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eye tracker

Chunyong Li, Jiguo Xue, Cheng Quan, Jingwei Yue, Chenggang Zhang
Biometric recognition technology based on eye-movement dynamics has been in development for more than ten years. Different visual tasks, feature extraction and feature recognition methods are proposed to improve the performance of eye movement biometric system. However, the correct identification and verification rates, especially in long-term experiments, as well as the effects of visual tasks and eye trackers' temporal and spatial resolution are still the foremost considerations in eye movement biometrics...
2018: PloS One
Kang Jiang, Feiyang Ling, Zhongxiang Feng, Changxi Ma, Wesley Kumfer, Chen Shao, Kun Wang
With the rapid growth in mobile phone use worldwide, traffic safety experts have begun to consider the impact of mobile phone distractions on pedestrian crossing safety. This study sought to investigate how mobile phone distractions (music distraction, phone conversation distraction and text distraction) affect the behavior of pedestrians while they are crossing the street. An outdoor-environment experiment was conducted among 28 college student pedestrians. Two HD videos and an eye tracker were employed to record and analyze crossing behavior and visual attention allocation...
March 28, 2018: Accident; Analysis and Prevention
Robin S Baker, Henry W Fields, F Michael Beck, Allen R Firestone, Stephen F Rosenstiel
INTRODUCTION: Recently, greater emphasis has been placed on smile esthetics in dentistry. Eye tracking has been used to objectively evaluate attention to the dentition (mouth) in female models with different levels of dental esthetics quantified by the aesthetic component of the Index of Orthodontic Treatment Need (IOTN). This has not been accomplished in men. Our objective was to determine the visual attention to the mouth in men with different levels of dental esthetics (IOTN levels) and background facial attractiveness, for both male and female raters, using eye tracking...
April 2018: American Journal of Orthodontics and Dentofacial Orthopedics
Pawel Kasprowski, Katarzyna Harezlak
Vision plays a crucial role in children's mental development. Therefore, early diagnosis of any vision disparities and implementation of a correct therapy is very important. However, carrying out such a procedure in case of young children and especially children with brain dysfunctions poses some limitations due to cooperation problems. The vision diagnostics and treatment (VisDaT) system presented in this paper is meant to help therapists in proper diagnosis and treatment involving such children. It utilizes a computer connected to two monitors and equipped with a specialized software...
2018: Journal of Healthcare Engineering
Paolo Fogagnolo, Maurizio Digiuni, Giovanni Montesano, Chiara Rui, Marco Morales, Luca Rossetti
BACKGROUND: Compass (CenterVue, Padova, Italy) is a fundus automated perimeter which has been introduced in the clinical practice for glaucoma management in 2014. The aim of the article is to review Compass literature, comparing its performances against Humphrey Field Analyzer (Zeiss Humphrey Systems, Dublin, CA, USA). RESULTS: Analyses on both normal and glaucoma subjects agree on the fact that Humphrey Field Analyzer and Compass are interchangeable, as the difference of their global indices is largely inferior than test -retest variability for Humphrey Field Analyzer...
March 1, 2018: European Journal of Ophthalmology
Pedro Mecê, Jessica Jarosz, Jean-Marc Conan, Cyril Petit, Kate Grieve, Michel Paques, Serge Meimon
To evaluate the contribution of fixational eye movements to dynamic aberration, 50 healthy eyes were examined with an original custom-built Shack-Hartmann aberrometer, running at a temporal frequency of 236Hz, with 22 lenslets across a 5mm pupil, synchronized with a 236Hz pupil tracker. A comparison of the dynamic behavior of the first 21 Zernike modes (starting from defocus) with and without digital pupil stabilization, on a 3.4s sequence between blinks, showed that the contribution of fixational eye movements to dynamic aberration is negligible...
