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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432942/insights-into-the-diversity-of-nod-like-receptors-identification-and-expression-analysis-of-nlrc3-nlrc5-and-nlrx1-in-rainbow-trout
#1
Claudio A Álvarez, Felipe Ramírez-Cepeda, Paula Santana, Elisa Torres, Jimena Cortés, Fanny Guzmán, Paulina Schmitt, Luis Mercado
Nucleotide-binding oligomerization domain (NOD)-like receptors (NLRs) are efficient soluble intracellular sensors that activate defense mechanisms against pathogens. In teleost fish, the involvement of NLRs in the immune response is not well understood. However, recent work has evidenced the expression of different NLRs in response to some pathogen associated molecular patterns (PAMPs). In the present work, the cDNA sequence encoding three new NOD-like receptors were identified in Oncorhynchus mykiss, namely OmNLRC3, OmNLRC5 and OmNLRX1...
April 19, 2017: Molecular Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432047/delayed-lgi1-seropositivity-in-voltage-gated-potassium-channel-vgkc-complex-antibody-limbic-encephalitis
#2
Michael Sweeney, Jonathan Galli, Scott McNally, Anne Tebo, Thomas Haven, Perla Thulin, Stacey L Clardy
We utilise a clinical case to highlight why exclusion of voltage-gated potassium channel (VGKC)-complex autoantibody testing in serological evaluation of patients may delay or miss the diagnosis. A 68-year-old man presented with increasing involuntary movements consistent with faciobrachial dystonic seizures (FBDS). Initial evaluation demonstrated VGKC antibody seropositivity with leucine-rich glioma-inactivated 1 (LGI1) and contactin-associated protein-like 2 (CASPR2) seronegativity. Aggressive immunotherapy with methylprednisolone and plasmapheresis was started early in the course of his presentation...
April 20, 2017: BMJ Case Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431605/global-brain-atrophy-and-metabolic-dysfunction-in-lgi1-encephalitis-a-prospective-multimodal-mri-study
#3
Monika Szots, Morten Blaabjerg, Gergely Orsi, Pernille Iversen, Daniel Kondziella, Camilla G Madsen, Ellen Garde, Peter O Magnusson, Peter Barsi, Ferenc Nagy, Hartwig R Siebner, Zsolt Illes
BACKGROUND: Chronic cognitive deficits are frequent in leucin-rich glioma-inactivated 1 protein (LGI1) encephalitis. We examined structural and metabolic brain abnormalities following LGI1 encephalitis and correlated findings with acute and follow-up clinical outcomes. METHODS: Nine patients underwent prospective multimodal 3 Tesla MRI 33.1±18months after disease onset, including automated volumetry, diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS)...
May 15, 2017: Journal of the Neurological Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431321/atherogenicity-of-amino-acids-in-the-lipid-laden-macrophage-model-system-in-vitro-and-in-atherosclerotic-mice-a-key-role-for-triglyceride-metabolism
#4
Oren Rom, Claudia Grajeda-Iglesias, Mahmoud Najjar, Niroz Abu-Saleh, Nina Volkova, Dalit Esther Dar, Tony Hayek, Michael Aviram
Atherosclerosis-related research has focused mainly on the effects of lipids on macrophage foam cell formation and atherogenesis, whereas the role of amino acids (AAs) was understudied. The current study aimed to identify anti- or pro-atherogenic AA in the macrophage model system and to elucidate the underlying metabolic and molecular mechanisms. J774A.1 cultured macrophages were treated with increasing concentrations of each 1 of the 20 AAs. Macrophage atherogenicity was assessed in terms of cellular toxicity, generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and cellular cholesterol or triglyceride content...
April 6, 2017: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430877/the-accessible-chromatin-landscape-during-conversion-of-human-embryonic-stem-cells-to-trophoblast-by-bmp4
#5
Yajun Liu, Dewu Ding, Hongde Liu, Xiao Sun
Human embryonic stem cells (hESC) exposed to the growth factor bone morphogenic protein 4 (BMP4) in the absence of FGF2 have been used as a model to study the development of placental development. However, little is known about the cis-regulatory mechanisms underlying this important process. In this study, we used the public available chromatin accessibility data of hESC H1 cells and BMP4-induced trophoblast (TB)cell lines to identify DNase I hypersensitive sites (DHSs) in the two cell lines, as well as the transcription factor binding sites within the DHSs...
