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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27904240/effectiveness-of-exercise-on-functional-mobility-in-adults-with-cerebral-palsy-a-systematic-review
#1
Hillary Lawrence, Sara Hills, Nicole Kline, Kyra Weems, Antonette Doty
Purpose: We identified evidence evaluating the effect of exercise on functional mobility in adults (aged 18 y or older) with cerebral palsy (CP). Method: An exhaustive search was conducted using the electronic databases PubMed, MEDLINE, CINAHL, PsycINFO, SPORTDiscus, and Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews from the earliest available evidence (1975) to the present (January 2016) for studies whose participants were ambulatory adults with CP receiving conservative treatment to address functional mobility limitations...
2016: Physiotherapy Canada. Physiothérapie Canada
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27895593/baseline-muscle-mass-is-a-poor-predictor-of-functional-overload-induced-gain-in-the-mouse-model
#2
Audrius Kilikevicius, Lutz Bunger, Arimantas Lionikas
Genetic background contributes substantially to individual variability in muscle mass. Muscle hypertrophy in response to resistance training can also vary extensively. However, it is less clear if muscle mass at baseline is predictive of the hypertrophic response. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of genetic background on variability in muscle mass at baseline and in the adaptive response of the mouse fast- and slow-twitch muscles to overload. Males of eight laboratory mouse strains: C57BL/6J (B6, n = 17), BALB/cByJ (n = 7), DBA/2J (D2, n = 12), B6...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27893482/effects-of-sprint-training-with-and-without-weighted-vest-on-speed-and-repeated-sprint-ability-in-male-soccer-players
#3
Ezequiel Rey, Alexis Padrón-Cabo, Diego Fernández-Penedo
The purpose of this study was to assess the effect resisted sprint training using weighted vests (WV) compared with unresisted sprint training (US) on physical fitness (countermovement jump, 10 m sprint, 30 m sprint and repeated sprint ability (RSA)) in amateur male soccer players. 19 soccer players (age: 23.7±4.5 years; height: 178.3±5.8 cm; body mass: 72.9±5.2 kg) were randomly assigned to a WV (n= 10) or a US (n= 9) group. The intervention program had to be carried out 2 times a week over 6 weeks. The only difference between the two interventions was that the WV group performed all the sprints with an additional weight of 18...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27891737/role-of-resistance-physical-exercise-in-preventing-testicular-damage-caused-by-chronic-ethanol-consumption-in-uchb-rats
#4
Gessica Dutra Gonçalves, Nichelle Antunes Vieira, Henrique Rodrigues Vieira, Aline Dias Valério, Gláucia Elóisa Munhoz de Lion Siervo, Patricia Fernanda Felipe Pinheiro, Francisco Eduardo Martinez, Flávia Alessandra Guarnier, Giovana Rampazzo Teixeira, Glaura Scantamburlo Alves Fernandes
Ethanol consumption is associated with spermatogenesis damage and testosterone level alterations. Alcohol remains the most commonly used substance among athletes and sports enthusiasts. This study evaluated whether resistance physical exercise can reduce the testicular damage caused by ethanol exposure. A total of 36 ethanol drinking (UChB) rats were divided into four groups: C (control rats), ETOH (ethanol consumption), ETOH + T (ethanol consumption + physical training), and T (group physical training)...
November 28, 2016: Microscopy Research and Technique
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882916/spirometry-improvement-after-muscular-exercise-in-elite-swimmers
#5
Alessandro Rubini, Alex Rizzato, Simone Fava, Nicola Olivato, Devanand Mangar, Enrico M Camporesi, Gerardo Bosco
BACKGROUND: An increased sympathetic activity during muscular effort is a well established physiological response, whose intensity is known to increase with the muscular load. Spirometry was described to improve as an effect of swimming training in healthy and asthmatic subjects, suggesting a decrease in airway resistance The aim was to investigate the possible effect of muscular exercise (swimming) on spirometry, in particular searching for possible differences because of different swimming times...
