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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28928681/how-does-l1-and-l2-exposure-impact-l1-performance-in-bilingual-children-evidence-from-polish-english-migrants-to-the-united-kingdom
#1
Ewa Haman, Zofia Wodniecka, Marta Marecka, Jakub Szewczyk, Marta Białecka-Pikul, Agnieszka Otwinowska, Karolina Mieszkowska, Magdalena Łuniewska, Joanna Kołak, Aneta Miękisz, Agnieszka Kacprzak, Natalia Banasik, Małgorzata Foryś-Nogala
Most studies on bilingual language development focus on children's second language (L2). Here, we investigated first language (L1) development of Polish-English early migrant bilinguals in four domains: vocabulary, grammar, phonological processing, and discourse. We first compared Polish language skills between bilinguals and their Polish non-migrant monolingual peers, and then investigated the influence of the cumulative exposure to L1 and L2 on bilinguals' performance. We then examined whether high exposure to L1 could possibly minimize the gap between monolinguals and bilinguals...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28901558/-things-aren-t-so-bad-preschoolers-overpredict-the-emotional-intensity-of-negative-outcomes
#2
Leia Kopp, Cristina M Atance, Sean Pearce
Adults often overpredict the emotional intensity of future events, but little is known about whether this 'intensity bias' is present in early childhood. We asked 48 3- to 5-year-olds to (1) predict and (2) report their emotions concerning two desirable (receiving four stickers, scoring up to two points in a ball toss) and two undesirable (receiving one sticker, scoring no points) outcomes. Children showed the intensity bias by overpredicting how negatively they would feel if they received one sticker, but not for scoring no points...
September 13, 2017: British Journal of Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28821686/effect-of-simvastatin-on-csf-alzheimer-disease-biomarkers-in-cognitively-normal-adults
#3
Ge Li, Cynthia L Mayer, Daniel Morelli, Steven P Millard, Wendy H Raskind, Eric C Petrie, Monique Cherrier, Anne M Fagan, Murray A Raskind, Elaine R Peskind
OBJECTIVE: To examine potential disease-modifying effects of statin drugs, we conducted a 12-month randomized, placebo-controlled clinical trial of simvastatin in cognitively normal adults using change in CSF Alzheimer disease biomarkers as primary outcome measure. METHODS: Participants were 45-64 years old and statin-naive with normal cognition and normal or mildly elevated cholesterol. Forty-six participants completed the 1-year study per protocol (25 in the simvastatin and 21 in the placebo group)...
August 18, 2017: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28759631/physical-and-cognitive-effort-discounting-across-different-reward-magnitudes-tests-of-discounting-models
#4
Wojciech Białaszek, Przemysław Marcowski, Paweł Ostaszewski
The effort required to obtain a rewarding outcome is an important factor in decision-making. Describing the reward devaluation by increasing effort intensity is substantial to understanding human preferences, because every action and choice that we make is in itself effortful. To investigate how reward valuation is affected by physical and cognitive effort, we compared mathematical discounting functions derived from research on discounting. Seven discounting models were tested across three different reward magnitudes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758777/reading-dilemmas-in-a-foreign-language-reduces-both-deontological-and-utilitarian-response-tendencies
#5
Rafał Muda, Paweł Niszczota, Michał Białek, Paul Conway
Moral dilemmas entail deciding whether to cause harm to maximize overall outcomes, such as killing 1 person to save 5. Past work has demonstrated that people are more willing to accept causing such outcome-maximizing harm when they read dilemmas in a foreign language they speak rather than their native language. Presumably this effect is due to foreign dilemmas inducing reduced emotional impact, rather than increased cognitive processing, but previous work cannot distinguish between these possibilities because it treats them as diametric opposites...
July 31, 2017: Journal of Experimental Psychology. Learning, Memory, and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28657160/ketamine-as-an-adjuvant-to-opioids-for-cancer-pain
#6
REVIEW
Rae F Bell, Christopher Eccleston, Eija A Kalso
BACKGROUND: This is an update of a review first published in 2003 and updated in 2012.Ketamine is a commonly used anaesthetic agent, and in subanaesthetic doses is also given as an adjuvant to opioids for the treatment of refractory cancer pain, when opioids alone or in combination with appropriate adjuvant analgesics prove to be ineffective. Ketamine is known to have psychomimetic (including hallucinogenic), urological, and hepatic adverse effects. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effectiveness and adverse effects of ketamine as an adjuvant to opioids for refractory cancer pain in adults...
