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cognitive bia

Hanna F Skjåkødegård, Yngvild S Danielsen, Mette Morken, Sara-Rebekka F Linde, Rachel P Kolko, Katherine N Balantekin, Denise E Wilfley, Pétur B Júlíusson
BACKGROUND: The purpose of the FABO-study is to evaluate the effect of family-based behavioral social facilitation treatment (FBSFT), designed to target children's family and social support networks to enhance weight loss outcomes, compared to the standard treatment (treatment as usual, TAU) given to children and adolescents with obesity in a routine clinical practice. METHODS: Randomized controlled trial (RCT), in which families (n = 120) are recruited from the children and adolescents (ages 6-18 years) referred to the Obesity Outpatient Clinic (OOC), Haukeland University Hospital, Norway...
October 21, 2016: BMC Public Health
Anna C Furmaniak, Matthias Menig, Martina H Markes
BACKGROUND: A huge clinical research database on adjuvant cancer treatment has verified improvements in breast cancer outcomes such as recurrence and mortality rates. On the other hand, adjuvant and neoadjuvant therapy with chemotherapy and radiotherapy impacts on quality of life due to substantial short- and long-term side effects. A number of studies have evaluated the effect of exercise interventions on those side effects. This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in 2006...
September 21, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
J Gozdowska, M Zatorski, P Torchalla, Ł Białek, A Bojanowska, A Tomaszek, M Serwańska-Świętek, R Kieszek, A Kwiatkowski, A Chmura, M Durlik
INTRODUCTION: Health benefits of a living-donor kidney transplantation are numerous and well known. There is, however, a dearth of knowledge on postoperative quality of life among the living-donor (LD) compared to deceased-donor (DD) transplant recipients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study involved 89 patients after renal transplantation: 48 from LDs and 41 from DDs. Interview data indirectly indicated the patients' health, whereas physiological parameters directly pinpointed the patients' health and the graft function...
June 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
Lorraine Fliek, Pauline Dibbets, Jeffrey Roelofs, Peter Muris
The present cross-sectional study explored the relations between fear-enhancing parenting behaviors (modeling and threat information transmission) and children's cognitive biases and anxiety symptoms. Participants were 258 children aged 7-12 years (132 boys and 126 girls), and their mothers (n = 199) and/or fathers (n = 117). Children and parents completed the Parental Enhancement of Anxious Cognitions questionnaire, which measures parental modeling and threat information transmission, while children also filled in a scale for assessing anxiety symptoms...
June 10, 2016: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Orestes V Forlenza, Marcia Radanovic, Leda L Talib, Ivan Aprahamian, Breno S Diniz, Henrik Zetterberg, Wagner F Gattaz
INTRODUCTION: Guidelines for the use of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers in the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) establish that each laboratory must use internally qualified cutoff values. We determined the concentrations of biomarkers that discriminate cases from controls and combinations that predict the progression to dementia in a Brazilian cohort. METHODS: Concentrations of amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ1-42), total tau (T-tau), and (181)Thr-phosphorylated-tau (P-tau) were determined in CSF samples from 184 older adults (68 mild cognitive impairment, 41 AD, 34 non-AD cognitive impairment, and 41 controls) by the INNO-BIA AlzBio3 assay...
December 2015: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
Min Jeong Wang, SangHak Yi, Jee-Young Han, So Young Park, Jae-Won Jang, In Kook Chun, Vo Van Giau, Eva Bagyinszky, Kun Taek Lim, Sung Min Kang, Seong Soo A An, Young Ho Park, Young Chul Youn, SangYun Kim
BACKGROUND: Recently, a Korean research group suggested a consensus protocol, based on the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative study protocol but with modifications for minimizing the confounding factors, for the evaluation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers. OBJECTIVE: Here, we analyzed fluid and imaging biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in Korean population. We used the updated protocol to propose a more accurate CSF biomarker value for the diagnosis of AD...
