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M Portelli, A Lucchese, A Lo Giudice, A Militi, P Spinuzza, A M Bellocchio, R Nucera, S Croce, G Ghilardi, M Manuelli
In straight-wire mechanics, friction can significantly influence the forces expressed by wires. The aim of this study is to assess whether the aging and the sum of elastomeric ligatures affect the static friction during orthodontic space closure. A 0.017x 0.025-in SS was drawn throughout a 3-bracket experimental model and engaged with elastomeric ligatures. Before performing the test, the ligatures were soaked in artificial saliva for 48 hours (Group 1), 2 weeks (Group 2) and 4 weeks (Group 3); brand-new ligatures were also tested as control group (Group 4)...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Biological Regulators and Homeostatic Agents
Darren Svirskis, Sairam Behera, Neera Naidoo, Joanne Beachman, Tarsha Raina, Yongzhi Zhou, Leanne Berkahn, Ian Costello, Yongchuan Gu
Background The EPOCH regimen, consisting of vincristine sulfate, doxorubicin hydrochloride, and etoposide phosphate, is typically administered by continuous infusion over four days to oncology inpatients. If the EPOCH regimen was available to be administered through portable elastomeric pumps, chemotherapy could be transitioned to an outpatient setting, reducing inpatient bed days and overall healthcare costs. However, a lack of stability data for the admixtures in the elastomeric infusion devices currently prevents the transition of the regime to an outpatient setting...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Oncology Pharmacy Practice
Rafael D Schulman, Miguel Trejo, Thomas Salez, Elie Raphaël, Kari Dalnoki-Veress
Surface stress and surface energy are fundamental quantities which characterize the interface between two materials. Although these quantities are identical for interfaces involving only fluids, the Shuttleworth effect demonstrates that this is not the case for most interfaces involving solids, since their surface energies change with strain. Crystalline materials are known to have strain-dependent surface energies, but in amorphous materials, such as polymeric glasses and elastomers, the strain dependence is debated due to a dearth of direct measurements...
March 7, 2018: Nature Communications
Mamat-Noorhidayah, Kenjiro Yazawa, Keiji Numata, Y Norma-Rashid
Resilin functions as an elastic spring that demonstrates extraordinary extensibility and elasticity. Here we use combined techniques, laser scanning confocal microscopy (LSCM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to illuminate the structure and study the function of wing flexibility in damselflies, focusing on the genus Rhinocypha. Morphological studies using LSCM and SEM revealed that resilin patches and cuticular spikes were widespread along the longitudinal veins on both dorsal and ventral wing surfaces...
2018: PloS One
Steven Nagels, Wim Deferme
Stretchable electronics promise to naturalize the way that we are surrounded by and interact with our devices. Sensors that can stretch and bend furthermore have become increasingly relevant as the technology behind them matures rapidly from lab-based workflows to industrially applicable production principles. Regardless of the specific materials used, creating stretchable conductors involves either the implementation of strain reliefs through insightful geometric patterning, the dispersion of stiff conductive filler in an elastomeric matrix, or the employment of intrinsically stretchable conductive materials...
March 3, 2018: Materials
Matthew DiSalvo, Daniel Harris, Saurin Kantesaria, Alexis N Pena, Jules D Allbritton-King, Jacqueline H Cole, Nancy L Allbritton
Polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) membranes can act as sensing elements, barriers, and substrates, yet the low rigidity of the elastomeric membranes can limit their practical use in devices. Microraft arrays rely on a freestanding PDMS membrane as a substrate for cell arrays used in imaging cytometry and cellular isolation. However, the underlying PDMS membrane deforms under the weight of the cell media, making automated analytical microscopy (and thus cytometry and cell isolation) challenging. Here we report the development of microfabrication strategies and physically-motivated mathematical modeling of membrane deformation of PDMS microarrays...
March 6, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Sandip Patil, Tushar Deshpande, Nayantika Chaudhari, Yogesh R G Singh, Janhavi S Raut, Yogesh M Joshi, Ashutosh Sharma
Fabrication of large area, multi-scale micro-textured surfaces engineered for anti-adhesion property remains a challenge. Compared to an elastic surface, viscoelastic solids show much higher surface stickiness, tack and adhesion owing to increased contact area and energy dissipation. Here, we show a simple, low cost, large-area and high throughput method with roll-to-roll compatibility to fabricate multi-scale, rough micro-structures resistant to adhesion in a viscoelastic layer by controlled tearing of viscous film...
