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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205131/what-to-expect-from-your-remote-eye-tracker-when-participants-are-unrestrained
#1
Diederick C Niehorster, Tim H W Cornelissen, Kenneth Holmqvist, Ignace T C Hooge, Roy S Hessels
The marketing materials of remote eye-trackers suggest that data quality is invariant to the position and orientation of the participant as long as the eyes of the participant are within the eye-tracker's headbox, the area where tracking is possible. As such, remote eye-trackers are marketed as allowing the reliable recording of gaze from participant groups that cannot be restrained, such as infants, schoolchildren and patients with muscular or brain disorders. Practical experience and previous research, however, tells us that eye-tracking data quality, e...
February 15, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187309/eye-movement-during-retrieval-of-emotional-autobiographical-memories
#2
Mohamad El Haj, Jean-Louis Nandrino, Pascal Antoine, Muriel Boucart, Quentin Lenoble
This study assessed whether specific eye movement patterns are observed during emotional autobiographical retrieval. Participants were asked to retrieve positive, negative and neutral memories while their scan path was recorded by an eye-tracker. Results showed that positive and negative emotional memories triggered more fixations and saccades but shorter fixation duration than neutral memories. No significant differences were observed between emotional and neutral memories for duration and amplitude of saccades...
February 7, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186899/a-data-model-and-task-space-for-data-of-interest-doi-eye-tracking-analyses
#3
Radu Jianu, Sayeed Safayet Alam
Eye-tracking data is traditionally analyzed by looking at where on a visual stimulus subjects fixate, or, to facilitate more advanced analyses, by using area-of-interests (AOI) defined onto visual stimuli. Recently, there is increasing interest in methods that capture what users are looking at rather than where they are looking. By instrumenting visualization code that transforms a data model into visual content, gaze coordinates reported by an eye-tracker can be mapped directly to granular data shown on the screen, producing temporal sequences of data objects that subjects viewed in an experiment...
February 7, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186339/hand-eye-coordination-predicts-joint-attention
#4
Chen Yu, Linda B Smith
The present article shows that infant and dyad differences in hand-eye coordination predict dyad differences in joint attention (JA). In the study reported here, 51 toddlers ranging in age from 11 to 24 months and their parents wore head-mounted eye trackers as they played with objects together. We found that physically active toddlers aligned their looking behavior with their parent and achieved a substantial proportion of time spent jointly attending to the same object. However, JA did not arise through gaze following but rather through the coordination of gaze with manual actions on objects as both infants and parents attended to their partner's object manipulations...
February 10, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166888/how-much-time-do-drivers-need-to-obtain-situation-awareness-a-laboratory-based-study-of-automated-driving
#5
Zhenji Lu, Xander Coster, Joost de Winter
Drivers of automated cars may occasionally need to take back manual control after a period of inattentiveness. At present, it is unknown how long it takes to build up situation awareness of a traffic situation. In this study, 34 participants were presented with animated video clips of traffic situations on a three-lane road, from an egocentric viewpoint on a monitor equipped with eye tracker. Each participant viewed 24 videos of different durations (1, 3, 7, 9, 12, or 20 s). After each video, participants reproduced the end of the video by placing cars in a top-down view, and indicated the relative speeds of the placed cars with respect to the ego-vehicle...
April 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135308/individual-objective-and-subjective-fixation-disparity-in-near-vision
#6
Wolfgang Jaschinski
Binocular vision refers to the integration of images in the two eyes for improved visual performance and depth perception. One aspect of binocular vision is the fixation disparity, which is a suboptimal condition in individuals with respect to binocular eye movement control and subsequent neural processing. The objective fixation disparity refers to the vergence angle between the visual axes, which is measured with eye trackers. Subjective fixation disparity is tested with two monocular nonius lines which indicate the physical nonius separation required for perceived alignment...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134966/coordinated-control-of-three-dimensional-components-of-smooth-pursuit-to-rotating-and-translating-textures
#7
Janick Edinger, Dinesh K Pai, Miriam Spering
Purpose: The neural control of pursuit eye movements to visual textures that simultaneously translate and rotate has largely been neglected. Here we propose that pursuit of such targets-texture pursuit-is a fully three-dimensional task that utilizes all three degrees of freedom of the eye, including torsion. Methods: Head-fixed healthy human adults (n = 8) tracked a translating and rotating random dot pattern, shown on a computer monitor, with their eyes. Horizontal, vertical, and torsional eye positions were recorded with a head-mounted eye tracker...
