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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28530439/an-eye-tracking-investigation-of-attentional-biases-towards-affect-in-young-children
#1
Jessica L Burris, Ryan A Barry-Anwar, Susan M Rivera
This study examines attentional biases in the presence of angry, happy and neutral faces using a modified eye tracking version of the dot probe task (DPT). Participants were 111 young children between 9 and 48 months. Children passively viewed an affective attention bias task that consisted of a face pairing (neutral paired with either neutral, angry or happy) for 500 ms that was followed by a 1,500-ms asterisk probe on 1 side of the screen. Congruent trials were trials in which the probe appeared on the same side of the screen as the emotional face and incongruent trials were trials in which the probe appeared on the opposite side of the emotional face...
May 22, 2017: Developmental Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28512444/longitudinal-quantification-of-eye-movement-impairments-after-pontine-hemorrhage
#2
Melis Suner, Glen T Prusky, Jason B Carmel, N Jeremy Hill
INTRODUCTION: We report a case of hypertrophic olivary degeneration due to pontine hemorrhage. A 59-year-old male with untreated hypertension suffered a primary pontine hemorrhage, which caused horizontal eye-movement limitation. Progressive neurological deterioration with involuntary eye and palatal movements began months after hemorrhage. This was accompanied by magnetic resonance imaging evidence of hypertrophic olivary degeneration at 4.5 months. BACKGROUND: Primary pontine hemorrhage often leads to impairment of eye movements and diplopia...
2017: Frontiers in Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28503706/an-eye-tracker-controlled-cognitive-battery-overcoming-verbal-motor-limitations-in-als
#3
Barbara Poletti, Laura Carelli, Federica Solca, Annalisa Lafronza, Elisa Pedroli, Andrea Faini, Nicola Ticozzi, Andrea Ciammola, Paolo Meriggi, Pietro Cipresso, Dorothée Lulé, Albert C Ludolph, Giuseppe Riva, Vincenzo Silani
We assessed language, attention, executive, and social cognition abilities in a sample of patients with Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis (ALS) by means of a recently developed cognitive battery based on oculomotor control with eye-tracking (ET) technology. Twenty-one ALS patients and 21 age- and education-matched healthy subjects underwent the ET-based cognitive assessment, together with the standard cognitive screening tools [Frontal Assessment Battery (FAB); Montreal Cognitive Assessment (MoCA); and Digit Sequencing Task]...
May 13, 2017: Journal of Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28466444/a-pilot-study-on-geometrical-uncertainties-for-intra-ocular-cancers-in-radiotherapy
#4
Rachitha Antony, Alan Herschtal, Stephen Todd, Claire Phillips, Annette Haworth
A system for stabilising and monitoring eye movements for linac-based stereotactic radiotherapy associated with the mobile eye, the Eye Tracker, was developed. Whilst the Eye Tracker design is based on a previously reported system, the purpose of this study was to confirm that the modified version can be used with clinically acceptable treatment margins. We report the estimates of the margin required to account for inter- and intra-fraction eye motion based on data from 12 consecutive patients treated with the Eye Tracker system in place...
May 2, 2017: Australasian Physical & Engineering Sciences in Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28450841/gaze-behavior-consistency-among-older-and-younger-adults-when-looking-at-emotional-faces
#5
Laurence Chaby, Isabelle Hupont, Marie Avril, Viviane Luherne-du Boullay, Mohamed Chetouani
The identification of non-verbal emotional signals, and especially of facial expressions, is essential for successful social communication among humans. Previous research has reported an age-related decline in facial emotion identification, and argued for socio-emotional or aging-brain model explanations. However, more perceptual differences in the gaze strategies that accompany facial emotional processing with advancing age have been under-explored yet. In this study, 22 young (22.2 years) and 22 older (70...
2017: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444834/direct-and-indirect-effects-of-attention-and-visual-function-on-gait-impairment-in-parkinson-s-disease-influence-of-task-and-turning
#6
Samuel Stuart, Brook Galna, Louise S Delicato, Sue Lord, Lynn Rochester
Gait impairment is a core feature of Parkinson's disease (PD) which has been linked to cognitive and visual deficits, but interactions between these features are poorly understood. Monitoring saccades allows investigation of real-time cognitive and visual processes and their impact on gait when walking. This study explored; 1) saccade frequency when walking under different attentional manipulations of turning and dual-task; and 2) direct and indirect relationships between saccades, gait impairment, vision and attention...
April 26, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441164/information-acquisition-differences-between-experienced-and-novice-time-trial-cyclists
#7
Manhal Boya, Tom Foulsham, Florentina Hettinga, David Parry, Emily Williams, Hollie Jones, Andrew Sparks, David Marchant, Paul Ellison, Craig Bridge, Lars McNaughton, Dominic Micklewright
PURPOSE: To use eye-tracking technology to directly compare information acquisition behavior of experienced and novice cyclists during a self-paced 10 mile (16.1 km) time-trial. METHOD: Two groups of novice (N=10) and experienced cyclists (N=10) performed a 10-mile self-paced time-trial (TT) on two separate occasions during which a number of feedback variables (speed, distance, power output, cadence, heart rate, and time) were projected within their view. A large RPE scale was also presented next to the projected information and participants...
