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Marco Baldrighi, Pier Paolo Sainaghi, Mattia Bellan, Ettore Bartoli, Luigi Mario Castello
INTRODUCTION: Although hypovolemia remains the most relevant problem during acute decompensated diabetes in its clinical manifestations (diabetic ketoacidosis, DKA, and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state, HHS), the electrolyte derangements caused by the global hydroelectrolytic imbalance usually complicate the clinical picture at presentation and may be worsened by treatment itself. AIM: This review article is focused on the management of dysnatremias during hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state with the aim of providing clinicians a useful tool to early indentify the sodium derangement in order to address properly its treatment...
March 19, 2018: Current Diabetes Reviews
A Gupta, H J H Clercx, F Toschi
Particle-laden turbulent flows occur in a variety of industrial applications as well as in naturally occurring flows. While the numerical simulation of such flows has seen significant advances in recent years, it still remains a challenging problem. Many studies investigated the rheology of dense suspensions in laminar flows as well as the dynamics of point-particles in turbulence. Here we employ a fully-resolved numerical simulation based on a lattice Boltzmann scheme, to investigate turbulent flow with large neutrally buoyant particles in a pipe flow at low Reynolds number and in dilute regimes...
March 21, 2018: European Physical Journal. E, Soft Matter
Janka Palancsai Siftar, Monika Sobocan, Iztok Takac
The present study aimed to determine the amount of fluid medium passing through the Fallopian tubes into the peritoneal cavity during a hysteroscopy. This was done to understand the pathophysiology of complications related to the hysteroscopy. Conducted in a general hospital setting, the study examined the fluid inflow-outflow during a hysteroscopy both in pre- and post-menopausal women. A hysteroscopy was performed vaginoscopically for both diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. The study involved 117 patients...
March 20, 2018: Journal of Obstetrics and Gynaecology: the Journal of the Institute of Obstetrics and Gynaecology
Wasim Khasawneh, Salar Bani Hani
Medication errors remain among the major problems seen in hospitals. Such errors can relate to the prescription, dispensation, or administration of drugs. Human factors account for most of these mistakes, but other factors such as infusion pump programming defects should always be considered. Worldwide, medication errors have been reported to affect 2-30% of patients, depending on the institution. Intravenous lipid emulsion (ILE) infusion is frequently used as part of total parenteral nutrition in patients of all ages with feeding and gastrointestinal issues...
March 19, 2018: Drug Safety—Case Reports
Lisa A Santry, Thomas M McAusland, Leonardo Susta, Geoffrey A Wood, Pierre P Major, Jim J Petrik, Byram W Bridle, Sarah K Wootton
Newcastle disease virus (NDV) is a single-stranded, negative-sense RNA virus in the Paramyxoviridae family. Although primarily an avian pathogen, NDV is a potent oncolytic virus that has been shown to be safe and effective in a variety of preclinical cancer models and human clinical trials. To produce virus for oncolytic trials, NDV is commonly amplified in embryonated chicken eggs and purified from the allantoic fluid. Conventional methods for purifying virus from allantoic fluid often result in relatively low-titer preparations containing high levels of impurities, including immunogenic chicken host cell proteins from allantoic fluid...
June 15, 2018: Molecular Therapy. Methods & Clinical Development
Danka Grčević, Marina Sironi, Sonia Valentino, Livija Deban, Hrvoje Cvija, Antonio Inforzato, Nataša Kovačić, Vedran Katavić, Tomislav Kelava, Ivo Kalajzić, Alberto Mantovani, Barbara Bottazzi
Pentraxin 3 (PTX3) is an inflammatory mediator acting as a fluid-phase pattern recognition molecule and playing an essential role in innate immunity and matrix remodeling. Inflammatory mediators also contribute to skeletal homeostasis, operating at multiple levels in physiological and pathological conditions. This study was designed to investigate the role of PTX3 in physiological skeletal remodeling and bone healing. Micro-computed tomography (μCT) and bone histomorphometry of distal femur showed that PTX3 gene-targeted female and male mice ( ptx3-/- ) had lower trabecular bone volume than their wild-type ( ptx3+/+ ) littermates (BV/TV by μCT: 3...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Mitsuru Ohishi
Elevated blood pressure is closely related to increased circulatory fluid volume and peripheral vascular resistance. Patients with diabetes mellitus experience increased peripheral artery resistance caused by vascular remodeling and increased body fluid volume associated with insulin resistance-induced hyperinsulinemia and hyperglycemia. Both of these mechanisms elevate systemic blood pressure. Thus, fully understanding the pathophysiology of hypertension in diabetes mellitus requires knowing the natural history of type 2 diabetes...
