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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28057443/analysis-of-gaze-points-for-mouth-images-using-an-eye-tracking-system
#1
Mayu Yamamoto, Katsunori Torii, Masaki Sato, Junko Tanaka, Masahiro Tanaka
PURPOSE: We aimed to clarify whether people stare at non-esthetic restorations by analyzing the gaze point of laypersons looking at mouth images with intraoral non-esthetic restoration. METHODS: The gaze points of 47 laypersons who do not visit dentists were measured using an eye tracker. The stimuli were 18 photographs of mouths with or without a non-esthetic tooth restoration, each randomly shown for 5s. The analysis sites included a tooth with non-esthetic restoration and the same tooth on the opposite side of the mouth...
January 2, 2017: Journal of Prosthodontic Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28036004/sensing-technologies-for-autism-spectrum-disorder-screening-and-intervention
#2
John-John Cabibihan, Hifza Javed, Mohammed Aldosari, Thomas W Frazier, Haitham Elbashir
This paper reviews the state-of-the-art in sensing technologies that are relevant for Autism Spectrum Disorder (ASD) screening and therapy. This disorder is characterized by difficulties in social communication, social interactions, and repetitive behaviors. It is diagnosed during the first three years of life. Early and intensive interventions have been shown to improve the developmental trajectory of the affected children. The earlier the diagnosis, the sooner the intervention therapy can begin, thus, making early diagnosis an important research goal...
December 27, 2016: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27976935/oculomotor-abnormalities-in-children-with-attention-deficit-hyperactivity-disorder-are-improved-by-methylphenidate
#3
Maria Pia Bucci, Coline Stordeur, Mathilde Septier, Eric Acquaviva, Hugo Peyre, Richard Delorme
BACKGROUND: There are relatively few studies of saccadic eye movements in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). The aim of this study was to examine inhibitory abilities of eye movements in children with ADHD and to explore the effect of methylphenidate (MPH) on eye movement performance. METHODS: Thirty-one children with ADHD (mean age 9.9 ± 0.4 years) and 31 sex-, age-, and IQ-matched children with normal development were examined...
December 15, 2016: Journal of Child and Adolescent Psychopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27941232/itrack-instrumented-mobile-electrooculography-eog-eye-tracking-in-older-adults-and-parkinson-s-disease
#4
Samuel Stuart, Aodhán Hickey, Brook Galna, Sue Lord, Lynn Rochester, Alan Godfrey
Detection of saccades (fast eye-movements) within raw mobile electrooculography (EOG) data involves complex algorithms which typically process data acquired during seated static tasks only. Processing of data during dynamic tasks such as walking is relatively rare and complex, particularly in older adults or people with Parkinson's disease (PD). Development of algorithms that can be easily implemented to detect saccades is required. This study aimed to develop an algorithm for the detection and measurement of saccades in EOG data during static (sitting) and dynamic (walking) tasks, in older adults and PD...
January 2017: Physiological Measurement
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27931196/attentional-bias-modification-in-depression-through-gaze-contingencies-and-regulatory-control-using-a-new-eye-tracking-intervention-paradigm-study-protocol-for-a-placebo-controlled-trial
#5
Carmelo Vazquez, Ivan Blanco, Alvaro Sanchez, Richard J McNally
BACKGROUND: Attentional biases, namely difficulties both to disengage attention from negative information and to maintain it on positive information, play an important role in the onset and maintenance of the disorder. Recently, researchers have developed specific attentional bias modification (ABM) techniques aimed to modify these maladaptive attentional patterns. However, the application of current ABM procedures has yielded, so far, scarce results in depression due, in part, to some methodological shortcomings...
December 8, 2016: BMC Psychiatry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27926920/infants-looking-to-surprising-events-when-eye-tracking-reveals-more-than-looking-time
#6
H Henny Yeung, Stephanie Denison, Scott P Johnson
Research on infants' reasoning abilities often rely on looking times, which are longer to surprising and unexpected visual scenes compared to unsurprising and expected ones. Few researchers have examined more precise visual scanning patterns in these scenes, and so, here, we recorded 8- to 11-month-olds' gaze with an eye tracker as we presented a sampling event whose outcome was either surprising, neutral, or unsurprising: A red (or yellow) ball was drawn from one of three visible containers populated 0%, 50%, or 100% with identically colored balls...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923277/reaction-time-for-processing-visual-stimulus-in-a-computer-assisted-rehabilitation-environment
#7
Yerly Sanchez, David Pinzon, Bin Zheng
PURPOSE: To examine the reaction time when human subjects process information presented in the visual channel under both a direct vision and a virtual rehabilitation environment when walking was performed. METHOD: Visual stimulus included eight math problems displayed on the peripheral vision to seven healthy human subjects in a virtual rehabilitation training (computer-assisted rehabilitation environment (CAREN)) and a direct vision environment. Subjects were required to verbally report the results of these math calculations in a short period of time...
