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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29160403/quantification-of-streptococcus-mutans-in-different-types-of-ligature-wires-and-elastomeric-chains
#1
Mariana Umekita Shirozaki, José Tarcísio Lima Ferreira, Erika Calvano Küchler, Mírian Aiko Nakane Matsumoto, Carolina Patrícia Aires, Paulo Nelson-Filho, Fábio Lourenço Romano
This study aimed to test the hypothesis that Streptococcus mutans contamination levels differ according to the type of the orthodontic ligature. Thirteen patients were selected. Each quadrant was randomly subjected to one of the following ligature-use protocols: I) elastomeric chain, II) steel ligature crossed over the archwire, III) steel ligature crossed under the archwire, and IV) steel ligature in a figure-eight pattern under the archwire. After seven days, the devices were removed and the Streptococcus mutans colony-forming unit count per mg of biofilm weight was determined...
July 2017: Brazilian Dental Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29139286/highly-sensitive-flexible-pressure-sensors-based-on-printed-organic-transistors-with-centro-apically-self-organized-organic-semiconductor-microstructures
#2
So Young Yeo, Sangsik Park, Yeonjin Yi, Do Hwan Kim, Jung Ah Lim
A highly sensitive pressure sensor based on a printed organic transistors with three-dimensionally self-organized organic semiconductor microstructures were demonstrated. A unique organic transistor with semiconductor channels positioned at the highest summit of printed cylindrical microstructures was achieved simply by printing an organic semiconductor and polymer blend on the plastic substrate without the use of additional etching or replication processes. A combination of the printed organic semiconductor microstructure and an elastomeric top-gate dielectric resulted in a highly sensitive OFET pressure sensor with a high pressure sensitivity of 1...
November 15, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29138940/silk-fibroin-pellethane%C3%A2-cardiovascular-patches-effect-of-silk-fibroin-concentration-on-vascular-remodeling-in-rat-model
#3
Pinkarn Chantawong, Takashi Tanaka, Akiko Uemura, Kazumi Shimada, Akira Higuchi, Hirokazu Tajiri, Kohta Sakura, Tomoaki Murakami, Yasumoto Nakazawa, Ryou Tanaka
Life-threatening cardiovascular anomalies require surgery for structural repair with cardiovascular patches. The biomaterial patch, derived from Bombyx mori silk fibroin (SF), is used as an alternative material due to its excellent tissue affinity and biocompatibility. However, SF lacks the elastomeric characteristics required for a cardiovascular patch. In order to overcome this shortcoming, we combined the thermoplastic polyurethane, Pellethane® (PU) with SF to develop an elastic biocompatible patch. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the feasibility of the blended SF/PU patch in a vascular model...
November 14, 2017: Journal of Materials Science. Materials in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135222/engineering-the-mechanical-properties-of-polymer-networks-with-precise-doping-of-primary-defects
#4
Doreen Chan, Yichuan Ding, Reinhold H Dauskardt, Eric A Appel
Polymer networks are extensively utilized across numerous applications ranging from commodity superabsorbent polymers and coatings to high-performance microelectronics and biomaterials. For many applications, desirable properties are known; however, achieving them has been challenging. Additionally, the accurate prediction of elastic modulus has been a long-standing difficulty owing to the presence of loops. By tuning the prepolymer formulation through precise doping of monomers, specific primary network defects can be programmed into an elastomeric scaffold, without alteration of their resulting chemistry...
November 22, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29118693/design-of-a-soft-robotic-elbow-sleeve-with-passive-and-intent-controlled-actuation
#5
Tze Hui Koh, Nicholas Cheng, Hong Kai Yap, Chen-Hua Yeow
The provision of continuous passive, and intent-based assisted movements for neuromuscular training can be incorporated into a robotic elbow sleeve. The objective of this study is to propose the design and test the functionality of a soft robotic elbow sleeve in assisting flexion and extension of the elbow, both passively and using intent-based motion reinforcement. First, the elbow sleeve was developed, using elastomeric and fabric-based pneumatic actuators, which are soft and lightweight, in order to address issues of non-portability and poor alignment with joints that conventional robotic rehabilitation devices are faced with...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29111556/mechano-responsive-lateral-buckling-of-miniaturized-beams-standing-on-flexible-substrates
#6
Hyemin Lee, Jung Gun Bae, Won Bo Lee, Hyunsik Yoon
We fabricate an elastomeric beam standing on a flexible substrate using 3D printing and soft lithography and investigate lateral buckling generated in the part of the wall when this beam is under pure bending. We also observe changes in the morphology of wrinkling along the applied strain and geometry of the wall, and then analyze it with scaling concepts. Furthermore, the degree of lateral buckling is controlled through the tip design in the ratchet structure and it is verified with finite element simulation...
