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Qi Zhang, Kewen Li, Jinhong Yan, Zhuo Wang, Qi Wu, Long Bi, Min Yang, Yisheng Han
The objective was to investigate whether a graphene coating could improve the surface bioactivity of a cobalt-chromium-molybdenum-based alloy (CoCrMo). Graphene was produced by chemical vapor deposition and transferred to the surface of the CoCrMo alloy using an improved wet transfer approach. The morphology of the samples was observed, and the adhesion force and stabilization of graphene coating were analyzed by a nanoscratch test and ultrasonication test. In an in vitro studies, the adhesion and proliferation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) cultured on the samples were quantified via an Alamar Blue assay and cell counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assay...
February 19, 2018: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
Vinod K Sangwan, Hong-Sub Lee, Hadallia Bergeron, Itamar Balla, Megan E Beck, Kan-Sheng Chen, Mark C Hersam
Memristors are two-terminal passive circuit elements that have been developed for use in non-volatile resistive random-access memory and may also be useful in neuromorphic computing. Memristors have higher endurance and faster read/write times than flash memory and can provide multi-bit data storage. However, although two-terminal memristors have demonstrated capacity for basic neural functions, synapses in the human brain outnumber neurons by more than a thousandfold, which implies that multi-terminal memristors are needed to perform complex functions such as heterosynaptic plasticity...
February 21, 2018: Nature
Małgorzata Popko, Izabela Michalak, Radosław Wilk, Mateusz Gramza, Katarzyna Chojnacka, Henryk Górecki
Field and laboratory experiments were carried out in 2012-2013, aimed at evaluating the influence of new products stimulating plant growth based on amino acids on crop yield, characteristics of grain and content of macro- and micronutrients in winter wheat ( Triticum aestivum L.). The tests included two formulations produced in cooperation with INTERMAG Co. (Olkusz, Poland)-AminoPrim and AminoHort, containing 15% and 20% amino acids, respectively, and 0.27% and 2.1% microelements, respectively. Field experiments showed that the application of products based on amino acids influenced the increase of grain yield of winter wheat (5...
February 21, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Jothi Priyanka Thiruraman, Kazunori Fujisawa, Gopinath Danda, Paul Masih Das, Tianyi Zhang, Adam Bolotsky, Nestor Perea-Lopez, Adrien Nicolaï, Patrick Senet, M Terrones, Marija Drndic
Atomic defect engineering in thin membranes provides opportunities for ionic and molecular filtration and analysis. While molecular dynamics (MD) calculations have been used to model conductance through atomic vacancies, corresponding experiments are lacking. We create sub-nm vacancies in suspended single-layer molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) via Ga+ ion irradiation producing membranes containing ~ 300 to 1200 pores with average and maximum diameters of ~ 0.5 nm and ~ 1 nm, respectively. Vacancies exhibit missing Mo and S atoms, as shown by aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (AC-STEM)...
February 21, 2018: Nano Letters
Bien Cuong Tran Khac, Frank William DelRio, Koo-Hyun Chung
Surface damage characteristics of single- and multi-layer hexagonal boron nitride (h-BN), molybdenum disulfide (MoS2 ) and graphene films were systematically investigated via atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based progressive-force and constant-force scratch tests and Raman spectroscopy. The film-to-substrate interfacial strengths of these atomically-thin films were assessed based on their critical forces (i.e., normal force where the atomically-thin film was delaminated from the underlying substrate) as determined from progressive-force scratch tests...
February 21, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Jane Ru Choi, Kar Wey Yong, Jean Yu Choi, Azadeh Nilghaz, Yang Lin, Jie Xu, Xiaonan Lu
Black phosphorus (BP), also known as phosphorene, has attracted recent scientific attention since its first successful exfoliation in 2014 owing to its unique structure and properties. In particular, its exceptional attributes, such as the excellent optical and mechanical properties, electrical conductivity and electron-transfer capacity, contribute to its increasing demand as an alternative to graphene-based materials in biomedical applications. Although the outlook of this material seems promising, its practical applications are still highly challenging...
2018: Theranostics
Tom Plitz, Lee Boyling
1. WTX101 (bis-choline tetrathiomolybdate) is an investigational copper (Cu)-protein-binding agent developed for the treatment of Wilson Disease (WD), a rare genetic disorder caused by mutations in the ATP7B Cu-transporter and resulting in toxic Cu accumulation. 2. Mass balance of a single intravenous WTX101 dose, measured as molybdenum (Mo), was assessed over 168 h in control (Long Evans Agouti [LEA]) and Long-Evans Cinnamon (LEC) rats, a WD model. 3. In LEC rats, Mo was partially excreted (up to 45%); 29% by renal clearance, and faecal clearance, still ongoing at 168 h, accounted for 16%...