April 18, 2017: Biology of Reproduction
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430373/a-five-mirna-expression-signature-predicts-survival-in-hepatocellular-carcinoma
#6
Gang Liu, Hui Wang, Jin-Dong Fu, Jing-Ying Liu, Ai-Guo Yan, Yan-Yan Guan
The aim of this study was to identify a microRNA (miRNA) expression signature for predicting HCC (hepatocellular carcinoma) survival. A total of 322 HCC patients in The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) database were randomly divided into training and testing set. miRNAs, associated with survival time in the training set, were identified by using univariate Cox regression analysis. The risk score was formulated based on the expression levels of these miRNAs. Then the miRNA signature was validated in testing set through Kaplan-Meier analysis and log-rank test...
April 21, 2017: APMIS: Acta Pathologica, Microbiologica, et Immunologica Scandinavica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28430023/harnessing-effector-triggered-immunity-for-durable-disease-resistance
#7
Meixiang Zhang, Gitta Coaker
Genetic control of plant diseases has traditionally included the deployment of single immune receptors with nucleotide-binding leucine-rich repeat (NLR) domain architecture. These NLRs recognize corresponding pathogen effector proteins inside plant cells, resulting in effector-triggered immunity (ETI). Although ETI triggers robust resistance, deployment of single NLRs can be rapidly overcome by pathogen populations within a single or a few growing seasons. In order to generate more durable disease resistance against devastating plant pathogens, a multi-tiered strategy that incorporates stacked NLRs combined with other sources of disease resistance is necessary...
April 21, 2017: Phytopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429292/preparation-of-chloramphenicol-amino-acid-combinations-exhibiting-enhanced-dissolution-rates-and-reduced-drug-induced-oxidative-stress
#8
Vanesa B Sterren, Virginia Aiassa, Claudia Garnero, Yamila Garro Linck, Ana K Chattah, Gustavo A Monti, Marcela R Longhi, Ariana Zoppi
Chloramphenicol is an old antibiotic agent that is re-emerging as a valuable alternative for the treatment of multidrug-resistant pathogens. However, it exhibits suboptimal biopharmaceutical properties and toxicity profiles. In this work, chloramphenicol was combined with essential amino acids (arginine, cysteine, glycine, and leucine) with the aim of improving its dissolution rate and reduce its toxicity towards leukocytes. The chloramphenicol/amino acid solid samples were prepared by freeze-drying method and characterized in the solid state by using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, powder X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimetry, scanning electron microscopy, and solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance...
April 20, 2017: AAPS PharmSciTech
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429004/binding-site-opening-by-loop-c-shift-and-chloride-ion-pore-interaction-in-the-gabaa-receptor-model
#9
M A Michałowski, S Kraszewski, J W Mozrzymas
GABAA receptors (GABAARs) are crucial in mediating inhibition in the adult mammalian brain. Although the kinetics of this receptor has been extensively studied, the molecular picture of interactions occurring at various channel conformations remains elusive. While electrophysiology combined with mutagenesis sheds light on the role of specific residues, ultrastructural studies reveal static structures which, in the case of GABAARs, are limited to the β3 homomer. To take advantage of the newest crystal structures of cys-loop receptors, a homology model of α1β2γ2 GABAAR in the unbound closed state was built using a template of the homomeric glycine receptor in the closed state...
April 21, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428809/leucine-rich-repeat-containing-variable-lymphocyte-receptors-as-modules-to-target-plant-expressed-proteins
#10
André C Velásquez, Kinya Nomura, Max D Cooper, Brantley R Herrin, Sheng Yang He
BACKGROUND: The ability to target and manipulate protein-based cellular processes would accelerate plant research; yet, the technology to specifically and selectively target plant-expressed proteins is still in its infancy. Leucine-rich repeats (LRRs) are ubiquitously present protein domains involved in mediating protein-protein interactions. LRRs confer the binding specificity to the highly diverse variable lymphocyte receptor (VLR) antibodies (including VLRA, VLRB and VLRC types) that jawless vertebrates make as the functional equivalents of jawed vertebrate immunoglobulin-based antibodies...