November 22, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103436/effectiveness-of-pulsed-electromagnetic-field-for-pain-caused-by-placement-of-initial-orthodontic-wire-in-female-orthodontic-patients-a-preliminary-single-blind-randomized-clinical-trial
#7
Jin-Gon Jung, Jae Hyun Park, Sang-Cheol Kim, Kyung-Hwa Kang, Jin-Hyoung Cho, Jin-Woo Cho, Na-Young Chang, R Curtis Bay, Jong-Moon Chae
INTRODUCTION: The purpose of this 2-arm parallel trial was to assess the effects of pulsed electromagnetic field (PEMF) on the reduction of pain caused by initial orthodontic tooth movement. METHODS: Thirty-three female patients (mean age, 16.8 ± 3.8 years) who began orthodontic treatment using fixed appliances were examined. In the pilot study, male patients were less likely to use the PEMF device (epatchQ; Speed Dental, Seoul, Korea) and answer a survey consistently, so eligibility criteria were female patients who were periodontally and systemically healthy at the initiation of treatment and had no history of dental pain in the prior 2 weeks or who used no medications (anti-inflammatory or analgesic drugs) during the experiment period...
November 2017: American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29094469/afm-and-nanoindentation-investigation-of-pdms-elastomeric-substrate-compliancy-for-various-sputtered-thin-film-morphologies
#8
Debashis Maji, Soumen Das
Crack free electrically continuous metal thin films over soft elastomeric substrates play an integral part in realization of modern day flexible bio-electronics and biosensors. Under non-optimized deposition conditions, delamination and/or cracking of the top film as well as the underlying soft substrate hinders optimal performance of these devices. Hence it is very important to understand and control not only the various deposition factors like power, time or deposition pressure but also investigate the various interfacial physics playing a critical role in assuring thin film adhesion and substrate compliancy...
November 1, 2017: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089818/effectiveness-of-low-level-laser-therapy-in-reducing-orthodontic-pain-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#9
REVIEW
Naira Figueiredo Deana, Carlos Zaror, Paulo Sandoval, Nilton Alves
OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) in reducing orthodontic pain after the application of orthodontic force (OF). METHODS: A systematic search was conducted in the MEDLINE, EMBASE, Scopus, Cochrane Library, Web of Science, and EBSCOhost databases. The study included randomized clinical trials (RCT) which analysed the effectiveness of LLLT in reducing orthodontic pain assessed at 24 and 72 hrs after the application of OF. The risk of bias of the eligible trials was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration's risk of bias tool...
2017: Pain Research & Management: the Journal of the Canadian Pain Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29082413/a-micropatterned-elastomeric-surface-with-enhanced-frictional-properties-under-wet-conditions-and-its-application
#10
H Ko, M Seong, H E Jeong
Engineered surfaces that have high friction under wet or lubricated conditions are important in many practical applications. However, it is not easy to achieve stable high friction under wet conditions because a layer of fluid prevents direct solid-solid contact. Here, we report a micropatterned elastomeric surface with superior wet friction. The surface has unique arch-shaped microstructures arrayed in a circle on the surface to provide high friction on wet or flooded surfaces. The arch-shaped micropatterned surface exhibits remarkably enhanced and stable friction under wet conditions, surpassing even the performance of the hexagonal patterns of tree frogs, owing to the large contact surface and the optimal shape of drainage channels...