April 25, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433775/looking-is-buying-how-visual-attention-and-choice-are-affected-by-consumer-preferences-and-properties-of-the-supermarket-shelf
#8
Kerstin Gidlöf, Andrey Anikin, Martin Lingonblad, Annika Wallin
There is a battle in the supermarket isle, a battle between what the consumer wants and what the retailer and others want her to see, and subsequently to buy. Product packages and displays contain a number of features and attributes tailored to catch consumers' attention. These are what we call external factors comprising the visual saliency, the number of facings, and the placement of each product. But a consumer also brings with her a number of goals and interests related to the products and their attributes...
April 19, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429733/sites-of-overt-and-covert-attention-define-simultaneous-spatial-reference-centers-for-visuomotor-response
#9
Yang Zhou, Lixin Liang, Yujun Pan, Ning Qian, Mingsha Zhang
The site of overt attention (fixation point) defines a spatial reference center that affects visuomotor response as indicated by the stimulus-response-compatibility (SRC) effect: When subjects press, e.g., a left key to report stimuli, their reaction time is shorter when stimuli appear to the left than to the right of the fixation. Covert attention to a peripheral site appears to define a similar reference center but previous studies did not control for confounding spatiotemporal factors or investigate the relationship between overt- and covert-attention-defined centers...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424915/optimal-eye-movement-strategies-a-comparison-of-neurosurgeons-gaze-patterns-when-using-a-surgical-microscope
#10
Shahram Eivazi, Ahmad Hafez, Wolfgang Fuhl, Hoorieh Afkari, Enkelejda Kasneci, Martin Lehecka, Roman Bednarik
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have consistently demonstrated gaze behaviour differences related to expertise during various surgical procedures. In micro-neurosurgery, however, there is a lack of evidence of empirically demonstrated individual differences associated with visual attention. It is unknown exactly how neurosurgeons see a stereoscopic magnified view in the context of micro-neurosurgery and what this implies for medical training. METHOD: We report on an investigation of the eye movement patterns in micro-neurosurgery using a state-of-the-art eye tracker...
June 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422660/weak-classifier-for-density-estimation-in-eye-localization-and-tracking
#11
Gabriel M Araujo, Felipe M L Ribeiro, Waldir S Junior, Eduardo A B da Silva, Siome K Goldenstein
In this work, we propose a fast weak classifier that can detect and track eyes in video sequences. The approach relies on a least-squares detector based on the Inner Product Detector (IPD) that can estimate a probability density distribution for a feature's location - which fits naturally with a Bayesian estimation cycle, such as a Kalman or particle filter. As a leastsquares sliding window detector, it possesses tolerance to small variations in the desired pattern while maintaining good generalization capabilities and computational efficiency...
April 13, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420114/fuzzy-system-based-target-selection-for-a-nir-camera-based-gaze-tracker
#12
Rizwan Ali Naqvi, Muhammad Arsalan, Kang Ryoung Park
Gaze-based interaction (GBI) techniques have been a popular subject of research in the last few decades. Among other applications, GBI can be used by persons with disabilities to perform everyday tasks, as a game interface, and can play a pivotal role in the human computer interface (HCI) field. While gaze tracking systems have shown high accuracy in GBI, detecting a user's gaze for target selection is a challenging problem that needs to be considered while using a gaze detection system. Past research has used the blinking of the eyes for this purpose as well as dwell time-based methods, but these techniques are either inconvenient for the user or requires a long time for target selection...
April 14, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375373/pupil-motion-analysis-and-tracking-in-ophthalmic-systems-equipped-with-wavefront-sensing-technology
#13
Serge Meimon, Jessica Jarosz, Cyril Petit, Elena Gofas Salas, Kate Grieve, Jean-Marc Conan, Bruno Emica, Michel Paques, Kristina Irsch
Our eyes are constantly in motion, even during "steady" fixation. In ophthalmic systems equipped with wavefront technology, both eye and head motion potentially degrade its performance and/or increase the cost and complexity, as they induce a movement of the entrance optical pupil of the system. Here, we characterize the pupil motion in an aberrometry setting, using a custom, high-speed pupil tracker (478 Hz), and draw conclusions on design considerations of future ophthalmic systems. We also demonstrate the feasibility of tracking such motion directly with a custom-built Hartmann-Shack sensor (236 Hz) using a method that offers certain benefits over previously suggested approaches, thereby paving the way to an efficient and cost-effective approach...
