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Mauricio Camelo-Rusinque, Andrés Moreno-Galván, Felipe Romero-Perdomo, Ruth Bonilla-Buitrago
The indiscriminate use of chemical fertilizers has contributed to the deterioration of the biological, physical and chemical properties of the soil, resulting in the loss of its productive capacity. For this reason, the use of biofertilizers has emerged as a technological alternative. The objective of this research was to develop a suitable liquid fermentation system and encystment for the multiplication of Azotobacter chroococcum AC1 strain, a bacterium employed in a biofertilizer formulation produced at present by CARPOICA, Colombia...
July 15, 2017: Revista Argentina de Microbiología
Muhammad Atif Khan, Servin Rathi, Jinwoo Park, Dongsuk Lim, Yoontae Lee, Sun Jin Yun, Doo Hyeb Youn, Gil-Ho Kim
The self-biasing effects of ion gel from source and drain electrodes on electrical characteristics of single layer and few layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) field effect transistor (FET) have been studied. The self-biasing effect of ion gel is tested for two different configurations, covered and open, where ion gel is in contact with either one or both, source and drain electrodes, respectively. In open configuration, the linear output characteristics of the pristine device becomes non-linear and on-off ratio drops by three order of magnitude due to the increase in 'off' current for both single and few layer MoS2 FETs...
July 17, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Lei Yang, Alolika Mukhopadhyay, Yucong Jiao, Qiang Yong, Liao Chen, Yingjie Xing, Jonathan Hamel, Hongli Zhu
Thermally insulating materials, made from earth-abundant and sustainable resources, are highly desirable in the sustainable construction of energy efficient buildings. Cellulose from wood has long been recognized for these characteristics. However, cellulose can be a flammability hazard, and for construction this has been addressed via chemical treatment such as that with halogen and/or phosphorus, which leads to further environmental concerns. Fortunately, the structure of cellulose lends itself well to chemical modification, giving great potential to explore interaction with other compounds...
July 17, 2017: Nanoscale
Wei Zou, Xingli Zhang, Mengyang Zhao, Qixing Zhou, Xiangang Hu
Single-layer molybdenum disulfide (SLMoS2) is a novel kind of 2D nanosheet that has attracted great attention regarding its use in biosensors, drug delivery, tissue engineering and therapy. However, our results demonstrated that SLMoS2 accelerated proliferation and promoted myogenic differentiation and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in human embryonic lung fibroblasts (HELFs). The abnormal proliferation and differentiation of HELFs contribute to idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis. Specifically, SLMoS2 significantly stimulated the expression of myofibroblast- and mesenchymal-associated genes and proteins...
July 17, 2017: Nanotoxicology
Dominik Weber, Manop Huber, Tatiana E Gorelik, Artem M Abakumov, Nils Becker, Oliver Niehaus, Christian Schwickert, Sean P Culver, Hans Boysen, Anatoliy Senyshyn, Rainer Pöttgen, Richard Dronskowski, Thorsten Ressler, Ute Kolb, Martin Lerch
Blue-colored molybdenum oxide nitrides of the Mo2(O,N,□)5 type were synthesized by direct nitridation of commercially available molybdenum trioxide with a mixture of gaseous ammonia and oxygen. Chemical composition, crystal structure, and stability of the obtained and hitherto unknown compounds are studied extensively. The average oxidation state of +5 for molybdenum is proven by Mo K near-edge X-ray absorption spectroscopy; the magnetic behavior is in agreement with compounds exhibiting Mo(V)O6 units. The new materials are stable up to ∼773 K in an inert gas atmosphere...
July 17, 2017: Inorganic Chemistry
Sertan Ozan, Jixing Lin, Yuncang Li, Cuie Wen
In this study, a new series of Ti-Ta-Zr-Nb alloys (Ti-38.3Ta-22Zr-8.1Nb, Ti-38.9Ta-25Zr-5Nb, Ti-39.5Ta-28Zr-2.5Nb, designated TTZN-1, TTZN-2, TTZN-3, respectively) with high elastic strain and high mechanical strength have been developed as alternatives to conventional orthopedic implant materials. The TTZN alloys have been designed using the electronic parameters of the alloying elements, combined with the approaches of the electron-to-atom ratio (e/a) and molybdenum equivalence (Moeq). X-ray diffraction analysis has revealed that all the TTZN alloys are comprised of a single β phase, however, transmission electron microscopy observations revealed that ω and β phases co-existed in the microstructure...
July 6, 2017: Journal of the Mechanical Behavior of Biomedical Materials
M Zürch, R Jung, C Späth, J Tümmler, A Guggenmos, D Attwood, U Kleineberg, H Stiel, C Spielmann
Coherent diffraction imaging (CDI) in the extreme ultraviolet has become an important tool for nanoscale investigations. Laser-driven high harmonic generation (HHG) sources allow for lab scale applications such as cancer cell classification and phase-resolved surface studies. HHG sources exhibit excellent coherence but limited photon flux due poor conversion efficiency. In contrast, table-top soft X-ray lasers (SXRL) feature excellent temporal coherence and extraordinary high flux at limited transverse coherence...
