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Fat soluble vitamins

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28440717/serum-carotenoid-interactions-in-premenopausal-women-reveal-%C3%AE-carotene-is-negatively-impacted-by-body-fat
#1
Emily Taylor Nuss, Ashley R Valentine, Zhumin Zhang, HuiChuan Jennifer Lai, Sherry A Tanumihardjo
Increasing body mass indices (BMIs) across the globe reflect pandemic shifts towards habitual positive energy imbalances. Excess body fat in individuals is often associated with high-energy and high-fat diets scanty in fresh produce. Carotenoids are fat-soluble pigments plentiful in many fruits and vegetables. They are well-known for provitamin A and antioxidant functions, but little research has been done related to carotenoid-body mass interactions. Serum carotenoids were analyzed relative to body fat to determine correlations between major serum carotenoids, retinol, BMI, fat mass, and lean mass...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Biology and Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434730/the-effect-of-vitamin-concentrates-on-the-flavor-of-pasteurized-fluid-milk
#2
E B Yeh, A N Schiano, Y Jo, D M Barbano, M A Drake
Fluid milk consumption in the United States continues to decline. As a result, the level of dietary vitamin D provided by fluid milk in the United States diet has also declined. Undesirable flavor(s)/off flavor(s) in fluid milk can negatively affect milk consumption and consumer product acceptability. The objectives of this study were to identify aroma-active compounds in vitamin concentrates used to fortify fluid milk, and to determine the influence of vitamin A and D fortification on the flavor of milk. The aroma profiles of 14 commercial vitamin concentrates (vitamins A and D), in both oil-soluble and water-dispersible forms, were evaluated by sensory and instrumental volatile compound analyses...
April 20, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28425419/a-rare-bsep-mutation-associated-with-a-mild-form-of-progressive-familial-intrahepatic-cholestasis-type-2
#3
Orith Waisbourd-Zinman, Lea F Surrey, Anna E Schwartz, Pierre A Russo, Jessica Wen
Progressive Familial Intrahepatic Cholestasis type 2 (PFIC2) is a rare cholestatic disorder diagnosed in infancy or childhood that can lead to severe hepatic fibrosis and liver failure. Mutations in the ABCB11 gene result in a deficiency of the bile salt export protein (BSEP) and accumulation of bile inside the hepatocytes. Hepatocellular carcinoma is another condition associated with severe forms of deletion mutations in the ABCB11 gene. Treatment options including ursodeoxycholic acid biliary diversion have mixed outcomes and some patients require liver transplantation...
May 2017: Annals of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421130/antiretroviral-therapy-initiation-alters-the-redox-system-of-asymptomatic-hiv-infected-individuals-a-longitudinal-study
#4
Karen Ingrid Tasca, Juliana Trindade Caleffi, Camila Renata Correa, Mariana Gatto, Francilene Capel Tavares, Caio Cavassan Camargo, Alexandrina Sartori, Mara Biasin, Lenice do Rosário de Souza
Background. The combination antiretroviral therapy (cART) increases the oxidative stress in HIV-infected people, which in turn favors the onset and aggravation of non-AIDS comorbidities, a common situation affecting these individuals. We aimed to evaluate the influence of cART initiation on oxidative stress parameters. This is a longitudinal study including 30 asymptomatic patients divided according to their CD4+ T cell count (G1: <500 cell/mL; G2: >500 cell/mL) before (M0) and after (M1) cART initiation...
2017: Oxidative Medicine and Cellular Longevity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28406526/changes-in-the-nutritional-quality-of-five-mangifera-species-harvested-in-two-maturity-stages
#5
Ignacio Barbosa Gámez, Karla P Caballero Montoya, Noris Ledesma, Sonia G Sáyago Ayerdi, María de Lourdes Gacía-Magaña, Eric J von Wettberg, Efigenia Montalvo-González
BACKGROUND: There are 69 species of edible Mangifera recognized in Southeast Asia. Most of these species have not been characterized for nutritional properties. Here we describe the nutritional quality of the pulp of several Mangifera species: Mangifera casturi, Mangifera lalijiwa, Mangifera odorata, Mangifera zeylanica and two cultivars of Mangifera indica 'Tommy-Kent' and 'Tommy Atkins' at two maturity stages. RESULTS: The results show that nutritional quality varied with the maturity stage and among the species...