November 22, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29079137/evaluation-of-9-health-care-organizations-respiratory-protection-programs-and-respiratory-protective-device-practices-implications-for-adoption-of-elastomerics
#11
Linda Morris Brown, Bonnie Rogers, Kathleen Buckheit, John Pat Curran
Interview, observational, and discussion group data at 9 health care organizations (HCOs) were collected to better understand elastomeric half-facepiece respirators' (EHFRs) use. We found that HCOs do not routinely use EHFRs as a respiratory protection device (RPD) for health care workers; compliance with other respirator types was less than expected. This finding has important training implications for proper use of all RPDs and EHFRs as an alternative RPD stockpiled for use during a respiratory infectious outbreak...
October 24, 2017: American Journal of Infection Control
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29078394/three-dimensional-mesostructures-as-high-temperature-growth-templates-electronic-cellular-scaffolds-and-self-propelled-microrobots
#12
Zheng Yan, Mengdi Han, Yan Shi, Adina Badea, Yiyuan Yang, Ashish Kulkarni, Erik Hanson, Mikhail E Kandel, Xiewen Wen, Fan Zhang, Yiyue Luo, Qing Lin, Hang Zhang, Xiaogang Guo, Yuming Huang, Kewang Nan, Shuai Jia, Aaron W Oraham, Molly B Mevis, Jaeman Lim, Xuelin Guo, Mingye Gao, Woomi Ryu, Ki Jun Yu, Bruno G Nicolau, Aaron Petronico, Stanislav S Rubakhin, Jun Lou, Pulickel M Ajayan, Katsuyo Thornton, Gabriel Popescu, Daining Fang, Jonathan V Sweedler, Paul V Braun, Haixia Zhang, Ralph G Nuzzo, Yonggang Huang, Yihui Zhang, John A Rogers
Recent work demonstrates that processes of stress release in prestrained elastomeric substrates can guide the assembly of sophisticated 3D micro/nanostructures in advanced materials. Reported application examples include soft electronic components, tunable electromagnetic and optical devices, vibrational metrology platforms, and other unusual technologies, each enabled by uniquely engineered 3D architectures. A significant disadvantage of these systems is that the elastomeric substrates, while essential to the assembly process, can impose significant engineering constraints in terms of operating temperatures and levels of dimensional stability; they also prevent the realization of 3D structures in freestanding forms...
November 7, 2017: Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29058799/a-supramolecular-nanocomposite-as-a-near-infrared-transmitting-optical-filter-for-security-and-forensic-applications
#13
Samrat Ghosh, Sandeep Cherumukkil, Cherumuttathu H Suresh, Ayyappanpillai Ajayaghosh
Visibly opaque but near-infrared (NIR)-transparent materials are an essential component for night-vision photography, security imaging, and forensic applications. Herein, the development of a novel supramolecular black dye from a diketopyrrolopyrrole (DPP)-based low-molecular-weight organogelator is described. In the solution state, the monomer of DPP-Amide exhibits a deep green color with a broad absorption in the visible region due to firm intramolecular charge transfer from the donor to the acceptor unit...
October 23, 2017: Advanced Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29046624/designing-thin-ultrastretchable-electronics-with-stacked-circuits-and-elastomeric-encapsulation-materials
#14
Renxiao Xu, Jung Woo Lee, Taisong Pan, Siyi Ma, Jiayi Wang, June Hyun Han, Yinji Ma, John A Rogers, Yonggang Huang
Many recently developed soft, skin-like electronics with high performance circuits and low modulus encapsulation materials can accommodate large bending, stretching, and twisting deformations. Their compliant mechanics also allows for intimate, nonintrusive integration to the curvilinear surfaces of soft biological tissues. By introducing a stacked circuit construct, the functional density of these systems can be greatly improved, yet their desirable mechanics may be compromised due to the increased overall thickness...
January 26, 2017: Advanced Functional Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044284/buckling-patterns-in-biaxially-pre-stretched-bilayer-shells-wrinkles-creases-folds-and-fracture-like-ridges
#15
Rashed Al-Rashed, Francisco López Jiménez, Joel Marthelot, Pedro M Reis
We introduce a new experimental system to study the effects of pre-stretch on the buckling patterns that emerge from the biaxial compression of elastomeric bilayer shells. Upon fabrication of the samples, releasing the pre-stretch in the substrate through deflation places the outer film in a state of biaxial compression and yields a variety of buckling patterns. We systematically explore the parameter space by varying the pre-stretch of the substrate and the ratio between the stiffness of the substrate and film...
