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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28206871/swallowing-therapy-and-progressive-resistance-training-in-head-and-neck-cancer-patients-undergoing-radiotherapy-treatment-randomized-control-trial-protocol-and-preliminary-data
#1
Sara F Hajdú, Irene Wessel, Christoffer Johansen, Claus A Kristensen, Zahra T Kadkhoda, Christina C Plaschke, Susanne O Dalton
BACKGROUND: Head and neck cancer (HNC) patients are often challenged by treatment induced dysphagia and trismus. Traditionally, rehabilitation is initiated when loss of function has already occurred. There is increasing evidence that it is of benefit to patients to initiate an early rehabilitation process before and during treatment. HNC patients have a unique set of functional challenges such as pre- and post-treatment dysphagia, pain and weight loss. The aim of the trial is to investigate the effects of swallowing and mouth-opening exercises combined with progressive resistance training (PRT) during radiotherapy...
February 2017: Acta Oncologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205203/effects-of-different-types-of-exercise-on-body-composition-muscle-strength-and-igf-1-in-the-elderly-with-sarcopenic-obesity
#2
Hung-Ting Chen, Yu-Chun Chung, Yu-Jen Chen, Sung-Yen Ho, Huey-June Wu
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the influence of resistance training (RT), aerobic training (AT), or combination training (CT) interventions on the body composition, muscle strength performance, and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) of patients with sarcopenic obesity. DESIGN: Randomized controlled trial. SETTING: Community center and research center. PARTICIPANTS: Sixty men and women aged 65-75 with sarcopenic obesity...
February 15, 2017: Journal of the American Geriatrics Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28199417/physical-activity-prevents-alterations-in-mitochondrial-ultrastructure-and-glucometabolic-parameters-in-a-high-sugar-diet-model
#3
Karina Barbosa de Queiroz, Kinulpe Honorato-Sampaio, Joamyr Victor Rossoni Júnior, Diego Andrade Leal, Angélica Barbosa G Pinto, Lenice Kappes-Becker, Elisio Alberto Evangelista, Renata Guerra-Sá
Endurance exercise is a remarkable intervention for the treatment of many diseases. Mitochondrial changes on skeletal muscle are likely important for many of the benefits provided by exercise. In this study, we aimed to evaluate the effects that a regular physical activity (swimming without workload) has on mitochondrial morphological alterations and glucometabolic parameters induced by a high-sugar diet (HSD). Weaned male Wistar rats fed with a standard diet or a HSD (68% carbohydrate) were subjected to 60 minutes of regular physical activity by swimming (without workload) for four- (20 sessions) or eight-week (40 sessions) periods...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28183444/effects-of-lifestyle-interventions-on-clinical-characteristics-of-patients-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-a-meta-analysis
#4
Christina N Katsagoni, Michael Georgoulis, George V Papatheodoridis, Demosthenes B Panagiotakos, Meropi D Kontogianni
BACKGROUND/OBJECTIVES: Although lifestyle modifications remain the cornerstone therapy for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), the optimal lifestyle intervention is still controversial. The aim of this meta-analysis was to evaluate the effect of exercise and/or dietary interventions, type or intensity of exercise and type of diet, on liver function outcomes (liver enzymes, intrahepatic fat and liver histology), as well as on anthropometric and glucose metabolism parameters in NAFLD patients...
March 2017: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28179492/indicator-amino-acid-derived-estimate-of-dietary-protein-requirement-for-male-bodybuilders-on-a-nontraining-day-is-several-fold-greater-than-the-current-recommended-dietary-allowance
#5
Arash Bandegan, Glenda Courtney-Martin, Mahroukh Rafii, Paul B Pencharz, Peter Wr Lemon
Background: Despite a number of studies indicating increased dietary protein needs in bodybuilders with the use of the nitrogen balance technique, the Institute of Medicine (2005) has concluded, based in part on methodologic concerns, that "no additional dietary protein is suggested for healthy adults undertaking resistance or endurance exercise."Objective: The aim of the study was to assess the dietary protein requirement of healthy young male bodybuilders ( with ≥3 y training experience) on a nontraining day by measuring the oxidation of ingested l-[1-(13)C]phenylalanine to (13)CO2 in response to graded intakes of protein [indicator amino acid oxidation (IAAO) technique]...