April 13, 2017: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28384348/de-novo-transcriptome-analysis-of-the-excretory-tubules-of-carausius-morosus-phasmatodea-and-possible-functions-of-the-midgut-appendices
#6
Matan Shelomi
The Malpighian tubules are the insect excretory organs, responsible for ion and water homeostasis and elimination of nitrogenous wastes. Post-genomic assays suggest they also metabolize and detoxify xenobiotic compounds and have antimicrobial properties. The Phasmatodea have an additional, unique set of excretory organs referred to predominantly as midgut appendices. Their function and how it compares to phasmid and other insect Malpighian tubules is unknown. Hypotheses include carbonic anhydrase activity, calcium and metal cation sequestration, and xenobiotic transport...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375121/antioxidant-activity-and-nutritional-assessment-of-under-utilized-medicinal-plants
#7
Anwar Ali Shad, Jehan Bakht, Hamid Ullah Shah, Yosuaf Hayat
The present study investigates the nutritive and anti-nutritive composition of six species (Allium porrum, Amaranthus spinosis, Apium graveolens, Caralluma edulis, Chenopodium album, Urtica dioica). The studied species contained considerable amount of crude protein (4.53-11.41%), crude fat (1.25-3.74%), vitamin C (7.85-28.09mg 100(-1) g) and β-Carotene (18.29-169.33mg 100(-1)g). The mineral profile of Chenopodium album is considered as potential source of Zn (14.51±1.14mg 100-1g), Mn (67.71±0.85mg 100(-1)g), Se (8...
November 2016: Pakistan Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361746/short-term-effects-of-mediterranean-type-diet-intervention-on-soluble-cellular-adhesion-molecules-in-subjects-with-abdominal-obesity
#8
Loukianos S Rallidis, Anastasia Kolomvotsou, John Lekakis, Paul Farajian, Georgia Vamvakou, Nikolaos Dagres, Maria Zolindaki, Stamatis Efstathiou, Maria Anastasiou-Nana, Antonis Zampelas
BACKGROUND & AIMS: Abdominal obesity (AO) is associated with increased risk for cardiovascular disease and with increased production of adhesion molecules. The present work examined the effect of a Mediterranean-style diet on soluble cellular adhesion molecules in individuals with AO. METHODS: Ninety subjects with AO without cardiovascular disease or diabetes mellitus were randomly allocated to the intervention or control group and were instructed to follow a Mediterranean-style diet for two months...
February 2017: Clinical Nutrition ESPEN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28359879/a-comparison-of-fat-soluble-antioxidants-in-wild-and-farm-reared-chukar-partridges-alectoris-chukar
#9
Filiz Karadas, Anders Pape Møller, Mehmet Reşit Karageçili
This study assessed differences in antioxidant (carotenoid, retinol, retinol-ester, vitamin E and coenzyme Q10) composition of egg yolk and tissue in chukar partridges (Alectoris chukar) newly hatched from eggs of birds maintained in captivity on commercial maize-soybean based diets and birds from the wild whose diet was obtained from the natural environment. All eggs were incubated in a commercial hatchery. Day-old chicks from both groups were sacrificed and dissected for antioxidant analysis. Fat soluble antioxidant concentrations of egg yolk and tissues were determined by HPLC...
March 27, 2017: Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology. Part A, Molecular & Integrative Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28346570/tolerance-and-long-term-efficacy-of-polyethylene-glycol-4000-forlax%C3%A2-compared-to-lactulose-in-elderly-patients-with-chronic-constipation
#10
P Chassagne, P Ducrotte, P Garnier, H Mathiex-Fortunet
OBJECTIVES: To assess the tolerance and potential nutritional consequences of long-term repeated doses of PEG 4000 (10 to 30 g/day) in elderly patients with chronic constipation as compared to lactulose (10-30 g/day). DESIGN: Single blind, randomised, multicentre, parallel group comparative study. SETTING: Community-dwelling patients and nursing homes residents aged 70 years and older with a history of chronic constipation. Treatment intervention: PEG 4000 (10-30 g/day) or lactulose (10-30 g/day) for six months...
