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F J Ortega-García, I García-Del-Pino, I Auñon-Martín, A J Carrascosa-Fernández
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether postoperative continuous wound infiltration of levobupivacaine through two submuscular catheters connected to two elastomeric pumps after lumbar instrumented arthrodesis is more effective than intravenous patient-controlled analgesia. MATERIAL AND METHODS: An observational, prospective cohorts study was carried out. The visual analogue scale, the need for additional rescue analgesia and the onset of adverse effects were recorded. RESULTS: Pain records measured with visual analogue scale scale were significantly lower in the 48hours postoperative record at rest (p=...
May 18, 2018: Revista Española de Cirugía Ortopédica y Traumatología
Samy Rengasamy, Ziqing Zhuang, George Niezgoda, Gary Walbert, Robert Lawrence, Brenda Boutin, Judith Hudnall, William P Monaghan, Michael Bergman, Colleen Miller, James Harris, Christopher Coffey
The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) standard 16900-1:2014 specifies the use of sodium chloride (NaCl) and corn oil aerosols, and sulfur hexafluoride gas for measuring total inward leakage (TIL). However, a comparison of TIL between different agents is lacking. The objective of this study was to measure and compare TIL for respirators using corn oil and NaCl aerosols. TIL was measured with 10 subjects donning two models of filtering facepiece respirators (FFRs) including FFP1, N95, P100, and elastomeric half-mask respirators (ERs) in NaCl and corn oil aerosol test chambers, using continuous sampling methods...
May 21, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Roland Hermann Alfons Winter, Hasan Cinar, Süleyman Cinar, Hue Sun Chan
We investigated the combined effects of temperature and pressure on liquid-liquid phase separation (LLPS) phenomena of α-elastin up to the multi-kbar regime. FT-IR spectroscopy, CD, UV/Vis absorption, phase-contrast light and fluorescence microscopy techniques were employed to reveal structural changes and mesoscopic phase states of the system. A novel pressure-induced reentrant LLPS was observed in the intermediate temperature range. A molecular-level picture, in particular on the role of hydrophobic interactions, hydration and void volume in controlling LLPS phenomena is presented...
May 8, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Yannan Li, Yi Guo, Wen Niu, Mi Chen, Yumeng Xue, Juan Ge, Peter X Ma, Bo Lei
Controlled biomineralization activity of biomaterials is rather important in bone regeneration and osseointegration avoiding the formation of fibrous capsule. However, most of conventional biodegradable elastomeric biomaterials for bone regeneration do not possess biomineralization ability and inherent multifunctional properties. Herein, we report a multifunctional bioactive glass (BG)-based hybrid poly(citrate-siloxane) (PCS) elastomer with intrinsical biomineralization activity and photoluminescent properties for potential bone tissue regeneration...
May 8, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Zhilong Song, Zhao Huang, Jingyao Liu, Zhixiang Hu, Jianbing Zhang, Guangzu Zhang, Fei Yi, Shenglin Jiang, Jiabiao Lian, Jia Yan, Jianfeng Zang, Huan Liu
Stretchable gas sensors that accommodate the shape and motion characteristics of human body are indispensable to a wearable or attachable smart sensing system. However, these gas sensors usually have poor response and recovery kinetics when operated at room temperature, especially suffer from humidity interference and mechanical robustness issues. Here, we demonstrate the first fully stretchable gas sensors which are operated at room temperature with enhanced stability against humidity. We created a crumpled quantum dot (QD) sensing layer on elastomeric substrate with flexible graphene as electrodes...
May 8, 2018: ACS Sensors
Jeremy Streque, Didier Rouxel, Abdelkrim Talbi, Matthieu Thomassey, Brice Vincent
Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) and other related silicon-based polymers are among the most widely employed elastomeric materials in microsystems, owing to their physical and chemical properties. Meanwhile, surface acoustic wave (SAW) and bulk acoustic wave (BAW) sensors and filters have been vastly explored for sensing and wireless applications. Many fields could benefit from the combined use of acoustic wave devices, and polydimethylsiloxane-based soft-substrates, microsystems, or packaging elements. The mechanical constants of PDMS strongly depend on frequency, similar to rubber materials...
