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cognitive bia

Susan A J Birch, Patricia E Brosseau-Liard, Taeh Haddock, Siba E Ghrear
Knowledge can be a curse: Once we have acquired a particular item of knowledge it tends to bias, or contaminate, our ability to reason about a less informed perspective (referred to as the 'curse of knowledge' or 'hindsight bias'). The mechanisms underlying the curse of knowledge bias are a matter of great import and debate. We highlight two mechanisms that have been proposed to underlie this bias-inhibition and fluency misattribution. Explanations that involve inhibition argue that people have difficulty fully inhibiting or suppressing the content of their knowledge when trying to reason about a less informed perspective...
June 19, 2017: Cognition
Nichola M Brydges, Lynsey Hall
BACKGROUND: Reliable measurement of affective state in animals is a significant goal of animal welfare. Such measurements would also improve the validity of pre-clinical mental health research which relies on animal models. However, at present, affective states in animals are inaccessible to direct measurement. In humans, changes in cognitive processing can give reliable indications of emotional state. Therefore, similar techniques are increasingly being used to gain proxy measures of affective states in animals...
May 11, 2017: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Ann McNeill, Shannon Gravely, Sara C Hitchman, Linda Bauld, David Hammond, Jamie Hartmann-Boyce
BACKGROUND: Tobacco use is the largest single preventable cause of death and disease worldwide. Standardised tobacco packaging is an intervention intended to reduce the promotional appeal of packs and can be defined as packaging with a uniform colour (and in some cases shape and size) with no logos or branding, apart from health warnings and other government-mandated information, and the brand name in a prescribed uniform font, colour and size. Australia was the first country to implement standardised tobacco packaging between October and December 2012, France implemented standardised tobacco packaging on 1 January 2017 and several other countries are implementing, or intending to implement, standardised tobacco packaging...
April 27, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Monika A Zielińska, Agata Białecka, Barbara Pietruszka, Jadwiga Hamułka
The phenomenon of population aging is not only associated with an increase in the number and proportion of older people in society, but also with an increase in the incidence of cognitive impairment. This can impair the functioning of the elderly in everyday life, work and social life participation and impair their quality of life. Hence, it is important to identify the protective factors. Neurodegenerative changes are closely linked to inflammatory processes and oxidative stress. Diet is of great importance, with particular attention being paid to the adequate intake of fruits and vegetables, due to their proven health benefits...
April 12, 2017: Postȩpy Higieny i Medycyny Doświadczalnej
Lindsay F Stead, Allison J Carroll, Tim Lancaster
BACKGROUND: Group therapy offers individuals the opportunity to learn behavioural techniques for smoking cessation, and to provide each other with mutual support. OBJECTIVES: To determine the effect of group-delivered behavioural interventions in achieving long-term smoking cessation. SEARCH METHODS: We searched the Cochrane Tobacco Addiction Group Specialized Register, using the terms 'behavior therapy', 'cognitive therapy', 'psychotherapy' or 'group therapy', in May 2016...
March 31, 2017: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
Marta Białecka-Pikul, Anna Kołodziejczyk, Sandra Bosacki
The ability to recursively infer the mental states of others to explain their complex behavior in ambiguous social situation may be called Advanced Theory of Mind (aToM). The relations between two components of aToM, cognitive and affective, measured on a behavioral level in 151 Polish 13-year-olds and 174 16-year-olds was examined. The role of age, gender and friendship style and its relations to the cognitive and affective aToM was explored. Cognitive aToM was only weakly to moderately related to affective aToM...
April 2017: Journal of Adolescence
Barbara Budzynska, Agnieszka Michalak, Małgorzata Frankowska, Katarzyna Kaszubska, Grażyna Biała
BACKGROUND: Abuse of more than one psychoactive drug is becoming a global problem. Our experiments were designed to examine the effects of a concomitant administration of 3,4-methylenedioxy-methamphetamine (MDMA) and mephedrone on depression- and anxiety-like behaviors and cognitive processes in Swiss mice. METHODS: In order to investigate the drug interactions the forced swimming test (FST) - an animal model of depression, the passive avoidance (PA) test - a memory and learning paradigm, as well as the elevated plus maze (EPM) test - test for anxiety level were used...
