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Tej B Bhavsar, Wilmer L Sibbitt, Philip A Band, Romy J Cabacungan, Timothy S Moore, Luis C Salayandia, Roderick A Fields, Scarlett K Kettwich, Luis P Roldan, N Suzanne Emil, Monthida Fangtham, Arthur D Bankhurst
We hypothesized that constant compression of the knee would mobilize residual synovial fluid and promote successful arthrocentesis. Two hundred and ten knees with grade II-III osteoarthritis were included in this paired design study: (1) conventional arthrocentesis was performed with manual compression and success and volume (milliliters) determined; and (2) the intra-articular needle was left in place, and a circumferential elastomeric brace was tightened on the knee to provide constant compression. Arthrocentesis was attempted again and additional fluid volume was determined...
September 14, 2017: Clinical Rheumatology
Hae-Jin Kim, Kyoseung Sim, Anish Thukral, Cunjiang Yu
A general strategy to impart mechanical stretchability to stretchable electronics involves engineering materials into special architectures to accommodate or eliminate the mechanical strain in nonstretchable electronic materials while stretched. We introduce an all solution-processed type of electronics and sensors that are rubbery and intrinsically stretchable as an outcome from all the elastomeric materials in percolated composite formats with P3HT-NFs [poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) nanofibrils] and AuNP-AgNW (Au nanoparticles with conformally coated silver nanowires) in PDMS (polydimethylsiloxane)...
September 2017: Science Advances
Hsien-Yeh Chen
Vapor-deposition processes and the resulting thin polymer films provide consistent coatings that decouple the underlying substrate surface properties and can be applied for surface modification regardless of the substrate material and geometry. Here, various ways to structure these vapor-deposited polymer thin films are described. Well-established and available photolithography and soft lithography techniques are widely performed for the creation of surface patterns and microstructures on coated substrates...
2017: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
Hong Yan, Mengjuan Zhong, Ze Lv, Pengbo Wan
A stretchable, transparent, and body-attachable chemical sensor is assembled from the stretchable nanocomposite network film for ultrasensitive chemical vapor sensing. The stretchable nanocomposite network film is fabricated by in situ preparation of polyaniline/MoS2 (PANI/MoS2 ) nanocomposite in MoS2 suspension and simultaneously nanocomposite deposition onto prestrain elastomeric polydimethylsiloxane substrate. The assembled stretchable electronic sensor demonstrates ultrasensitive sensing performance as low as 50 ppb, robust sensing stability, and reliable stretchability for high-performance chemical vapor sensing...
September 12, 2017: Small
Denis Mihaela Panaitescu, Irina Lupescu, Adriana Nicoleta Frone, Ioana Chiulan, Cristian Andi Nicolae, Vlad Tofan, Amalia Stefaniu, Raluca Somoghi, Roxana Trusca
Medium chain-length PHAs (mPHAs) are flexible elastomeric biopolymers with valuable properties for biomedical applications like artificial arteries and other medical implants. However, an environmentally friendly and high productivity process together with the tuning of the mechanical and biological properties of mPHAs are mandatory for this purpose. Here, for the first time, a melt processing technique was applied for the preparation of bionanocomposites starting from poly(3-hydroxyoctanoate) (PHO) and bacterial cellulose nanofibers (BC)...
September 11, 2017: Biomacromolecules
Zhibo Chen, Jingtian Xi, Wei Huang, Matthew M F Yuen
Wearable devices have provided noninvasive and continuous monitoring of physiological parameters in healthcare applications. However, for the comfortable applications of wearable devices on human body, two key requirements are to replace conventional bulky devices into soft and deformable ones and to have wireless wearable communication. In this paper we present a simple, low-cost and highly efficient all-elastomeric conductor that can be used in a soft radio-frequency (RF) transmission line and antenna. We show a stretchable transmission line and two stretchable antennas fabricated with conventional screen printing...
September 8, 2017: Scientific Reports
Pauline M Dobson, Mark Loewenthal, Lisa Harris
Limited availability of compounded antibiotics used for continuous infusion outpatient parenteral antibiotic therapy (OPAT) can delay or interrupt an OPAT course. To solve this problem, OPAT nurses at a hospital in Australia have been compounding elastomeric pumps for immediate use. The incidence of sepsis in 5014 patients before and after the introduction of nurse compounding was compared. There were no cases of laboratory-confirmed bloodstream infection among the nurse-compounded group compared with 2 cases (0...