November 24, 2016: Journal of Sports Medicine and Physical Fitness
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27881086/lower-extremity-resistance-training-on-unstable-surfaces-improves-proxies-of-muscle-strength-power-and-balance-in-healthy-older-adults-a-randomised-control-trial
#6
Nils Eckardt
BACKGROUND: It is well documented that both balance and resistance training have the potential to mitigate intrinsic fall risk factors in older adults. However, knowledge about the effects of simultaneously executed balance and resistance training (i.e., resistance training conducted on unstable surfaces [URT]) on lower-extremity muscle strength, power and balance in older adults is insufficient. The objective of the present study was to compare the effects of machine-based stable resistance training (M-SRT) and two types of URT, i...
November 24, 2016: BMC Geriatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27877138/a-ketogenic-diet-in-rodents-elicits-improved-mitochondrial-adaptations-in-response-to-resistance-exercise-training-compared-to-an-isocaloric-western-diet
#7
Hayden W Hyatt, Wesley C Kephart, A Maleah Holland, Petey Mumford, C Brooks Mobley, Ryan P Lowery, Michael D Roberts, Jacob M Wilson, Andreas N Kavazis
Purpose: Ketogenic diets (KD) can facilitate weight loss, but their effects on skeletal muscle remain equivocal. In this experiment we investigated the effects of two diets on skeletal muscle mitochondrial coupling, mitochondrial complex activity, markers of oxidative stress, and gene expression in sedentary and resistance exercised rats. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (9-10 weeks of age, 300-325 g) were fed isocaloric amounts of either a KD (17 g/day, 5.2 kcal/g, 20.2% protein, 10.3% CHO, 69.5% fat, n = 16) or a Western diet (WD) (20 g/day, 4...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27876096/a-randomised-controlled-trial-of-the-effects-of-very-low-carbohydrate-and-high-carbohydrate-diets-on-cognitive-performance-in-patients-with-type-2-diabetes
#8
Jeannie Tay, Ian T Zajac, Campbell H Thompson, Natalie D Luscombe-Marsh, Vanessa Danthiir, Manny Noakes, Jonathan D Buckley, Gary A Wittert, Grant D Brinkworth
This study compared the longer-term effects of a very low-carbohydrate, high-fat diet with a high-carbohydrate, low-fat diet on cognitive performance in individuals with type 2 diabetes (T2D). In total, 115 obese adults with T2D (sixty-six males, BMI: 34·6 (sd 4·3) kg/m2, age: 58 (sd 7) years, HbA1c: 7·3 (sd 1·1) %, diabetes duration: 8 (sd 6) years) were randomised to consume either an energy-restricted, very low-carbohydrate, low-saturated-fat (LC) diet or an energy-matched high unrefined carbohydrate, low-fat (HC) diet with supervised aerobic/resistance exercise (60 min, 3 d/week) for 52 weeks...
November 23, 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27872403/biomechanical-analysis-of-weighted-ball-exercises-for-baseball-pitchers
#9
Glenn S Fleisig, Alek Z Diffendaffer, Kyle T Aune, Brett Ivey, Walter A Laughlin
BACKGROUND: Weighted-ball throwing programs are commonly used in training baseball pitchers to increase ball velocity. The purpose of this study was to compare kinematics and kinetics among weighted-ball exercises with values from standard pitching (ie, pitching standard 5-oz baseballs from a mound). HYPOTHESIS: Ball and arm velocities would be greater with lighter balls and joint kinetics would be greater with heavier balls. STUDY DESIGN: Controlled laboratory study...
November 21, 2016: Sports Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27865696/strength-training-for-skeletal-muscle-endurance-after-stroke
#10
Frederick M Ivey, Steven J Prior, Charlene E Hafer-Macko, Leslie I Katzel, Richard F Macko, Alice S Ryan
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Initial studies support the use of strength training (ST) as a safe and effective intervention after stroke. Our previous work shows that relatively aggressive, higher intensity ST translates into large effect sizes for paretic and non-paretic leg muscle volume, myostatin expression, and maximum strength post-stroke. An unanswered question pertains to how our unique ST model for stroke impacts skeletal muscle endurance (SME). Thus, we now report on ST-induced adaptation in the ability to sustain isotonic muscle contraction...
