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Air embolism

Joe X Zhang, Jacob R Berry, Devin P Beckstrand
BACKGROUND: Arterial gas embolism (AGE) is a rare condition in the flying community most often only ever seen in flight while operating at high altitude or incidents involving hypobaric chambers. This article describes a severe case of AGE that occurred in a pilot of a fourth generation fighter aircraft at ground level. The environmental control system (ECS) malfunctioned, causing an overpressurized cockpit and a subsequent explosive decompression when the pilot opened the canopy to egress...
2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
Marta Crous-Bou, Laura B Harrington, Christopher Kabrhel
Venous thromboembolism (VTE) includes deep vein thrombosis and pulmonary embolism, and a combination of environmental and genetic risk factors contributes to VTE risk. Within environmental risk factors, some are provoking (e.g., cancer, surgery, trauma or fracture, immobilization, pregnancy and the postpartum period, long-distance travel, hospitalization, catheterization, and acute infection) and others are nonprovoking (e.g., age, sex, race/ethnicity, body mass index and obesity, oral contraceptive or hormone therapy use, corticosteroid use, statin use, diet, physical activity, sedentary time, and air pollution)...
October 20, 2016: Seminars in Thrombosis and Hemostasis
Leonardo Pacheco Roquero, Sandra Camelo-Piragua, Carl Schmidt
Cerebral air embolism is a recognized life-threatening complication, sometimes iatrogenic. Its timely diagnosis is essential because it can result in neurologic deficits or death. We report a case of a 58-year-old man who died from cerebral air embolism diagnosed by nonenhanced computed tomography scan of the head after a cardiac bypass surgery with Biventricular Assist Device and multiple vascular line placements. Autopsy revealed extensive subcutaneous emphysema, intravascular and perivascular air bubbles in the central nervous system and associated cerebral and cerebellar hemorrhagic infarction...
October 19, 2016: American Journal of Forensic Medicine and Pathology
Rajesh Vijayvergiya, Smit Shrivastava
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
September 2016: Indian Heart Journal
José M Torres-Ruiz, Hervé Cochard, Maurizio Mencuccini, Sylvain Delzon, Eric Badel
Xylem embolism is one of the main processes involved in drought-related plant mortality. Although its consequences for plant physiology are already well described, embolism formation and spread are poorly evaluated and modelled, especially for tracheid-based species. The aim of this study was to assess the embolism formation and spread in Pinus sylvestris as a case study using X-ray microtomography and hydraulics methods. We also evaluated the potential effects of cavitation fatigue on vulnerability to embolism and the micro-morphology of the bordered pits using Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) to test for possible links between xylem anatomy and embolism spread...
October 14, 2016: Plant, Cell & Environment
Stephanie Tan, Dimitrios Nikolarakos
Although less frequently encountered in dental practices, subcutaneous emphysema of the face and neck has been reported in patients following dental extractions, particularly when lower molar teeth are extracted with the use of a high speed air turbine drill designed for restorative treatment, which forces air into the cervical fascial spaces. As facial swelling and pain are the most common presentations, subcutaneous emphysema can often be misdiagnosed as an allergic reaction or odontogenic infection. While usually a benign and self limiting condition, subcutaneous emphysema may have life threatening complications such as tension pneumothorax, cardiac tamponade, air embolism, tracheal compression and mediastinitis, which are important to recognise in an emergency setting...
October 14, 2016: Australian Dental Journal
J Abram, J Klocker, N Innerhofer-Pompernigg, M Mittermayr, M C Freund, N Gravenstein, V Wenzel
Injuries to blood vessels near the heart can quickly become life-threatening and include arterial injuries during central venous puncture, which can lead to hemorrhagic shock. We report 6 patients in whom injury to the subclavian artery and vein led to life-threatening complications. Central venous catheters are associated with a multitude of risks, such as venous thrombosis, air embolism, systemic or local infections, paresthesia, hemothorax, pneumothorax, and cervical hematoma, which are not always immediately discernible...