June 28, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28655442/effects-of-common-functional-mmp12-gene-polymorphisms-on-pd-in-a-polish-population
#7
Monika Białecka, Mateusz Kurzawski, Tatyana Vlaykova, Tanya Tacheva, Violetta Dziedziejko, Anna Pierzchlińska, Marek Droździk
The present study investigated associations of two functional MMP12 polymorphisms with PD risk and cognitive impairment in PD. A total of 478 study subjects (241 PD and 237 age and sex matched controls) were included in the study. UPDRS score, Hoehn-Yahr staging and Schwab-England scale were used to assess motor abilities and activity during daily life. All patients were classified into groups with dementia (PDD, n=72) and without dementia (nPDD, n=159) based on the neuropsychological assessment. The two most common functional single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in MMP12 gene were determined using TaqMan real-time PCR assays...
June 16, 2017: Neurologia i Neurochirurgia Polska
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641221/a-curse-of-knowledge-in-the-absence-of-knowledge-people-misattribute-fluency-when-judging-how-common-knowledge-is-among-their-peers
#8
Susan A J Birch, Patricia E Brosseau-Liard, Taeh Haddock, Siba E Ghrear
Knowledge can be a curse: Once we have acquired a particular item of knowledge it tends to bias, or contaminate, our ability to reason about a less informed perspective (referred to as the 'curse of knowledge' or 'hindsight bias'). The mechanisms underlying the curse of knowledge bias are a matter of great import and debate. We highlight two mechanisms that have been proposed to underlie this bias-inhibition and fluency misattribution. Explanations that involve inhibition argue that people have difficulty fully inhibiting or suppressing the content of their knowledge when trying to reason about a less informed perspective...
September 2017: Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28502553/a-shortened-protocol-for-assessing-cognitive-bias-in-rats
#9
Nichola M Brydges, Lynsey Hall
BACKGROUND: Reliable measurement of affective state in animals is a significant goal of animal welfare. Such measurements would also improve the validity of pre-clinical mental health research which relies on animal models. However, at present, affective states in animals are inaccessible to direct measurement. In humans, changes in cognitive processing can give reliable indications of emotional state. Therefore, similar techniques are increasingly being used to gain proxy measures of affective states in animals...
July 15, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28447363/tobacco-packaging-design-for-reducing-tobacco-use
#10
REVIEW
Ann McNeill, Shannon Gravely, Sara C Hitchman, Linda Bauld, David Hammond, Jamie Hartmann-Boyce
BACKGROUND: Tobacco use is the largest single preventable cause of death and disease worldwide. Standardised tobacco packaging is an intervention intended to reduce the promotional appeal of packs and can be defined as packaging with a uniform colour (and in some cases shape and size) with no logos or branding, apart from health warnings and other government-mandated information, and the brand name in a prescribed uniform font, colour and size. Australia was the first country to implement standardised tobacco packaging between October and December 2012, France implemented standardised tobacco packaging on 1 January 2017 and several other countries are implementing, or intending to implement, standardised tobacco packaging...
April 27, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402254/vegetables-and-fruit-as-a-source-of-bioactive-substances-and-impact-on-memory-and-cognitive-function-of-elderly
#11
REVIEW
Monika A Zielińska, Agata Białecka, Barbara Pietruszka, Jadwiga Hamułka
The phenomenon of population aging is not only associated with an increase in the number and proportion of older people in society, but also with an increase in the incidence of cognitive impairment. This can impair the functioning of the elderly in everyday life, work and social life participation and impair their quality of life. Hence, it is important to identify the protective factors. Neurodegenerative changes are closely linked to inflammatory processes and oxidative stress. Diet is of great importance, with particular attention being paid to the adequate intake of fruits and vegetables, due to their proven health benefits...
April 12, 2017: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28361497/group-behaviour-therapy-programmes-for-smoking-cessation
#12
REVIEW
Lindsay F Stead, Allison J Carroll, Tim Lancaster
BACKGROUND: Group therapy offers individuals the opportunity to learn behavioural techniques for smoking cessation, and to provide each other with mutual support. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of group-delivered behavioural interventions in achieving long-term smoking cessation. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register, using the terms 'behavior therapy', 'cognitive therapy', 'psychotherapy' or 'group therapy', in May 2016...
March 31, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237631/advanced-theory-of-mind-in-adolescence-do-age-gender-and-friendship-style-play-a-role
#13
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Marta Białecka-Pikul, Anna Kołodziejczyk, Sandra Bosacki
The ability to recursively infer the mental states of others to explain their complex behavior in ambiguous social situation may be called Advanced Theory of Mind (aToM). The relations between two components of aToM, cognitive and affective, measured on a behavioral level in 151 Polish 13-year-olds and 174 16-year-olds was examined. The role of age, gender and friendship style and its relations to the cognitive and affective aToM was explored. Cognitive aToM was only weakly to moderately related to affective aToM...
