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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078864/human-herpesviruses-6-and-7-encephalitis-in-immunocompetent-infants-are-they-really-so-uncommon
#1
L Marseglia, S Manti, G D Angelo, G Stroscio, D Impollonia, S Arena, C Salpietro, E Gitto
Human herpesviruses-6 and -7 (HHV-6 and 7) are considered uncommon causes of central nervous system infection and may occasionally cause encephalitis in young infants, however, the clinical syndrome and incidence are not well defined. In immunosuppressed hosts, reactivation is associated with a worse outcome such as encephalitis, hepatitis, or graft rejection. In immunocompetent hosts, this persistent infection is generally of no consequence. We report 4 cases of immunocompetent critically ill children, affected by HHV-6 and -7 encephalitis, admitted to our Pediatric Intensive Care Unit...
October 2016: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28078861/interleukin-6-and-interleukin-8-in-diagnosing-neonatal-septicemia
#2
Y Q Wu, J Shen, Q L Zhou, H W Zhao, L R Liu, X Liu
Neonatal septicemia (NS) is a common cause of death of newborn infants, hence early diagnosis and treatment are of the utmost importance. However, lack of specific clinical symptoms and late detection delay a correct diagnosis. It is therefore of great importance to establish auxiliary indexes for the early diagnosis of NS. To evaluate the value of interleukin (IL-6 and IL-8) in the diagnosis of NS, a prospective study was carried out. Seventy-five newborns who developed septicemia and received treatment in our hospital from January 2013 to December 2014 were selected as research subjects; also, 50 healthy newborns were set as a control group...
October 2016: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28075691/complexity-of-brain-signals-is-associated-with-outcome-in-preterm-infants
#3
Cristine Sortica da Costa, Michal M Placek, Marek Czosnyka, Brenno Cabella, Magdalena Kasprowicz, Topun Austin, Peter Smielewski
A characteristic feature of complex healthy biological systems is the ability to react and adapt to minute changes in the environment. This 'complexity' manifests itself in highly irregular patterns of various physiological measurements. Here, we apply Multiscale Entropy (MSE) analysis to assess the complexity of systemic and cerebral near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) signals in a cohort of 61 critically ill preterm infants born at median (range) gestational age of 26 (23-31) weeks, before 24 h of life. We further correlate the complexity of these parameters with brain injury and mortality...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Cerebral Blood Flow and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28058755/characteristics-of-bordetella-pertussis-infection-among-infantsand-children-admitted-to-paediatric-intensive-care-units-in-greece-a-multicentre-11-year-study
#4
Maria S Kazantzi, Anargyroula Prezerakou, Serafeia N Kalamitsou, Stavroula Ilia, Panagiotis K Kalabalikis, John Papadatos, Maria M Sdougka, George Briassoulis, Maria N Tsolia
AIM: To describe children with pertussis who required intensive care. METHODS: This is a retrospective analysis of pertussis admissions to all (six) national intensive care units in Greece from 2003 to 2013. RESULTS: A total of 31 children were included, 28 of whom were younger than 12 months old. Cough was the most prominent symptom, being present in 27 of 31 (87%) patients, and on admission, only 7 (22.6%) satisfied the case definition...
January 6, 2017: Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28046032/inflammatory-mediators-in-tracheal-aspirates-of-preterm-infants-participating-in-a-randomized-trial-of-inhaled-nitric-oxide
#5
Mandy Laube, Elena Amann, Ulrike Uhlig, Yang Yang, Hans W Fuchs, Michael Zemlin, Jean-Christophe Mercier, Rolf F Maier, Helmut D Hummler, Stefan Uhlig, Ulrich H Thome
BACKGROUND: Ventilated preterm infants frequently develop bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD) which is associated with elevated inflammatory mediators in their tracheal aspirates (TA). In animal models of BPD, inhaled nitric oxide (iNO) has been shown to reduce lung inflammation, but data for human preterm infants is missing. METHODS: Within a European multicenter trial of NO inhalation for preterm infants to prevent BPD (EUNO), TA was collected to determine the effects of iNO on pulmonary inflammation...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28040697/mother-s-recognition-of-and-treatment-triggers-for-common-childhood-illnesses-among-migrant-santal-tribe-living-in-bhubaneswar-odisha-india
#6
Suchismita Mishra, Yadlapalli S Kusuma, Bontha V Babu
BACKGROUND: Accelerating reduction in infant and other child mortality rates calls for comprehensive child survival strategies. Early recognition of illness and timely seeking of treatment are critical elements to prevent child deaths, and cultural explanation for these care-seeking behaviours is important. The present article reports (i) mothers' recognition of illness and (ii) triggers of treatment related to some childhood illnesses among a migrant tribal community living in Bhubaneswar city, India...
