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C S Ball, R F Renzi, A Priye, R J Meagher
Check valves are often essential components in microfluidic devices, enabling automated sample processing for diagnostics at the point of care. However, there is an unmet need for a check valve design that is compatible with rigid thermoplastic devices during all stages of development-from initial prototyping with a laser cutter to final production with injection molding. Here, we present simple designs for a passive, normally closed check valve that is manufactured from commonly available materials with a CO2 laser and readily integrated into prototype and production thermoplastic devices...
October 20, 2016: Lab on a Chip
Milan Shrestha, Gih-Keong Lau
This Letter presents a tunable window device based on microscopic wrinkling of a transparent elastomeric surface. "Crack-free" microscopic wrinkling of a 50-nm ZnO thin film is possible on a highly adhesive acrylic elastomer membrane (VHB 4910) upon partial release from a large radial pre-stretch of membrane. This ZnO-based tunable window device demonstrates reversible tunability between transparent and translucent states. At zero compression with a flat surface, the device is transparent with a 93% in-line transmittance at 550-nm wavelength...
October 1, 2016: Optics Letters
Carlos A Teixeira, Gabriela Furlan Giordano, Maisa B Beltrame, Luis Carlos Silveira Vieira, Angelo Luiz Gobbi, Renato Sousa Lima
The contamination, passivation, or fouling of the detection electrodes is a serious problem undermining the analytical performance of electroanalytical devices. The methods to regenerate the electrochemical activity of the solid electrodes involve mechanical, physical, or chemical surface treatments that usually add operational time, complexity, chemicals, and further instrumental re-quirements to the analysis. In this paper, we describe for the first time a reproducible method for renewing solid electrodes when-ever their morphology or composition are non-specifically changed without any surface treatment...
October 17, 2016: Analytical Chemistry
Mike Reppert, Anish R Roy, Jeremy O B Tempkin, Aaron R Dinner, Andrei Tokmakoff
The characterization of intrinsically disordered protein (IDP) ensembles is complicated both by inherent heterogeneity and by the fact that many common experimental techniques function poorly when applied to IDPs. For this reason, the development of alternative structural tools for probing IDP ensembles has attracted considerable attention. Here we describe our recent work in developing experimental and computational tools for characterizing IDP ensembles using Amide I (backbone carbonyl stretch) vibrational spectroscopy...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Yi Liu, Monica Faria, Edward Leonard
In most extracorporeal filtration devices such as hemodialysis a peristaltic pump is used to circulate blood. Pump function requires the repeated compression of an elastomeric tube from which particles may be shed into the circulatory system, a process called spallation. Earlier studies are likely to have missed the large number of small particles (<2 µm in diameter) that appear. The present study uses more modern equipment that detects and sizes particles down to 0.6 µm. As polyvinyl chloride (PVC) tubing is commonly used for this process, a series of studies was conducted on three different types to study its spallation characteristics, along with a co-extruded PVC/polyurethane tubing known for its enhanced biocompatibility properties...
October 13, 2016: Artificial Organs
Vanessa Dias da Silva, Eduardo Martinelli S de Lima, Caroline Dias, Leandro Berni Osório
PROPOSITION: The purpose of this study was to evaluate in vitro the color changes of esthetic orthodontic elastomeric ligatures of different shades when exposed to four food colorings commonly found in the diet of patients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The sample consisted of esthetic orthodontic elastomeric ligatures in the colors pearl, pearl blue, pearl white and colorless, which were immersed for 72 hours in five different solutions: distilled water (control group), coffee, tea, Coca-Cola (®) and wine...
2016: Open Dentistry Journal
Craig Milroy, Arumugam Manthiram
A conductive, elastic, electroactive binder composed of polypyrrole and polyurethane is adopted for flexible, high-loading lithium-sulfur cathodes. The conductivity of the polypyrrole helps mitigate the negative effects of insulating sulfur, and the elastomeric matrix accommodates sulfur volume expansion. The binder is used with a simple carbon/sulfur composite to produce high-performance, flexible electrodes without excessive carbon, interlayers, or special additives.
