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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28623642/particle-spallation-in-a-microfluidic-blood-processing-device-the-problem-of-using-peristaltic-pumps-and-silicon-based-microfilters
#1
Monica Faria, Yi Liu, Edward F Leonard
Peristaltic pumps rely on constant compression of elastomeric tubing from which particles may be shed, a phenomenon known as spallation. We studied spallated particles on microfluidic filtration devices with photolithographically prepared micron-level pore fields. Filtration of ultra-pure water through these pores was analyzed using either the usual peristaltic pump or a reciprocating pair of syringe pumps. Using syringe pumps, transmembrane pressure (TMP) values during filtration at 2.5 cm3/min revealed steady filtration for over 80 minutes at 2...
June 15, 2017: International Journal of Artificial Organs
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28621274/evaluation-to-prevent-the-physical-changes-in-colored-elastomeric-modules-when-exposed-to-various-dietary-media
#2
S Dhivya Kanya, K Pradeep Babu, R Venkatesan, A Nanda Kumar
AIM AND OBJECTIVE: The aim of the study is to analyze and compare the variation of lumen size and thickness of the elastomeric colored modules when immersed in four selected dietary media. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Sample size of 40 modules on each color - such as red, blue, green, and black - was taken and immersed in four dietary media (artificial saliva, coke mixed with artificial saliva, turmeric mixed with artificial saliva, and coffee mixed with artificial saliva)...
June 1, 2017: Journal of Contemporary Dental Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620970/a-coating-free-nonfouling-polymeric-elastomer
#3
Hsiang-Chieh Hung, Priyesh Jain, Peng Zhang, Fang Sun, Andrew Sinclair, Tao Bai, Bowen Li, Kan Wu, Caroline Tsao, Erik J Liu, Harihara S Sundaram, Xiaojie Lin, Payam Farahani, Timothy Fujihara, Shaoyi Jiang
Medical devices face nonspecific biofouling from proteins, cells, and microorganisms, which significantly contributes to complications and device failure. Imparting these devices with nonfouling capabilities remains a major challenge, particularly for those made from elastomeric polymers. Current strategies, including surface coating and copolymerization/physical blending, necessitate compromise among nonfouling properties, durability, and mechanical strength. Here, a new strategy is reported to achieve both high bulk mechanical strength and excellent surface nonfouling properties, which are typically contradictory, in one material...
June 16, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28605490/adequate-plasma-drug-concentrations-suggest-that-amoxicillin-can-be-administered-by-continuous-infusion-using-elastomeric-pumps
#4
Lyne Arensdorff, Noémie Boillat-Blanco, Laurent Decosterd, Thierry Buclin, Serge de Vallière
Background: Elastomeric pumps can be useful for the administration of antibiotics in the outpatient setting. Objectives: To determine amoxicillin degradation in elastomeric pumps, as well as the effectiveness of amoxicillin treatment administered by elastomeric pumps. Methods: Antibiotic degradation was measured in elastomeric pumps filled with 6 g of amoxicillin in 240 mL of NaCl 0.9% by drawing samples at 12 h intervals when stored in the fridge for 48 h and when worn around the waist for 24 h...
June 12, 2017: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28587466/tailor-made-dispersion-and-distribution-of-stereocomplex-crystallites-in-poly-l-lactide-elastomer-blends-toward-largely-enhanced-crystallization-rate-and-impact-toughness
#5
Yuanlin Luo, Yilong Ju, Hongwei Bai, Zhenwei Liu, Qin Zhang, Qiang Fu
Stereocomplex (SC) crystallites, formed between poly(l-lactide) (PLLA) and poly(d-lactide), exhibit great potential to substantially enhance crystallization rate of PLLA-based materials as an eco-friendly nucleating agent. However, the nucleation efficiency of the SC crystallites is still far below an expected level, mostly on account of their strong aggregation tendency in PLLA/PDLA melts. Herein, taking PLLA/poly(ethylene-methyl acrylate-glycidyl methacrylate) (E-MA-GMA) blends as an example, we report a unique and facile strategy to control the dispersion and distribution of SC crystallites within the PLLA matrix by using elastomeric E-MA-GMA as carrier for the incorporation of PDLA...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28585528/tailoring-protein-nanomechanics-with-chemical-reactivity
#6
Amy E M Beedle, Marc Mora, Steven Lynham, Guillaume Stirnemann, Sergi Garcia-Manyes
The nanomechanical properties of elastomeric proteins determine the elasticity of a variety of tissues. A widespread natural tactic to regulate protein extensibility lies in the presence of covalent disulfide bonds, which significantly enhance protein stiffness. The prevalent in vivo strategy to form disulfide bonds requires the presence of dedicated enzymes. Here we propose an alternative chemical route to promote non-enzymatic oxidative protein folding via disulfide isomerization based on naturally occurring small molecules...