December 30, 2016: Journal of Tropical Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27988146/simplified-antibiotic-regimens-for-treatment-of-clinical-severe-infection-in-the-outpatient-setting-when-referral-is-not-possible-for-young-infants-in-pakistan-simplified-antibiotic-therapy-trial-satt-a-randomised-open-label-equivalence-trial
#7
Fatima Mir, Imran Nisar, Shiyam S Tikmani, Benazir Baloch, Sadia Shakoor, Fyezah Jehan, Imran Ahmed, Simon Cousens, Anita K M Zaidi
BACKGROUND: Parenteral antibiotic therapy for young infants (aged 0-59 days) with suspected sepsis is sometimes not available or feasible in countries with high neonatal mortality. Outpatient treatment could save lives in such settings. We aimed to assess the equivalence of two simplified antibiotic regimens, comprising fewer injections and oral rather than parenteral administration, compared with a reference treatment for young infants with clinical severe infection. METHODS: We undertook the Simplified Antibiotic Therapy Trial (SATT), a three-arm, randomised, open-label, equivalence trial in five communities in Karachi, Pakistan...
December 14, 2016: Lancet Global Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27986330/making-the-quick-diagnosis-a-case-of-neonatal-shock
#8
Mike Gardiner, Timothy K Ruttan, Andrew J Kienstra, Matthew Wilkinson
BACKGROUND: The work-up and initial management of a critically ill neonate is challenging and anxiety provoking for the Emergency Physician. While sepsis and critical congenital heart disease represent a large proportion of neonates presenting to the Emergency Department (ED) in shock, there are several additional etiologies to consider. Underlying metabolic, endocrinologic, gastrointestinal, neurologic, and traumatic disorders must be considered in a critically ill infant. Several potential etiologies will present with nonspecific and overlapping signs and symptoms, and the diagnosis often is not evident at the time of ED assessment...
December 13, 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27977013/acupuncture-in-the-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-using-ancient-medicine-to-help-today-s-babies-a-review
#9
K L Chen, I Quah-Smith, G M Schmölzer, R Niemtzow, J L Oei
Acupuncture has been used for thousands of years in Eastern medicine for a variety of conditions and illnesses, including pain. Neonatal intensive care, on the other hand, is a relatively new branch of medicine that has emerged as the pivotal influence in increasing survival of critically ill newborn infants only within the last 50 years. Unfortunately, pain is an inevitable part of treatment in a neonatal intensive care unit (NICU). The control and prevention of pain remains a major issue for clinicians despite recognition and understanding of the myriad of short- and long-term problems that are associated with both pain and its treatment within the NICU environment...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27974589/tigecycline-therapy-in-an-infant-for-ventriculoperitoneal-shunt-meningitis
#10
Melike Emiroglu, Gulsum Alkan, Hatice Turk Dagi
Shunt infections are seen in 3% to 20% of patients who have cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) shunts. Although the staphylococcal species are the most common cause of shunt-related infections, Gram-negative bacteria are increasingly reported with higher mortality rates. Tigecycline, a glycylcycline, is not approved for children. But in the era of nosocomial infections due to multidrug-resistant pathogens, it can be the life-saving option. We report an infant with ventriculoperitoneal shunt-related meningitis treated with a tigecycline combination regimen...
January 2017: Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27964776/-since-both-of-us-are-using-antiretrovirals-we-have-been-supportive-to-each-other-facilitators-and-barriers-of-pre-exposure-prophylaxis-use-in-heterosexual-hiv-serodiscordant-couples-in-kisumu-kenya
#11
Rena C Patel, Gaelen Stanford-Moore, Josephine Odoyo, Maria Pyra, Imeldah Wakhungu, Keerthana Anand, Elizabeth A Bukusi, Jared M Baeten, Joelle M Brown
INTRODUCTION: Since 2015, the World Health Organization recommends pre-exposure prophylaxis (PrEP) for all persons at substantial risk for HIV, including HIV-uninfected partners in serodiscordant relationships in resource-limited settings. As PrEP moves from clinical trials to real-world use, understanding facilitators of and barriers to PrEP initiation and adherence is critical to successful PrEP implementation and rollout. METHODS: We conducted 44 in-depth individual or couple interviews with 63 participants (30 without HIV and 33 with HIV) enrolled in the Partners Demonstration Project in Kisumu, Kenya, between August and September 2014...
2016: Journal of the International AIDS Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27951558/evolution-of-technology-for-continuous-renal-replacement-therapy-forty-years-of-improvements
#12
Claudio Ronco
Continuous arteriovenous hemofiltration (CAVH) was proposed in 1977 as an alternative treatment for acute renal failure in patients in whom peritoneal dialysis or hemodialysis was clinically or technically precluded. In the mid-1980s, this technique was extended to infants and children. CAVH presented important advantages in the areas of hemodynamic stability, control of circulating volume, and nutritional support. However, there were serious shortcomings such as the need for arterial cannulation and limited solute clearance...
2017: Contributions to Nephrology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27906197/treatment-and-follow-up-of-venous-thrombosis-in-the-neonatal-intensive-care-unit-a-retrospective-study
#13
J C Bohnhoff, S A DiSilvio, R K Aneja, J R Shenk, Y A Domnina, B S Brozanski, M Good
OBJECTIVE: The critically ill, premature patients of neonatal intensive care units are susceptible to venous thrombosis, an adverse event associated with short- and long-term morbidity. Venous thrombosis is frequently treated with low-molecular-weight heparins (LMWHs) such as enoxaparin, but optimal dosing of LMWH must balance the morbidity of venous thrombosis with the potential adverse affects of anticoagulation. The optimal dosing of enoxaparin for premature infants is unclear. The objective of this study was to describe enoxaparin therapy and follow-up in critically ill neonates diagnosed with venous thrombosis...
