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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323583/pilots-attention-distributions-between-chasing-a-moving-target-and-a-stationary-target
#1
Wen-Chin Li, Chung-San Yu, Graham Braithwaite, Matthew Greaves
INTRODUCTION: Attention plays a central role in cognitive processing; ineffective attention may induce accidents in flight operations. The objective of the current research was to examine military pilots' attention distributions between chasing a moving target and a stationary target. METHOD: In the current research, 37 mission-ready F-16 pilots participated. Subjects' eye movements were collected by a portable head-mounted eye-tracker during tactical training in a flight simulator...
December 1, 2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315309/effects-of-task-demands-on-the-early-neural-processing-of-fearful-and-happy-facial-expressions
#2
Roxane J Itier, Karly N Neath-Tavares
Task demands shape how we process environmental stimuli but their impact on the early neural processing of facial expressions remains unclear. In a within-subject design, ERPs were recorded to the same fearful, happy and neutral facial expressions presented during a gender discrimination, an explicit emotion discrimination and an oddball detection tasks, the most studied tasks in the field. Using an eye tracker, fixation on the face nose was enforced using a gaze-contingent presentation. Task demands modulated amplitudes from 200-350ms at occipito-temporal sites spanning the EPN component...
March 14, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302390/matching-pairs-difficulty-in-children-with-spinal-muscular-atrophy-type-i
#3
Graziela Jorge Polido, Alessandra Ferreira Barbosa, Carlos Hitoshi Morimoto, Fátima Aparecida Caromano, Francis Meire Favero, Edmar Zanoteli, Umbertina Conti Reed, Mariana Callil Voos
This study aimed to investigate the performance on pair-matching tasks in children with Spinal Muscular Atrophy type I (SMA-I) and the relationship between this performance and motor function, functional independence and quality of life. SMA-I (n = 12; 6.0 ± 2.3 yrs; 9 boys, 3 girls) and control sex-, age-matched children (n = 12; 6.2 ± 2.6 yrs) performed four pair-matching figure, number and letter tasks. The eye tracker detected eye movements. SMA-I children were assessed with CHOP INTEND, Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory, and Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory...
February 15, 2017: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285388/effect-of-iris-registration-on-visual-outcome-in-wavefront-guided-lasek-for-myopic-astigmatism
#4
Jong Joo Lee, Mee Kum Kim, Won Ryang Wee
PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the effect of iris registration (IR) on visual outcomes in wavefront-guided LASEK for myopic astigmatism. METHODS: The retrospective chart review was performed for wavefront-guided LASEK using VISX Star S4 in patients with myopic astigmatism (cylinder ≥ 1.00 diopter[D]). Eyes were divided into IR group (LASEK with IR at the time of surgery) and Non-IR group (LASEK without IR system + failed-IR engagement during LASEK)...
March 11, 2017: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281908/increasing-navigation-speed-at-endoluminal-ct-colonography-reduces-colonic-visualization-and-polyp-identification
#5
Andrew A Plumb, Peter Phillips, Graeme Spence, Susan Mallett, Stuart A Taylor, Steve Halligan, Thomas Fanshawe
Purpose To investigate the effect of increasing navigation speed on the visual search and decision making during polyp identification for computed tomography (CT) colonography Materials and Methods Institutional review board permission was obtained to use deidentified CT colonography data for this prospective reader study. After obtaining informed consent from the readers, 12 CT colonography fly-through examinations that depicted eight polyps were presented at four different fixed navigation speeds to 23 radiologists...
March 10, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275950/regularization-and-a-general-linear-model-for-event-related-potential-estimation
#6
Emmanuelle Kristensen, Anne Guerin-Dugué, Bertrand Rivet
The usual event-related potential (ERP) estimation is the average across epochs time-locked on stimuli of interest. These stimuli are repeated several times to improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and only one evoked potential is estimated inside the temporal window of interest. Consequently, the average estimation does not take into account other neural responses within the same epoch that are due to short inter stimuli intervals. These adjacent neural responses may overlap and distort the evoked potential of interest...
