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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733330/ddx3x-interacts-with-pabp1-and-caprin-1-at-the-leading-edge-of-migrating-fibroblasts-and-is-required-for-efficient-cell-spreading
#1
Alice C Copsey, Simon Cooper, Robert Parker, Ella Lineham, Cusack Lapworth, Deema Jallad, Steve Sweet, Simon J Morley
DDX3X, a helicase, can interact directly with mRNA and translation initiation factors,  regulating the selective translation of mRNAs that contain a structured 5' untranslated region (5'UTR). This activity modulates the expression of mRNAs controlling cell cycle progression and mRNAs regulating actin dynamics, contributing to cell adhesion and motility.    Previously, we have shown that ribosomes and translation initiation factors localise to the leading edge of migrating fibroblasts in loci enriched with actively translating ribosomes, thereby promoting steady-state levels of ArpC2 and Rac1 proteins at the leading edge of cells during spreading...
July 21, 2017: Biochemical Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28733045/induction-of-live-cell-phagocytosis-by-a-specific-combination-of-inflammatory-stimuli
#2
Takamasa Ishidome, Takeshi Yoshida, Rikinari Hanayama
Conditions of severe hyper-inflammation can lead to uncontrolled activation of macrophages, and the ensuing phagocytosis of live cells. However, relationships between inflammatory stimuli and uncontrolled phagocytosis of live cells by macrophages are poorly understood. To identify mediators of this process, we established phagocytosis assays of live cells by stimulating macrophages with CpG DNA, interferon-γ, and anti-interleukin-10 receptor antibody. In this model, various cell surface receptors were upregulated on macrophages, and phagocytosis of live cells was induced in a Rac1-dependent manner...
July 13, 2017: EBioMedicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726800/role-of-nicotinamide-n-methyltransferase-in-dorsal-striatum-in-cocaine-place-preference
#3
Li Luo, Fei-Fei Shang, Hailei Long, Linhong Jiang, Ruiming Zhu, Qian Zhao, Hui Gu, Jueying Kong, Wei Xu, Yinglan Zhao, Xiaobo Cen
Nicotinamide N-methyltransferase (NNMT) transfers the methyl from S-adenosyl-L-methionine (SAM) to nicotinamide (NA) to produce S-adenosyl-L-homocysteine (SAH) and 1-methylnicotinamide (MeN). NNMT has been implicated in a variety of diseases; however, the role of NNMT in drug addiction is largely unknown. Here, we found that the expression of Nnmt was significantly upregulated in the dorsal striatum (DS) of cocaine-conditioned mice. Cocaine significantly decreased SAM/SAH ratio levels in the DS, which was accompanied with the decreased activities of Rac1 and RhoA...
July 20, 2017: Neuropsychopharmacology: Official Publication of the American College of Neuropsychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28726720/tgf-%C3%AE-dependent-growth-arrest-and-cell-migration-in-benign-and-malignant-breast-epithelial-cells-are-antagonistically-controlled-by-rac1-and-rac1b
#4
Catharina Melzer, Juliane von der Ohe, Ralf Hass, Hendrik Ungefroren
Despite improvements in diagnosis and treatment, breast cancer is still the most common cancer type among non-smoking females. TGF-β can inhibit breast cancer development by inducing cell cycle arrest in both, cancer cells and, as part of a senescence program in normal human mammary epithelial cells (HMEC). Moreover, TGF-β also drives cell migration and invasion, in part through the small GTPases Rac1 and Rac1b. Depletion of Rac1b or Rac1 and Rac1b in MDA-MB-231 or MDA-MB-435s breast cancer cells by RNA interference enhanced or suppressed, respectively, TGF-β1-induced migration/invasion...
July 20, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28725637/opportunistic-pathogen-porphyromonas-gingivalis-modulates-danger-signal-atp-mediated-antibacterial-nox2-pathways-in-primary-epithelial-cells
#5
JoAnn S Roberts, Kalina R Atanasova, Jungnam Lee, Gill Diamond, Jeff Deguzman, Chul Hee Choi, Özlem Yilmaz
Porphyromonas gingivalis, a major opportunistic pathogen in the etiology of chronic periodontitis, successfully survives in human gingival epithelial cells (GECs). P. gingivalis abrogates the effects of a host danger molecule, extracellular ATP (eATP)/P2X7 signaling, such as the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) via the mitochondria and NADPH oxidases (NOX) from primary GECs. However, antimicrobial functions of ROS production are thoroughly investigated in myeloid-lineage immune cells and have not been well-understood in epithelial cells...