March 5, 2018: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Joe Bennett
A testing methodology was developed to expose photopolymer resins and measure the cured material to determine two key parameters related to the photopolymerization process: Ec (critical energy to initiate polymerization) and Dp (penetration depth of curing light). Five commercially available resins were evaluated under exposure from 365 nm and 405 nm light at varying power densities and energies. Three different methods for determining the thickness of the cured resin were evaluated. Caliper measurements, stylus profilometry, and confocal laser scanning microscopy showed similar results for hard materials while caliper measurement of a soft, elastomeric material proved inaccurate...
December 2017: Additive Manufacturing
Kamiar Ghoseiri, Mostafa Allami, Mohammad Reza Soroush, Mohammad Yusuf Rastkhadiv
The prevalence of limb amputation is increasing globally as a devastating experience that can physically and psychologically affect the lifestyle of a person. The residual limb pain and phantom limb pain are common disabling sequelae after amputation surgery. Assistive devices/technologies can be used to relieve pain in people with amputation. The existing assistive devices/technologies for pain management in people with amputation include electrical nerve block devices/technologies, TENS units, elastomeric pumps and catheters, residual limb covers, laser systems, myoelectric prostheses and virtual reality systems, etc...
January 23, 2018: Military Medical Research
Rahul P Patel, Jilson Jacob, Mohammed Sedeeq, Long Chiau Ming, Troy Wanandy, Syed Tabish R Zaidi, Gregory M Peterson
PURPOSE: The aim was to investigate the stability of cefazolin in elastomeric infusion devices. METHODS: Elastomeric devices (Infusor LV) that contain cefazolin (3 g/240 mL and 6 g/240 mL) were prepared and stored at 4°C for 72 hours and then at 35°C for 12 hours, followed by 25°C for 12 hours. An aliquot was withdrawn at predefined time points and analyzed for the concentration of cefazolin. Samples were also assessed for changes in pH, solution color, and particle content...
February 26, 2018: Clinical Therapeutics
Abigail Grosskopf, Ryan Truby, Hyoungsoo Kim, Antonio Perazzo, Jennifer A Lewis, Howard A Stone
Embedded three-dimensional (EMB3D) printing is an emerging technique that enables free-form fabrication of complex architectures. In this approach, a nozzle is translated omnidirectionally within a soft matrix that surrounds and supports the patterned material. To optimize print fidelity, we have investigated the effects of matrix viscoplasticity on the EMB3D printing process. Specifically, we determine how matrix composition, print path and speed, and nozzle diameter affect the yielded region within the matrix...
March 1, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Manuel Schaffner, Jakob A Faber, Lucas Pianegonda, Patrick A Rühs, Fergal Coulter, André R Studart
Soft actuation allows robots to interact safely with humans, other machines, and their surroundings. Full exploitation of the potential of soft actuators has, however, been hindered by the lack of simple manufacturing routes to generate multimaterial parts with intricate shapes and architectures. Here, we report a 3D printing platform for the seamless digital fabrication of pneumatic silicone actuators exhibiting programmable bioinspired architectures and motions. The actuators comprise an elastomeric body whose surface is decorated with reinforcing stripes at a well-defined lead angle...
February 28, 2018: Nature Communications
Zhizhi Sheng, Honglong Wang, Yongliang Tang, Miao Wang, Lizhi Huang, Lingli Min, Haiqiang Meng, Songyue Chen, Lei Jiang, Xu Hou
The development of membrane technology is central to fields ranging from resource harvesting to medicine, but the existing designs are unable to handle the complex sorting of multiphase substances required for many systems. Especially, the dynamic multiphase transport and separation under a steady-state applied pressure have great benefits for membrane science, but have not been realized at present. Moreover, the incorporation of precisely dynamic control with avoidance of contamination of membranes remains elusive...
February 2018: Science Advances
Ryan L Truby, Michael Wehner, Abigail K Grosskopf, Daniel M Vogt, Sebastien G M Uzel, Robert J Wood, Jennifer A Lewis
Humans possess manual dexterity, motor skills, and other physical abilities that rely on feedback provided by the somatosensory system. Herein, a method is reported for creating soft somatosensitive actuators (SSAs) via embedded 3D printing, which are innervated with multiple conductive features that simultaneously enable haptic, proprioceptive, and thermoceptive sensing. This novel manufacturing approach enables the seamless integration of multiple ionically conductive and fluidic features within elastomeric matrices to produce SSAs with the desired bioinspired sensing and actuation capabilities...