February 20, 2018: Xenobiotica; the Fate of Foreign Compounds in Biological Systems
Paolo Nicolini, Rosario Capozza, Paolo Restuccia, Tomaš Polcar
Molybdenum disulfide is a well known and effective lubricant, providing extremely low values of the coefficient of friction. It is known that the sliding process may induce structural transformations of amorphous or disordered MoS2 to the crystalline phase with basal planes oriented parallel to the sliding direction, which is optimal for reducing friction. However, the key reaction parameters and conditions promoting this structural transformation are still largely unknown. We investigate, by employing reactive molecular dynamics simulations, the formation of MoS 2 layers from an amorphous phase as a function of temperature, initial sample density and sliding velocity...
February 20, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Byeol Namgung, Jee-Hyeon Kim, Wan Seok Song, Sung-Il Yoon
The molybdenum cofactor (Moco) is a molybdenum-conjugated prosthetic group that is ubiquitously found in plants, animals, and bacteria. Moco is required for the nitrogen-reducing reaction of the Moco sulfurase C-terminal domain (MOSC) family. Despite the biological significance of MOSC proteins in the conversion of prodrugs and resistance against mutagens, their structural features and Moco-mediated catalysis mechanism have not been described in detail. YiiM is a MOSC protein that is involved in reducing mutagenic 6-N-hydroxylaminopurine to nontoxic adenine in bacteria...
February 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
Zhuokai Li, De Li, Xiaodong Chen
BACKGROUND Paeoniflorin (PF), a glucoside isolated from the dried root of Paeonia lactiflora Pall, has been reported to have a number of pharmacological properties, including immunity-regulation, anticancer activities, and neuroprotective effect. However, PF's pharmacological role in bone disorder has been seldom reported. Hence, this study was designed to investigate the effects of PF on osteoclast differentiation and osteolysis diseases. MATERIAL AND METHODS The bone marrow macrophages were isolated from C57BL/6 mice and incubated with RANK ligand (RANKL) and various concentrations of PF...
February 20, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
Inayat Ur Rehman, Muhammad Ishaq, Liaqat Ali, Sardar Khan, Imtiaz Ahmad, Imran Ud Din, Hameed Ullah
This study focuses on enrichment, spatial distribution, potential ecological risk index (PERI) and human health risk of various toxic metals taken via soil and surface water in the vicinity of Sewakht mines, Pakistan. The samples of soils (n = 54) of different fields and surface water (n = 38) were analyzed for toxic metals including cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), lead (Pb), nickel (Ni), zinc (Zn) and molybdenum (Mo). Soil pollution level was evaluated using pollution indices including geo-accumulation index (Igeo), contamination factor (CF), degree of contamination (CD), enrichment factor (EF) and PERI...
February 16, 2018: Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety
Vemula Mohana Krishna, T Somanathan, E Manikandan, Kiran Kumar Tadi, S Uvarajan
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are still receiving much attention in bio-sensing applications due to their remarkable properties. In this present research work, fibre-like carbon nanotubes (f-CNTs) were successfully fabricated over copper-molybdenum (Cu-Mo) substituted alumina nanoparticles at atmospheric pressure by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) technique and effectively employed as a neurotransmitter dopamine (DA) sensor. The obtained product was purified and structurally characterized by various techniques such as, field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX), Raman spectroscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscope (HRTEM) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis...
August 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Takahiro Yamashita, Hiroshi Yokoyama
Background: Metals are considered a suitable anode material for microbial fuel cells (MFCs) because of their high electrical conductivity. However, only a few types of metals have been used as anodes, and an extensive screening of metals has not yet been conducted. In this study, to develop a new metal anode for increased electricity generation in MFCs, 14 different metals (Al, Ti, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Zr, Nb, Mo, Ag, In, Sn, Ta, and W) and 31 of their oxidized forms were comprehensively tested...
2018: Biotechnology for Biofuels
Han Gyeol Park, Tae Jung Kim, Farman Ullah, Van Long Le, Hoang Tung Nguyen, Yong Soo Kim, Young Dong Kim
The dielectric function [Formula: see text] of monolayer molybdenum diselenide (MoSe 2 ) is obtained and analyzed at temperatures from 31 to 300 K and at energies from 0.74 to 6.42 eV. The sample is a large-area, partially discontinuous monolayer (submonolayer) film of MoSe 2 grown on a sapphire substrate by selenization of pulsed laser deposited MoO 3 film. Morphological and optical characterizations verified the excellent quality of the film. The MoSe 2 data were analyzed using the effective medium approximation, which treats the film and bare substrate regions as a single layer...