November 8, 2017: Soft Matter
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039648/modular-elastomer-photoresins-for-digital-light-processing-additive-manufacturing
#16
Carl J Thrasher, Johanna J Schwartz, Andrew J Boydston
A series of photoresins suitable for the production of elastomeric objects via digital light processing additive manufacturing are reported. Notably, the printing procedure is readily accessible using only entry-level equipment under ambient conditions using visible light projection. The photoresin formulations were found to be modular in nature, and straightforward adjustments to the resin components enabled access to a range of compositions and mechanical properties. Collectively, the series includes silicones, hydrogels, and hybrids thereof...
November 1, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026040/stretchable-surfaces-with-programmable-3d-texture-morphing-for-synthetic-camouflaging-skins
#17
J H Pikul, S Li, H Bai, R T Hanlon, I Cohen, R F Shepherd
Technologies that use stretchable materials are increasingly important, yet we are unable to control how they stretch with much more sophistication than inflating balloons. Nature, however, demonstrates remarkable control of stretchable surfaces; for example, cephalopods can project hierarchical structures from their skin in milliseconds for a wide range of textural camouflage. Inspired by cephalopod muscular morphology, we developed synthetic tissue groupings that allowed programmable transformation of two-dimensional (2D) stretchable surfaces into target 3D shapes...
October 13, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29024134/telechelic-polybutadienes-or-polyisoprenes-precursors-for-recyclable-elastomeric-networks
#18
Pierre Berto, Stéphane Grelier, Frédéric Peruch
(Bis)furan-telechelic, low-molar-mass polybutadienes and polyisoprenes are synthesized by controlled degradation of high molar mass polymers and chain-end modifications yielding difunctional, trifunctional, or tetrafunctional polymers. Addition of a bismaleimide to the liquid-modified polymer leads to the formation of a thermoreversible elastomeric network based on the Diels-Alder chemistry for the trifunctional or tetrafunctional polymers, whereas only chain extension occurs for the bifunctional one. Dynamic mechanical analyses or tensile tests are performed on the networks and reveal a similar behavior for polyisoprene and polybutadiene with nevertheless quite different Young modulus or strain at break...
October 12, 2017: Macromolecular Rapid Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023365/soft-smart-garments-for-lower-limb-joint-position-analysis
#19
Massimo Totaro, Tommaso Poliero, Alessio Mondini, Chiara Lucarotti, Giovanni Cairoli, Jesùs Ortiz, Lucia Beccai
Revealing human movement requires lightweight, flexible systems capable of detecting mechanical parameters (like strain and pressure) while being worn comfortably by the user, and not interfering with his/her activity. In this work we address such multifaceted challenge with the development of smart garments for lower limb motion detection, like a textile kneepad and anklet in which soft sensors and readout electronics are embedded for retrieving movement of the specific joint. Stretchable capacitive sensors with a three-electrode configuration are built combining conductive textiles and elastomeric layers, and distributed around knee and ankle...
October 12, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023351/rapid-deployment-aortic-valves-deliver-superior-hemodynamic-performance-in-vitro
#20
Lisong Ai, Harvey Chen, Virginia Lin, Vinayak N Bapat
OBJECTIVE: Clinical studies have demonstrated excellent hemodynamic performance of rapid deployment aortic valves; however, few studies have directly compared the performance of these valves with conventional bioprosthetic valves. Thus, the hemodynamic function of the EDWARDS INTUITY valve (rapid deployment valve) was compared with the Edwards Magna Ease valve in vitro (Edwards Lifesciences Corp, Irvine, CA USA). METHODS: Elastomeric material was used to create an aortic root model that included a left ventricular outflow tract and aortic annulus...
September 2017: Innovations: Technology and Techniques in Cardiothoracic and Vascular Surgery
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