2017: Journal of Nutrition, Health & Aging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28327260/vitamin-d-and-dental-caries-in-primary-dentition
#11
Ana Lucia Seminario, Elizabet Velan
Traditionally classified as a vitamin, vitamin D represents a group of fat-soluble secosteroids with D2 (ergocalciferol) and D3 (cholecalciferol) being the most relevant of the group. The importance of this prohormone exceeds its known ability to maintain intra- and extracellular calcium and phosphate concentrations, thereby preserving essential metabolic functions such as the promotion of mineralization and maintenance and remodeling of the bone. Current observational research recognizes the potential antiproliferative, prodifferentiative, and immunomodulatory effects of vitamin D and its metabolites in the human body...
September 15, 2016: Journal of Dentistry for Children
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315661/nutrient-biomarker-patterns-and-long-term-risk-of-dementia-in-older-adults
#12
Camille Amadieu, Sophie Lefèvre-Arbogast, Cécile Delcourt, Jean-François Dartigues, Catherine Helmer, Catherine Féart, Cécilia Samieri
INTRODUCTION: Several nutrients may predict dementia risk. We characterized nutrient biomarker patterns, which integrate the complexity of nutrient exposure and biodisponibility associated with long-term risk of dementia in a large cohort of older persons, the Three-City study. METHODS: We included 666 nondemented participants with plasma measurements of 22 fat-soluble nutrients at baseline, who were followed up for 12 years for dementia. RESULTS: A "deleterious" pattern combining lower blood status in vitamin D, carotenoids, and polyunsaturated fats and higher saturated fats was strongly associated with a higher risk of dementia...
March 18, 2017: Alzheimer's & Dementia: the Journal of the Alzheimer's Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314428/nanostructuring-biomaterials-with-specific-activities-towards-digestive-enzymes-for-controlled-gastrointestinal-absorption-of-lipophilic-bioactive-molecules
#13
REVIEW
Paul Joyce, Catherine P Whitby, Clive A Prestidge
This review describes the development of novel lipid-based biomaterials that modulate fat digestion for the enhanced uptake of encapsulated lipophilic bioactive compounds (e.g. drugs and vitamins). Specific focus is directed towards analysing how key material characteristics affect the biological function of digestive lipases and manipulate lipolytic digestion. The mechanism of lipase action is a complex, interfacial process, whereby hydrolysis can be controlled by the ability for lipase to access and adsorb to the lipid-in-water interface...
November 2016: Advances in Colloid and Interface Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28298273/challenges-and-lessons-learned-in-generating-and-interpreting-nhanes-nutritional-biomarker-data
#14
REVIEW
Christine M Pfeiffer, David A Lacher, Rosemary L Schleicher, Clifford L Johnson, Elizabeth A Yetley
For the past 45 y, the National Center for Health Statistics at the CDC has carried out nutrition surveillance of the US population by collecting anthropometric, dietary intake, and nutritional biomarker data, the latter being the focus of this publication. The earliest biomarker testing assessed iron and vitamin A status. With time, a broad spectrum of water- and fat-soluble vitamins was added and biomarkers for other types of nutrients (e.g., fatty acids) and bioactive dietary compounds (e.g., phytoestrogens) were included in NHANES...
March 2017: Advances in Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28292982/antibiotic-capture-by-bacterial-lipocalins-uncovers-an-extracellular-mechanism-of-intrinsic-antibiotic-resistance
#15
Omar M El-Halfawy, Javier Klett, Rebecca J Ingram, Slade A Loutet, Michael E P Murphy, Sonsoles Martín-Santamaría, Miguel A Valvano
The potential for microbes to overcome antibiotics of different classes before they reach bacterial cells is largely unexplored. Here we show that a soluble bacterial lipocalin produced by Burkholderia cenocepacia upon exposure to sublethal antibiotic concentrations increases resistance to diverse antibiotics in vitro and in vivo These phenotypes were recapitulated by heterologous expression in B. cenocepacia of lipocalin genes from Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Mycobacterium tuberculosis, and methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus Purified lipocalin bound different classes of bactericidal antibiotics and contributed to bacterial survival in vivo Experimental and X-ray crystal structure-guided computational studies revealed that lipocalins counteract antibiotic action by capturing antibiotics in the extracellular space...