May 6, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Mariano Esbrí Víctor, Isabel Huedo Rodenas, Melisa López Utiel, Marta Martínez Reig, Esther López Jiménez, María Ángeles Herizo Muñoz, Ginés Sánchez Nievas, Pedro Abizanda Soler
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to identify the physical determining factors of the Fear of Falling Syndrome (FoF) in older adults with a history of falls. METHODS: An observational study was conducted on 183 subjects older than 64 years with a fall in the previous year, with data collected from the geriatrics outpatient clinic of the Complejo Hospitalario Universitario from Albacete, Spain. Sociodemographic and anthropometric data, as well as comorbidity, drugs usually taken, functional status, physical function, frailty, cognitive and affective status were collected...
April 25, 2016: Revista Española de Geriatría y Gerontología
Joyce Yeung, Vanisha Patel, Rita Champaneria, Janine Dretzke
BACKGROUND: With an ageing population, the incidence of hip fractures requiring surgery is increasing. Post-operative delirium is common following hip fracture surgery. Delirium is associated with high mortality and morbidity, poor long-term functional outcomes and institutionalisation. There is some evidence to suggest that perioperative intervention, specifically the anaesthetic technique employed, may reduce the incidence of delirium in this population. The aim of this systematic review is to investigate the impact of anaesthesia type on post-operative delirium...
April 21, 2016: Systematic Reviews
Agnieszka A Kaczor, Katarzyna M Targowska-Duda, Barbara Budzyńska, Grażyna Biała, Andrea G Silva, Marián Castro
Antipsychotics currently available to treat schizophrenia suffer several limitations: (1) they are efficient against positive but not negative and cognitive symptoms of the disease; (2) they help only a half of patients; (3) they have severe side effects including neurological and metabolic side effects. Thus, novel drugs to treat schizophrenia are highly demanded. We identified a novel dopamine D2 receptor antagonist, D2AAK1, with Ki of 58 nM using structure-based virtual screening. D2AAK1 possesses additional nanomolar or low micromolar affinity to D1, D3, 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors, making it an ideal candidate for a multi-target drug...
June 2016: Neurochemistry International
Lucienne A Reichardt, Jesse J Aarden, Rosanne van Seben, Marike van der Schaaf, Raoul H H Engelbert, Jos A Bosch, Bianca M Buurman
BACKGROUND: Over 30 % of older patients experience hospitalization-associated disability (HAD) (i.e., loss of independence in Activities of Daily Living (ADLs)) after an acute hospitalization. Despite its high prevalence, the mechanisms that underlie HAD remain elusive. This paper describes the protocol for the Hospital-Associated Disability and impact on daily Life (Hospital-ADL) study, which aims to unravel the potential mechanisms behind HAD from admission to three months post-discharge...
2016: BMC Geriatrics
Anna Chmielewska, Piotr Dziechciarz, Dorota Gieruszczak-Białek, Andrea Horvath, Małgorzata Pieścik-Lech, Marek Ruszczyński, Agata Skórka, Hania Szajewska
Neurodevelopment has been linked, among other factors, to maternal and early infant diets. The objective of this review, which is part of the NUTRIMENTHE research project 'The effect of diet on the mental performance of children' (, was to update current evidence on the effects of nutritional interventions such as iron, folic acid or n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) supplementation during pregnancy and/or in early life on the mental performance and psychomotor development of children...
January 22, 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
Tim Coleman, Catherine Chamberlain, Mary-Ann Davey, Sue E Cooper, Jo Leonardi-Bee
BACKGROUND: Smoking in pregnancy is a public health problem. When used by non-pregnant smokers, pharmacotherapies (nicotine replacement therapy (NRT), bupropion and varenicline) are effective for smoking cessation, however, their efficacy and safety in pregnancy remains unknown. Electronic Nicotine Delivery Systems (ENDS), or e-cigarettes, are becoming widely used but their efficacy and safety when used for smoking cessation in pregnancy are also unknown. OBJECTIVES: To determine the efficacy and safety of smoking cessation pharmacotherapies (including NRT, varenicline and bupropion), other medications, or ENDS when used for smoking cessation in pregnancy...
2015: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Emily J Bethell, Nicola F Koyama
Recent developments in the study of animal cognition and emotion have resulted in the 'judgement bias' model of animal welfare. Judgement biases describe the way in which changes in affective state are characterized by changes in information processing. In humans, anxiety and depression are characterized by increased expectation of negative events and negative interpretation of ambiguous information. Positive wellbeing is associated with enhanced expectation of positive outcomes and more positive interpretation of ambiguous information...