April 2017: Pharmacological Reports: PR
Rachael Miller, Sarah A Jelbert, Alex H Taylor, Lucy G Cheke, Russell D Gray, Elsa Loissel, Nicola S Clayton
The ability to reason about causality underlies key aspects of human cognition, but the extent to which non-humans understand causality is still largely unknown. The Aesop's Fable paradigm, where objects are inserted into water-filled tubes to obtain out-of-reach rewards, has been used to test casual reasoning in birds and children. However, success on these tasks may be influenced by other factors, specifically, object preferences present prior to testing or arising during pre-test stone-dropping training...
2016: PloS One
C M Sylvester, S E Petersen, J L Luby, D M Barch
BACKGROUND: Individuals with anxiety disorders exhibit a 'vigilance-avoidance' pattern of attention to threatening stimuli when threatening and neutral stimuli are presented simultaneously, a phenomenon referred to as 'threat bias'. Modifying threat bias through cognitive retraining during adolescence reduces symptoms of anxiety, and so elucidating neural mechanisms of threat bias during adolescence is of high importance. We explored neural mechanisms by testing whether threat bias in adolescents is associated with generalized or threat-specific differences in the neural processing of faces...
April 2017: Psychological Medicine
Hanna F Skjåkødegård, Yngvild S Danielsen, Mette Morken, Sara-Rebekka F Linde, Rachel P Kolko, Katherine N Balantekin, Denise E Wilfley, Pétur B Júlíusson
BACKGROUND: The purpose of the FABO-study is to evaluate the effect of family-based behavioral social facilitation treatment (FBSFT), designed to target children's family and social support networks to enhance weight loss outcomes, compared to the standard treatment (treatment as usual, TAU) given to children and adolescents with obesity in a routine clinical practice. METHODS: Randomized controlled trial (RCT), in which families (n = 120) are recruited from the children and adolescents (ages 6-18 years) referred to the Obesity Outpatient Clinic (OOC), Haukeland University Hospital, Norway...
October 21, 2016: BMC Public Health
Anna C Furmaniak, Matthias Menig, Martina H Markes
BACKGROUND: A huge clinical research database on adjuvant cancer treatment has verified improvements in breast cancer outcomes such as recurrence and mortality rates. On the other hand, adjuvant and neoadjuvant therapy with chemotherapy and radiotherapy impacts on quality of life due to substantial short- and long-term side effects. A number of studies have evaluated the effect of exercise interventions on those side effects. This is an updated version of the original Cochrane review published in 2006...
September 21, 2016: Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews
J Gozdowska, M Zatorski, P Torchalla, Ł Białek, A Bojanowska, A Tomaszek, M Serwańska-Świętek, R Kieszek, A Kwiatkowski, A Chmura, M Durlik
INTRODUCTION: Health benefits of a living-donor kidney transplantation are numerous and well known. There is, however, a dearth of knowledge on postoperative quality of life among the living-donor (LD) compared to deceased-donor (DD) transplant recipients. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study involved 89 patients after renal transplantation: 48 from LDs and 41 from DDs. Interview data indirectly indicated the patients' health, whereas physiological parameters directly pinpointed the patients' health and the graft function...
June 2016: Transplantation Proceedings
Lorraine Fliek, Pauline Dibbets, Jeffrey Roelofs, Peter Muris
The present cross-sectional study explored the relations between fear-enhancing parenting behaviors (modeling and threat information transmission) and children's cognitive biases and anxiety symptoms. Participants were 258 children aged 7-12 years (132 boys and 126 girls), and their mothers (n = 199) and/or fathers (n = 117). Children and parents completed the Parental Enhancement of Anxious Cognitions questionnaire, which measures parental modeling and threat information transmission, while children also filled in a scale for assessing anxiety symptoms...
February 2017: Child Psychiatry and Human Development
Orestes V Forlenza, Marcia Radanovic, Leda L Talib, Ivan Aprahamian, Breno S Diniz, Henrik Zetterberg, Wagner F Gattaz
INTRODUCTION: Guidelines for the use of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers in the diagnosis of Alzheimer's disease (AD) establish that each laboratory must use internally qualified cutoff values. We determined the concentrations of biomarkers that discriminate cases from controls and combinations that predict the progression to dementia in a Brazilian cohort. METHODS: Concentrations of amyloid-beta peptide (Aβ1-42), total tau (T-tau), and (181)Thr-phosphorylated-tau (P-tau) were determined in CSF samples from 184 older adults (68 mild cognitive impairment, 41 AD, 34 non-AD cognitive impairment, and 41 controls) by the INNO-BIA AlzBio3 assay...
