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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29328788/the-role-of-elastomeric-pumps-in-postoperative-analgesia-in-orthopaedics-and-factors-affecting-their-flow-rate
#1
Anthony Andreas Theodorides
Elastomeric pumps are mechanical devices composed of an elastomeric balloon reservoir into which the drug to be infused is stored, a protective casing (used by some manufacturers), a flow controller and a wound catheter. In orthopaedics they are used to provide continuous local infiltration analgesia. In this way patients rely less on other routes of analgesia and thus avoid their systemic side effects. Studies have shown good response to analgesia with these pumps for the first 24 hours but their benefit is not as clear at 48 and 72 hours...
December 2017: Journal of Perioperative Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325208/bioinspired-universal-flexible-elastomer-based-microchannels
#2
Feng Wu, Songyue Chen, Baiyi Chen, Miao Wang, Lingli Min, Jack Alvarenga, Jie Ju, Ali Khademhosseini, Yuxing Yao, Yu Shrike Zhang, Joanna Aizenberg, Xu Hou
Flexible and stretchable microscale fluidic devices have a broad range of potential applications, ranging from electronic wearable devices for convenient digital lifestyle to biomedical devices. However, simple ways to achieve stable flexible and stretchable fluidic microchannels with dynamic liquid transport have been challenging because every application for elastomeric microchannels is restricted by their complex fabrication process and limited material selection. Here, a universal strategy for building microfluidic devices that possess exceptionally stable and stretching properties is shown...
January 11, 2018: Small
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315121/cervical-total-disk-arthroplasty
#3
Timothy T Roberts, Ryan J Filler, Jason W Savage, Edward C Benzel
In the United States, cervical total disk arthroplasty (TDA) is US Federal Drug Administration (FDA) approved for use in both 1 and 2-level constructions for cervical disk disease resulting in myelopathy and/or radiculopathy. TDA designs vary in form, function, material composition, and even performance in vivo. However, the therapeutic goals are the same: to remove the painful degenerative/damaged elements of the intervertebral discoligamenous joint complex, to preserve or restore the natural range of spinal motion, and to mitigate stresses on adjacent spinal segments, thereby theoretically limiting adjacent segment disease (ASDis)...
January 8, 2018: Clinical Spine Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29303551/engineering-bioinspired-antioxidant-materials-promoting-cardiomyocyte-functionality-and-maturation-for-tissue-engineering-application
#4
Parvaiz Ahmad Shiekh, Anamika Singh, Ashok Kumar
Oxidative stress plays an important role in various pathological conditions such as wound healing, inflammation, myocardial infarction and biocompatibility of the materials. Antioxidant polymers to attenuate oxidative stress is an emerging field of biomaterial research with a huge impact in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. We describe here the fabrication and evaluation of an elastomeric antioxidant polyurethane (PUAO) for tissue engineering applications. Uniaxial and cyclic tensile testing, thermal analysis, degradation, cytotoxicity and antioxidant analysis was carried out...
January 5, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29296110/effect-of-sodium-fluoride-mouthwash-on-the-frictional-resistance-of-orthodontic-wires
#5
Allahyar Geramy, Tabassom Hooshmand, Tahura Etezadi
Objectives: The friction between the brackets and orthodontic wire during sliding mechanics inflicts difficulties such as decreasing the applied force and tooth movement and also the loss of anchorage. Therefore, many studies have focused on the factors that affect the friction. The purpose of this study was to assess the effect of 0.05% sodium fluoride mouthwash on the friction between orthodontic brackets and wire. Materials and Methods: Four types of orthodontic wires including rectangular standard stainless steel (SS), titanium molybdenum alloy (TMA), nickel-titanium (NiTi) and copper-nickel-titanium (Cu-NiTi) were selected...