July 13, 2017: Scientific Reports
Ling Yu, Qianqian Wang, Hui Yang, Qilong Zhang, Zhongkuan Luo
In this study, ternary composites of reduced graphene oxide/molybdenum disulfide/polyaniline (rGEO/MoS2/PANI) were prepared via a two-stage facile synthesis including a hydrothermal reaction and polymerization at room temperature which makes the materials much easier for industrialization. The doping of reduced graphene oxide (rGEO) decreases the aggregation of MoS2 and enhances the electronic conductivities of MoS2, thus exhibiting better capacitance properties (531 F g(-1) at 1 A g(-1)) and cycling stabilities (86...
July 12, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Jinhua Hong, Yanlei Wang, Anle Wang, Danhui Lv, Chuanhong Jin, Zhiping Xu, Matt I J Probert, Jun Yuan, Ze Zhang
As a common type of structural defect, grain boundaries (GBs) play an important role in tailoring the physical and chemical properties of bulk crystals and their two-dimensional (2D) counterparts such as graphene and molybdenum disulfide (MoS2). In this study, we explore the atomic structures and dynamics of three kinds of high-symmetry GBs (α, β and γ) in monolayer MoS2. Atomic-resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) is used to characterize their formation and evolutionary dynamics, and atomistic simulation based analysis explains the size distribution of α-type GBs observed under TEM and the inter-GB interaction, revealing the stabilization mechanism of GBs by pre-existing sulfur vacancies...
July 12, 2017: Nanoscale
Kamal Choudhary, Irina Kalish, Ryan Beams, Francesca Tavazza
We introduce a simple criterion to identify two-dimensional (2D) materials based on the comparison between experimental lattice constants and lattice constants mainly obtained from Materials-Project (MP) density functional theory (DFT) calculation repository. Specifically, if the relative difference between the two lattice constants for a specific material is greater than or equal to 5%, we predict them to be good candidates for 2D materials. We have predicted at least 1356 such 2D materials. For all the systems satisfying our criterion, we manually create single layer systems and calculate their energetics, structural, electronic, and elastic properties for both the bulk and the single layer cases...
July 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
Jing Yang, Chao Dong, Martin L Kirk
A combination of reaction coordinate computations, resonance Raman spectroscopy, spectroscopic computations, and hydrogen bonding investigations have been used to understand the importance of substrate orientation along the xanthine oxidase reaction coordinate. Specifically, 4-thiolumazine and 2,4-dithiolumazine have been used as reducing substrates for xanthine oxidase to form stable enzyme-product charge transfer complexes suitable for spectroscopic study. Laser excitation into the near-infrared molybdenum-to-product charge transfer band produces rR enhancement patterns in the high frequency in-plane stretching region that directly probe the nature of this MLCT transition and provide insight into the effects of electron redistribution along the reaction coordinate between the transition state and the stable enzyme-product intermediate, including the role of the covalent Mo-O-C linkage in facilitating this process...
July 11, 2017: Dalton Transactions: An International Journal of Inorganic Chemistry
Shinnosuke Ishizuka, Yuki Kimura, Satoki Yokoi, Tomoya Yamazaki, Rikako Sato, Tetsuya Hama
Nucleation and subsequent rapid growth are enigmatic due to the unrevealed pathways. Despite the relatively simpler mechanism compared to nucleation and growth in solution, that in vapor has received little attention. The largest hindrance to unveiling this process may be observing the rapid and mesoscopic-scale phenomena. To overcome this hindrance, we combine an experimental approach with in situ spatial scanning Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, which reveals the nucleating and growing nanoparticles in vapor...
July 11, 2017: Nanoscale
Jin Ji, Yinle Li, Wenzhi Fu, Zheng Cui, Jianfeng Shen, Mingxin Ye
In this work, a new design of three-dimensional (3D) molybdenum disulfide -reduced graphene oxide nanosheets supported palladium (Pd/MoS2-rGO) catalyst was prepared by a facile one-pot self-assembled procedure. The existence of MoS2 not only succeeded in preventing the restacking of rGO nanosheets and increasing the specific surface area, but also afforded an additional transport platform for Pd nanoparticles to facilitate its catalytic properties. Because of the specific structural and different functional components, the as-prepared Pd/MoS2-rGO showed superior catalytic performance and reusability towards the cross-coupling reactions and the reduction of 4-nitrophenol...