October 5, 2016: Der Anaesthesist
Richard C Prielipp, Megan L Lanigan, David J Birnbach
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 1, 2016: American Journal of Ophthalmology
Pedro Filipe Viana Ferreira Pinto, Ana Paula Cunha Machado, Nuno Aires Mota de Mendonça Montenegro
Severe hemorrhage is a major concern during operative procedures for abnormally invasive placenta. We reviewed published literature with the objective to provide evidence of blood loss with the most common treatment options for abnormally invasive placenta. We selected 54 articles that fulfilled the inclusion criteria. Cesarean hysterectomy with or without occlusion balloons in the internal iliac arteries, was the treatment associated with the greatest blood loss. Major blood loss was also associated with the placenta left in situ (reported in 3 of 10 articles), and with uterine artery embolization (reported in 3 of 15 articles)...
September 27, 2016: Journal of Maternal-fetal & Neonatal Medicine
Rashmi Mishra, Pavithra Reddy, Misbahuddin Khaja
Cerebral air embolism (CAE) is an infrequently reported complication of routine medical procedures. We present two cases of CAE. The first patient was a 55-year-old male presenting with vomiting and loss of consciousness one day after his hemodialysis session. Physical exam was significant for hypotension and hypoxia with no focal neurologic deficits. Computed tomography (CT) scan of head showed gas in cerebral venous circulation. The patient did not undergo any procedures prior to presentation, and his last hemodialysis session was uneventful...
2016: Case Reports in Critical Care
Emad Alkhankan, Ahmad Nusair, Rida Mazagri, Mohammed Al-Ourani
Pleural pigtail catheter placement is associated with many complications including pneumothorax, hemorrhage, and chest pain. Air embolism is a known but rare complication of pleural pigtail catheter insertion and has a high risk of occurrence with positive pressure ventilation. In this case report, we present a 50-year-old male with bilateral pneumonia who developed a pneumothorax while on mechanical ventilation with continuous positive airway pressure mode. During the placement of the pleural pigtail catheter to correct the pneumothorax, the patient developed a sudden left sided body weakness and became unresponsive...
2016: Case Reports in Pulmonology
David R Santiago-Dieppa, Arvin R Wali, Brandon C Gabel, Alexander A Khalessi, Hoi Sang U, John C Drummond
Venous air embolism is a devastating and potentially life-threatening complication that can occur during neurosurgical procedures. We report the development and use of the "inter-mammary sticky roll," a technique to reliably secure a precordial Doppler ultrasonic probe to the chest wall during neurosurgical cases that require lateral decubitus positioning. We have found that this noninvasive technique is safe, and effectively facilitates a constant Doppler signal with no additional risk to the patient.
2016: Curēus
Mike J Clarke, Cathryn Broderick, Sally Hopewell, Ed Juszczak, Anne Eisinga
BACKGROUND: Air travel might increase the risk of deep vein thrombosis (DVT). It has been suggested that wearing compression stockings might reduce this risk. This is an update of the review first published in 2006. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effects of wearing compression stockings versus not wearing them for preventing DVT in people travelling on flights lasting at least four hours. SEARCH METHODS: For this update the Cochrane Vascular Information Specialist (CIS) searched the Specialised Register (10 February 2016)...
September 14, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Benjamin Azan, Felipe Teran, Bret P Nelson, Phillip Andrus
BACKGROUND: Vascular air embolism is a rare but potentially deadly phenomenon. Early diagnosis allows providers to initiate measures aimed at preventing further air entry, preventing the migration of air to the lungs, and mitigating the hemodynamic effects of pulmonary air embolism. CASE REPORT: An emergency physician used point-of-care ultrasound to identify intravascular air before embolization to the pulmonary vasculature. WHY SHOULD AN EMERGENCY PHYSICIAN BE AWARE OF THIS?: Bedside ultrasound can be used as a tool for early diagnosis of intravascular air...