December 2015: Alzheimer's & Dementia: Diagnosis, Assessment & Disease Monitoring
Min Jeong Wang, SangHak Yi, Jee-Young Han, So Young Park, Jae-Won Jang, In Kook Chun, Vo Van Giau, Eva Bagyinszky, Kun Taek Lim, Sung Min Kang, Seong Soo A An, Young Ho Park, Young Chul Youn, SangYun Kim
BACKGROUND: Recently, a Korean research group suggested a consensus protocol, based on the Alzheimer's Disease Neuroimaging Initiative study protocol but with modifications for minimizing the confounding factors, for the evaluation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers. OBJECTIVE: Here, we analyzed fluid and imaging biomarkers of Alzheimer's disease (AD) in Korean population. We used the updated protocol to propose a more accurate CSF biomarker value for the diagnosis of AD...
May 6, 2016: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
Mariano Esbrí Víctor, Isabel Huedo Rodenas, Melisa López Utiel, Marta Martínez Reig, Esther López Jiménez, María Ángeles Herizo Muñoz, Ginés Sánchez Nievas, Pedro Abizanda Soler
INTRODUCTION: The aim of this study was to identify the physical determining factors of the Fear of Falling Syndrome (FoF) in older adults with a history of falls. METHODS: An observational study was conducted on 183 subjects older than 64 years with a fall in the previous year, with data collected from the geriatrics outpatient clinic of the Complejo Hospitalario Universitario from Albacete, Spain. Sociodemographic and anthropometric data, as well as comorbidity, drugs usually taken, functional status, physical function, frailty, cognitive and affective status were collected...
March 2017: Revista Española de Geriatría y Gerontología
Joyce Yeung, Vanisha Patel, Rita Champaneria, Janine Dretzke
BACKGROUND: With an ageing population, the incidence of hip fractures requiring surgery is increasing. Post-operative delirium is common following hip fracture surgery. Delirium is associated with high mortality and morbidity, poor long-term functional outcomes and institutionalisation. There is some evidence to suggest that perioperative intervention, specifically the anaesthetic technique employed, may reduce the incidence of delirium in this population. The aim of this systematic review is to investigate the impact of anaesthesia type on post-operative delirium...
April 21, 2016: Systematic Reviews
Agnieszka A Kaczor, Katarzyna M Targowska-Duda, Barbara Budzyńska, Grażyna Biała, Andrea G Silva, Marián Castro
Antipsychotics currently available to treat schizophrenia suffer several limitations: (1) they are efficient against positive but not negative and cognitive symptoms of the disease; (2) they help only a half of patients; (3) they have severe side effects including neurological and metabolic side effects. Thus, novel drugs to treat schizophrenia are highly demanded. We identified a novel dopamine D2 receptor antagonist, D2AAK1, with Ki of 58 nM using structure-based virtual screening. D2AAK1 possesses additional nanomolar or low micromolar affinity to D1, D3, 5-HT1A and 5-HT2A receptors, making it an ideal candidate for a multi-target drug...
June 2016: Neurochemistry International
Lucienne A Reichardt, Jesse J Aarden, Rosanne van Seben, Marike van der Schaaf, Raoul H H Engelbert, Jos A Bosch, Bianca M Buurman
BACKGROUND: Over 30 % of older patients experience hospitalization-associated disability (HAD) (i.e., loss of independence in Activities of Daily Living (ADLs)) after an acute hospitalization. Despite its high prevalence, the mechanisms that underlie HAD remain elusive. This paper describes the protocol for the Hospital-Associated Disability and impact on daily Life (Hospital-ADL) study, which aims to unravel the potential mechanisms behind HAD from admission to three months post-discharge...
March 5, 2016: BMC Geriatrics
Anna Chmielewska, Piotr Dziechciarz, Dorota Gieruszczak-Białek, Andrea Horvath, Małgorzata Pieścik-Lech, Marek Ruszczyński, Agata Skórka, Hania Szajewska
Neurodevelopment has been linked, among other factors, to maternal and early infant diets. The objective of this review, which is part of the NUTRIMENTHE research project 'The effect of diet on the mental performance of children' (, was to update current evidence on the effects of nutritional interventions such as iron, folic acid or n-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (LCPUFA) supplementation during pregnancy and/or in early life on the mental performance and psychomotor development of children...
January 22, 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
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