January 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130727/the-effect-of-sampling-rate-and-lowpass-filters-on-saccades-a-modeling-approach
#8
David J Mack, Sandro Belfanti, Urs Schwarz
The study of eye movements has become popular in many fields of science. However, using the preprocessed output of an eye tracker without scrutiny can lead to low-quality or even erroneous data. For example, the sampling rate of the eye tracker influences saccadic peak velocity, while inadequate filters fail to suppress noise or introduce artifacts. Despite previously published guiding values, most filter choices still seem motivated by a trial-and-error approach, and a thorough analysis of filter effects is missing...
January 27, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129167/wide-field-of-view-varifocal-near-eye-display-using-see-through-deformable-membrane-mirrors
#9
David Dunn, Cary Tippets, Kent Torell, Petr Kellnhofer, Kaan Aksit, Piotr Didyk, Karol Myszkowski, David Luebke, Henry Fuchs
Accommodative depth cues, a wide field of view, and ever-higher resolutions all present major hardware design challenges for near-eye displays. Optimizing a design to overcome one of these challenges typically leads to a trade-off in the others. We tackle this problem by introducing an all-in-one solution - a new wide field of view, gaze-tracked near-eye display for augmented reality applications. The key component of our solution is the use of a single see-through, varifocal deformable membrane mirror for each eye reflecting a display...
January 23, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114580/origins-of-pupillary-hippus-in-the-autonomic-nervous-system
#10
Philip R K Turnbull, Nouzar Irani, Nicky Lim, John R Phillips
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the relative roles of the sympathetic (SNS) and parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) in pupillary hippus. Methods: We used a paired-eye control study design with three cohorts receiving either 1.0% tropicamide (PNS antagonist) in light (TL), 1.0% tropicamide in dark (TD), or 10% phenylephrine (SNS) in light (PL), n = 12 in each. Each subject received one drop to the randomly determined treatment eye, while the other eye served as control...
January 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114567/retinotopic-to-spatiotopic-mapping-in-blind-patients-implanted-with-the-argus-ii-retinal-prosthesis
#11
Avi Caspi, Arup Roy, Jessy D Dorn, Robert J Greenberg
Purpose: To quantify the precision of mapping from retinotopic (retina-centered) to spatiotopic (world-centered) coordinates in blind humans implanted with a retinal prosthesis device. Additionally, to demonstrate that an eye tracker can be calibrated on sightless patients based on the percept from a visual implant. Methods: We directly activated epiretinal electrodes to create retinotopic stimuli and recorded the location of the percept at world-based coordinates...
January 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114483/bayesian-microsaccade-detection
#12
Andra Mihali, Bas van Opheusden, Wei Ji Ma
Microsaccades are high-velocity fixational eye movements, with special roles in perception and cognition. The default microsaccade detection method is to determine when the smoothed eye velocity exceeds a threshold. We have developed a new method, Bayesian microsaccade detection (BMD), which performs inference based on a simple statistical model of eye positions. In this model, a hidden state variable changes between drift and microsaccade states at random times. The eye position is a biased random walk with different velocity distributions for each state...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Vision
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28097734/how-lay-people-understand-and-make-sense-of-personalized-disease-risk-information
#13
Olga C Damman, Nina M M Bogaerts, Maaike J van den Haak, Danielle R M Timmermans
BACKGROUND: Disease risk calculators are increasingly web-based, but previous studies have shown that risk information often poses problems for lay users. OBJECTIVE: To examine how lay people understand the result derived from an online cardiometabolic risk calculator. DESIGN: A qualitative study was performed, using the risk calculator in the Dutch National Prevention Program for cardiometabolic diseases. The study consisted of three parts: (i) attention: completion of the risk calculator while an eye tracker registered eye movements; (ii) recall: completion of a recall task; and (iii) interpretation: participation in a semi-structured interview...
January 17, 2017: Health Expectations: An International Journal of Public Participation in Health Care and Health Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28093026/out-of-sight-out-of-mind-racial-retrieval-cues-increase-the-accessibility-of-social-justice-concepts
#14
Phia S Salter, Nicholas J Kelley, Ludwin E Molina, Luyen T Thai
Photographs provide critical retrieval cues for personal remembering, but few studies have considered this phenomenon at the collective level. In this research, we examined the psychological consequences of visual attention to the presence (or absence) of racially charged retrieval cues within American racial segregation photographs. We hypothesised that attention to racial retrieval cues embedded in historical photographs would increase social justice concept accessibility. In Study 1, we recorded gaze patterns with an eye-tracker among participants viewing images that contained racial retrieval cues or were digitally manipulated to remove them...
