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Elastomerics

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726370/ultra-stretchable-analog-digital-signal-transmission-line-with-carbon-nanotube-sheets
#1
Yourack Lee, Min-Kyu Joo, Viet Thong Le, Raquel Ovalle-Robles, Xavier Lepró, Márcio D Lima, Daniel G Suh, Han Young Yu, Young Hee Lee, Dongseok Suh
Stretchable conductors can be used in various applications depending on their own characteristics. Here, we demonstrate simple and robust elastomeric conductors that are optimized for stretchable electrical signal transmission line. They can withstand strains up to 600% without any substantial change in their resistance (≤ 10% as is and ≤ 1% with passivation), and exhibit suppressed charge fluctuations in the medium. The inherent elasticity of a polymeric rubber and the high conductivity of flexible, highly oriented carbon nanotube sheets were combined synergistically, without losing both properties...
July 20, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28712784/effects-of-interventions-with-therapeutic-suits-clothing-on-impairments-and-functional-limitations-of-children-with-cerebral-palsy-a-systematic-review
#2
REVIEW
Kênnea M Almeida, Sérgio T Fonseca, Priscilla R P Figueiredo, Amanda A Aquino, Marisa C Mancini
BACKGROUND: Therapeutic suits or clothing whether associated with intensive protocols or not, became popular in the rehabilitation of children with cerebral palsy. Studies have reported positive effects of these suits on children's posture, balance, motor function and gait. A summary of current literature may help guide therapeutic actions. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the available evidence on the effects of interventions based on the use of therapeutic suits in the treatment of impairments and functional limitations of children with cerebral palsy...
July 5, 2017: Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28698623/targeted-feature-recognition-using-mechanical-spatial-filtering-with-a-low-cost-compliant-strain-sensor
#3
Eli M Barnett, Julian J Lofton, Miao Yu, Hugh A Bruck, Elisabeth Smela
A tactile sensing architecture is presented for detection of surface features that have a particular target size, and the concept is demonstrated with a braille pattern. The approach is akin to an inverse of mechanical profilometry. The sensing structure is constructed by suspending a stretchable strain-sensing membrane over a cavity. The structure is moved over the surface, and a signal is generated through mechanical spatial filtering if a feature is small enough to penetrate into the cavity. This simple design is tailorable and can be realized by standard machining or 3D printing...
July 11, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691725/programmable-reversible-and-repeatable-wrinkling-of-shape-memory-polymer-thin-films-on-elastomeric-substrates-for-smart-adhesion
#4
Yu Wang, Jianliang Xiao
Programmable, reversible and repeatable wrinkling of shape memory polymer (SMP) thin films on elastomeric polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) substrates is realized, by utilizing the heat responsive shape memory effect of SMPs. The dependencies of wrinkle wavelength and amplitude on program strain and SMP film thickness are shown to agree with the established nonlinear buckling theory. The wrinkling is reversible, as the wrinkled SMP thin film can be recovered to the flat state by heating up the bilayer system. The programming cycle between wrinkle and flat is repeatable, and different program strains can be used in different programming cycles to induce different surface morphologies...
July 10, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691693/influence-of-physico-mechanical-properties-of-elastomeric-material-for-different-cell-growth
#5
Jyoti Wala, Debashis Maji, Soumen Das
The tunable mechanical and physical properties of Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) are commonly utilized for studying cellular dynamics. However, the inherent hydrophobic nature of PDMS limits its application as cell culture films. Various surface modification techniques render PDMS films hydrophilic which alters the surface chemistry, elasticity, roughness and cell attachment of anchorage dependent cell types to the films. The surface properties of thin film lead to alteration in bio-mechano-physical properties of cells and therefore could be used as mechanical signature for viability testing of different normal and cancerous cells...