2017: Plant Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428796/expression-profiling-coupled-with-in-silico-mapping-identifies-candidate-genes-for-reducing-aflatoxin-accumulation-in-maize
#11
Ramesh Dhakal, Chenglin Chai, Ratna Karan, Gary L Windham, William P Williams, Prasanta K Subudhi
Aflatoxin, produced by Aspergillus flavus, is hazardous to health of humans and livestock. The lack of information about large effect QTL for resistance to aflatoxin accumulation is a major obstacle to employ marker-assisted selection for maize improvement. The understanding of resistance mechanisms of the host plant and the associated genes is necessary for improving resistance to A. flavus infection. A suppression subtraction hybridization (SSH) cDNA library was made using the developing kernels of Mp715 (resistant inbred) and B73 (susceptible inbred) and 480 randomly selected cDNA clones were sequenced to identify differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in response to A...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28428363/phlpp-a-putative-cellular-target-during-insulin-resistance-and-type-2-diabetes
#12
Alpana Mathur, Vivek Kumar Pandey, Poonam Kakkar
Progressive research in the past decade converges to the impact of PHLPP (Pleckstrin homology domain and leucine rich repeat protein phosphatase) in regulating the cellular metabolism through PI3K/Akt inhibition. Defects in the PKB/Akt signaling coordinates with impaired insulin secretion and insulin resistance, identified during T2D, obesity and cardiovascular disorders which brings in the relevance of PHLPPs in the metabolic paradigm. In this review, we discuss the impact of PHLPP isoforms in insulin signaling and its associated cellular events including mitochondrial dysfunction, DNA damage, autophagy and cell death...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426073/ameliorative-effects-of-pepsin-digested-chicken-liver-hydrolysates-on-development-of-alcoholic-fatty-livers-in-mice
#13
Yi-Ling Lin, Szu-Yun Tai, Jr-Wei Chen, Chung-Hsi Chou, Shih-Guei Fu, Yi-Chen Chen
With developments in economics and increasing work loads, alcohol abuse becomes more and more severe, leading to occurrences of alcoholic liver disease (ALD). Pepsin-digested chicken liver hydrolysates (CLHs) contain high amounts of glutamic acid, leucine, lysine, and alanine while the contents of taurine, anserine, and carnosine are also elevated after pepsin hydrolyzation. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the protective effects of CLHs against chronic alcohol consumption. The results indicated that the enlarged (p < 0...
April 20, 2017: Food & Function
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424707/new-insights-on-leucine-rich-repeats-receptor-like-kinase-orthologous-relationships-in-angiosperms
#14
Jean-François Dufayard, Mathilde Bettembourg, Iris Fischer, Gaetan Droc, Emmanuel Guiderdoni, Christophe Périn, Nathalie Chantret, Anne Diévart
Leucine-Rich Repeats Receptor-Like Kinase (LRR-RLK) genes represent a large and complex gene family in plants, mainly involved in development and stress responses. These receptors are composed of an LRR-containing extracellular domain (ECD), a transmembrane domain (TM) and an intracellular kinase domain (KD). To provide new perspectives on functional analyses of these genes in model and non-model plant species, we performed a phylogenetic analysis on 8,360 LRR-RLK receptors in 31 angiosperm genomes (8 monocots and 23 dicots)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422996/overexpression-of-an-eazip-gene-devoid-of-transit-peptide-sequence-induced-leaf-variegation-in-tobacco
#15
Xiayu Guan, Zhijian Li, Zhiliang Zhang, Xiangying Wei, Jiahua Xie, Jianjun Chen, Qingxi Chen
Leaf variegation is an ornamental trait that is not only biologically but also economically important. In our previous study, a Mg-protoporphyrin IX monomethyl ester cyclase homologue, EaZIP (Epipremnum aureum leucine zipper) was found to be associated with leaf variegation in Epipremnum aureum (Linden & Andre) G.S. Bunting. The protein product of this nuclear-encoded gene is targeted back to chloroplast involving in chlorophyll biosynthesis. Based on a web-based homology analysis, the EaZIP was found to lack a chloroplast transit peptide (cTP) sequence...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422532/effects-of-post-exercise-protein-intake-on-muscle-mass-and-strength-during-resistance-training-is-there-an-optimal-ratio-between-fast-and-slow-proteins
#16
Marina Fabre, Christophe Hausswirth, Eve Tiollier, Odeline Molle, Julien Louis, Alexandre Durguerian, Nathalie Neuveux, Xavier Bigard
While effects of the two classes of proteins found in milk (i.e. soluble proteins, including whey, and casein) on muscle protein synthesis have been well investigated after a single bout of resistance exercise (RE), the combined effects of these two proteins on the muscle responses to resistance training (RT) have not yet been investigated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the effects of protein supplementation varying by the ratio between milk soluble proteins (fast-digested protein) and casein (slow-digested protein) on the muscle to a 9-week RT program...
