorbita, resulting in orbital adherence syndrome...
March 2017: Craniomaxillofacial Trauma & Reconstruction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28210404/infraorbital-nerve-decompression-for-infraorbital-neuralgia-causalgia-following-blowout-orbital-fractures-a-case-series
#15
Bijan Beigi, Mazda Beigi, Nuwan Niyadurupola, Manuel Saldana, Nabil El-Hindy, Deepak Gupta
The purpose of this study was to present the management of a series of patients referred with infraorbital nerve paraesthesia that developed after insignificant orbital floor fracture without diplopia or exophthalmos, and that did not require initial surgical repair. This is a retrospective interventional case series. The main outcome and measures were assessment of preoperative symptoms including neuralgia and sensory symptoms; review of periorbital computed tomography (CT) scans; and assessment of postoperative effects of surgery for infraorbital nerve decompression...
March 2017: Craniomaxillofacial Trauma & Reconstruction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209416/efficacy-of-an-anal-fistula-plug-for-fistulas-in-ano-in-children
#16
Katsunori Kouchi, Ayao Takenouchi, Aki Matsuoka, Kiyoaki Yabe, Mashahiro Korai, Chikako Nakata
BACKGROUND: In children, perianal abscesses have a good prognosis and often heal with age. However, some perianal abscesses are refractory to treatment and remain as fistulas-in-ano. Treatment with a Surgisis Anal Fistula Plug® has been reported as a new method of treatment for fistulas. In adults, the plug has been reported to cause little pain and have a high cure rate, but there have been no reported cases of its use in children. PURPOSE: This study was designed to analyze the efficacy of the plug for closure of refractory fistulas in children...
February 2, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28209003/comparative-evaluation-of-immediate-post-operative-sequelae-after-surgical-removal-of-impacted-mandibular-third-molar-with-or-without-tube-drain-split-mouth-study
#17
Barun Kumar, Kalyani Bhate, R S Dolas, Sn Santhosh Kumar, Pushkar Waknis
INTRODUCTION: Third molar surgery is one of the most common surgical procedures performed in general dentistry. Post-operative variables such as pain, swelling and trismus are major concerns after impacted mandibular third molar surgery. Use of passive tube drain is supposed to help reduce these immediate post-operative sequelae. The current study was designed to compare the effect of tube drain on immediate post-operative sequelae following impacted mandibular third molar surgery. AIM: To compare the post-operative sequelae after surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molar surgery with or without tube drain...
December 2016: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208203/acute-pulmonary-embolism-after-discharge-duration-of-therapy-and-follow-up-testing
#18
Cecilia Becattini, Laura Franco, Giancarlo Agnelli
Pulmonary embolism (PE) is a frequent cause of death and serious disability with a risk extending far beyond the acute phase of the disease. Anticoagulant treatment reduces the risk for death and recurrent VTE after a first PE. The optimal duration of anticoagulation after a first episode of PE remains controversial and should be made on an individual basis, balancing the estimated risk for recurrence without anticoagulant treatment against bleeding risk under anticoagulation. Current recommendations on duration of anticoagulation are based on a 3% per year risk of major bleeding expected during long-term warfarin treatment...
February 2017: Seminars in Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28208151/bacillus-calmette-gu%C3%A3-rin-confers-neuroprotection-in-a-murine-model-of-japanese-encephalitis
#19
Sahil Kulkarni, Sandeepan Mukherjee, Anupama Pandey, Ritwik Dahake, Usha Padmanabhan, Abhay S Chowdhary
OBJECTIVE: Japanese encephalitis (JE) is a debilitating disease caused by infection with the JE virus (JEV; family: Flaviviridae), which leaves neurological sequelae in survivors but more often leads to mortality. Neurodegeneration caused by inflammation is the primary pathology behind the clinical manifestation of encephalitis caused by JEV. Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) has been used in immunoprophylaxis for tuberculosis and in the adjuvant therapy of many malignancies, and has exhibited neuroprotective activities in experimental models of Parkinson and Alzheimer disease...
February 17, 2017: Neuroimmunomodulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206941/spontaneous-hepatic-hemorrhage-a-single-institution-s-16-year-experience
#20
Armando Rosales, Florencia G Que
Spontaneous hemorrhage from hepatic tumors is an uncommon but serious complication. Recently, interventional radiologic (IR) techniques are being used increasingly in the management of these patients. We report our 16-year experience in managing spontaneous hemorrhage from liver tumors. Twenty-six consecutive patients were diagnosed with spontaneous liver hemorrhage between 1995 and 2011. Initial management was operative in eight, IR in six, and supportive in 12 patients. Of those managed operatively, five were segmentectomies; one hemihepatectomy; one wedge resection; and one packing who later died from coagulopathy...
November 1, 2016: American Surgeon
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