July 10, 2017: Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28691142/force-level-of-small-diameter-nickel-titanium-orthodontic-wires-ligated-with-different-methods
#6
Rodrigo Hitoshi Higa, José Fernando Castanha Henriques, Guilherme Janson, Murilo Matias, Karina Maria Salvatore de Freitas, Fernanda Pinelli Henriques, Manoela Fávaro Francisconi
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to compare the deflection force in conventional and thermally activated nickel-titanium (NiTi) wires in passive (Damon Q) and active (Bioquick) self-ligating brackets (SLB) and in conventional brackets (CB) tied by two different methods: elastomeric ligature (EL) and metal ligature (ML). METHODS: Two wire diameters (0.014 and 0.016 in.) and 10 specimens per group were used. The specimens were assembled in a clinical simulation device and tested in an Instron Universal Testing Machine, with a load cell of 10 N...
December 2017: Progress in Orthodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28689135/deformation-and-fatigue-of-tough-3d-printed-elastomer-scaffolds-processed-by-fused-deposition-modeling-and-continuous-liquid-interface-production
#7
Andrew T Miller, David L Safranski, Catherine Wood, Robert E Guldberg, Ken Gall
Polyurethane (PU) based elastomers continue to gain popularity in a variety of biomedical applications as compliant implant materials. In parallel, advancements in additive manufacturing continue to provide new opportunities for biomedical applications by enabling the creation of more complex architectures for tissue scaffolding and patient specific implants. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of printed architecture on the monotonic and cyclic mechanical behavior of elastomeric PUs and to compare the structure-property relationship across two different printing approaches...
July 1, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688181/surface-detail-reproduction-and-dimensional-accuracy-of-molds-influence-of-disinfectant-solutions-and-elastomeric-impression-materials
#8
Ricardo D Guiraldo, Sandrine B Berger, Ronaldo Mt Siqueira, Victor H Grandi, Murilo B Lopes, Alcides Gonini-Júnior, Rodrigo V Caixeta, Rodrigo V de Carvalho, Mário Ac Sinhoreti
This study compared the surface detail reproduction and dimensional accuracy of molds after disinfection using 2% sodium hypochlorite, 2% chlorhexidine digluconate or 0.2% peracetic acid to those of molds that were not disinfected, for four elastomeric impression materials: polysulfide (Light Bodied Permlastic), polyether (Impregum Soft), polydimethylsiloxane (Oranwash L) andpolyvinylsiloxane (Aquasil Ultra LV). The molds were prepared on a matrix by applying pressure, using a perforated metal tray. The molds were removed following polymerization and either disinfected (by soaking in one of the solutions for 15 minutes) or not disinfected...
April 2017: Acta Odontológica Latinoamericana: AOL
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28682395/an-automated-optofluidic-biosensor-platform-combining-interferometric-sensors-and-injection-moulded-microfluidics
#9
C Szydzik, A F Gavela, S Herranz, J Roccisano, M Knoerzer, P Thurgood, K Khoshmanesh, A Mitchell, L M Lechuga
A primary limitation preventing practical implementation of photonic biosensors within point-of-care platforms is their integration with fluidic automation subsystems. For most diagnostic applications, photonic biosensors require complex fluid handling protocols; this is especially prominent in the case of competitive immunoassays, commonly used for detection of low-concentration, low-molecular weight biomarkers. For this reason, complex automated microfluidic systems are needed to realise the full point-of-care potential of photonic biosensors...
July 6, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28680549/the-effect-of-prolonged-storage-and-disinfection-on-the-dimensional-stability-of-5-vinyl-polyether-silicone-impression-materials
#10
Usama Nassar, Carlos Flores-Mir, Giseon Heo, Ysidora Torrealba
PURPOSE: Vinyl polyether silicone (VPES) has a different composition from other elastomeric impression materials as it combines vinyl polysiloxane (VPS) and polyether (PE). Therefore, it is important to study its properties and behavior under different test conditions. This study investigated the dimensional stability of 5 VPES consistencies when stored for up to 2 weeks, with and without using a standard disinfection procedure. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 40 discs of each VPES consistency (total 200) were made using a stainless steel die and ring as described by ANSI /ADA specification No...