December 7, 2016: Disability and Rehabilitation. Assistive Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27923149/the-effect-of-cerebral-asymmetries-and-eye-scanning-on-pseudoneglect-for-a-visual-search-task
#8
Michael E R Nicholls, Amelia Hobson, Joanne Petty, Owen Churches, Nicole A Thomas
Pseudoneglect is the tendency for the general population to over-attend to the left. While pseudoneglect is classically demonstrated using line bisection, it also occurs for visual search. The current study explored the influence of eye movements and functional cerebral asymmetry on asymmetries for visual search. In Experiment 1, 24 participants carried out a conjunction search for a target within a rectangular array. A leftward advantage for detecting targets was observed when the eyes were free to move, but not when they were restricted by short exposure durations...
February 2017: Brain and Cognition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27871220/quiet-eye-training-aids-the-long-term-learning-of-throwing-and-catching-in-children-preliminary-evidence-for-a-predictive-control-strategy
#9
C A L Miles, G Wood, S J Vine, J N Vickers, M R Wilson
Quiet eye training (QET) may be a more effective method for teaching children to catch than traditional training (TT) methods, but it is unclear if the benefits accrued persist in the long term. Thirty children were randomly allocated into a QET or TT group and, while wearing a mobile eye tracker, underwent baseline testing, training and two retention tests over a period of eight weeks, using a validated throw and catch task. During training, movement-related information was provided to both groups, while the QET group received additional instruction to increase the duration of their targeting fixation (QE1) on the wall prior to the throw, and pursuit tracking (QE2) period on the ball prior to catching...
February 2017: European Journal of Sport Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27869764/drivers-visual-search-patterns-during-overtaking-maneuvers-on-freeway
#10
Wenhui Zhang, Jing Dai, Yulong Pei, Penghui Li, Ying Yan, Xinqiang Chen
Drivers gather traffic information primarily by means of their vision. Especially during complicated maneuvers, such as overtaking, they need to perceive a variety of characteristics including the lateral and longitudinal distances with other vehicles, the speed of others vehicles, lane occupancy, and so on, to avoid crashes. The primary object of this study is to examine the appropriate visual search patterns during overtaking maneuvers on freeways. We designed a series of driving simulating experiments in which the type and speed of the leading vehicle were considered as two influential factors...
November 19, 2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27837568/psynteract-a-flexible-cross-platform-open-framework-for-interactive-experiments
#11
Felix Henninger, Pascal J Kieslich, Benjamin E Hilbig
We introduce a novel platform for interactive studies, that is, any form of study in which participants' experiences depend not only on their own responses, but also on those of other participants who complete the same study in parallel, for example a prisoner's dilemma or an ultimatum game. The software thus especially serves the rapidly growing field of strategic interaction research within psychology and behavioral economics. In contrast to all available software packages, our platform does not handle stimulus display and response collection itself...
November 11, 2016: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811636/a-novel-method-to-measure-artificial-eye-motility
#12
Daphne L Mourits, Dyonne T Hartong, Johannes H M van Beek, Birgit I Witte, H Stevie Tan, Annette C Moll
PURPOSE: To measure objectively, reproducibly, and noninvasively artificial eye motility, a fundamental aspect in the (cosmetic) outcome of enucleation. METHOD: A gaze- and pupil-tracking system, the "iView X," was implemented to measure horizontal eye motility. The system, with adjusted software, was tested with patients wearing 1 prosthetic eye after enucleation for retinoblastoma. Measurements were repeated 5 times in every patient and analyses were performed twice by 2 independent observers...
November 2, 2016: Ophthalmic Plastic and Reconstructive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27811525/fixation-stability-and-viewing-distance-in-patients-with-amd
#13
Luminita Tarita-Nistor, Esther G González, Taylor Brin, Mark S Mandelcorn, Anne-Catherine Scherlen, Efrem D Mandelcorn, Martin J Steinbach
PURPOSE: People with normal vision perform activities of daily living binocularly, while changing viewing distance frequently and effortlessly. Typically, in patients with age-related macular degeneration (AMD), fixation stability is recorded with monocular instruments at a fixed viewing distance (i.e. optical infinity) to determine the location and precision of the preferred retinal loci (PRLs)-the part of the functional retina that fulfills the role of a pseudo-fovea. Fixation stability recorded with these instruments has been related to performance on visual tasks at shorter viewing distances, although it is not known how viewing distance affects the precision of ocular motor control in these patients...