February 16, 2018: Scientific Reports
Wei Liu, Xinshi Li, Wentao Li, Qiqi Zhang, Hua Bai, Junfang Li, Guangcheng Xi
Photothermal therapy (PTT) is one of promising cancer therapy with high efficiency and minimal invasiveness. Exploiting of perfect PTT agent is vital to improve the therapy. In this study, a new type of bow tie-like molybdenum dioxide (MoO2 ) nanoparticles was successfully synthesized. These nanobow-ties had strong localized surface plasmon resonance (SPR) effect from visible to near infrared regions, and exhibited ultrahigh chemical stability. They could not only withstand high temperature heating without oxidation, but also resist the corrosion of strong acid and alkali...
February 8, 2018: Biomaterials
Seungjin Lee, Thanh Luan Nguyen, Sang Yun Lee, Chung Hyeon Jang, Bo Ram Lee, Eui Dae Jung, Song Yi Park, Yung Jin Yoon, Jin Young Kim, Han Young Woo, Myoung Hoon Song
Conjugated polyelectrolytes (CPEs) with π-delocalized main backbones and ionic pendant groups are intensively studied as interfacial layers for efficient polymer-based optoelectronic devices (POEDs) because they facilitate facile control of charge injection/extraction barriers. Here, a simple and effective method of performing precise interfacial energy level adjustment is presented by employing CPEs with different thicknesses and various ion densities under electric poling to realize efficient charge injection/extraction of POEDs...
February 16, 2018: Advanced Materials
Yuting Shen, Tao Xu, Xiaodong Tan, Longbing He, Kuibo Yin, Neng Wan, Litao Sun
Molybdenum disulfide (MoS 2 ) and bismuth telluride (Bi 2 Te 3 ) are the two most common types of structures adopted by 2D chalcogenides. In view of their unique physical properties and structure, 2D chalcogenides have potential applications in various fields. However, the excellent properties of these 2D crystals depend critically on their crystal structures, where defects, cracks, holes, or even greater damage can be inevitably introduced during the preparation and transferring processes. Such defects adversely impact the performance of devices made from 2D chalcogenides and, hence, it is important to develop ways to intuitively and precisely repair these 2D crystals on the atomic scale, so as to realize high-reliability devices from these structures...
February 16, 2018: Advanced Materials
C P B Araujo, A V V M Frota, C P de Souza, M V M Souto, C M Barbosa
Molybdenum carbide is an interesting and versatile material, which has important applications in the metal matrix industry as a reinforcement material, as well as in the catalytic field. Though many papers suggest different methodologies for adding cobalt to the carbide structure aiming either to increase catalytic activity or enhancing mechanical proprieties such as ductility, etc. no straightforward evaluation is available. In the present paper two doping methodologies were studied: via solid state mixture of powders and via wet impregnation...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Byong-Min Choi, Seok-Hwan Son, Min-Sub Noh, Kwang-Seok Lee, Chul-Wee Lee, Sun-Yeong Park, Min-Chul Chung
In this study, Molybdenum precursors were synthesized with butanoic acid, hexanoic acid, nonanoic acid, decanoic acid, and undecanoic acid. In order to determine chemical structure of Synthesized molybdenum precursors, 1H(13C)-NMR, EA and ICP were used pyrolysis properties were measured TGA. The molybdenum precursors was used for Hydrocracking of Vacuum R1esidue (VR). It was shown that molybdenum nonanoate(3) was shown the lowerst Toluene Insoluble and Gas Product about 2.1 and 5.0 percent.
February 1, 2018: Journal of Nanoscience and Nanotechnology
Elisa Andresen, Edgar Peiter, Hendrik Küpper
Many trace metals are essential micronutrients, but also potent toxins. Due to natural and anthropogenic causes, vastly different trace metal concentrations occur in various habitats, ranging from deficient to toxic levels. Therefore, one focus of plant research is on the response to trace metals in terms of uptake, transport, sequestration, speciation, physiological use, deficiency, toxicity, and detoxification. In this review, we cover most of these aspects for the essential micronutrients copper, iron, manganese, molybdenum, nickel, and zinc to provide a broader overview than found in other recent reviews, to cross-link aspects of knowledge in this very active research field that are often seen in a separated way...
February 13, 2018: Journal of Experimental Botany
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