2017: Frontiers in Cellular and Infection Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723647/set-contributes-to-the-epithelial-mesenchymal-transition-of-pancreatic-cancer
#6
Hardik R Mody, Sau Wai Hung, Kineta Naidu, Haesung Lee, Caitlin A Gilbert, Toan Thanh Hoang, Rakesh K Pathak, Radhika Manoharan, Shanmugam Muruganandan, Rajgopal Govindarajan
Pancreatic cancer has a devastating prognosis due to 80-90% of diagnostic cases occurring when metastasis has already presented. Activation of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a prerequisite for metastasis because it allows for the dissemination of tumor cells to blood stream and secondary organs. Here, we sought to determine the role of SET oncoprotein, an endogenous inhibitor of PP2A, in EMT and pancreatic tumor progression. Among the two major isoforms of SET (isoform 1 and isoform 2), higher protein levels of SET isoform 2 were identified in aggressive pancreatic cancer cell lines...
July 7, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28723259/inappropriate-movement-of-rac1-contributes-to-glucotoxicity-of-the-islet-%C3%AE-cell
#7
Anjaneyulu Kowluru
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
July 19, 2017: Cell Cycle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28719045/mical2-promotes-breast-cancer-cell-migration-by-maintaining-egfr-stability-and-egfr-p38-signaling-activation
#8
Yueyuan Wang, Wenjie Deng, Yujie Zhang, Shixiu Sun, Shuo Zhao, Yan Chen, Xuyang Zhao, Lei Liu, Jun Du
AIM: MICAL2, a cytoskeleton dynamics regulator, is identified associated with survival and metastasis of several types of cancers recently. The present study was designed to investigate the role of MICAL2 in breast cancer cell migration as well as its underlying mechanisms. METHODS: The relationship between MICAL2 and EGF/EGFR signaling was analyzed by using gene overexpression and knockdown techniques. Cell migration was measured by wound healing assays. Activation of EGF/EGFR singaling pathways were evaluated by immunofluorescence, qPCR, Western blotting and zymography techniques...
July 18, 2017: Acta Physiologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28715583/tnf%C3%AE-induced-disruption-of-the-blood-retinal-barrier-in-vitro-is-regulated-by-intracellular-3-5-cyclic-adenosine-monophosphate-levels
#9
Anne-Eva van der Wijk, Ilse M C Vogels, Cornelis J F van Noorden, Ingeborg Klaassen, Reinier O Schlingemann
Purpose: Proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor (TNFα) may have a causative role in blood-retinal barrier (BRB) disruption, which is an essential step in the development of diabetic macular edema. The purpose of our study was to determine whether TNFα increases permeability in an in vitro model of the BRB and to explore the mechanisms involved. Methods: Primary bovine retinal endothelial cells (BRECs) were grown on Transwell inserts and cells were stimulated with TNFα or a combination of TNFα, IL1β, and VEGF...
July 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714015/mir-142-inhibits-the-migration-and-invasion-of-glioma-by-targeting-rac1
#10
Wenyi Qin, Xiaofeng Rong, Jiangchuan Dong, Chao Yu, Juan Yang
Increasing evidence has shown that aberrant microRNAs (miRNAs) are implicated in tumorigenesis and tumor progression by regulating oncogenes or tumor suppressors. Dysregulation of miR-142 has been reported in multiple tumors. However, its clinical roles and underlying mechanism in glioma remain to be elucidated. In the present study, we found that the expression of miR-142 was significantly downregulated in both glioma tissues and cell lines by qRT-PCR. Clinical analysis revealed that decreased miR-142 was markedly associated with advanced World Health Organization (WHO) grade...
July 13, 2017: Oncology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710503/rac1-mediated-cardiac-damage-causes-diastolic-dysfunction-in-a-mouse-model-of-subacute-doxorubicin-induced-cardiotoxicity
#11
Jan Ohlig, Christian Henninger, Simone Zander, Marc Merx, Malte Kelm, Gerhard Fritz
The anticancer efficacy of anthracyclines is limited by congestive heart failure. Clinically established markers of early onset of cardiotoxicity following anthracycline treatment and preventive measures are missing. Although statins are reported to alleviate anthracycline-induced cardiotoxicity in vivo, the molecular mechanisms involved remain elusive. In vitro data point to Rac1 as major target of the cytoprotective statin effects. Here we investigated whether specific inhibition of Rac1 by NSC23766 is as effective as lovastatin in preventing subacute cardiotoxicity following doxorubicin treatment...