September 2017: Journal of Dentistry of Tehran University of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289318/reducing-wbc-background-in-cancer-cell-separation-products-by-negative-acoustic-contrast-particle-immuno-acoustophoresis
#6
Kevin Cushing, Eva Undvall, Yvonne Ceder, Hans Lilja, Thomas Laurell
Cancer cells display acoustic properties enabling acoustophoretic separation from white blood cells (WBCs) with 2-3 log suppression of the WBC background. However, a subset of WBCs has overlapping acoustic properties with cancer cells, which is why label-free acoustophoretic cancer cell isolation needs additional purification prior to analysis. This paper reports for the first time a proof of concept for continuous flow acoustophoretic negative selection of WBCs from cancer cells using negative acoustic contrast elastomeric particles (EPs) activated with CD45-antibodies that specifically bind to WBCs...
February 13, 2018: Analytica Chimica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29286629/environmentally-benign-production-of-stretchable-and-robust-superhydrophobic-silicone-monoliths
#7
Alexander Davis, Salvatore Surdo, Gianvito Caputo, Ilker S Bayer, Athanassia Athanassiou
Superhydrophobic materials hold an enormous potential in sectors as important as aerospace, food industries or biomedicine. Despite this great promise, the lack of environmentally friendly production methods and limited robustness remain the two most pertinent barriers to the scalability, large-area production and widespread use of superhydrophobic materials. In this work, highly robust superhydrophobic silicone monoliths are produced through a scalable and environmentally friendly emulsion technique. It is first found that stable and surfactantless water-in-polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) emulsions can be formed through mechanical mixing...
December 29, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29284952/an-evaluation-of-the-effect-of-various-gloves-on-polymerization-inhibition-of-elastomeric-impression-materials-an-in-vitro-study
#8
Vinuta Hiremath, G Vinayakumar, Mallikarjuna Ragher, Sounyala Rayannavar, Mahantesh Bembalagi, B L Ashwini
Background: Latex protective barriers such as gloves and rubber dam material have been used widely in restorative procedures for crown and bridge. However, the chemical used during latex glove fabrication is thought to inhibit the polymerization of elastomeric impression materials used for impression making which has a detrimental effect on the dimensional accuracy and surface definition of resultant casts used for restorative procedures. The objectives of the study were to examine the surface of different elastomeric impressions on contact with various gloves...
November 2017: Journal of Pharmacy & Bioallied Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29283316/influence-of-facial-hair-length-coarseness-and-areal-density-on-seal-leakage-of-a-tight-fitting-half-face-respirator
#9
Evan L Floyd, J Blake Henry, David L Johnson
BACKGROUND: OSHA regulations state that an employer shall not permit tight-fitting respirators to be worn by employees who have facial hair that comes between the skin and facepiece seal. Studies have shown that facial hair in the face seal zone can increase penetration and decrease the fit factor (FF), though the relationship between the amount and characteristics of facial hair and the increase in penetration is not well quantified. This work examines the influence of facial hair length, areal density, and coarseness on FF for one model of half-face elastomeric negative-pressure air purifying respirator...
December 28, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29280383/engineering-of-%C3%AE-hydroxyl-esters-into-elastomer-nanoparticle-interface-towards-malleable-robust-and-reprocessable-vitrimer-composites
#10
Yingjun Liu, Zhenghai Tang, Yi Chen, Chengfeng Zhang, Baochun Guo
Rubbers are strategically important due to their indispensable applications in the daily life and high-tech fields. For their real-world applications, the covalent cross-linking, reinforcement, and malleability of rubbers are three important issues because they are closely related to the elasticity, mechanical properties and recycling of the rubber materials. Herein, we demonstrate a simple way to prepare covalently cross-linked yet recyclable, and robust elastomeric vitrimer composites by incorporating exchangeable β-hydroxyl ester bonds into elastomer-nanoparticle interface using epoxy group-functionalized silica (Esilica) as both cross-linker and reinforcement in carboxyl group-grafted styrene-butadiene rubber (CSBR)...