September 22, 2016: Advanced Materials
Shuo Li, Bryan N Peele, Chris M Larson, Huichan Zhao, Robert F Shepherd
An intrinsically soft and stretchable multicolor display and touch interface is reported. Red, green, and blue pixels are formed separately by photopatterning transition-metal-doped ZnS embedded in silicone gels and transfer printing onto an elastomeric dielectric sheet. The device shows stable illumination while being stretched up to 200% area strain or under different deformation modalities. It also introduces capabilities for dynamic colorations and multipoint capacitive touch sensing.
September 22, 2016: Advanced Materials
Yi-Cheun Yeh, Christopher B Highley, Liliang Ouyang, Jason A Burdick
Three-dimensional (3D) printed scaffolds have great potential in biomedicine; however, it is important that we are able to design such scaffolds with a range of diverse properties towards specific applications. Here, we report the extrusion-based 3D printing of biodegradable and photocurable acrylated polyglycerol sebacate (Acr-PGS) to fabricate scaffolds with elastic properties. Two Acr-PGS macromers were synthesized with varied molecular weights and viscosity, which were then blended to obtain photocurable macromer inks with a range of viscosities...
October 7, 2016: Biofabrication
Naveen N Jason, Stephen J Wang, Sushrut Bhanushali, Wenlong Cheng
This work demonstrates a facile "paint-on" approach to fabricate highly stretchable and highly sensitive strain sensors by combining one-dimensional copper nanowire networks with two-dimensional graphite microflakes. This paint-on approach allows for the fabrication of electronic skin (e-skin) patches which can directly replicate with high fidelity the human skin surface they are on, regardless of the topological complexity. This leads to high accuracy for detecting biometric signals for applications in personalised wearable sensors...
September 22, 2016: Nanoscale
Bahige G Abdallah, Shatabdi Roy-Chowdhury, Raimund Fromme, Petra Fromme, Alexandra Ros
Protein crystallization is a major bottleneck of structure determination by X-ray crystallography, hampering the process by years in some cases. Numerous matrix screening trials using significant amounts of protein are often applied, while a systematic approach with phase diagram determination is prohibited for many proteins that can only be expressed in small amounts. Here, we demonstrate a microfluidic nanowell device implementing protein crystallization and phase diagram screening using nanoscale volumes of protein solution per trial...
2016: Crystal Growth & Design
Jie Wang, Shengming Li, Fang Yi, Yunlong Zi, Jun Lin, Xiaofeng Wang, Youlong Xu, Zhong Lin Wang
Harvesting biomechanical energy is an important route for providing electricity to sustainably drive wearable electronics, which currently still use batteries and therefore need to be charged or replaced/disposed frequently. Here we report an approach that can continuously power wearable electronics only by human motion, realized through a triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG) with optimized materials and structural design. Fabricated by elastomeric materials and a helix inner electrode sticking on a tube with the dielectric layer and outer electrode, the TENG has desirable features including flexibility, stretchability, isotropy, weavability, water-resistance and a high surface charge density of 250 μC m(-2)...
2016: Nature Communications
Gunjan Agarwal, Nicolas Besuchet, Basile Audergon, Jamie Paik
Soft actuators made from elastomeric active materials can find widespread potential implementation in a variety of applications ranging from assistive wearable technologies targeted at biomedical rehabilitation or assistance with activities of daily living, bioinspired and biomimetic systems, to gripping and manipulating fragile objects, and adaptable locomotion. In this manuscript, we propose a novel two-component soft actuator design and design tool that produces actuators targeted towards these applications with enhanced mechanical performance and manufacturability...
September 27, 2016: Scientific Reports
Eleonora Grespan, Sebastian Martewicz, Elena Serena, Vincent Le Houérou, Jürgen Rühe, Nicola Elvassore
The mechanical activity of cardiomyocytes is the result of a process called excitation contraction coupling (ECC). A membrane depolarization wave induces a transient cytosolic calcium concentration increase that triggers activation calcium-sensitive contractile proteins leading to cell contraction and force generation. An experimental setup capable of acquiring simultaneously all ECC features would have an enormous impact on cardiac drug development and disease study. In this work, we develop a micro-engineered elastomeric substrate with tailor-made surface chemistry to measure simultaneously the uni-axial contraction force and the calcium transients generated by single human cardiomyocytes in vitro...