February 8, 2017: Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177709/effects-of-resistance-training-and-estrogen-replacement-on-adipose-tissue-inflammation-in-ovariectomized-rats
#6
Maria Fernanda Cury Rodrigues, Fabiano Candido Ferreira, Natália Santanielo Silva-Magosso, Marina Rodrigues Barbosa, Markus Vinicius Campos Souza, Mateus Moraes Domingos, Gustavo Henrique Rigo Canevazzi, Uliana Sbeguen Stotzer, Sabrina Messa Peviani, Fábio Santos de Lira, Heloísa Sobreiro Selistre de Araújo, Sérgio Eduardo de Andrade Perez
Estrogen deficiency is directly related to central obesity and low-grade inflammation. Hormonal replacement and exercise training are both able to decrease fat accumulation and inflammation in postmenopausal women. However, the efficiency of resistance training (RT) and estrogen replacement (ER) in minimizing adiposity and inflammation in the visceral adipose tissue (VAT) of ovariectomized (OVX) rats has not yet been elucidated. In this study, Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into the following six groups: the sham-operated sedentary (Sham-Sed), ovariectomized sedentary (OVX-Sed), sham-operated resistance training (Sham-RT), OVX-RT, OVX-Sed-ER and OVX-RT-ER groups...
January 25, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177703/loads-and-movement-speed-affect-energy-expenditure-during-circuit-resistance-exercise
#7
Kirk B Roberson, Kevin A Jacobs, Morgan J White, Joseph F Signorile
Circuit resistance training (CT) constitutes a high-intensity interval program commonly used to target weight loss; however, the loads and exercise patterns that maximize energy expenditure (EE) remain undetermined. We examined differences in EE among CT protocols using varying loads and contraction speeds in recreationally-trained males and females. Seven males (21.1 ± 0.5y) and eight females (20.0 ± 0.9y) performed three randomized CT protocols incorporating three circuits using heavy-load (80%1RM) explosive (HLEC), heavy-load, controlled (2s) (HLCC), and moderate-load (50%1RM) explosive contractions (MLEC)...
January 31, 2017: Applied Physiology, Nutrition, and Metabolism, Physiologie Appliquée, Nutrition et Métabolisme
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28177674/exercise-restores-bioavailability-of-hydrogen-sulfide-and-promotes-autophagy-influx-in-livers-of-mice-fed-with-high-fat-diet
#8
Bing Wang, Jing Zeng, Qi Gu
In the gold standard treatment for non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), exercise training has been shown to effectively improve NASH. However, limited data are available about the underlying mechanisms involved. This work was undertaken to investigate the mechanisms underlying the beneficial effect of exercise training on high-fat diet (HFD)-induced NAFLD in mice. Male mice were fed with HFD and given moderate-intensity exercise for 24 weeks. Exercise training lowered weight gain, attenuated systemic insulin resistance and glucose intolerance, mitigated hepatic steatosis and fibrosis in mice fed with HFD...
January 10, 2017: Canadian Journal of Physiology and Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28168080/the-femoral-neck-mechanoresponse-to-hip-extensors-exercise-a-case-study
#9
Saulo Martelli, Hossein Mokhtarzadeh, Peter Pivonka, Peter R Ebeling
Physical activity is recommended to prevent age-related bone loss. However, the proximal femur mechanoresponse is variable, possibly because of a muscle-dependant mechanoresponse. We compared the proximal femur response with the femoral strain pattern generated by the hip extensor muscles. A healthy participant underwent a six-month unilateral training of the hip extensor muscles using a resistance weight regularly adjusted to the 80% of the one-repetition maximum weight. DXA-based measurements of the areal Bone Mineral Density (aBMD) in the exercise leg were adjusted for changes in the control leg...
2017: Journal of Osteoporosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28163011/aerobic-endurance-training-improves-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-nafld-features-via-mir-33-dependent-autophagy-induction-in-high-fat-diet-fed-mice
#10
Parvin Ghareghani, Mehrnoosh Shanaki, Saeideh Ahmadi, Ali Reza Khoshdel, Neda Rezvan, Reza Meshkani, Maryam Delfan, Sattar Gorgani-Firuzjaee
Due to changes in life style, obesity and obesity related complication such as insulin resistance, type 2 diabetes and non-alcoholic fatty liver disease caused worldwide health problems. Regular exercise has been frequently prescribed to combat metabolic complication of obesity but its molecular mechanism has not been fully illustrated. We investigated molecular mechanism of lipid lowering effect of exercise training in high fat diet fed mice by focusing on miR-33 expression and autophagy pathway. 24 mice were assigned to normal chow (NC) (n=8), high-fat diet (HFD) (n=16) group and subjected to NC and HFD for 13-weeks...