November 16, 2016: Journal of Stroke and Cerebrovascular Diseases: the Official Journal of National Stroke Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27832366/whey-protein-consumption-after-resistance-exercise-reduces-energy-intake-at-a-post-exercise-meal
#11
Alistair Monteyne, Alex Martin, Liam Jackson, Nick Corrigan, Ellen Stringer, Jack Newey, Penny L S Rumbold, Emma J Stevenson, Lewis J James
PURPOSE: Protein consumption after resistance exercise potentiates muscle protein synthesis, but its effects on subsequent appetite in this context are unknown. This study examined appetite and energy intake following consumption of protein- and carbohydrate-containing drinks after resistance exercise. METHODS: After familiarisation, 15 resistance training males (age 21 ± 1 years, body mass 78.0 ± 11.9 kg, stature 1.78 ± 0.07 m) completed two randomised, double-blind trials, consisting of lower-body resistance exercise, followed by consumption of a whey protein (PRO 23...
November 10, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27826226/analog-memristive-synapse-in-spiking-networks-implementing-unsupervised-learning
#12
Erika Covi, Stefano Brivio, Alexander Serb, Themis Prodromakis, Marco Fanciulli, Sabina Spiga
Emerging brain-inspired architectures call for devices that can emulate the functionality of biological synapses in order to implement new efficient computational schemes able to solve ill-posed problems. Various devices and solutions are still under investigation and, in this respect, a challenge is opened to the researchers in the field. Indeed, the optimal candidate is a device able to reproduce the complete functionality of a synapse, i.e., the typical synaptic process underlying learning in biological systems (activity-dependent synaptic plasticity)...
2016: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27824690/hypertension-during-weight-lifting-reduces-flow-mediated-dilation-in-nonathletes
#13
Cullen E Buchanan, Andrew O Kadlec, Anne Z Hoch, David D Gutterman, Matthew J Durand
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to determine if increased intraluminal pressure is the damaging factor which reduces flow mediated dilation (FMD) in young, healthy subjects following resistance exercise to maximal exertion. HYPOTHESIS: Attenuating the rise in brachial artery pressure during weight lifting by placing a blood pressure cuff on the upper arm prevents post-exercise impairment of brachial artery FMD in sedentary individuals. METHODS: Nine sedentary individuals who exercise ≤1 time/week and six exercise-trained individuals who exercise ≥3 times/week performed leg press exercise to maximal exertion on two separate occasions...
November 7, 2016: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27814866/comparison-of-the-effect-of-different-modalities-of-physical-exercise-on-functionality-and-anthropometric-measurements-in-community-dwelling-older-women
#14
Ana Paula Sena Lomba Vasconcelos, Diogo Correia Cardozo, Alessandra Lamas Granero Lucchetti, Giancarlo Lucchetti
The present study aims to assess the effect of different modalities of physical exercises ("Functional Gymnastics"-FG, "Resistance Training"-RT and "Pilates combined with Hydrogymnastics"-PCH) on functional capacity and anthropometric measurements of 148 older women (60 years old or more). A comparative observational study was conducted. Functional and anthropometric measurements were assessed at baseline and after 16 weeks. All groups assessed showed significant changes between baseline and post-training. On the comparison of pre and post-training, differences in anthropometric measurements but not in functional test performance were found...
October 2016: Journal of Bodywork and Movement Therapies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27806005/effect-of-1-rm-80-rm-and-50-rm-strength-exercise-in-trained-individuals-on-variations-in-plasma-redox-biomarkers
#15
Tatiana G Polotow, Tácito P Souza-Junior, Ricardo C Sampaio, Alexandre R Okuyama, Douglas Ganini, Cristina V Vardaris, Ragami C Alves, Steven R McAnulty, Marcelo P Barros
For decades, scientists have examined the participation of oxygen/nitrogen species (ROS/RNS) in anaerobic-like exercises, especially weight lifting and resistance exercises. The balance between the production of oxyradicals and antioxidant responses during anaerobic-like exercises is essential to assure adaptation to the physiological benefits of strength training and to prevent chronic harmful effects. The aim of this study is to examine the hypothesis that different weight loads (1-RM, 80%RM, and 50%RM) lifted until exhaustion could impose distinct oxidative insults and elicit diverse antioxidant responses in plasma of young trained subjects...