March 19, 2018: Hypertension Research: Official Journal of the Japanese Society of Hypertension
Megan Grabenauer, Katherine N Moore, Nichole D Bynum, Robert M White, John M Mitchell, Eugene D Hayes, Ronald Flegel
Recent advances in analytical capabilities allowing for the identification and quantification of drugs and metabolites in small volumes at low concentrations have made oral fluid a viable matrix for drug testing. Oral fluid is an attractive matrix option due to its relative ease of collection, reduced privacy concerns for observed collections and difficulty to adulterate. The work presented here details the development and validation of a liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS-MS) method for the quantification of codeine, morphine, 6-acetylmorphine, hydrocodone, hydromorphone, oxycodone and oxymorphone in neat oral fluid...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Analytical Toxicology
Hayley L Letson, Geoffrey P Dobson
BACKGROUND: Currently no drug therapy prevents secondary injury progression after TBI. Our aim was to investigate the effects of small-volume intravenous adenosine, lidocaine and Mg (ALM) resuscitation fluid after moderate-TBI in a rat fluid-percussion injury model. METHODS: Anesthetized, mechanically-ventilated male Sprague-Dawley rats (449±5g) were randomly assigned to one of four groups: 1) Sham (craniotomy without TBI), 2) No-Treatment, 3) Saline-controls or 4) ALM therapy (all n=16)...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Ranliang Hu, John Holbrook, Nancy J Newman, Valerie Biousse, Beau B Bruce, Deqiang Qiu, John Oshinski, Amit M Saindane
BACKGROUND: Optic nerve sheath tortuosity is a previously reported, but incompletely characterized, finding in idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH). We hypothesized that optic nerve angle (ONA), as a quantitative measure of tortuosity, would change dynamically with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) pressure status of patients with IIH immediately before and after lumbar puncture (LP). METHODS: Consecutive patients with suspected IIH referred for MRI and diagnostic LP were prospectively enrolled in this single institution, institutional review board-approved study...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Neuro-ophthalmology: the Official Journal of the North American Neuro-Ophthalmology Society
Takuma Iguchi, Noriyo Niino, Satoshi Tamai, Ken Sakurai, Kazuhiko Mori
RT-qPCR is one of the most common methods to assess individual target miRNAs. MiRNAs levels are generally measured relative to a reference sample. This approach is appropriate for examining physiological changes in target gene expression levels. However, absolute quantification using better statistical analysis is preferable for a comprehensive assessment of gene expression levels. Absolute quantification is still not in common use. This report describes a protocol for measuring the absolute levels of plasma miRNA, using RT-qPCR with or without pre-amplification...
February 12, 2018: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Justin K Lui, Lidia Spaho, Erik Holzwanger, Rosa Bui, Jennifer S Daly, Adel Bozorgzadeh, Scott E Kopec
Chronic liver disease has been associated with pulmonary dysfunction both before and after liver transplantation. Post-liver transplantation pulmonary complications can affect both morbidity and mortality often necessitating intensive care during the immediate postoperative period. The major pulmonary complications include pneumonia, pleural effusions, pulmonary edema, and atelectasis. Poor clinical outcomes have been known to be associated with age, severity of liver dysfunction, and preexisting lung disease as well as perioperative events related to fluid balance, particularly transfusion and fluid volumes...
January 1, 2018: Journal of Intensive Care Medicine
Temel Fatih Yılmaz, Ayse Aralasmak, Huseyin Toprak, Gulsen Kocaman, Alpay Alkan
Craniospinal hypotension is the syndrome of orthostatic headache associated with low cerebrospinal fluid pressure. Imaging findings are usually explained by Monro-Kellie hypothesis stating that the craniospinal compartment is incompressible and any increase in volume of one of the craniospinal constituents (blood, cerebrospinal fluid, and parenchyma) must be compensated by a decrease in volume of another constituent or vice versa. We report a case of craniospinal hypotension in whom drainage of subdural hematoma upon clinical impairments resulted in pontine hemorrhage, supporting Monro-Kellie hypothesis...