March 20, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353574/a-crucial-temporal-accuracy-test-of-combining-eeg-and-tobii-eye-tracker
#14
Jiguo Xue, Cheng Quan, Chunyong Li, Jingwei Yue, Chenggang Zhang
Eye tracking and event-related potentials have been widely used in the field of cognitive psychology and neuroscience. Both techniques have the ability to refine cognitive models through a precise timeline description; nevertheless, they also have severe limitations. Combining measures of event-related potentials and eye movements can contribute to cognitive process capture, which provides the possibility to determine precisely when and in which order different cognitive operations occur. Combining of event-related potentials and eye movements has been recently conducted by synchronizing measures from an infrared eye tracker with an electroencephalograph to allow simultaneous data recording...
March 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348644/navigation-synchronized-multimodal-control-wheelchair-from-brain-to-alternative-assistive-technologies-for-persons-with-severe-disabilities
#15
Dilok Puanhvuan, Sarawin Khemmachotikun, Pongsakorn Wechakarn, Boonyanuch Wijarn, Yodchanan Wongsawat
Currently, electric wheelchairs are commonly used to improve mobility in disabled people. In severe cases, the user is unable to control the wheelchair by themselves because his/her motor functions are disabled. To restore mobility function, a brain-controlled wheelchair (BCW) would be a promising system that would allow the patient to control the wheelchair by their thoughts. P300 is a reliable brain electrical signal, a component of visual event-related potentials (ERPs), that could be used for interpreting user commands...
April 2017: Cognitive Neurodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323583/pilots-attention-distributions-between-chasing-a-moving-target-and-a-stationary-target
#16
Wen-Chin Li, Chung-San Yu, Graham Braithwaite, Matthew Greaves
INTRODUCTION: Attention plays a central role in cognitive processing; ineffective attention may induce accidents in flight operations. The objective of the current research was to examine military pilots' attention distributions between chasing a moving target and a stationary target. METHOD: In the current research, 37 mission-ready F-16 pilots participated. Subjects' eye movements were collected by a portable head-mounted eye-tracker during tactical training in a flight simulator...
December 1, 2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315309/effects-of-task-demands-on-the-early-neural-processing-of-fearful-and-happy-facial-expressions
#17
Roxane J Itier, Karly N Neath-Tavares
Task demands shape how we process environmental stimuli but their impact on the early neural processing of facial expressions remains unclear. In a within-subject design, ERPs were recorded to the same fearful, happy and neutral facial expressions presented during a gender discrimination, an explicit emotion discrimination and an oddball detection tasks, the most studied tasks in the field. Using an eye tracker, fixation on the face nose was enforced using a gaze-contingent presentation. Task demands modulated amplitudes from 200-350ms at occipito-temporal sites spanning the EPN component...
March 14, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302390/matching-pairs-difficulty-in-children-with-spinal-muscular-atrophy-type-i
#18
Graziela Jorge Polido, Alessandra Ferreira Barbosa, Carlos Hitoshi Morimoto, Fátima Aparecida Caromano, Francis Meire Favero, Edmar Zanoteli, Umbertina Conti Reed, Mariana Callil Voos
This study aimed to investigate the performance on pair-matching tasks in children with Spinal Muscular Atrophy type I (SMA-I) and the relationship between this performance and motor function, functional independence and quality of life. SMA-I (n = 12; 6.0 ± 2.3 yrs; 9 boys, 3 girls) and control sex-, age-matched children (n = 12; 6.2 ± 2.6 yrs) performed four pair-matching figure, number and letter tasks. The eye tracker detected eye movements. SMA-I children were assessed with CHOP INTEND, Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory, and Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory...
May 2017: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285388/effect-of-iris-registration-on-visual-outcome-in-wavefront-guided-lasek-for-myopic-astigmatism
#19
Jong Joo Lee, Mee Kum Kim, Won Ryang Wee
PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the effect of iris registration (IR) on visual outcomes in wavefront-guided LASEK for myopic astigmatism. METHODS: The retrospective chart review was performed for wavefront-guided LASEK using VISX Star S4 in patients with myopic astigmatism (cylinder ≥ 1.00 diopter[D]). Eyes were divided into IR group (LASEK with IR at the time of surgery) and Non-IR group (LASEK without IR system + failed-IR engagement during LASEK)...
March 11, 2017: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281908/increasing-navigation-speed-at-endoluminal-ct-colonography-reduces-colonic-visualization-and-polyp-identification
#20
Andrew A Plumb, Peter Phillips, Graeme Spence, Susan Mallett, Stuart A Taylor, Steve Halligan, Thomas Fanshawe
Purpose To investigate the effect of increasing navigation speed on the visual search and decision making during polyp identification for computed tomography (CT) colonography Materials and Methods Institutional review board permission was obtained to use deidentified CT colonography data for this prospective reader study. After obtaining informed consent from the readers, 12 CT colonography fly-through examinations that depicted eight polyps were presented at four different fixed navigation speeds to 23 radiologists...
March 10, 2017: Radiology
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