October 27, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27799234/low-body-mass-index-serum-creatinine-and-cause-of-death-in-patients-undergoing-percutaneous-coronary-intervention
#16
Kashish Goel, Rajiv Gulati, Guy S Reeder, Ryan J Lennon, Bradley R Lewis, Atta Behfar, Gurpreet S Sandhu, Charanjit S Rihal, Mandeep Singh
BACKGROUND: Low body mass index (BMI) and serum creatinine are surrogate markers of frailty and sarcopenia. Their relationship with cause-specific mortality in elderly patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention is not well studied. METHODS AND RESULTS: We determined long-term cardiovascular and noncardiovascular mortality in 9394 consecutive patients aged ≥65 years who underwent percutaneous coronary intervention from 2000 to 2011. BMI and serum creatinine were divided into 4 categories...
October 31, 2016: Journal of the American Heart Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27787468/effect-of-direct-whole-body-vibration-on-upper-body-muscular-power-in-recreational-resistance-trained-men
#17
Margaret T Jones, Joel Martin, Andrew R Jagim, Jonathan M Oliver
To determine the acute effect of whole body vibration (WBV) on upper body power, 15 men (mean ± SD; age 21.5 ± 2.3 years; height 173.1 ± 6.5 cm; weight 77.2 ± 13.8 kg) with ≥ 1 year resistance training experience and a bench press (BP): body mass ratio ≥ 1.25 participated in a repeated measures crossover design. Session 1 included body composition ((BodPod) 15.76 ± 6.7 % body fat), 3-repetition maximum BP, and familiarization with: seated medicine ball throw (SMBT), plyometric push-up on a force plate (PPU), and vertical WBV platform...
October 13, 2016: Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766082/exercise-does-not-protect-against-peripheral-and-central-effects-of-a-high-cholesterol-diet-given-ad-libitum-in-old-apoe-mice
#18
Vanessa Di Cataldo, Alain Géloën, Jean-Baptiste Langlois, Fabien Chauveau, Benoît Thézé, Violaine Hubert, Marlène Wiart, Erica N Chirico, Jennifer Rieusset, Hubert Vidal, Vincent Pialoux, Emmanuelle Canet-Soulas
Aim: Advanced atherosclerosis increases inflammation and stroke risk in the cerebral vasculature. Exercise is known to improve cardio-metabolic profiles when associated with a caloric restriction, but it remains debated whether it is still beneficial without the dietary control. The aim of this study was to determine both the peripheral and central effects of exercise training combined with a cholesterol-rich diet given ad libitum in old ApoE(-/-) mice. Methods: Forty-five-weeks old obese ApoE(-/-) mice fed with a high cholesterol diet ad libitum were divided into Exercise-trained (EX; running wheel free access) and Sedentary (SED) groups...
2016: Frontiers in Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27766021/dehydroepiandrosterone-supplementation-combined-with-whole-body-vibration-training-affects-testosterone-level-and-body-composition-in-mice
#19
Wen-Chyuan Chen, Yi-Ming Chen, Chi-Chang Huang, Yen-Dun Tzeng
Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), the most abundant sex steroid, is primarily secreted by the adrenal gland and a precursor hormone used by athletes for performance enhancement. Whole-body vibration (WBV) is a well-known light-resistance exercise by automatic adaptations to rapid and repeated oscillations from a vibrating platform, which is also a simple and convenient exercise for older adults. However, the potential effects of DHEA supplementation combined with WBV training on to body composition, exercise performance, and hormone regulation are currently unclear...
2016: International Journal of Medical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27762041/acute-resistance-exercise-using-free-weights-on-aortic-wave-reflection-characteristics
#20
Yu Lun Tai, Hayden Gerhart, Xián Mayo, J Derek Kingsley
Aortic wave reflection characteristics such as the augmentation index (AIx), wasted left ventricular pressure energy (ΔEw ) and aortic haemodynamics, such as aortic systolic blood pressure (ASBP), strongly predict cardiovascular events. The effects of acute resistance exercise (ARE) using free-weight exercises on these characteristics are unknown. Therefore, we sought to determine the effects of acute free-weight resistance exercise on aortic wave reflection characteristics and aortic haemodynamics in resistance-trained individuals...
October 19, 2016: Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging
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