May 2018: IEEE Transactions on Ultrasonics, Ferroelectrics, and Frequency Control
Hongye Ye, Kangyi Zhang, Dan Kai, Zibiao Li, Xian Jun Loh
Polyester elastomers are soft, biodegradable and biocompatible and are commonly used in various biomedical applications, especially in tissue engineering. These synthetic polyesters can be easily fabricated using various techniques such as solvent casting, particle leaching, molding, electrospinning, 3-dimensional printing, photolithography, microablation etc. A large proportion of tissue engineering research efforts have focused on the use of allografts, decellularized animal scaffolds or other biological materials as scaffolds, but they face the major concern of triggering immunological responses from the host, on top of other issues...
May 3, 2018: Chemical Society Reviews
David A Dillard, Bikramjit Mukherjee, Preetika Karnal, Romesh C Batra, Joelle Frechette
Few advanced mechanics of materials solutions have found broader and more enduring applications than Emil Winkler's beam on elastic foundation analysis, first published in 1867. Now, 150 years after its introduction, this concept continues to enjoy widespread use in its original application field of civil engineering, and has also had a profound effect on the field of adhesion mechanics, including for soft matter adhesion phenomena. A review of the model is presented with a focus on applications to adhesion science, highlighting classical works that utilize the model as well as recent usages that extend its scope...
May 3, 2018: Soft Matter
Ravish Sharma, Kavita Sharma, Rajesh Sawhney
Background: Besides, other factors, the choice of materials used as orthodontic ligatures could be one of the many tools to counter the effects of microbial adhesion, that culminates into dental ailments. Therefore, we assessed bacterial adhesion on elastomeric ligatures with special reference to coloured elastomeric rings during orthodontic treatment. Material and Methods: A split mouth study, involving 240 samples of different elastomeric ligatures from forty orthodontic patients possessing good oral hygiene was carried out...
March 2018: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry
Heling Wang, Xin Ning, Haibo Li, Haiwen Luan, Yeguang Xue, Xinge Yu, Zhichao Fan, Luming Li, John A Rogers, Yihui Zhang, Yonggang Huang
Micro-electromechanical systems (MEMS) that rely on structural vibrations have many important applications, ranging from oscillators and actuators, to energy harvesters and vehicles for measurement of mechanical properties. Conventional MEMS, however, mostly utilize two-dimensional (2D) vibrational modes, thereby imposing certain limitations that are not present in 3D designs (e.g., multi-directional energy harvesting). 3D vibrational microplatforms assembled through the techniques of controlled compressive buckling are promising because of their complex 3D architectures and the ability to tune their vibrational behaviour (e...
March 2018: Journal of the Mechanics and Physics of Solids
Nobuyuki Futai, Kenji Fujita, Wataru Ikuta
Microfluidic components need to have various shapes to realize different key microfluidic functions such as mixing, separation, particle trapping, or reactions. A microfluidic channel that deforms even after fabrication while retaining the channel shape enables high spatiotemporal reconfigurability. This reconfigurability is required in such key microfluidic functions that are difficult to achieve in existing "reconfigurable" or "integrated" microfluidic systems. We describe a method for the fabrication of a microfluidic channel with a deformable sidewall consisting of a laterally aligned array of the ends of rectangular pins...
April 12, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Tomomi Nakamura, Yuki Enoki, Shunsuke Uno, Yoshifumi Uwamino, Osamu Iketani, Naoki Hasegawa, Kazuaki Matsumoto
Some infectious diseases, such as infective endocarditis, osteomyelitis, and abscesses, require treatment with long-term intravenous antimicrobial treatment. Therefore, the patient is required to stay in the hospital to receive therapy, which lowers their quality of life. Establishing an outpatient parenteral antimicrobial therapy (OPAT) by continuous infusion pump is desired in Japan to overcome these issues. However, the 24-h stability of antimicrobial agents dissolved in infusion solutions is unclear. Thus, we investigated the stability of antimicrobial agents in five different infusion solutions in a clinical setting...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
Shruti Rattan, Linqing Li, Hang Kuen Lau, Alfred J Crosby, Kristi L Kiick
Detailed understanding of the local structure-property relationships in soft biopolymeric hydrogels can be instrumental for applications in regenerative tissue engineering. Resilin-like polypeptide (RLP) hydrogels have been previously demonstrated as useful biomaterials with a unique combination of low elastic moduli, excellent resilience, and cell-adhesive properties. However, comprehensive mechanical characterization of RLP hydrogels under both low-strain and high-strain conditions has not yet been conducted, despite the unique information such measurements can provide about the local structure and macromolecular behavior underpinning mechanical properties...