September 2017: Journal of Infusion Nursing: the Official Publication of the Infusion Nurses Society
V J González Ramallo, M Mirón Rubio, O Estrada Cuxart, M E García Leoni
Hospital at Home units allows ambulatory treatment and monitoring of complex and serious infections. Nosocomial infections produce an extension of the stay in hospital often specifying long intravenous treatments without any effective oral alternatives. Daily dosing of antimicrobial are easier to administer at home. The use of portable programmable pump infusion and elastomeric devices allow efficient and safe infu-sions for most antimicrobials at home. Some antibiotics against multidrug-resistant organisms of recent introduction have a suitable profile for outpatient intravenous treatment...
September 2017: Revista Española de Quimioterapia: Publicación Oficial de la Sociedad Española de Quimioterapia
Luis Dorfmann, Ray W Ogden
In the last few years, it has been recognized that the large deformation capacity of elastomeric materials that are sensitive to electric fields can be harnessed for use in transducer devices such as actuators and sensors. This has led to the reassessment of the mathematical theory that is needed for the description of the electromechanical (in particular, electroelastic) interactions for purposes of material characterization and prediction. After a review of the key experiments concerned with determining the nature of the electromechanical interactions and a discussion of the range of applications to devices, we provide a short account of the history of developments in the nonlinear theory...
August 2017: Proceedings. Mathematical, Physical, and Engineering Sciences
Alexander D Valentine, Travis A Busbee, John William Boley, Jordan R Raney, Alex Chortos, Arda Kotikian, John Daniel Berrigan, Michael F Durstock, Jennifer A Lewis
Hybrid 3D printing is a new method for producing soft electronics that combines direct ink writing of conductive and dielectric elastomeric materials with automated pick-and-place of surface mount electronic components within an integrated additive manufacturing platform. Using this approach, insulating matrix and conductive electrode inks are directly printed in specific layouts. Passive and active electrical components are then integrated to produce the desired electronic circuitry by using an empty nozzle (in vacuum-on mode) to pick up individual components, place them onto the substrate, and then deposit them (in vacuum-off mode) in the desired location...
September 6, 2017: Advanced Materials
S Ramachandraiah, K Sridharan, A Nishad, K K Manjusha, Esther A Abraham, M Mohamed Ramees
AIM: The aim of this study was to test the effect of varying alcohol concentrations of various commercially available mouth-washes on force decay of elastomeric chains in prestretched and unstretched condition. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A total of five specimen groups were tested with a total sample size of 180 specimens. A specimen is described as a three-link, short module, clear elastomeric chain (3M Unitek, Ortho Plus, Ortho Organizer). The control and test groups were independently submerged in separate 37°C artificial saliva to simulate the oral conditions...
September 1, 2017: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
Ming Lun Tseng, Jian Yang, Michael Semmlinger, Chao Zhang, Peter Nordlander, Naomi J Halas
Color pixels composed of plasmonic nanostructures provide a highly promising approach for new display technologies, capable of vivid, robust coloration and incorporating the use of low-cost plasmonic materials, such as Aluminum. Here we report a plasmonic device that can be tuned continuously across the entire visible spectrum, based on integrating a square array of Aluminum nanostructures into an elastomeric substrate. By stretching the substrate in either of its two dimensions, the period and therefore the scattering color can be modified to the blue or the red of the at-rest structure, spanning the entire visible spectrum...
September 5, 2017: Nano Letters
Manus J P Biggs, Marc Fernandez, Dilip Thomas, Ryan Cooper, Matteo Palma, Jinyu Liao, Teresa Fazio, Carl Dahlberg, Helen Wheadon, Anuradha Pallipurath, Abhay Pandit, Jeffrey Kysar, Shalom J Wind
Cells directly probe and respond to the physicomechanical properties of their extracellular environment, a dynamic process which has been shown to play a key role in regulating both cellular adhesive processes and differential cellular function. Recent studies indicate that stem cells show lineage-specific differentiation when cultured on substrates approximating the stiffness profiles of specific tissues. Although tissues are associated with a range of Young's modulus values for bulk rigidity, at the subcellular level, tissues are comprised of heterogeneous distributions of rigidity...