June 2017: Journal of Advanced Prosthodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28678968/evaluation-of-deflection-forces-of-orthodontic-wires-with-different-ligation-types
#11
José Fernando Castanha Henriques, Rodrigo Hitoshi Higa, Nayara Thiago Semenara, Guilherme Janson, Thais Maria Freire Fernandes, Renata Sathler
The aim of this study was to evaluate deflection forces of orthodontic wires of different alloys engaged into conventional brackets using several ligation types. Stainless steel, conventional superelastic nickel-titanium and thermally activated nickel-titanium archwires tied into conventional brackets by a ring-shaped elastomeric ligature (RSEL), a 8-shaped elastomeric ligature (8SEL) and a metal ligature (ML) were tested. A clinical simulation device was created especially for this study and forces were measured with an Instron Universal Testing Machine...
July 3, 2017: Brazilian Oral Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28664946/the-influence-of-polyanion-molecular-weight-on-polyelectrolyte-multilayers-at-surfaces-elasticity-and-susceptibility-to-saloplasticity-of-strongly-dissociated-synthetic-polymers-at-fluid-fluid-interfaces
#12
Ashley D Cramer, Wen-Fei Dong, Natalie L Benbow, Jessie L Webber, Marta Krasowska, David A Beattie, James K Ferri
We studied the interfacial mechanical properties of polyelectrolyte multilayer assemblies of poly(diallylamine hydrochloride) (PAH) and poly(4-styrenesulfonate)sodium salt (PSS) at the air-water interface using axisymmetric drop shape analysis (ADSA) during hydrostatic inflation as a function of aqueous salt concentration and two different polyanion molecular weights (Mw ∼ 13 and 70 kDa). Surface elastic moduli (Gs) ranged from 50 to 300 mN m(-1). Using the measured film thickness, the bulk moduli (G) ranged from 10 to 90 MPa consistent with elastomeric solids...
June 30, 2017: Physical Chemistry Chemical Physics: PCCP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28660706/bicomponent-block-copolymers-derived-from-one-or-more-random-copolymers-as-an-alternative-route-to-controllable-phase-behavior
#13
Arman R Ashraf, Justin J Ryan, Michael M Satkowski, Byeongdu Lee, Steven D Smith, Richard J Spontak
Block copolymers have been extensively studied due to their ability to spontaneously self-organize into a wide variety of morphologies that are valuable in energy-, medical-, and conservation-related (nano)technologies. While the phase behavior of bicomponent diblock and triblock copolymers is conventionally governed by temperature and individual block masses, it is demonstrated here that their phase behavior can alternatively be controlled through the use of blocks with random monomer sequencing. Block random copolymers (BRCs), i...
June 29, 2017: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28658355/discoloration-and-force-degradation-of-orthodontic-elastomeric-ligatures
#14
Samaneh Nakhaei, Raha Habib Agahi, Amin Aminian, Masoud Rezaeizadeh
OBJECTIVE: The aim of the present study was to evaluate color changes and force degradation of orthodontic elastomeric ligatures in different stretching patterns during a 8-weeks period. METHODS: Two elastomers with the minimum and two with the maximum color changing, and gray elastomers of two brands (American Orthodontics and Ortho Technology) were selected according to an opinion poll with clinicians and color changes after 4 weeks of intraoral use were evaluated...
March 2017: Dental Press Journal of Orthodontics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650173/polymer-pen-lithography-with-lipids-for-large-area-gradient-patterns
#15
Ravi Kumar, Ainhoa Urtizberea, Souvik Ghosh, Uwe Bog, Quinn Rainer, Steven Lenhert, Harald Fuchs, Michael Hirtz
For many applications in the biomedical sector (especially for cell screening assays, guidance and migration experiments), gradient patterns comprising bioactive compounds over comparably (in regard to a cell size) large areas are key. Polymer pen lithography (PPL), as an inherent highly parallel and large area technique has a great potential to serve in the fabrication of such patterns. We present strategies for the printing of functional phospholipid patterns via PPL that provide tunable feature size and feature density gradients over surface areas of several square millimeters...