March 8, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264128/small-incision-lenticule-extraction-smile-for-hyperopia-optical-zone-centration
#7
Dan Z Reinstein, Kishore R Pradhan, Glenn I Carp, Timothy J Archer, Marine Gobbe, Walter Sekundo, Raynan Khan, Kim Citron, Purushottam Dhungana
PURPOSE: To evaluate optical zone centration of hyperopic small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE). METHODS: This prospective study of 60 consecutive hyperopic SMILE procedures used the VisuMax femtosecond laser and matched LASIK procedures with the VisuMax and MEL 80 excimer lasers (Carl Zeiss Meditec AG, Jena, Germany). Inclusion criteria were maximum attempted hyperopic meridian of between +1.00 and +7.00 diopters (D) and astigmatism up to 6.00 D. For SMILE, the optical zone was between 6...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Refractive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264100/the-relation-between-light-induced-lacrimation-and-the-melanopsin-driven-postillumination-pupil-response
#8
Shaobo Lei, Herbert C Goltz, Xingqiao Chen, Marija Zivcevska, Agnes M F Wong
Purpose: To investigate the chromatic characteristics and intensity-response function of light-induced reflex lacrimation and its correlation with the melanopsin-driven postillumination pupil response (PIPR). Methods: Eleven visually normal participants completed the experiment. Lacrimation was measured in one eye by placing a calibrated filter paper strip in the conjunctival sac over a 1 minute-interval (Schirmer's test) during which participants received either no light stimulation (baseline trial) or one flash of blue or red light stimuli presented binocularly with a Ganzfeld stimulator, while the pupil response was recorded simultaneously from the fellow eye by using an eye tracker...
March 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252197/death-anxiety-and-visual-oculomotor-processing-of-arousing-stimuli-in-a-free-view-setting
#9
Linda Wendelberg, Frode Volden, Sule Yildirim-Yayilgan
The main goal of this study was to determine how death anxiety (DA) affects visual processing when confronted with arousing stimuli. A total of 26 males and females were primed with either DA or a neutral primer and were given a free view/free choice task where eye movement was measured using an eye tracker. The goal was to identify measurable/observable indicators of whether the subjects were under the influence of DA during the free view. We conducted an eye tracking study because this is an area where we believe it is possible to find observable indicators...
April 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237023/workflows-and-individual-differences-during-visually-guided-routine-tasks-in-a-road-traffic-management-control-room
#10
Sandra D Starke, Chris Baber, Neil J Cooke, Andrew Howes
Road traffic control rooms rely on human operators to monitor and interact with information presented on multiple displays. Past studies have found inconsistent use of available visual information sources in such settings across different domains. In this study, we aimed to broaden the understanding of observer behaviour in control rooms by analysing a case study in road traffic control. We conducted a field study in a live road traffic control room where five operators responded to incidents while wearing a mobile eye tracker...
May 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28205131/what-to-expect-from-your-remote-eye-tracker-when-participants-are-unrestrained
#11
Diederick C Niehorster, Tim H W Cornelissen, Kenneth Holmqvist, Ignace T C Hooge, Roy S Hessels
The marketing materials of remote eye-trackers suggest that data quality is invariant to the position and orientation of the participant as long as the eyes of the participant are within the eye-tracker's headbox, the area where tracking is possible. As such, remote eye-trackers are marketed as allowing the reliable recording of gaze from participant groups that cannot be restrained, such as infants, schoolchildren and patients with muscular or brain disorders. Practical experience and previous research, however, tells us that eye-tracking data quality, e...
February 15, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28187309/eye-movement-during-retrieval-of-emotional-autobiographical-memories
#12
Mohamad El Haj, Jean-Louis Nandrino, Pascal Antoine, Muriel Boucart, Quentin Lenoble
This study assessed whether specific eye movement patterns are observed during emotional autobiographical retrieval. Participants were asked to retrieve positive, negative and neutral memories while their scan path was recorded by an eye-tracker. Results showed that positive and negative emotional memories triggered more fixations and saccades but shorter fixation duration than neutral memories. No significant differences were observed between emotional and neutral memories for duration and amplitude of saccades...
February 7, 2017: Acta Psychologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186899/a-data-model-and-task-space-for-data-of-interest-doi-eye-tracking-analyses
#13
Radu Jianu, Sayeed Safayet Alam
Eye-tracking data is traditionally analyzed by looking at where on a visual stimulus subjects fixate, or, to facilitate more advanced analyses, by using area-of-interests (AOI) defined onto visual stimuli. Recently, there is increasing interest in methods that capture what users are looking at rather than where they are looking. By instrumenting visualization code that transforms a data model into visual content, gaze coordinates reported by an eye-tracker can be mapped directly to granular data shown on the screen, producing temporal sequences of data objects that subjects viewed in an experiment...