December 1, 2016: Journal of Perinatology: Official Journal of the California Perinatal Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876626/life-threatening-nlrc4-associated-hyperinflammation-successfully-treated-with-il-18-inhibition
#14
Scott W Canna, Charlotte Girard, Louise Malle, Adriana de Jesus, Neil Romberg, Judith Kelsen, Lea F Surrey, Pierre Russo, Andrew Sleight, Eduardo Schiffrin, Cem Gabay, Raphaela Goldbach-Mansky, Edward M Behrens
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 19, 2016: Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27875283/does-persistent-inflammatory-catabolic-syndrome-exist-in-critically-ill-neonates
#15
Nicole Ellis, Caitlin Hughes, Vera Mazurak, Chloe Joynt, Bodil Larsen
BACKGROUND: Persistent inflammatory catabolic syndrome (PICS) has not been described in the infant population. This study proposes a definition of PICS in critically ill infants. METHODS: A published adult criterion of PICS was modified using anthropometric and biochemical reference ranges for infants. A prospective chart review of admissions to a tertiary surgical neonatal intensive care unit (NICU) was performed over 65 days. Demographic, anthropometric, biochemical, and other clinical variables such as length of stay and medication use were collected daily throughout admission...
October 10, 2016: JPEN. Journal of Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27863513/epidemiology-of-rubella-virus-cases-in-the-pre-vaccination-era-of-ethiopia-2009-2015
#16
Mekonen Getahun, Berhane Beyene, Kathleen Gallagher, Ayesheshem Ademe, Birke Teshome, Mesfin Tefera, Anjelo Asha, Aklog Afework, Esete Assefa, Yoseph HaileMariam, Yonas HaileGiorgis, Hiwot Ketema, Dejenie Shiferaw, Ayenachew Bekele, Daddi Jima, Amha Kebede
BACKGROUND: Rubella is a common mild rash illness caused by rubella virus. The majority of infections occur in children and young adults. The infection is the cause of a serious birth defect known as Congenital Rubella Syndrome (CRS) when a woman acquires infection early in pregnancy. Ethiopia has not yet established rubella virus surveillance and has not yet introduced rubella vaccine into the routine immunization program. We characterize the epidemiology of laboratory confirmed rubella virus cases collected through measles surveillance from 2009 to 2015 to better understand the burden of the disease in the country...
November 18, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27852457/unexpected-non-maternally-derived-anti-pp1p-k-in-an-11-week-old-patient
#17
Hollie M Reeves, Victoria Cary, Mary Ann Mino, Claire McGrath, James A Westra, Connie Piccone, Katharine A Downes
Alloantibody formation at less than 4 months of age is rare. Most antibodies identified in these patients are maternally derived. Anti-PP1P(k) was detected in an 11-week-old infant that was not maternally derived. A multidisciplinary team approach led to appropriate testing, diagnosis, and transfusion management in this critically ill infant.
November 14, 2016: Journal of Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27850093/453-accuracy-of-ph-as-a-bedside-indicator-of-ng-feeding-tube-placement-in-critically-ill-infants
#18
Kathleen Meert, Ann Pawluszka, Melanie Lulic, Norma Metheny
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
December 2016: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27848889/contemporary-pediatric-palliative-care-myths-and-barriers-to-integration-into-clinical-care
#19
Stefan J Friedrichsdorf
At least 20 million children would benefit from Pediatric Palliative Care (PPC) annually, and 8 million children would need specialized PPC services. In the USA alone, more than 42,000 children 0-19 years died in 2013, fifty-five percent of them infants younger than 1 year. This article aims to critically review eight common assumptions, myths and barriers, which may hinder the implementation of PPC into the care of a child with advanced serious illnesses. Interdisciplinary PPC is about matching treatment to patient goals and is considered specialized medical care for children with serious illness...
November 15, 2016: Current Pediatric Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27834164/efficacy-of-sequential-nephron-blockade-with-intravenous-chlorothiazide-to-promote-diuresis-in-cardiac-intensive-care-infants
#20
Brady S Moffett, Rocky Tsang, Curt Kennedy, Ron A Bronicki, Ayse Akcan-Arikan, Paul A Checchia
BACKGROUND: Sequential nephron blockade using intravenous chlorothiazide is often used to enhance urine output in patients with inadequate response to loop diuretics. A few data exist to support this practice in critically ill infants. METHODS: We included 100 consecutive patients <1 year of age who were administered intravenous chlorothiazide while receiving furosemide therapy in the cardiac ICU in our study. The primary end point was change in urine output 24 hours after chlorothiazide administration, and patients were considered to be responders if an increase in urine output of 0...
November 11, 2016: Cardiology in the Young
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