June 26, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647645/adding-dimension-to-cellular-mechanotransduction-advances-in-biomedical-engineering-of-multiaxial-cell-stretch-systems-and-their-application-to-cardiovascular-biomechanics-and-mechano-signaling
#16
REVIEW
O Friedrich, D Schneidereit, Y A Nikolaev, V Nikolova-Krstevski, S Schürmann, A Wirth-Hücking, A L Merten, D Fatkin, B Martinac
Hollow organs (e.g. heart) experience pressure-induced mechanical wall stress sensed by molecular mechano-biosensors, including mechanosensitive ion channels, to translate into intracellular signaling. For direct mechanistic studies, stretch devices to apply defined extensions to cells adhered to elastomeric membranes have stimulated mechanotransduction research. However, most engineered systems only exploit unilateral cellular stretch. In addition, it is often taken for granted that stretch applied by hardware translates 1:1 to the cell membrane...
June 21, 2017: Progress in Biophysics and Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28645997/temperature-profiles-of-antibiotic-containing-elastomeric-infusion-devices-used-by-ambulatory-care-patients
#17
Toni Docherty, Michael Montalto, Joni Leslie, Katrina King, Suzanne Niblett, Tim Garrett
PURPOSE: The temperature profiles of antibiotic-containing elastomeric infusion devices used by ambulatory care patients under various environmental conditions were evaluated. METHODS: A prospective, descriptive survey of temperature exposure was conducted in 4 publically funded hospitals. Over a 12-month period, electronic temperature-recording devices were attached to the antibiotic infusion devices (infusers) of prospectively randomized hospital-in-the-home (HITH) participants...
July 1, 2017: American Journal of Health-system Pharmacy: AJHP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634955/human-lung-small-airway-on-a-chip-protocol
#18
Kambez H Benam, Marc Mazur, Youngjae Choe, Thomas C Ferrante, Richard Novak, Donald E Ingber
Organs-on-chips are microfluidic cell culture devices created using microchip manufacturing techniques that contain hollow microchannels lined by living cells, which recreate specialized tissue-tissue interfaces, physical microenvironments, and vascular perfusion necessary to recapitulate organ-level physiology in vitro. Here we describe a protocol for fabrication, culture, and operation of a human lung "small airway-on-a-chip," which contains a differentiated, mucociliary bronchiolar epithelium exposed to air and an underlying microvascular endothelium that experiences fluid flow...
2017: Methods in Molecular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623642/particle-spallation-in-a-microfluidic-blood-processing-device-the-problem-of-using-peristaltic-pumps-and-silicon-based-microfilters
#19
Monica Faria, Yi Liu, Edward F Leonard
Peristaltic pumps rely on constant compression of elastomeric tubing from which particles may be shed, a phenomenon known as spallation. We studied spallated particles on microfluidic filtration devices with photolithographically prepared micron-level pore fields. Filtration of ultra-pure water through these pores was analyzed using either the usual peristaltic pump or a reciprocating pair of syringe pumps. Using syringe pumps, transmembrane pressure (TMP) values during filtration at 2.5 cm3/min revealed steady filtration for over 80 minutes at 2...
June 15, 2017: International Journal of Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621274/evaluation-to-prevent-the-physical-changes-in-colored-elastomeric-modules-when-exposed-to-various-dietary-media
#20
S Dhivya Kanya, K Pradeep Babu, R Venkatesan, A Nanda Kumar
AIM AND OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study is to analyze and compare the variation of lumen size and thickness of the elastomeric colored modules when immersed in four selected dietary media. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sample size of 40 modules on each color - such as red, blue, green, and black - was taken and immersed in four dietary media (artificial saliva, coke mixed with artificial saliva, turmeric mixed with artificial saliva, and coffee mixed with artificial saliva)...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
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