February 2, 2017: Obesity Research & Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28162956/exercise-and-ectopic-fat-in-type-2-diabetes-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
REVIEW
A Sabag, K L Way, S E Keating, R N Sultana, H T O'Connor, M K Baker, V H Chuter, J George, N A Johnson
Ectopic adipose tissue surrounding the intra-abdominal organs (visceral fat) and located in the liver, heart, pancreas and muscle, is linked to cardio-metabolic complications commonly experienced in type 2 diabetes. A systematic review and meta-analysis was performed to determine the effect of exercise on ectopic fat in adults with type 2 diabetes. Relevant databases were searched to February 2016. Included were randomised controlled studies, which implemented≥4 weeks of aerobic and/or resistance exercise and quantified ectopic fat via magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography, proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy or muscle biopsy before and after intervention...
February 2, 2017: Diabetes & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161306/a-randomized-clinical-trial-of-exercise-during-pregnancy-to-prevent-gestational-diabetes-mellitus-and-improve-pregnancy-outcome-in-overweight-and-obese-pregnant-women
#12
Chen Wang, Yumei Wei, Xiaoming Zhang, Yue Zhang, Qianqian Xu, Yiying Sun, Shiping Su, Li Zhang, Chunhong Liu, Yaru Feng, Chong Shou, Kym J Guelfi, John P Newnham, Huixia Yang
BACKGROUND: Obesity and being overweight are becoming epidemic, and indeed, the proportion of such women of reproductive age has increased in recent times. Being overweight or obese prior to pregnancy is a risk factor for gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM), and increases the risk of adverse pregnancy outcome for both mothers and their offspring. Furthermore, the combination of GDM with obesity/overweight status may increase the risk of adverse pregnancy outcome attributable to either factor alone...
February 1, 2017: American Journal of Obstetrics and Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28160083/high-intensity-aerobic-interval-training-improves-aerobic-fitness-and-hba1c-among-persons-diagnosed-with-type-2-diabetes
#13
Eva Maria Støa, Sondre Meling, Lill-Katrin Nyhus, Glenn Strømstad, Karl Magnus Mangerud, Jan Helgerud, Solfrid Bratland-Sanda, Øyvind Støren
PURPOSE: It remains to be established how high-intensity aerobic interval training (HAIT) affects risk factors associated with type 2 diabetes (TD2). This study investigated effects of HAIT on maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), glycated Hemoglobin type A1C (HbA1c), insulin resistance (IR), fat oxidation (FatOx), body weight (BW), percent body fat (%BF), lactate threshold (LT), blood pressure (BP), and blood lipid profile (BLP) among persons with T2D. Results were compared to the effects after a moderate-intensity training (MIT) program...
February 3, 2017: European Journal of Applied Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28158243/long-term-pulse-wave-velocity-outcomes-with-aerobic-and-resistance-training-in-kidney-transplant-recipients-a-pilot-randomised-controlled-trial
#14
Ellen M O'Connor, Pelagia Koufaki, Thomas H Mercer, Herolin Lindup, Eilish Nugent, David Goldsmith, Iain C Macdougall, Sharlene A Greenwood
BACKGROUND: This pilot study examined long-term pulse wave velocity (PWV) and peak oxygen uptake (VO2peak) outcomes following a 12-week moderate-intensity aerobic or resistance training programme in kidney transplant recipients. METHOD: Single-blind, bi-centre randomised controlled parallel trial. 42 out of 60 participants completed a 9-month follow-up assessment (Aerobic training = 12, Resistance training = 10 and usual care = 20). Participants completed 12 weeks of twice-weekly supervised aerobic or resistance training...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148306/agonist-muscle-adaptation-accompanied-by-antagonist-muscle-atrophy-in-the-hindlimb-of-mice-following-stretch-shortening-contraction-training
#15
Erik P Rader, Marshall A Naimo, James Ensey, Brent A Baker
BACKGROUND: The vast majority of dynamometer-based animal models for investigation of the response to chronic muscle contraction exposure has been limited to analysis of isometric, lengthening, or shortening contractions in isolation. An exception to this has been the utilization of a rat model to study stretch-shortening contractions (SSCs), a sequence of consecutive isometric, lengthening, and shortening contractions common during daily activity and resistance-type exercise. However, the availability of diverse genetic strains of rats is limited...