February 7, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28186339/hand-eye-coordination-predicts-joint-attention
#14
Chen Yu, Linda B Smith
The present article shows that infant and dyad differences in hand-eye coordination predict dyad differences in joint attention (JA). In the study reported here, 51 toddlers ranging in age from 11 to 24 months and their parents wore head-mounted eye trackers as they played with objects together. We found that physically active toddlers aligned their looking behavior with their parent and achieved a substantial proportion of time spent jointly attending to the same object. However, JA did not arise through gaze following but rather through the coordination of gaze with manual actions on objects as both infants and parents attended to their partner's object manipulations...
February 10, 2017: Child Development
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28166888/how-much-time-do-drivers-need-to-obtain-situation-awareness-a-laboratory-based-study-of-automated-driving
#15
Zhenji Lu, Xander Coster, Joost de Winter
Drivers of automated cars may occasionally need to take back manual control after a period of inattentiveness. At present, it is unknown how long it takes to build up situation awareness of a traffic situation. In this study, 34 participants were presented with animated video clips of traffic situations on a three-lane road, from an egocentric viewpoint on a monitor equipped with eye tracker. Each participant viewed 24 videos of different durations (1, 3, 7, 9, 12, or 20 s). After each video, participants reproduced the end of the video by placing cars in a top-down view, and indicated the relative speeds of the placed cars with respect to the ego-vehicle...
April 2017: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28135308/individual-objective-and-subjective-fixation-disparity-in-near-vision
#16
Wolfgang Jaschinski
Binocular vision refers to the integration of images in the two eyes for improved visual performance and depth perception. One aspect of binocular vision is the fixation disparity, which is a suboptimal condition in individuals with respect to binocular eye movement control and subsequent neural processing. The objective fixation disparity refers to the vergence angle between the visual axes, which is measured with eye trackers. Subjective fixation disparity is tested with two monocular nonius lines which indicate the physical nonius separation required for perceived alignment...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28134966/coordinated-control-of-three-dimensional-components-of-smooth-pursuit-to-rotating-and-translating-textures
#17
Janick Edinger, Dinesh K Pai, Miriam Spering
Purpose: The neural control of pursuit eye movements to visual textures that simultaneously translate and rotate has largely been neglected. Here we propose that pursuit of such targets-texture pursuit-is a fully three-dimensional task that utilizes all three degrees of freedom of the eye, including torsion. Methods: Head-fixed healthy human adults (n = 8) tracked a translating and rotating random dot pattern, shown on a computer monitor, with their eyes. Horizontal, vertical, and torsional eye positions were recorded with a head-mounted eye tracker...
January 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28130727/the-effect-of-sampling-rate-and-lowpass-filters-on-saccades-a-modeling-approach
#18
David J Mack, Sandro Belfanti, Urs Schwarz
The study of eye movements has become popular in many fields of science. However, using the preprocessed output of an eye tracker without scrutiny can lead to low-quality or even erroneous data. For example, the sampling rate of the eye tracker influences saccadic peak velocity, while inadequate filters fail to suppress noise or introduce artifacts. Despite previously published guiding values, most filter choices still seem motivated by a trial-and-error approach, and a thorough analysis of filter effects is missing...
January 27, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28129167/wide-field-of-view-varifocal-near-eye-display-using-see-through-deformable-membrane-mirrors
#19
David Dunn, Cary Tippets, Kent Torell, Petr Kellnhofer, Kaan Aksit, Piotr Didyk, Karol Myszkowski, David Luebke, Henry Fuchs
Accommodative depth cues, a wide field of view, and ever-higher resolutions all present major hardware design challenges for near-eye displays. Optimizing a design to overcome one of these challenges typically leads to a trade-off in the others. We tackle this problem by introducing an all-in-one solution - a new wide field of view, gaze-tracked near-eye display for augmented reality applications. The key component of our solution is the use of a single see-through, varifocal deformable membrane mirror for each eye reflecting a display...
January 23, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28114580/origins-of-pupillary-hippus-in-the-autonomic-nervous-system
#20
Philip R K Turnbull, Nouzar Irani, Nicky Lim, John R Phillips
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the relative roles of the sympathetic (SNS) and parasympathetic nervous system (PNS) in pupillary hippus. Methods: We used a paired-eye control study design with three cohorts receiving either 1.0% tropicamide (PNS antagonist) in light (TL), 1.0% tropicamide in dark (TD), or 10% phenylephrine (SNS) in light (PL), n = 12 in each. Each subject received one drop to the randomly determined treatment eye, while the other eye served as control...
January 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
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