June 6, 2017: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28580421/compliant-substratum-guides-endothelial-commitment-from-human-pluripotent-stem-cells
#7
Quinton Smith, Xin Yi Chan, Ana Maria Carmo, Michelle Trempel, Michael Saunders, Sharon Gerecht
The role of mechanical regulation in driving human induced pluripotent stem cell (hiPSC) differentiation has been minimally explored. Although endothelial cell (EC) fate from hiPSCs has been demonstrated using small molecules to drive mesoderm induction, the effects of substrate stiffness with regard to EC differentiation efficiency have yet to be elucidated. We hypothesized that substrate compliance can modulate mesoderm differentiation kinetics from hiPSCs and affect downstream EC commitment. To this end, we used polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS)-a transparent, biocompatible elastomeric material-as a substrate to study EC commitment of hiPSCs using a stepwise differentiation scheme...
May 2017: Science Advances
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28576717/transient-phase-behavior-of-an-elastomeric-biomaterial-applied-to-abdominal-laparotomy-closure
#8
Omer E Kaymakcalan, Julia L Jin, Zhexun Sun, Nicole G Ricapito, Mary Clare McCorry, Kerry A Morrison, David Putnam, Jason A Spector
Secure closure of the fascial layers after entry into the peritoneal cavity is crucial to prevent incisional hernia, yet appropriate purchase of the tissue can be challenging because of the proximity of the underlying protuberant bowel which may become punctured by the surgical needle or strangulated by the suture itself. Whereas currently employed devices, the metal malleable retractor and Glassman Visceral Retainer are unable to provide complete visceral protection during abdominal closure, a puncture resistant, biocompatible, and degradable matrix that can be left in place without need for removal would facilitate rapid and safe abdominal closure...
May 30, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28569644/microwave-assisted-facile-fabrication-of-porous-poly-glycerol-sebacate-scaffolds
#9
Soo Hyon Lee, Kee-Won Lee, Piyusha S Gade, Anne M Robertson, Yadong Wang
The biodegradable elastomeric polyester poly(glycerol sebacate) (PGS) was developed for soft-tissue engineering. It has been used in various research applications such as wound healing, cartilage tissue engineering, and vascular grafting due to its biocompatibility and elastomeric properties. However conventional PGS manufacture is generally limited by the laborious reaction conditions needed for curing which requires elevated reaction temperatures, high vacuum and multi-day reaction times. In this study, we developed a microwave irradiation methodology to fabricate PGS scaffolds under milder conditions with curing times that are 8 times faster than conventional methods...
June 16, 2017: Journal of Biomaterials Science. Polymer Edition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28555880/fabrication-of-elastomeric-silk-fibers
#10
Sarah A Bradner, Benjamin P Partlow, Peggy Cebe, Fiorenzo G Omenetto, David L Kaplan
Methods to generate fibers from hydrogels, with control over mechanical properties, fiber diameter and crystallinity, while retaining cytocompatibility and degradability, would expand options for biomaterials. Here we exploited features of silk fibroin protein for the formation of tunable silk hydrogel fibers. The biological, chemical, and morphological features inherent to silk were combined with elastomeric properties gained through enzymatic crosslinking of the protein. Post-processing via methanol and autoclaving provided tunable control of fiber features...