September 1, 2017: Advanced Materials
Dahlia Salman, Jurga Biliune, Reem Kayyali, Jane Ashton, Peter Brown, Tim McCarthy, Elin Vikman, Stephen Barton, Julian Swinden, Shereen Nabhani-Gebara
Intro & aims: Elastomeric pumps are widely used to facilitate ambulatory chemotherapy, and studies have shown that they are safe and well received by patients. Despite these advantages, their end of infusion time can fluctuate significantly. The aim of this research was to observe the performance of these pumps in real practice and to evaluate patients' satisfaction. METHODS: This was a two-phase study conducted at three cancer units over 6 months. Phase-1 was an observational study recording the status of pumps at the scheduled disconnection time and noting remaining volume of infusion...
August 31, 2017: Current Medical Research and Opinion
Vittorio Mazzarello, Marco Ferrari, Antonio Bulla, Gabriella Piu, Andrea Montella
BACKGROUND: Adhesive pads should reduce the action of the local muscle contraction on the skin leading to a decrease in the depth of existing wrinkles and the formation of new dynamic wrinkles. AIM OF THE WORK: This study aims at assessing the antiwrinkles action of adhesive pads during time, and the temporary improvement of facial skin appearance by reducing the vision of linear wrinkles and improving skin elasticity. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Thirty-nine subjects participated to a placebo-controlled study...
August 28, 2017: Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology
Caryn Lawrence, Delbert A Harnish, Megan Sandoval-Powers, Devin Mills, Michael Bergman, Brian K Heimbuch
BACKGROUND: Health care facilities are considering the use of reusable respiratory protective devices (RPDs) to mitigate a potential N95 filtering facepiece respirator shortage caused by an influenza pandemic. US regulators are also considering stockpiling reusable RPDs for pandemic preparedness, but limited data exist on the effectiveness of cleaning and disinfection of these devices. This study defines reprocessing protocols and evaluates their effectiveness against a pandemic influenza strain in a laboratory setting...
August 22, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
Alma E Hernández-Gómora, Edith Lara-Carrillo, Julio B Robles-Navarro, Rogelio J Scougall-Vilchis, Susana Hernández-López, Carlo E Medina-Solís, Raúl A Morales-Luckie
In the present study, silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) were synthesized in situ on orthodontic elastomeric modules (OEM) using silver nitrate salts as metal-ion precursors and extract of the plant Hetheroteca inuloides (H. inuloides) as bioreductant via a simple and eco-friendly method. The synthesized AgNPs were characterized by UV-visible spectroscopy; scanning electron microscopy-energy-dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The surface plasmon resonance peak found at 472 nm confirmed the formation of AgNPs...
August 25, 2017: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Thanh-Giang La, Xinda Li, Amit Kumar, Yiyang Fu, Shu Yang, Hyun-Joong Chung
In a cold night, a clear window that will become opaque while retaining the indoor heat is highly desirable for both privacy and energy efficiency. A thermally responsive material that controls both the transmittance of solar radiance (predominantly in the visible and near-infrared wavelengths) and blackbody radiation (mainly in the mid-infrared) can realize such windows with minimal energy consumption. Here, we report a smart coating made from polyampholyte hydrogel (PAH) that transforms from a transparency state to opacity to visible radiation and strengthens opacity to mid-infrared when lowering the temperature as a result of phase separation between the water-rich and polymer-rich phases...
September 13, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Tianfa Xie, Jamar Hawkins, Yubing Sun
Recent findings suggest that mechanical forces strongly influence wound repair and fibrosis across multiple organ systems. Traction force is vital to the characterization of cellular responses to mechanical stimuli. Using hydrogel-based traction force microscopy, a FRET-based tension sensor, or microengineered cantilevers, the magnitude of traction forces can be measured. Here, we describe a traction force measurement methodology using a dense array of elastomeric microposts. This platform can be used to measure the traction force of a single cell or a colony of cells with or without geometric confinement...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
Matt P Milner, Lihua Jin, Shelby B Hutchens
We report on crease morphology and evolution at the surface of contracting cavities embedded within elastomeric solids of varying composition (Sylgard 184: pre-polymer to crosslinker mixing ratios of 10 : 1, 12 : 1, 17.5 : 1, and 25 : 1). Cavity contraction is achieved through evaporation of an embedded 10 μL liquid droplet. In validation of recent theoretical predictions, strain-stiffening modeled via the Gent constitutive relation [Jin and Suo, JMPS, 2015, 74, 68-79] is found to govern both crease onset and crease density...
August 22, 2017: Soft Matter
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