December 27, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29279666/the-effect-of-toothpastes-with-bleaching-agents-on-the-force-decay-of-elastomeric-orthodontic-chains
#11
Mohammad Behnaz, Kazem Dalaie, Sepanta Hosseinpour, Fatemeh Namvar, Leila Kazemi
Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of agents available in whitening toothpastes (Crest® and Sensodyne®) in vitro on the force decay of elastomeric chains used in orthodontics. Materials and Methods: A total of 300 specimens of elastomeric chains were divided into five groups (n = 60) and were evaluated. These groups included (1) the regular Crest® toothpaste and distilled water solution, (2) whitening Crest® toothpaste and distilled water solution, (3) regular Sensodyne® toothpaste and distilled water solution, (4) whitening Sensodyne® toothpaste and distilled water solution, and (5) distilled water as a control group...
October 2017: European Journal of Dentistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277998/high-performance-stretchable-conductive-composite-fibers-from-surface-modified-silver-nanowires-and-thermoplastic-polyurethane-by-wet-spinning
#12
Ying Lu, Jianwei Jiang, Sungho Yoon, Kyung-Shik Kim, Jae-Hyun Kim, Sanghyuk Park, Sang-Ho Kim, Longhai Piao
Highly stretchable and conductive fibers have attracted great interest as a fundamental building block for the next generation of textile-based electronics. Because of its high conductivity and high aspect ratio, Ag nanowire (AgNW) has been considered one of the most promising conducting materials for the percolation-network-based conductive films and composites. However, the poor dispersibility of AgNWs in hydrophobic polymers has hindered its applica-tion to stretchable conductive composite fibers. In this paper, we present a highly stretchable and conductive compo-site fiber from the co-spinning of elastic polyurethane (PU) and surface modified AgNWs...
December 26, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241032/biomimetic-elastomeric-conductive-and-biodegradable-polycitrate-based-nanocomposites-for-guiding-myogenic-differentiation-and-skeletal-muscle-regeneration
#13
Yuzhang Du, Juan Ge, Yannan Li, Peter X Ma, Bo Lei
Artificial muscle-like biomaterials have gained tremendous interests owing to their broad applications in regenerative medicine, wearable devices, bioelectronics and artificial intelligence. Unfortunately, key challenges are still existed for current materials, including biomimetic viscoelasticity, biocompatibility and biodegradation, multifunctionality. Herein, for the first time, we develop highly elastomeric, conductive and biodegradable poly (citric acid-octanediol-polyethylene glycol)(PCE)-graphene (PCEG) nanocomposites, and demonstrate their applications in myogenic differentiation and guiding skeletal muscle tissue regeneration...
December 6, 2017: Biomaterials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235729/conductive-tough-hydrogel-for-bioapplications
#14
Mohammad Javadi, Qi Gu, Sina Naficy, Syamak Farajikhah, Jeremy M Crook, Gordon G Wallace, Stephen Beirne, Simon E Moulton
Biocompatible conductive tough hydrogels represent a new class of advanced materials combining the properties of tough hydrogels and biocompatible conductors. Here, a simple method, to achieve a self-assembled tough elastomeric composite structure that is biocompatible, conductive, and with high flexibility, is reported. The hydrogel comprises polyether-based liner polyurethane (PU), poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene) (PEDOT) doped with poly(4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS), and liquid crystal graphene oxide (LCGO)...
December 13, 2017: Macromolecular Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235521/infrared-actuation-induced-simultaneous-reconfiguration-of-surface-color-and-morphology-for-soft-robotics
#15
Seyedali Banisadr, Jian Chen
Cephalopods, such as cuttlefish, demonstrate remarkable adaptability to the coloration and texture of their surroundings by modulating their skin color and surface morphology simultaneously, for the purpose of adaptive camouflage and signal communication. Inspired by this unique feature of cuttlefish skins, we present a general approach to remote-controlled, smart films that undergo simultaneous changes of surface color and morphology upon infrared (IR) actuation. The smart film has a reconfigurable laminated structure that comprises an IR-responsive nanocomposite actuator layer and a mechanochromic elastomeric photonic crystal layer...