February 2018: Radiology Case Reports
Soroush Safaei, Pablo J Blanco, Lucas O Müller, Leif R Hellevik, Peter J Hunter
We propose a detailed CellML model of the human cerebral circulation that runs faster than real time on a desktop computer and is designed for use in clinical settings when the speed of response is important. A lumped parameter mathematical model, which is based on a one-dimensional formulation of the flow of an incompressible fluid in distensible vessels, is constructed using a bond graph formulation to ensure mass conservation and energy conservation. The model includes arterial vessels with geometric and anatomical data based on the ADAN circulation model...
2018: Frontiers in Physiology
Michael W Schleh, Charles L Dumke
INTRODUCTION: This study compared 2 commercially available beverages, an oral rehydration solution (ORS; 60.9 mM Na+ ; 3.4% carbohydrate) and a sports drink (SDS; 18.4 mM Na+; 5.9% carbohydrate), on hydration and metabolism during submaximal exercise in the heat. METHODS: Ten male subjects completed two 90-min exercise trials (39ºC, 30%) of walking at 50% VO2max followed by a 30-min rest period in the heat while wearing wildland firefighter personal protective clothing...
March 13, 2018: Wilderness & Environmental Medicine
Ali Q Raeini, Branko Bijeljic, Martin J Blunt
We present a generalized network model for simulating capillary-dominated two-phase flow through porous media at the pore scale. Three-dimensional images of the pore space are discretized using a generalized network-described in a companion paper [A. Q. Raeini, B. Bijeljic, and M. J. Blunt, Phys. Rev. E 96, 013312 (2017)2470-004510.1103/PhysRevE.96.013312]-which comprises pores that are divided into smaller elements called half-throats and subsequently into corners. Half-throats define the connectivity of the network at the coarsest level, connecting each pore to half-throats of its neighboring pores from their narrower ends, while corners define the connectivity of pore crevices...
February 2018: Physical Review. E
J Michael Dickson, Xu Wang, Alexander E St John, Esther B Lim, Susan A Stern, Nathan J White
Introduction: Traumatic brain injury (TBI) and hemorrhagic shock (HS) are the leading causes of traumatic death worldwide and particularly on the battlefield. They are especially challenging when present simultaneously (polytrauma), and clear blood pressure end points during fluid resuscitation are not well described for this situation. The goal of this study is to evaluate for any benefit of increasing blood pressure using a vasopressor on brain blood flow during initial fluid resuscitation in a swine polytrauma model...
March 14, 2018: Military Medicine
Blake J Bleier, Shelley L Anna, Lynn M Walker
The goal of this work is to develop a simple microfluidic approach to characterizing liquid-liquid phase behavior in complex aqueous mixtures of organics and salts. We take advantage of the permeability of inexpensive microfluidic devices to concentrate aqueous solutions on chip. We demonstrate a technique that allows phase boundaries to be identified with high compositional resolution and small sample volumes. Droplets of single phase samples are produced on-chip and concentrated in the device beyond the phase boundary line to map system phase behavior...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Physical Chemistry. B
Afroditi Despina Lalou, Marek Czosnyka, Joseph Donnelly, John D Pickard, FMedSci, Eva Nabbanja, Nicole C Keong, Matthew Garnett, Zofia H Czosnyka
OBJECTIVE Normal pressure hydrocephalus is not simply the result of a disturbance in CSF circulation, but often includes cardiovascular comorbidity and abnormalities within the cerebral mantle. In this study, the authors have examined the relationship between the global autoregulation pressure reactivity index (PRx), the profile of disturbed CSF circulation and pressure-volume compensation, and their possible effects on outcome after surgery. METHODS The authors studied a cohort of 131 patients in whom a clinical suspicion of normal pressure hydrocephalus was investigated...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Neurosurgery
Sunao Mizumura, Kazuhiro Nishikawa, Akihiro Murata, Kosei Yoshimura, Nobutomo Ishii, Tadashi Kokubo, Miyako Morooka, Akiko Kajiyama, Atsuro Terahara
OBJECTIVE: In Japan, the Southampton method for dopamine transporter (DAT) SPECT is widely used to quantitatively evaluate striatal radioactivity. The specific binding ratio (SBR) is the ratio of specific to non-specific binding observed after placing pentagonal striatal voxels of interest (VOIs) as references. Although the method can reduce the partial volume effect, the SBR may fluctuate due to the presence of low-count areas of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), caused by brain atrophy, in the striatal VOIs...
March 15, 2018: Annals of Nuclear Medicine
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