July 14, 2017: Archives of Toxicology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28710284/the-neuronal-protein-neurexin-directly-interacts-with-the-scribble-pix-complex-to-stimulate-f-actin-assembly-for-synaptic-vesicle-clustering
#12
Menglong Rui, Jinjun Qian, Lijuan Liu, Yihan Cai, Huihui Lv, Junhai Han, Zhengping Jia, Wei Xie
Synaptic vesicles (SVs) form distinct pools at synaptic terminals, and this well-regulated separation is necessary for normal neuro-transmission. However, how SV cluster in particular synaptic compartments to maintain normal neurotransmitter release remains a mystery. The presynaptic protein Neurexin (NRX) plays a significant role in synaptic architecture and function, and some evidences suggest that NRX is associated with neurological disorders, including autism spectrum disorders. However, the role of NRX in SV clustering is unclear...
July 14, 2017: Journal of Biological Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28709595/losing-their-footing-rac1-signaling-causes-podocyte-detachment-and-fsgs
#13
Gentzon Hall, Robert F Spurney
Selective modulation of Rho GTPase activity in podocytes recapitulates characteristic features of human nephrosis. Using a mouse model, Robins et al. found that high levels of Rac1 activation in podocytes caused podocyte detachment and glomerulosclerosis. Podocyte Rac1 activity was enhanced in biopsy specimens from patients with nephrosis, and serum from this patient population activated Rac1 in cultured podocytes. These data provide a causal link between podocyte Rac1 activation and human nephrotic diseases...
August 2017: Kidney International
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28701359/oxldl-induced-endothelial-proliferation-via-rho-rock-akt-p27-kip1-signaling-prevention-by-cholesterol-loading
#14
Chongxu Zhang, Crystal Adamos, Myung-Jin Oh, Jugajyoti Baruah, Manuela A A Ayee, Dolly Mehta, Kishore K Wary, Irena Levitan
Oxidized modifications of LDL (oxLDL) are known to play a major role in endothelial dysfunction and the development of atherosclerosis. In this study, we provide comparative analysis of the effects of two major types of oxLDL, copper oxidized LDL (Cu(2+)-oxLDL) and Lipoxygenase oxidized LDL (LPO-oxLDL) on proliferation of Human Aortic Endothelial Cells (HAECs). We show that Cu(2+)-oxLDL enhances HAECs proliferation in a dose and oxidation-dependent manner. Similarly, LPO-oxLDL also has a positive effect on HAECs proliferation...
July 12, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Cell Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28700938/golgi-outpost-synthesis-impaired-by-toxic-polyglutamine-proteins-contributes-to-dendritic-pathology-in-neurons
#15
Chang Geon Chung, Min Jee Kwon, Keun Hye Jeon, Do Young Hyeon, Myeong Hoon Han, Jeong Hyang Park, In Jun Cha, Jae Ho Cho, Kunhyung Kim, Sangchul Rho, Gyu Ree Kim, Hyobin Jeong, Jae Won Lee, TaeSoo Kim, Keetae Kim, Kwang Pyo Kim, Michael D Ehlers, Daehee Hwang, Sung Bae Lee
Dendrite aberration is a common feature of neurodegenerative diseases caused by protein toxicity, but the underlying mechanisms remain largely elusive. Here, we show that nuclear polyglutamine (polyQ) toxicity resulted in defective terminal dendrite elongation accompanied by a loss of Golgi outposts (GOPs) and a decreased supply of plasma membrane (PM) in Drosophila class IV dendritic arborization (da) (C4 da) neurons. mRNA sequencing revealed that genes downregulated by polyQ proteins included many secretory pathway-related genes, including COPII genes regulating GOP synthesis...
July 11, 2017: Cell Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28697804/ang-ii-at2r-increases-mesenchymal-stem-cell-migration-by-signaling-through-the-fak-and-rhoa-cdc42-pathways-in-vitro
#16
Xiu-Ping Xu, Hong-Li He, Shu-Ling Hu, Ji-Bin Han, Li-Li Huang, Jing-Yuan Xu, Jian-Feng Xie, Ai-Ran Liu, Yi Yang, Hai-Bo Qiu
BACKGROUND: Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) migrate via the bloodstream to sites of injury and are possibly attracted by inflammatory factors. As a proinflammatory mediator, angiotensin II (Ang II) reportedly enhances the migration of various cell types by signaling via the Ang II receptor in vitro. However, few studies have focused on the effects of Ang II on MSC migration and the underlying mechanisms. METHODS: Human bone marrow MSCs migration was measured using wound healing and Boyden chamber migration assays after treatments with different concentrations of Ang II, an AT1R antagonist (Losartan), and/or an AT2R antagonist (PD-123319)...