April 2017: Journal of Adolescence
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28073060/acute-behavioral-effects-of-co-administration-of-mephedrone-and-mdma-in-mice
#14
Barbara Budzynska, Agnieszka Michalak, Małgorzata Frankowska, Katarzyna Kaszubska, Grażyna Biała
BACKGROUND: Abuse of more than one psychoactive drug is becoming a global problem. Our experiments were designed to examine the effects of a concomitant administration of 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA) and mephedrone on depression- and anxiety-like behaviors and cognitive processes in Swiss mice. METHODS: In order to investigate the drug interactions the forced swimming test (FST) - an animal model of depression, the passive avoidance (PA) test - a memory and learning paradigm, as well as the elevated plus maze (EPM) test - test for anxiety level were used...
April 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27936242/performance-in-object-choice-aesop-s-fable-tasks-are-influenced-by-object-biases-in-new-caledonian-crows-but-not-in-human-children
#15
Rachael Miller, Sarah A Jelbert, Alex H Taylor, Lucy G Cheke, Russell D Gray, Elsa Loissel, Nicola S Clayton
The ability to reason about causality underlies key aspects of human cognition, but the extent to which non-humans understand causality is still largely unknown. The Aesop's Fable paradigm, where objects are inserted into water-filled tubes to obtain out-of-reach rewards, has been used to test casual reasoning in birds and children. However, success on these tasks may be influenced by other factors, specifically, object preferences present prior to testing or arising during pre-test stone-dropping training...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27873557/face-processing-in-adolescents-with-positive-and-negative-threat-bias
#16
C M Sylvester, S E Petersen, J L Luby, D M Barch
BACKGROUND: Individuals with anxiety disorders exhibit a 'vigilance-avoidance' pattern of attention to threatening stimuli when threatening and neutral stimuli are presented simultaneously, a phenomenon referred to as 'threat bias'. Modifying threat bias through cognitive retraining during adolescence reduces symptoms of anxiety, and so elucidating neural mechanisms of threat bias during adolescence is of high importance. We explored neural mechanisms by testing whether threat bias in adolescents is associated with generalized or threat-specific differences in the neural processing of faces...
April 2017: Psychological Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27769209/study-protocol-a-randomized-controlled-trial-evaluating-the-effect-of-family-based-behavioral-treatment-of-childhood-and-adolescent-obesity-the-fabo-study
#17
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Hanna F Skjåkødegård, Yngvild S Danielsen, Mette Morken, Sara-Rebekka F Linde, Rachel P Kolko, Katherine N Balantekin, Denise E Wilfley, Pétur B Júlíusson
BACKGROUND: The purpose of the FABO-study is to evaluate the effect of family-based behavioral social facilitation treatment (FBSFT), designed to target children's family and social support networks to enhance weight loss outcomes, compared to the standard treatment (treatment as usual, TAU) given to children and adolescents with obesity in a routine clinical practice. METHODS: Randomized controlled trial (RCT), in which families (n = 120) are recruited from the children and adolescents (ages 6-18 years) referred to the Obesity Outpatient Clinic (OOC), Haukeland University Hospital, Norway...
October 21, 2016: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27650122/exercise-for-women-receiving-adjuvant-therapy-for-breast-cancer
#18
REVIEW
Anna C Furmaniak, Matthias Menig, Martina H Markes
BACKGROUND: A huge clinical research database on adjuvant cancer treatment has verified improvements in breast cancer outcomes such as recurrence and mortality rates. On the other hand, adjuvant and neoadjuvant therapy with chemotherapy and radiotherapy impacts on quality of life due to substantial short- and long-term side effects. A number of studies have evaluated the effect of exercise interventions on those side effects. This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in 2006...
September 21, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27496435/living-donor-versus-deceased-donor-kidney-transplantation-comparison-of-psychosocial-consequences-for-recipients
#19
J Gozdowska, M Zatorski, P Torchalla, Ł Białek, A Bojanowska, A Tomaszek, M Serwańska-Świętek, R Kieszek, A Kwiatkowski, A Chmura, M Durlik
INTRODUCTION: Health benefits of a living-donor kidney transplantation are numerous and well known. There is, however, a dearth of knowledge on postoperative quality of life among the living-donor (LD) compared to deceased-donor (DD) transplant recipients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study involved 89 patients after renal transplantation: 48 from LDs and 41 from DDs. Interview data indirectly indicated the patients' health, whereas physiological parameters directly pinpointed the patients' health and the graft function...
June 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27286719/cognitive-bias-as-a-mediator-in-the-relation-between-fear-enhancing-parental-behaviors-and-anxiety-symptoms-in-children-a-cross-sectional-study
#20
Lorraine Fliek, Pauline Dibbets, Jeffrey Roelofs, Peter Muris
The present cross-sectional study explored the relations between fear-enhancing parenting behaviors (modeling and threat information transmission) and children's cognitive biases and anxiety symptoms. Participants were 258 children aged 7-12 years (132 boys and 126 girls), and their mothers (n = 199) and/or fathers (n = 117). Children and parents completed the Parental Enhancement of Anxious Cognitions questionnaire, which measures parental modeling and threat information transmission, while children also filled in a scale for assessing anxiety symptoms...
February 2017: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
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