January 16, 2017: Memory
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057443/analysis-of-gaze-points-for-mouth-images-using-an-eye-tracking-system
#15
Mayu Yamamoto, Katsunori Torii, Masaki Sato, Junko Tanaka, Masahiro Tanaka
PURPOSE: We aimed to clarify whether people stare at non-esthetic restorations by analyzing the gaze point of laypersons looking at mouth images with intraoral non-esthetic restoration. METHODS: The gaze points of 47 laypersons who do not visit dentists were measured using an eye tracker. The stimuli were 18 photographs of mouths with or without a non-esthetic tooth restoration, each randomly shown for 5s. The analysis sites included a tooth with non-esthetic restoration and the same tooth on the opposite side of the mouth...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Prosthodontic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036004/sensing-technologies-for-autism-spectrum-disorder-screening-and-intervention
#16
John-John Cabibihan, Hifza Javed, Mohammed Aldosari, Thomas W Frazier, Haitham Elbashir
This paper reviews the state-of-the-art in sensing technologies that are relevant for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) screening and therapy. This disorder is characterized by difficulties in social communication, social interactions, and repetitive behaviors. It is diagnosed during the first three years of life. Early and intensive interventions have been shown to improve the developmental trajectory of the affected children. The earlier the diagnosis, the sooner the intervention therapy can begin, thus, making early diagnosis an important research goal...
December 27, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976935/oculomotor-abnormalities-in-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-are-improved-by-methylphenidate
#17
Maria Pia Bucci, Coline Stordeur, Mathilde Septier, Eric Acquaviva, Hugo Peyre, Richard Delorme
BACKGROUND: There are relatively few studies of saccadic eye movements in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The aim of this study was to examine inhibitory abilities of eye movements in children with ADHD and to explore the effect of methylphenidate (MPH) on eye movement performance. METHODS: Thirty-one children with ADHD (mean age 9.9 ± 0.4 years) and 31 sex-, age-, and IQ-matched children with normal development were examined...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941232/itrack-instrumented-mobile-electrooculography-eog-eye-tracking-in-older-adults-and-parkinson-s-disease
#18
Samuel Stuart, Aodhán Hickey, Brook Galna, Sue Lord, Lynn Rochester, Alan Godfrey
Detection of saccades (fast eye-movements) within raw mobile electrooculography (EOG) data involves complex algorithms which typically process data acquired during seated static tasks only. Processing of data during dynamic tasks such as walking is relatively rare and complex, particularly in older adults or people with Parkinson's disease (PD). Development of algorithms that can be easily implemented to detect saccades is required. This study aimed to develop an algorithm for the detection and measurement of saccades in EOG data during static (sitting) and dynamic (walking) tasks, in older adults and PD...
January 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931196/attentional-bias-modification-in-depression-through-gaze-contingencies-and-regulatory-control-using-a-new-eye-tracking-intervention-paradigm-study-protocol-for-a-placebo-controlled-trial
#19
Carmelo Vazquez, Ivan Blanco, Alvaro Sanchez, Richard J McNally
BACKGROUND: Attentional biases, namely difficulties both to disengage attention from negative information and to maintain it on positive information, play an important role in the onset and maintenance of the disorder. Recently, researchers have developed specific attentional bias modification (ABM) techniques aimed to modify these maladaptive attentional patterns. However, the application of current ABM procedures has yielded, so far, scarce results in depression due, in part, to some methodological shortcomings...
December 8, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926920/infants-looking-to-surprising-events-when-eye-tracking-reveals-more-than-looking-time
#20
H Henny Yeung, Stephanie Denison, Scott P Johnson
Research on infants' reasoning abilities often rely on looking times, which are longer to surprising and unexpected visual scenes compared to unsurprising and expected ones. Few researchers have examined more precise visual scanning patterns in these scenes, and so, here, we recorded 8- to 11-month-olds' gaze with an eye tracker as we presented a sampling event whose outcome was either surprising, neutral, or unsurprising: A red (or yellow) ball was drawn from one of three visible containers populated 0%, 50%, or 100% with identically colored balls...
2016: PloS One
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