May 27, 2017: Biopolymers
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28548527/liquid-droplets-act-as-compass-needles-for-the-stresses-in-a-deformable-membrane
#11
Rafael D Schulman, René Ledesma-Alonso, Thomas Salez, Elie Raphaël, Kari Dalnoki-Veress
We examine the shape of droplets atop deformable thin elastomeric films prepared with an anisotropic tension. As the droplets generate a deformation in the taut film through capillary forces, they assume a shape that is elongated along the high tension direction. By measuring the contact line profile, the tension in the membrane can be completely determined. Minimal theoretical arguments lead to predictions for the droplet shape and membrane deformation that are in excellent agreement with the data. On the whole, the results demonstrate that droplets can be used as probes to map out the stress field in a membrane...
May 12, 2017: Physical Review Letters
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28546014/-anesthetic-requirements-measured-by-bilateral-bispectral-analysis-and-femoral-blockade-in-total-knee-arthroplasty
#12
Maylin Koo, Javier Bocos, Antoni Sabaté, Vinyet López, Carmina Ribes
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: A continuous peripheral nerve blockade has proved benefits on reducing postoperative morphine consumption; the combination of a femoral blockade and general anesthesia on reducing intraoperative anesthetic requirements has not been studied. The objective of this study was to determine the relevance of timing in the performance of femoral block to intraoperative anesthetic requirements during general anesthesia for total knee arthroplasty. METHODS: A single-center, prospective cohort study on patients scheduled for total knee arthroplasty, were sequentially allocated to receive 20mL of 2% mepivacaine throughout a femoral catheter, prior to anesthesia induction (Preoperative) or when skin closure started (Postoperative)...
May 22, 2017: Revista Brasileira de Anestesiologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28535341/fully-stretchable-optoelectronic-sensors-based-on-colloidal-quantum-dots-for-sensing-photoplethysmographic-signals
#13
Tae-Ho Kim, Chang-Seok Lee, Sangwon Kim, Jaehyun Hur, Sangmin Lee, Keun Wook Shin, Young-Zoon Yoon, Moon Kee Choi, Jiwoong Yang, Dae-Hyeong Kim, Taeghwan Hyeon, Seongjun Park, Sungwoo Hwang
Flexible and stretchable optoelectronic devices can be potentially applied in displays, biosensors, biomedicine, robotics, and energy generation. The use of nanomaterials with superior optical properties such as quantum dots (QDs) is important in the realization of wearable displays and biomedical devices, but specific structural design as well as selection of materials should preferentially accompany this technology to realize stretchable forms of these devices. Here, we report stretchable optoelectronic sensors manufactured using colloidal QDs and integrated with elastomeric substrates, whose optoelectronic properties are stable under various deformations...
May 26, 2017: ACS Nano
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28528117/composite-elastomeric-polyurethane-scaffolds-incorporating-small-intestinal-submucosa-for-soft-tissue-engineering
#14
Lincui Da, Mei Gong, Anjing Chen, Yi Zhang, Yizhou Huang, Zhijun Guo, Shengfu Li, Jesse Li-Ling, Li Zhang, Huiqi Xie
Although soft tissue replacement has been clinically successful in many cases, the corresponding procedure has many limitations including the lack of resilience and mechanical integrity, significant donor-site morbidity, volume loss with time, and fibrous capsular contracture. These disadvantages can be alleviated by utilizing bio-absorbable scaffolds with high resilience and large strain, which are capable of stimulating natural tissue regeneration. Hence, the chemically crosslinked tridimensional scaffolds obtained by incorporating water-based polyurethane (PU) (which was synthesized from polytetramethylene ether glycol, isophorone diisocyanate, and 2,2-bis(hydroxymethyl) butyric acid) into a bioactive extracellular matrix consisting of small intestinal submucosa (SIS) have been tested in this study to develop a new approach for soft tissue engineering...
May 17, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28524191/thermal-scribing-to-prototype-plastic-microfluidic-devices-applied-to-study-the-formation-of-neutrophil-extracellular-traps
#15
Arvind Chandrasekaran, Nikita Kalashnikov, Roni Rayes, Claire Wang, Jonathan Spicer, Christopher Moraes
Innovation in microfluidics-based biological research has been aided by the growing accessibility of versatile microscale fabrication techniques, particularly in rapid prototyping of elastomeric polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) based devices. However, the use of PDMS presents considerable and often unexpected limitations, particularly in interpreting and validating biological data. To rapidly prototype microfluidic culture systems in conventional plastics commonly used in cell culture, we developed 'thermal scribing', a one-step micromachining technique in which thermoplastics are locally patterned by a heated tip, moving in user-controlled patterns...