March 14, 2017: MBio
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275666/data-representing-two-separate-lc-ms-methods-for-detection-and-quantification-of-water-soluble-and-fat-soluble-vitamins-in-tears-and-blood-serum
#16
Maryam Khaksari, Lynn R Mazzoleni, Chunhai Ruan, Robert T Kennedy, Adrienne R Minerick
Two separate liquid chromatography (LC)-mass spectrometry (MS) methods were developed for determination and quantification of water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins in human tear and blood serum samples. The water-soluble vitamin method was originally developed to detect vitamins B1, B2, B3 (nicotinamide), B5, B6 (pyridoxine), B7, B9 and B12 while the fat-soluble vitamin method detected vitamins A, D3, 25(OH)D3, E and K1. These methods were then validated with tear and blood serum samples. In this data in brief article, we provide details on the two LC-MS methods development, methods sensitivity, as well as precision and accuracy for determination of vitamins in human tears and blood serum...
April 2017: Data in Brief
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28262916/vitamin-e-supplementation-in-people-with-cystic-fibrosis
#17
REVIEW
Peter O Okebukola, Sonal Kansra, Joanne Barrett
BACKGROUND: People with cystic fibrosis are at an increased risk of fat-soluble vitamin deficiency including vitamin E. Vitamin E deficiency can cause a host of conditions such as haemolytic anaemia, cerebellar ataxia and cognitive difficulties. Vitamin E supplementation is widely recommended in cystic fibrosis and aims to ameliorate this deficiency. This is an updated version of the review. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effects of any level of vitamin E supplementation on the frequency of vitamin E deficiency disorders in people with cystic fibrosis...
March 6, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28241470/pancreatic-exocrine-insufficiency-in-pancreatic-cancer
#18
REVIEW
Miroslav Vujasinovic, Roberto Valente, Marco Del Chiaro, Johan Permert, J-Matthias Löhr
Abstract: Cancer patients experience weight loss for a variety of reasons, commencing with the tumor's metabolism (Warburg effect) and proceeding via cachexia to loss of appetite. In pancreatic cancer, several other factors are involved, including a loss of appetite with a particular aversion to meat and the incapacity of the pancreatic gland to function normally when a tumor is present in the pancreatic head. Pancreatic exocrine insufficiency is characterized by a deficiency of the enzymes secreted from the pancreas due to the obstructive tumor, resulting in maldigestion...
February 23, 2017: Nutrients
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28220208/abcb4-missense-mutations-d243a-k435t-g535d-i490t-r545c-and-s978p-significantly-impair-the-lipid-floppase-and-likely-predispose-to-secondary-pathologies-in-the-human-population
#19
Edward J Andress, Michael Nicolaou, Farrell McGeoghan, Kenneth J Linton
Bile salts are natural detergents required to solubilise dietary fat and lipid soluble vitamins. They are synthesised in hepatocytes and secreted into the luminal space of the biliary tree by the bile salt export pump (BSEP), an ATP-binding cassette (ABC) transporter in the canalicular membrane. BSEP deficiency causes cytotoxic accumulation of bile salts in the hepatocyte that results in mild-to-severe forms of cholestasis. The resulting inflammation can also progress to hepatocellular cancer via a novel mechanism involving upregulation of proliferative signalling pathways...
February 20, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28203589/prevalence-of-vitamin-d-insufficiency-in-professional-hockey-players
#20
Nima Mehran, Brian M Schulz, Brian R Neri, William J Robertson, Orr Limpisvasti
BACKGROUND: Vitamin D is a fat-soluble hormone that plays a role in bone health, muscle function, and athletic performance. Studies have shown that low levels of vitamin D can lead to slower muscle recovery and function, increased rates of stress fractures, and even poorer athletic performance. Insufficient vitamin D levels have been demonstrated in professional basketball and football players, however, there have been no studies to date reviewing vitamin D insufficiency in professional hockey players...
December 2016: Orthopaedic Journal of Sports Medicine
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