February 2, 2017: BMC Musculoskeletal Disorders
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28148220/genomic-selection-models-double-the-accuracy-of-predicted-breeding-values-for-bacterial-cold-water-disease-resistance-compared-to-a-traditional-pedigree-based-model-in-rainbow-trout-aquaculture
#16
Roger L Vallejo, Timothy D Leeds, Guangtu Gao, James E Parsons, Kyle E Martin, Jason P Evenhuis, Breno O Fragomeni, Gregory D Wiens, Yniv Palti
BACKGROUND: Previously, we have shown that bacterial cold water disease (BCWD) resistance in rainbow trout can be improved using traditional family-based selection, but progress has been limited to exploiting only between-family genetic variation. Genomic selection (GS) is a new alternative that enables exploitation of within-family genetic variation. METHODS: We compared three GS models [single-step genomic best linear unbiased prediction (ssGBLUP), weighted ssGBLUP (wssGBLUP), and BayesB] to predict genomic-enabled breeding values (GEBV) for BCWD resistance in a commercial rainbow trout population, and compared the accuracy of GEBV to traditional estimates of breeding values (EBV) from a pedigree-based BLUP (P-BLUP) model...
February 1, 2017: Genetics, Selection, Evolution: GSE
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28146030/strength-and-conditioning-practices-in-adolescent-rugby-players-relationship-with-changes-in-physical-qualities
#17
Jonathon J S Weakley, Kevin Till, Joshua Darrall-Jones, Gregory A B Roe, Padraic J Phibbs, Dale Read, Ben L Jones
Adolescent rugby players benefit from the implementation of resistance training. However resistance training practices and how they influence short-term physical change is unknown. Therefore the purpose of this study was to quantify resistance training practices, evaluate physical development, and relate these changes to resistance training variables across 12-weeks in adolescent rugby union players. Thirty-five male adolescent rugby union players participated in the study with subjects completing an anthropometric and physical testing battery pre- and post- a 12-week in-season mesocycle...
January 30, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28144410/can-resistance-exercise-alter-irisin-levels-and-expression-profiles-of-fndc5-and-ucp1-in-rats
#18
Jalil Reisi, Kamran Ghaedi, Hamid Rajabi, Sayyed Mohammad Marandi
BACKGROUND: Irisin is a new myokine secreted from the skeletal muscle and appears to affect the metabolism of adipose tissue. OBJECTIVES: The mechanisms of cellular and molecular identification by which exercise training exerts its benefits remain unclear and are under investigation. METHODS: We examined the effect of 8-week resistance exercise on plasma irisin levels and expression profiles of muscle FNDC5 and subcutaneous adipose tissue UCP1 in male rats...
December 2016: Asian Journal of Sports Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28138261/the-effects-of-exercise-training-and-caloric-restriction-on-the-cardiac-oxytocin-natriuretic-peptide-system-in-the-diabetic-mouse
#19
Tom L Broderick, Marek Jankowski, Jolanta Gutkowska
BACKGROUND: Regular exercise training (ET) and caloric restriction (CR) are the frontline strategies in the treatment of type 2 diabetes mellitus with the aim at reducing cardiometabolic risk. ET and CR improve body weight and glycemic control, and experimental studies indicate that these paradigms afford cardioprotection. In this study, the effects of combined ET and CR on the cardioprotective oxytocin (OT)-natriuretic peptide (NP) system were determined in the db/db mouse, a model of type 2 diabetes associated with insulin resistance, hyperglycemia, and obesity...
2017: Diabetes, Metabolic Syndrome and Obesity: Targets and Therapy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135219/neuromuscular-training-improves-movement-competency-and-physical-performance-measures-in-11-13-year-old-female-netball-athletes
#20
Amanda Hopper, Erin E Haff, Oliver Barley, Christopher Joyce, Rhodri S Lloyd, G Gregory Haff
The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of a neuromuscular training program on movement competency and measures of physical performance in youth female netball players. It was hypothesized that significant improvements would be found in movement competency and physical performance measures following the intervention. Twenty-three junior female netball players (age, 12.17 ± 0.94 yrs; height, 1.63 ± 0.08 m; weight, 51.81 ± 8.45 kg) completed a test battery before and after a six-week training intervention...
January 20, 2017: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
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