December 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235216/surface-molding-of-microscale-hydrogels-with-microactuation-functionality
#16
John J Bowen, Mark A Rose, Abhiteja Konda, Stephen A Morin
This work describes the fabrication of numerous hydrogel microstructures, μ-gels, via a process called "surface molding"-chemically patterned elastomeric assembly substrates were used to organize and manipulate the geometry of liquid prepolymer microdroplets, which, following photo-initiated crosslinking, maintained the desired morphology. By adjusting the state of strain during the crosslinking process, a continua of structures could be created using one pattern. These arrays of μ-gels have stimuli-responsive properties that are directly applicable to actuation where the basis shape and array geometry of the μ-gels can be used to rationally generate microactuators with programmed motions...
December 12, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235055/a-finite-element-model-to-assess-transtibial-prosthetic-sockets-with-elastomeric-liners
#17
John C Cagle, Per G Reinhall, Kate J Allyn, Jake McLean, Paul Hinrichs, Brian J Hafner, Joan E Sanders
People with transtibial amputation often experience skin breakdown due to the pressures and shear stresses that occur at the limb-socket interface. The purpose of this research was to create a transtibial finite element model (FEM) of a contemporary prosthesis that included complete socket geometry, two frictional interactions (limb-liner and liner-socket), and an elastomeric liner. Magnetic resonance imaging scans from three people with characteristic transtibial limb shapes (i.e., short-conical, long-conical, and cylindrical) were acquired and used to develop the models...
December 13, 2017: Medical & Biological Engineering & Computing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29227502/sensing-in-plane-nanomechanical-surface-and-sub-surface-properties-of-polymers-local-shear-stress-as-function-of-the-indentation-depth
#18
Christian Dietz
Dynamic force microscopy (DFM) is an excellent tool for the study of the compositional and nanomechanical properties of polymers that exploits the flexural eigenmodes of a cantilever comprising a sharp tip vibrating perpendicular to the sample surface. However, the in-plane nanomechanical properties of a specimen cannot be detected by this technique. Here, a bimodal approach was developed where flexural and torsional eigenmodes are driven simultaneously. The corresponding vibrational amplitude and phase shift of the vertical tip motion were utilized for topographical feedback and out-of-plane dissipative interaction acquisition, respectively, whereas the frequency shift and the drive amplitude of the lateral tip motion mapped the in-plane conservative and dissipative interactions of two heterogeneous polymers: an elastomeric polypropylene (ePP) and a polystyrene-block-polybutadiene diblock copolymer (SB)...
December 11, 2017: Nanoscale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29210486/4d-printed-actuators-with-soft-robotic-functions
#19
María López-Valdeolivas, Danqing Liu, Dick Jan Broer, Carlos Sánchez-Somolinos
Soft matter elements undergoing programed, reversible shape change can contribute to fundamental advance in areas such as optics, medicine, microfluidics, and robotics. Crosslinked liquid crystalline polymers have demonstrated huge potential to implement soft responsive elements; however, the complexity and size of the actuators are limited by the current dominant thin-film geometry processing toolbox. Using 3D printing, stimuli-responsive liquid crystalline elastomeric structures are created here. The printing process prescribes a reversible shape-morphing behavior, offering a new paradigm for active polymer system preparation...
December 6, 2017: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29209022/microdroplet-based-on-demand-drawing-of-high-aspect-ratio-elastomeric-micropillar-and-its-contact-sensing-application
#20
Qiang Li, Rabin Dhakal, Jaeyoun Kim
High aspect-ratio elastomeric micropillars play important roles as the platform for microscale sensing and actuation. Many soft-lithographic techniques have been developed for their facile realization but most of the techniques are limited to build the micropillars only on totally flat, widely accessible substrate areas with the micropillar's structural characteristics completely predetermined, leaving little room for in situ control. Here we demonstrate a new technique which overcomes these limitations by directly drawing micropillars from pipette-dispensed PDMS microdroplets using vacuum-chucked microspheres...
December 5, 2017: Scientific Reports
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