September 19, 2016: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Philip A Smith, Jeffrey Lodwick, Joe Dartt, Jenny R Amani, Kathleen M Fagan
A worker attempting to remove solidified material inside a confined space (storage tank) suffered severe methemoglobinemia and almost died. The tank contained liquid 4,4' -methylene diphenyl diisocyanate monomer that had solidified after an equipment power failure caused excessive heating. Wearing a full-face elastomeric air-purifying respirator and Tyvek® coveralls, the worker used pneumatic air hammers to break up the solid material. After two tank entries totaling slightly less than one hour, the worker complained of headache and dizziness and within two hours of exiting the tank, he was admitted to the hospital in severe respiratory distress...
September 13, 2016: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Magdalena Serra, Roser Vives, Montserrat Cañellas, Josep Planell, Joan Carles Oliva, Carmen Colilles, Caridad Pontes
BACKGROUND: The use of elastomeric devices for ambulatory intravenous pain treatment in Major Ambulatory Surgery (MAS) has been described to improve postoperative pain management. The objective of the study was to describe the first 3 years experience of the use of elastomeric devices for ambulatory intravenous pain treatment in MAS implemented at our site since 2010. METHODS: Data were retrieved from the medical records for all patients who, between January 2010 and March 2014, underwent surgical procedures at the ambulatory surgical centre at our hospital and were prescribed a home-based continuous intravenous analgesia...
2016: BMC Anesthesiology
Brian J Hafner, John C Cagle, Katheryn J Allyn, Joan E Sanders
BACKGROUND: A diverse range of elastomeric liner products are available to people with transtibial amputation. However, little information is available about how prosthetists select the product best suited to each patient. OBJECTIVES: To determine how prosthetists obtain information about liners, which features are most relevant to the selection process, and which products are used most for patients with transtibial amputation. STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional survey...
September 9, 2016: Prosthetics and Orthotics International
Johannes T B Overvelde, David M J Dykstra, Rijk de Rooij, James Weaver, Katia Bertoldi
A range of instabilities can occur in soft bodies that undergo large deformation. While most of them arise under compressive forces, it has previously been shown analytically that a tensile instability can occur in an elastic block subjected to equitriaxial tension. Guided by this result, we conducted centimeter-scale experiments on thick elastomeric samples under generalized plane strain conditions and observed for the first time this elastic tensile instability. We found that equibiaxial stretching leads to the formation of a wavy pattern, as regions of the sample alternatively flatten and extend in the out-of-plane direction...
August 26, 2016: Physical Review Letters
Javad Foroughi, Geoffrey M Spinks, Shazed Aziz, Azadeh Mirabedini, Ali Jeiranikhameneh, Gordon G Wallace, Mikhail E Kozlov, Ray H Baughman
Highly stretchable, actuatable, electrically conductive knitted textiles based on Spandex (SPX)/CNT (carbon nanotube) composite yarns were prepared by an integrated knitting procedure. SPX filaments were continuously wrapped with CNT aerogel sheets and supplied directly to an interlocking circular knitting machine to form the three-dimensional electrically conductive and stretchable textiles. By adjusting the SPX/CNT feed ratio, the fabric electrical conductivities could be tailored in the range of 870 to 7092 S/m...
September 8, 2016: ACS Nano
Hyemin Lee, Hyein Seo, Sunghwan Kang, Hyunsik Yoon
We propose a new concept of separating images through a directional guide of multi-visuals by using structured prism or pyramid arrays. By placing prism arrays onto two different image arrays, the two collective images below the facets are guided to different directions. Using optical calculations, we identify a condition for successful image separation. Transparent pyramid arrays are used to separate four images into four directions. The direction of refracted rays can be controlled by the refractive index of prisms and liquid filled into the voids...
September 5, 2016: Optics Express
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