May 31, 2017: Lab on a Chip
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28523760/bioinspired-composite-microfibers-for-skin-adhesion-and-signal-amplification-of-wearable-sensors
#16
Dirk-M Drotlef, Morteza Amjadi, Muhammad Yunusa, Metin Sitti
A facile approach is proposed for superior conformation and adhesion of wearable sensors to dry and wet skin. Bioinspired skin-adhesive films are composed of elastomeric microfibers decorated with conformal and mushroom-shaped vinylsiloxane tips. Strong skin adhesion is achieved by crosslinking the viscous vinylsiloxane tips directly on the skin surface. Furthermore, composite microfibrillar adhesive films possess a high adhesion strength of 18 kPa due to the excellent shape adaptation of the vinylsiloxane tips to the multiscale roughness of the skin...
May 19, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512333/hybrid-organic-tandem-solar-cell-comprising-small-molecule-bottom-and-polymer-fullerene-top-subcells-fabricated-by-thin-film-transfer
#17
Yoonseok Ka, Hyejin Hwang, Changsoon Kim
Multilayer structures involving solution-deposited polymer films are difficult to fabricate, not allowing for unrestricted designs of polymer-based optoelectronic devices required for maximizing their performance. Here, we fabricate a hybrid organic tandem solar cell whose top and bottom subcells have polymer:fullerene and small molecules active layers, respectively, by a solvent-free process based on transferring the polymer:fullerene layer from an elastomeric stamp onto a vacuum-deposited bottom subcell. The interface between small-molecule and transferred polymer:fullerene layers is void-free at the nanoscale, allowing for efficient charge transport across the interface...
May 16, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507143/controllable-load-sharing-for-soft-adhesive-interfaces-on-three-dimensional-surfaces
#18
Sukho Song, Dirk-Michael Drotlef, Carmel Majidi, Metin Sitti
For adhering to three-dimensional (3D) surfaces or objects, current adhesion systems are limited by a fundamental trade-off between 3D surface conformability and high adhesion strength. This limitation arises from the need for a soft, mechanically compliant interface, which enables conformability to nonflat and irregularly shaped surfaces but significantly reduces the interfacial fracture strength. In this work, we overcome this trade-off with an adhesion-based soft-gripping system that exhibits enhanced fracture strength without sacrificing conformability to nonplanar 3D surfaces...
May 30, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28507126/direct-observation-of-structure-and-dynamics-during-phase-separation-of-an-elastomeric-protein
#19
Sean E Reichheld, Lisa D Muiznieks, Fred W Keeley, Simon Sharpe
Despite its growing importance in biology and in biomaterials development, liquid-liquid phase separation of proteins remains poorly understood. In particular, the molecular mechanisms underlying simple coacervation of proteins, such as the extracellular matrix protein elastin, have not been reported. Coacervation of the elastin monomer, tropoelastin, in response to heat and salt is a critical step in the assembly of elastic fibers in vivo, preceding chemical cross-linking. Elastin-like polypeptides (ELPs) derived from the tropoelastin sequence have been shown to undergo a similar phase separation, allowing formation of biomaterials that closely mimic the material properties of native elastin...
May 30, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28492311/pressure-sensitive-and-conductive-carbon-aerogels-from-poplars-catkins-for-selective-oil-absorption-and-oil-water-separation
#20
Lingxiao Li, Tao Hu, Hanxue Sun, Junping Zhang, Aiqin Wang
Multifunctional carbon aerogels that are both highly compressible and conductive have broad potential applications in the range of sound insulator, sensor, oil absorption, and electronics. However, the preparation of such carbon aerogels has been proven to be very challenging. Here, we report fabrication of pressure-sensitive and conductive (PSC) carbon aerogels by pyrolysis of cellulose aerogels composed of poplars catkin (PC) microfibers with a tubular structure. The wet PC gels can be dried directly in an oven without any deformation, in marked contrast to the brittle nature of traditional carbon aerogels...
May 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
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