April 27, 2018: Soft Matter
Edward K W Tan, Girish Rughoobur, Juan Rubio-Lara, Nikhil Tiwale, Zhuocong Xiao, Colin A B Davidson, Christopher R Lowe, Luigi G Occhipinti
Existing techniques for patterning metallic structures on elastomers are limited in terms of resolution, yield and scalability. The primary constraint is the incompatibility of their physical properties with conventional cleanroom techniques. We demonstrate a reliable fabrication strategy to transfer high resolution metallic structures of <500 nm in dimension on elastomers. The proposed method consists of producing a metallic pattern using conventional lithographic techniques on silicon coated with a thin sacrificial aluminium layer...
April 26, 2018: Scientific Reports
Hyo-Jung Son, Sung-Hoon Kim, Jeong-Ok Ryu, Mi-Ra Kang, Myeong-Hee Kim, Jeong-Hun Suh, Jai-Hyun Hwang
BACKGROUND: Patient-controlled analgesia (PCA) is one of the most popular and effective methods for managing postoperative pain. Various types of continuous infusion pumps are available for the safe and accurate administration of analgesic drugs. Here we report the causes and clinical outcomes of device-related errors in PCA. METHODS: Clinical records from January 1, 2011 to December 31, 2014 were collected by acute pain service team nurses in a 2715-bed tertiary hospital...
April 23, 2018: Anesthesia and Analgesia
Bingbing Wu, Jonathan Corey, Michael Yermakov, Yan Liu, Sergey A Grinshpun
Background: A low-cost real-time Respirator Seal Integrity Monitor (ReSIM) was recently developed to monitor a respirator's actual performance at a workplace. The objective of this study was to evaluate the capability of the new ReSIM prototype in manikin-based laboratory experiments to rapidly detect induced leakage of a half-mask elastomeric respirator. Methods: Two phases of testing were conducted in this study. First, the accuracy of ReSIM measuring an aerosol concentration was assessed by comparing the outputs of ReSIM against a reference optical aerosol spectrometer (OAS) in a flow-through set-up...
April 21, 2018: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
Ting-Hsiang Chang, Yuan Tian, Daniel L Y Wee, Hongliang Ren, Po-Yen Chen
Flame-retardant coatings are widely used in a variety of personnel or product protection, and many applications would benefit from film stretchability if suitable materials are available. It is challenging to develop flame-retardant coatings that are stretchable, eco-friendly, and capable of being integrated on mechanically dynamic devices. Here, a concept is reported that uses pretextured montmorillonite (MMT) hybrid nanocoatings that can undergo programed unfolding to mimic the stretchability of elastomeric materials...
April 22, 2018: Small
Rafael D Schulman, John F Niven, Michiel A Hack, Christian DiMaria, Kari Dalnoki-Veress
We study the dewetting of liquid films capped by a thin elastomeric layer. When the tension in the elastomer is isotropic, circular holes grow at a rate which decreases with increasing tension. The morphology of holes and rim stability can be controlled by changing the boundary conditions and tension in the capping film. When the capping film is prepared with a biaxial tension, holes form with a non-circular shape elongated along the high tension axis. With suitable choice of elastic boundary conditions, samples can even be designed such that square holes appear...
April 23, 2018: Soft Matter
Jacqueline J Masehi-Lano, Eun Ji Chung
Tissue engineering aims to develop scaffolds that are biocompatible and mimic the mechanical and biological properties of the target tissue as closely as possible. Here, we describe the fabrication and characterization of a biodegradable, elastomeric porous scaffold: poly(1,8-octanediol-co-citric acid) (POC) incorporated with nanoscale hydroxyapatite (HA). While this chapter focuses on the scaffold's potential for bone regeneration, POC can also be used in other tissue engineering applications requiring an elastomeric implant...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
Meng Wang, Ermias Dheressa, Kristen A Brown, Matthew D Green
An evolving understanding of elastomeric polymer nanocomposites continues to expand commercial, defense, and industrial products and applications. This work explores the thermomechanical properties of elastomeric nanocomposites prepared from bisphenol A diglycidyl ether and three amine-terminated poly(propylene oxides) (Jeffamines). The Jeffamines investigated include difunctional crosslinkers with molecular weights of 2000 and 4000 g mol-1 and a trifunctional crosslinker with a molecular weight of 3000 g mol-1 ...
April 20, 2018: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
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