July 12, 2017: Stem Cell Research & Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28694325/tcr-cxcr4-signaling-stabilizes-cytokine-mrna-transcripts-via-a-prex1-rac1-pathway-implications-for-ctcl
#17
Kimberly N Kremer, Brittney A Dinkel, Rosalie M Sterner, Douglas G Osborne, Dragan Jevremovic, Karen E Hedin
As with many immunopathologically-driven diseases, the malignant T cells of cutaneous T cell lymphomas (CTCL), such as Sezary Syndrome, display aberrant cytokine secretion patterns that contribute to pathology and disease progression. Targeting this disordered release of cytokines is complicated by the changing cytokine milieu that drives the phenotypic changes of CTCL. Here, we characterize a novel signaling pathway that can be targeted to inhibit the secretion of cytokines by modulating either CXCR4 or CXCR4-mediated signaling...
July 10, 2017: Blood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692454/phosphorylation-of-cyfip2-a-component-of-the-wave-regulatory-complex-regulates-dendritic-spine-density-and-neurite-outgrowth-in-cultured-hippocampal-neurons-potentially-by-affecting-the-complex-assembly
#18
Yeunkum Lee, Doyoun Kim, Jae Ryun Ryu, Yinhua Zhang, Shinhyun Kim, Yoonhee Kim, Bokyoung Lee, Woong Sun, Kihoon Han
Actin dynamics is a critical mechanism underlying many cellular processes in neurons. The heteropentameric WAVE-regulatory complex (WRC), consisting of WAVE, CYFIP1/2, Nap, Abi, and HSPC300, is a key regulator of actin dynamics that activates the Arp2/3 complex to initiate actin polymerization and branching. The WRC is basally inactive because of intermolecular interactions among the components, which can be modulated by bindings of phospholipids and Rac1, and phosphorylations of WAVE and Abi. However, the phosphorylation of other components of WRC and their functional significance remain largely unknown...
August 16, 2017: Neuroreport
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688804/crotoxin-a-rattlesnake-toxin-down-modulates-functions-of-bone-marrow-neutrophils-and-impairs-the-syk-gtpase-pathway
#19
Tatiane S Lima, Camila L Neves, Vanessa O Zambelli, Flávia S R Lopes, Sandra C Sampaio, Maria Cristina Cirillo
Neutrophils have a critical role in the innate immune response; these cells represent the primary line of defense against invading pathogens or tissue injury. Crotoxin (CTX), the major toxin of the South American rattlesnake (Crotalus durissus terrificus) venom, presents longstanding anti-inflammatory properties, inhibiting neutrophil migration and phagocytosis by peritoneal neutrophils for 14 days. Herein, to elucidate these sustained inhibitory effects induced by CTX, we performed in vitro and in vivo studies evaluating the functionality of bone marrow neutrophils and possible molecular mechanisms associated with these effects...
July 5, 2017: Toxicon: Official Journal of the International Society on Toxinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28688762/thioredoxin-attenuates-oxidized-low-density-lipoprotein-induced-oxidative-stress-in-human-umbilical-vein-endothelial-cells-by-reducing-nadph-oxidase-activity
#20
Beidong Chen, Li Meng, Tao Shen, Huan Gong, Ruomei Qi, Yanyang Zhao, Jie Sun, Li Bao, Gexin Zhao
Oxidative stress is recognized as one of the most important contributing factors to the development of atherosclerosis. Oxidized low-density lipoprotein (ox-LDL) can induce vascular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, trigger endothelial dysfunction and initiate the progression of atherosclerosis. Previous studies have demonstrated that thioredoxin-1 (Trx) is one of the key regulators of intracellular redox, which is pivotal in atherogenesis. However, the regulation mechanism is still unclear. In this study, we investigated the effects of Trx1 on NADPH oxidase in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), whose ROS level is mainly produced by NADPH oxidase, especially Nox4 isoform...
July 5, 2017: Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications
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