November 1, 2016: Optometry and Vision Science: Official Publication of the American Academy of Optometry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27800582/noise-robust-fixation-detection-in-eye-movement-data-identification-by-two-means-clustering-i2mc
#14
Roy S Hessels, Diederick C Niehorster, Chantal Kemner, Ignace T C Hooge
Eye-tracking research in infants and older children has gained a lot of momentum over the last decades. Although eye-tracking research in these participant groups has become easier with the advance of the remote eye-tracker, this often comes at the cost of poorer data quality than in research with well-trained adults (Hessels, Andersson, Hooge, Nyström, & Kemner Infancy, 20, 601-633, 2015; Wass, Forssman, & Leppänen Infancy, 19, 427-460, 2014). Current fixation detection algorithms are not built for data from infants and young children...
October 31, 2016: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27790183/benefits-of-motion-in-animated-storybooks-for-children-s-visual-attention-and-story-comprehension-an-eye-tracking-study
#15
Zsofia K Takacs, Adriana G Bus
The present study provides experimental evidence regarding 4-6-year-old children's visual processing of animated versus static illustrations in storybooks. Thirty nine participants listened to an animated and a static book, both three times, while eye movements were registered with an eye-tracker. Outcomes corroborate the hypothesis that specifically motion is what attracts children's attention while looking at illustrations. It is proposed that animated illustrations that are well matched to the text of the story guide children to those parts of the illustration that are important for understanding the story...
2016: Frontiers in Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27784075/visual-contrast-sensitivity-in-early-stage-parkinson-s-disease
#16
Wendy Ming, Dimitrios J Palidis, Miriam Spering, Martin J McKeown
Purpose: Visual impairments are frequent in Parkinson's disease (PD) and impact normal functioning in daily activities. Visual contrast sensitivity is a powerful nonmotor sign for discriminating PD patients from controls. However, it is usually assessed with static visual stimuli. Here we examined the interaction between perception and eye movements in static and dynamic contrast sensitivity tasks in a cohort of mildly impaired, early-stage PD patients. Methods: Patients (n = 13) and healthy age-matched controls (n = 12) viewed stimuli of various spatial frequencies (0-8 cyc/deg) and speeds (0°/s, 10°/s, 30°/s) on a computer monitor...
October 1, 2016: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27764125/comparing-eye-tracking-with-electrooculography-for-measuring-individual-sentence-comprehension-duration
#17
Jana Annina Müller, Dorothea Wendt, Birger Kollmeier, Thomas Brand
The aim of this study was to validate a procedure for performing the audio-visual paradigm introduced by Wendt et al. (2015) with reduced practical challenges. The original paradigm records eye fixations using an eye tracker and calculates the duration of sentence comprehension based on a bootstrap procedure. In order to reduce practical challenges, we first reduced the measurement time by evaluating a smaller measurement set with fewer trials. The results of 16 listeners showed effects comparable to those obtained when testing the original full measurement set on a different collective of listeners...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27743316/real-time-sharing-of-gaze-data-between-multiple-eye-trackers-evaluation-tools-and-advice
#18
Marcus Nyström, Diederick C Niehorster, Tim Cornelissen, Henrik Garde
Technological advancements in combination with significant reductions in price have made it practically feasible to run experiments with multiple eye trackers. This enables new types of experiments with simultaneous recordings of eye movement data from several participants, which is of interest for researchers in, e.g., social and educational psychology. The Lund University Humanities Laboratory recently acquired 25 remote eye trackers, which are connected over a local wireless network. As a first step toward running experiments with this setup, demanding situations with real time sharing of gaze data were investigated in terms of network performance as well as clock and screen synchronization...
October 14, 2016: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27734171/the-effects-of-positive-versus-negative-mood-states-on-attentional-processes-during-exposure-to-erotica
#19
Joana Carvalho, Raquel Pereira, Diana Barreto, Pedro J Nobre
The relationship between emotions and sexual functioning has been documented since early sex research. Among other effects, emotions are expected to impact sexual response by shaping individuals' attention to sexual cues; yet, this assumption has not been tested. This study aimed to investigate whether attentional processes to sexual cues are impacted by state emotions, and whether the processes impacted by emotions relate to subjective sexual arousal to a sex film clip. A total of 52 men and 73 women were randomly assigned to one of three experimental conditions: (1) a negative mood induction condition (sadness as dominant emotion), (2) a positive mood induction condition (amusement as dominant emotion), and a (3) neutral/control condition...
October 12, 2016: Archives of Sexual Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27733593/sensorimotor-integration-of-vision-and-proprioception-for-obstacle-crossing-in-ambulatory-individuals-with-spinal-cord-injury
#20
Raza Naseem Malik, Rachel Cote, Tania Lam
: Skilled walking, such as obstacle crossing, is an essential component of functional mobility. Sensorimotor integration of visual and proprioceptive inputs is important for successful obstacle crossing. The objective of this study was to understand how proprioceptive deficits affect obstacle-crossing strategies when controlling for variations in motor deficits in ambulatory individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). Fifteen ambulatory individuals with SCI and 15 able-bodied controls were asked to step over an obstacle scaled to their motor abilities under full and obstructed vision conditions...
January 1, 2017: Journal of Neurophysiology
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