July 4, 2017: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Lele Shi, Huabin Cao, Junrong Luo, Ping Liu, Tiancheng Wang, Guoliang Hu, Caiying Zhang
Molybdenum (Mo) is an essential element for human beings and animals; however, high dietary intake of Mo can lead to adverse reactions. Cadmium (Cd) is one of the major transitional metals which has toxic effects in animals. To investigate the co-induced toxic effects of Mo and Cd on oxidative damage and kidney apoptosis in duck, 120 ducks were randomly divided into control group and 5 treatment groups which were treated with a commercial diet containing different dosages of Mo and Cd. Kidney samples were collected on the 60th and 120th days to determine the mRNA expression levels of ceruloplasmin (CP), metallothionein (MT), Bak-1, and Caspase-3 by quantitative RT-PCR...
July 7, 2017: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Christine N Morrison, Thomas Spatzal, Douglas C Rees
Protonated states of the nitrogenase active site are mechanistically significant since substrate reduction is invariably accompanied by proton uptake. We report the low pH characterization by X-ray crystallography and EPR spectroscopy of the nitrogenase molybdenum iron (MoFe) proteins from two phylogenetically distinct nitrogenases (Azotobacter vinelandii, Av, and Clostridium pasteurianum, Cp) at pHs between 4.5 to 8. X-ray data at pHs of 4.5 - 6 reveal the repositioning of sidechains along one side of the FeMo-cofactor, and the corresponding EPR data shows a new S = 3/2 spin system with spectral features similar to a state previously observed during catalytic turnover...
July 10, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Juwon Lee, Sangyeon Pak, Paul Giraud, Young-Woo Lee, Yuljae Cho, John Hong, A-Rang Jang, Hee-Suk Chung, Woong-Ki Hong, Hu Young Jeong, Hyun Suk Shin, Luigi G Occhipinti, Stephen M Morris, SeungNam Cha, Jung Inn Sohn, Jong Min Kim
Transition metal dichalcogenide (TMDC) monolayers are considered to be potential materials for atomically thin electronics due to their unique electronic and optical properties. However, large-area and uniform growth of TMDC monolayers with large grain sizes is still a considerable challenge. This report presents a simple but effective approach for large-scale and highly crystalline molybdenum disulfide monolayers using a solution-processed precursor deposition. The low supersaturation level, triggered by the evaporation of an extremely thin precursor layer, reduces the nucleation density dramatically under a thermodynamically stable environment, yielding uniform and clean monolayer films and large crystal sizes up to 500 µm...
July 10, 2017: Advanced Materials
Jing Zhao, Na Li, Hua Yu, Zheng Wei, Mengzhou Liao, Peng Chen, Shuopei Wang, Dongxia Shi, Qijun Sun, Guangyu Zhang
Recently, 2D materials exhibit great potential for humidity sensing applications due to the fact that almost all atoms are at the surface. Therefore, the quality of the material surface becomes the key point for sensitive perception. This study reports an integrated, highly sensitive humidity sensors array based on large-area, uniform single-layer molybdenum disulfide with an ultraclean surface. Device mobilities and on/off ratios decrease linearly with the relative humidity varying from 0% to 35%, leading to a high sensitivity of more than 10(4) ...
July 10, 2017: Advanced Materials
Daniel Sippel, Oliver Einsle
Nitrogenases catalyze the reduction of dinitrogen (N2) gas to ammonium at a complex heterometallic cofactor. This most commonly occurs at the FeMo cofactor (FeMoco), a [Mo-7Fe-9S-C] cluster whose exact reactivity and substrate-binding mode remain unknown. Alternative nitrogenases replace molybdenum with either vanadium or iron and differ in reactivity, most prominently in the ability of vanadium nitrogenase to reduce CO to hydrocarbons. Here we report the 1.35-Å structure of vanadium nitrogenase from Azotobacter vinelandii...
July 10, 2017: Nature Chemical Biology
Morten Willatzen, Lok C Lew Yan Voon, Appala Naidu Gandi, Udo Schwingenschlögl
A general three-dimensional continuum model of phonons in two-dimensional materials is developed. Our first-principles derivation includes full consideration of the lattice anisotropy and flexural modes perpendicular to the layers and can thus be applied to any two-dimensional material. In this paper, we use the model to not only compare the phonon spectra among the group-IV materials but also to study whether these phonons differ from those of a compound material such as molybdenum disulfide. The origin of quadratic modes is clarified...
2017: Beilstein Journal of Nanotechnology
Songwei Wu, Chengxiao Hu, Qiling Tan, Shoujun Xu, Xuecheng Sun
Molybdenum (Mo) has been reported to alleviate drought stress by enhancing antioxidant defense in plants, but the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Here, we hypothesized that Mo mediates nitric oxide (NO)-induced antioxidant defense through Mo-enzymes, particularly by nitrate reductase (NR) in wheat under drought stress. The 30-day-old wheat seedlings cultivated in -Mo (0 μM Mo) and +Mo (1 μM Mo) Hoagland solutions were detached and then pretreated with Mo-enzyme inhibitors, NO scavengers, NO donors or their combinations according to demands of complementary experiment under 10% polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG)-stimulated drought stress (PSD)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
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