April 19, 2017: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422213/revisiting-the-juli%C3%A3-colonna-enantioselective-epoxidation-supramolecular-catalysis-in-water
#17
Christopher Bérubé, Xavier Barbeau, Patrick Lagüe, Normand Voyer
We describe an efficient epoxidation process leading to chiral epoxyketones using the reusable homo-oligopeptide poly-l-leucine (PLL) in pure water, without any organic co-solvent. A range of substituted epoxyketones can be accessed with good conversions and high enantioselectivities. Based on the experimental results and computational studies, we propose a mechanism that demonstrates the importance of both the α-helical structure and the presence of a hydrophobic groove of the homo-oligopeptide catalyst for reactivity and selectivity...
April 19, 2017: Chemical Communications: Chem Comm
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420983/increased-oxidative-stress-markers-in-cerebrospinal-fluid-from-healthy-subjects-with-parkinson-s-disease-associated-lrrk2-gene-mutations
#18
David A Loeffler, Andrea C Klaver, Mary P Coffey, Jan O Aasly, Peter A LeWitt
Mutations in the leucine-rich repeat kinase 2 (LRRK2) gene are the most frequent cause of inherited Parkinson's disease (PD). The most common PD-associated LRRK2 mutation, G2019S, induces increased production of reactive oxygen species in vitro. We therefore hypothesized that individuals with PD-associated LRRK2 mutations might have increased concentrations of oxidative stress markers and/or decreased total antioxidant capacity (TAC) in their cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). We measured two oxidative stress markers, namely 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and 8-isoprostane (8-ISO), and TAC in CSF from LRRK2 mutation-bearing PD patients (LRRK2 PD = 19), sporadic PD patients (sPD = 31), and healthy control subjects with or without these mutations (LRRK2 CTL = 30, CTL = 27)...
2017: Frontiers in Aging Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420787/activation-of-nlrp3-inflammasome-complex-potentiates-venous-thrombosis-in-response-to-hypoxia
#19
Neha Gupta, Anita Sahu, Amit Prabhakar, Tathagata Chatterjee, Tarun Tyagi, Babita Kumari, Nilofar Khan, Velu Nair, Nitin Bajaj, Manish Sharma, Mohammad Zahid Ashraf
Venous thromboembolism (VTE), caused by altered hemostasis, remains the third most common cause of mortality among all cardiovascular conditions. In addition to established genetic and acquired risk factors, low-oxygen environments also predispose otherwise healthy individuals to VTE. Although disease etiology appears to entail perturbation of hemostasis pathways, the key molecular determinants during immediate early response remain elusive. Using an established model of venous thrombosis, we here show that systemic hypoxia accelerates thromboembolic events, functionally stimulated by the activation of nucleotide binding domain, leucine-rich-containing family, pyrin domain containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome complex and increased IL-1β secretion...
April 18, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28418859/serum-metabolomics-differentiating-pancreatic-cancer-from-new-onset-diabetes
#20
Xiangyi He, Jie Zhong, Shuwei Wang, Yufen Zhou, Lei Wang, Yongping Zhang, Yaozong Yuan
To establish a screening strategy for pancreatic cancer (PC) based on new-onset diabetic mellitus (NO-DM), serum metabolomics analysis and a search for the metabolic pathways associated with PC related DM were performed. Serum samples from patients with NO-DM (n = 30) and patients with pancreatic cancer and NO-DM were examined by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Data were analyzed using principal components analysis (PCA) and orthogonal projection to latent structures (OPLS) of the most significant metabolites...
March 16, 2017: Oncotarget
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