February 27, 2018: Advanced Materials
Wei Song, Joseph Seta, Michael K Eichler, Jacobus J Arts, Bronek M Boszczyk, David C Markel, Alessandro Gasbarrini, Weiping Ren
Adverse events have been reported with acrylic bone cements. However, current test standards for acrylic materials fail to characterize the potentially harmful monomers released during the curing stage. In clinical applications, materials are implanted into the human body during this phase. Silicone may be a safer alternative to acrylic cements. Silicone is used in medical applications for its biocompatibility and stability characteristics. Previously, no study has been completed which compares silicone to acrylic cements...
February 26, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
Gaurav Singh, Chenzhang Xiao, Elizabeth T Hsiao-Wecksler, Girish Krishnan
Fiber Reinforced Elastomeric Enclosures (FREEs) are soft pneumatic actuators that can contract and generate forces upon pressurization. Typical engineering applications utilize FREEs in its straight cylindrical configuration, and derive actuation displacement and forces from its ends. However, there are several instances in nature, such as an elephant trunk, snake, and grapevine tendril, where a spiral configuration of muscle systems is used for gripping, thereby establishing a mechanical connection with uniform force distribution...
February 22, 2018: Bioinspiration & Biomimetics
David Chimene, Charles W Peak, James Gentry, James K Carrow, Lauren M Cross, Eli Mondragon, Guinea B C Cardoso, Roland Kaunas, Akhilesh K Gaharwar
We introduce an enhanced nanoengineered ionic covalent entanglement (NICE) bioink for the fabrication of mechanically stiff and elastomeric 3D biostructures. NICE bioink formulations combine nanocomposite and ionic covalent entanglement (ICE) strengthening mechanisms to print customizable cell-laden constructs for tissue engineering with high structural fidelity and mechanical stiffness. Nanocomposite and ICE strengthening mechanisms complement each other through their synergistic interactions, improving mechanical strength, elasticity, toughness, and flow properties beyond the sum of the effects of both reinforcement techniques alone...
February 20, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Xin Ning, Heling Wang, Xinge Yu, Julio A N T Soares, Zheng Yan, Kewang Nan, Gabriel Velarde, Yeguang Xue, Rujie Sun, Qiyi Dong, Haiwen Luan, Chan Mi Lee, Aditya Chempakasseril, Mengdi Han, Yiqi Wang, Luming Li, Yonggang Huang, Yihui Zhang, John Rogers
Microelectromechanical systems remain an area of significant interest in fundamental and applied research due to their wide ranging applications. Most device designs, however, are largely two-dimensional and constrained to only a few simple geometries. Achieving tunable resonant frequencies or broad operational bandwidths requires complex components and/or fabrication processes. The work presented here reports unusual classes of three-dimensional (3D) micromechanical systems in the form of vibratory platforms assembled by controlled compressive buckling...
April 11, 2017: Advanced Functional Materials
Maila Castellano, Antonio Turturro, Elisabetta Finocchio, Guido Busca, Rossella Di Legami, Silvia Vicini
Silica nanoparticles with different aspect ratios (A.R.) were tested as reinforcing fillers of styrenebutadiene copolymer (s-SBR) for "green tyres," i.e., tires with lower rolling resistance. A commercial nanosilica with A.R. = 1 (Aerosil® 200) was compared with two nanosilica samples with A.R. = 2 and 4, synthesized by means of an innovative process, to ascertain if the filler shape was significant to improve the composite properties. In addition, bis-triethoxysilylpropyltetrasulfide was grafted onto the particles surface, in order to obtain more hydrophobic materials and to enhance their dispersion in the elastomeric composites: pristine and modified silicas were then compared...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Bhagabat Bhuyan, Suneel Kumar Srivastava, Vikas Mittal
MWCNTs/hectorite 3D hybrid filler was prepared from the 1:1 combination by weight of constituent MWCNTs (1D) and hectorite (2D) through simple dry grinding method. The resulting hybrid filler was subsequently utilized for the preparation of Ethylene-co-vinyl acetate (EVA)/MWCNTs/hectorite nanocomposites by solution intercalation method. Transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction studies of the nanocomposites confirm homogeneous dispersion of the fillers in the polymer matrix. Mechanical, thermal and dielectric properties of neat EVA are significantly enhanced with increase in filler content...
June 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
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