July 2015: Royal Society Open Science
Catherine D Darker, Brion P Sweeney, Joe M Barry, Michael F Farrell, Erica Donnelly-Swift
BACKGROUND: Benzodiazepines (BZDs) have a sedative and hypnotic effect upon people. Short term use can be beneficial but long term BZD use is common, with several risks in addition to the potential for dependence in both opiate and non-opiate dependent patients. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions for treating BZD harmful use, abuse or dependence compared to pharmacological interventions, no intervention, placebo or a different psychosocial intervention on reducing the use of BZDs in opiate dependent and non-opiate dependent groups...
May 11, 2015: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Catherine D Darker, Brion P Sweeney, Joe M Barry, Michael F Farrell, Erica Donnelly-Swift
BACKGROUND: Benzodiazepines (BZDs) have a sedative and hypnotic effect upon people. Short term use can be beneficial but long term BZD use is common, with several risks in addition to the potential for dependence in both opiate and non-opiate dependent patients. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effectiveness of psychosocial interventions for treating BZD harmful use, abuse or dependence compared to pharmacological interventions, no intervention, placebo or a different psychosocial intervention on reducing the use of BZDs in opiate dependent and non-opiate dependent groups...
2015: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Felicity V Larson, Meng-Chuan Lai, Adam P Wagner, Simon Baron-Cohen, Anthony J Holland
INTRODUCTION: Males and females in the general population differ, on average, in their drive for empathizing (higher in females) and systemizing (higher in males). People with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) show a drive for systemizing over empathizing, irrespective of sex, which led to the conceptualisation of ASD as an 'extreme of the typical male brain'. The opposite cognitive profile, an 'extreme of the typical female brain', has been proposed to be linked to conditions such as psychosis and mania/hypomania...
2015: PloS One
Elaine Fox, Konstantina Zougkou, Chris Ashwin, Shanna Cahill
BACKGROUND AND OBJECTIVES: Attention Bias Modification (ABM) targets attention bias (AB) towards threat and is a potential therapeutic intervention for anxiety. The current study investigated whether initial AB (towards or away from spider images) influenced the effectiveness of ABM in spider fear. METHODS: AB was assessed with an attentional probe task consisting of spider and neutral images presented simultaneously followed by a probe in spider congruent or spider incongruent locations...
December 2015: Journal of Behavior Therapy and Experimental Psychiatry
Amanda E Perry, Matthew Neilson, Marrissa Martyn-St James, Julie M Glanville, Rebecca Woodhouse, Christine Godfrey, Catherine Hewitt
BACKGROUND: This is an updated version of an original Cochrane review published in Issue 3 2006 (Perry 2006). The review represents one from a family of four reviews focusing on interventions for drug-using offenders. This specific review considers interventions aimed at reducing drug use or criminal activity, or both for drug-using offenders with co-occurring mental illness. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of interventions for drug-using offenders with co-occurring mental illness in reducing criminal activity or drug use, or both...
2015: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Isabella Strozzi, Sarah J Nolan, Michael R Sperling, Dean M Wingerchuk, Joseph Sirven
BACKGROUND: Epilepsy is a chronic neurological disorder which affects millions of people around the world. Antiepileptic drugs (AED) are the main interventions used to prevent seizures and control epilepsy. Although effective in most cases, AEDs are related to long-term adverse effects, such as cognitive and behavioural alterations. Thus when epilepsy is in remission, it may be in the individual's best interest to discontinue medication. However, the optimal timing of AED discontinuation is still unknown...
2015: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Emma Fisher, Emily Law, Tonya M Palermo, Christopher Eccleston
BACKGROUND: Chronic pain is common during childhood and adolescence and is associated with negative outcomes such as increased severity of pain, reduced function (e.g. missing school), and low mood (e.g. high levels of depression and anxiety). Psychological therapies, traditionally delivered face-to-face with a therapist, are efficacious at reducing pain intensity and disability. However, new and innovative technology is being used to deliver these psychological therapies remotely, meaning barriers to access to treatment such as distance and cost can be removed or reduced...
2015: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
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