September 9, 2016: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Yon Kwon Ihn, Bum-Soo Kim, Jun Soo Byun, Sang Hyun Suh, Yoo Dong Won, Deok Hee Lee, Byung Moon Kim, Young Soo Kim, Pyong Jeon, Chang-Woo Ryu, Sang-Il Suh, Dae Seob Choi, See Sung Choi, Jin Wook Choi, Hyuk Won Chang, Jae-Wook Lee, Sang Heum Kim, Young Jun Lee, Shang Hun Shin, Soo Mee Lim, Woong Yoon, Hae Woong Jeong, Moon Hee Han
PURPOSE: To assess patient radiation doses during cerebral angiography and embolization of intracranial aneurysms across multi-centers and propose a diagnostic reference level (DRL). MATERIALS AND METHODS: We studied a sample of 490 diagnostic and 371 therapeutic procedures for intracranial aneurysms, which were performed at 23 hospitals in Korea in 2015. Parameters including dose-area product (DAP), cumulative air kerma (CAK), fluoroscopic time and total angiographic image frames were obtained and analyzed...
September 2016: Neurointervention
Alexandre Escande, Renaud Mazeron, Sebastien Gouy, Enrica Bentivegna, Pierre Maroun, Georges Fahra, Anne-Sophie Oberlander, Isabelle Dumas, Pauline Castelnau-Marchand, Eric Deutsch, Philippe Morice, Christine Haie-Meder, Cyrus Chargari
OBJECTIVE: To examine the clinical results of a preoperative image-guided pulse-dose-rate brachytherapy (PDR-BT) in early stage cervical cancer. MATERIALS/METHODS: We examined the outcome of consecutive patients with early stage cervical cancer undergoing preoperative image-guided PDR-BT between 2004 and 2013 because of risk factors (lymphovascular embols and/or tumour>2cm). The objective was to deliver 60Gy to 100% of the intermediate risk clinical target volume...
September 2016: Radiotherapy and Oncology: Journal of the European Society for Therapeutic Radiology and Oncology
Onur Işık, Çağatay Engin, Ahmet Daylan, Cengiz Şahutoğlu
Use of high-velocity air guns can to lead to serious injuries. Management options of cardiac pellet gun injuries are based on patient stability, and course and location of the pellet. Presently reported is the case of a boy who was shot with an air gun pellet. Following right ventricular entry, the pellet lodged in the left atrium and embolized to the right iliac and femoral artery. Following pellet localization, right ventricular injury was repaired, and the pellet was removed successfully.
May 2016: Ulusal Travma Ve Acil Cerrahi Dergisi, Turkish Journal of Trauma & Emergency Surgery: TJTES
Betül Basaran, Ahmet Basaran, Betül Kozanhan, Sadık Özmen, Mustafa Basaran
We report a case of venous air embolism during abdominal myomectomy. Although true incidence of venous air embolism is not known, in literature most of reported cases are belongs to sitting position craniotomies. Many of those are subclinical, and diagnostic methods have varying degrees of sensitivity and specificity. At time of suspicion, prevention of any subsequent air emboli is the cornerstone of treatment.
September 2016: Brazilian Journal of Anesthesiology
Catherine D Parker, Cory M Shea
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 29, 2016: American Journal of Emergency Medicine
Dafney L Davare, Zishan Chaudry, Rafael Sanchez, Seong K Lee, Chauniqua Kiffin, Andrew A Rosenthal, Eddy H Carrillo
Venous air embolus (VAE) occurs when gas, specifically atmospheric air, enters into the vascular system. Although rare, they can be fatal due to risk of cardiovascular collapse. In this report, we present a unique case of a 66-year-old female trauma patient with an inferior vena cava air embolism. An overview of the potential cause is presented, along with a review of the management of VAE.
2016: Journal of Surgical Case Reports
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