February 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
Pietro Lungaro, Rickard Sjoberg, Alfredo Jose Fanghella Valero, Ashutosh Mittal, Konrad Tollmar
This paper presents a novel approach to content delivery for video streaming services. It exploits information from connected eye-trackers embedded in the next generation of VR Head Mounted Displays (HMDs). The proposed solution aims to deliver high visual quality, in real time, around the users' fixations points while lowering the quality everywhere else. The goal of the proposed approach is to substantially reduce the overall bandwidth requirements for supporting VR video experiences while delivering high levels of user perceived quality...
April 2018: IEEE Transactions on Visualization and Computer Graphics
Linda B Smith, Swapnaa Jayaraman, Elizabeth Clerkin, Chen Yu
New efforts are using head cameras and eye-trackers worn by infants to capture everyday visual environments from the point of view of the infant learner. From this vantage point, the training sets for statistical learning develop as the sensorimotor abilities of the infant develop, yielding a series of ordered datasets for visual learning that differ in content and structure between timepoints but are highly selective at each timepoint. These changing environments may constitute a developmentally ordered curriculum that optimizes learning across many domains...
April 2018: Trends in Cognitive Sciences
Munirah Bangee, Pamela Qualter
Prior research has shown that loneliness is associated with hypervigilance to social threats, with eye-tracking research showing lonely people display a specific attentional bias when viewing social rejection and social exclusion video footage (Bangee, Harris, Bridges, Rotenberg & Qualter, 2014; Qualter, Rotenberg, Barrett et al., 2013). The current study uses eye-tracker methodology to examine whether that attentional bias extends to negative emotional faces and negative social non-rejecting stimuli, or whether it could be explained only as a specific bias to social rejection/exclusion...
March 8, 2018: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
Jeffrey S Bedwell, Christopher C Spencer, Chi C Chan, Pamela D Butler, Pejman Sehatpour, Joseph Schmidt
A reduced P1 visual-evoked potential amplitude has been reported across several psychiatric disorders, including schizophrenia-spectrum, bipolar, and depressive disorders. In addition, a difference in P1 amplitude change to a red background compared to its opponent color, green, has been found in schizophrenia-spectrum samples. The current study examined whether specific psychiatric symptoms that related to these P1 abnormalities in earlier studies would be replicated when using a broad transdiagnostic sample...
March 3, 2018: Brain Research
Annemiek D Barsingerhorn, F Nienke Boonstra, Jeroen Goossens
Traditional video-based eyetrackers require participants to perform an individual calibration procedure, which involves the fixation of multiple points on a screen. However, certain participants (e.g., people with oculomotor and/or visual problems or infants) are unable to perform this task reliably. Previous work has shown that with two cameras one can estimate the orientation of the eyes' optical axis directly. Consequently, only one calibration point is needed to determine the deviation between an eye's optical and visual axes...
March 5, 2018: Behavior Research Methods
Faustine Perrin Fievez, Cynthia Lions, Maria Pia Bucci
AIM: To evaluate differences in eye movements during reading in strabismic children and in non-strabismic age-matched children, and to evaluate the potential effect of strabismus surgery on eye movement performance. METHODS: The eye movements of nine strabismic children from 11 to 15 years old were recorded with an eye tracker as they were reading a text under three visual conditions before and six months after eye surgery. The results were compared with those obtained from control groups of non-strabismic age-matched children...
March 5, 2018: Strabismus
Clara Mestre, Josselin Gautier, Jaume Pujol
A set of methods in terms of both image processing and gaze estimation for accurate eye tracking is proposed. The eye-tracker used in this study relies on the dark-pupil method with up to 12 corneal reflections and offers an unprecedented high resolution imaging of the pupil and the cornea. The potential benefits of a higher number of glints and their optimum arrangement are analyzed considering distinct light sources configurations with 12, 8, 6, 4, and 2 corneal reflections. Moreover, a normalization factor of the pupil-glint vector is proposed for each configuration...
March 2018: Journal of Biomedical Optics
Anshul Gupta, Juraj Mesik, Stephen A Engel, Rebecca Smith, Mark Schatza, Aurélie Calabrèse, Frederik J van Kuijk, Arthur G Erdman, Gordon E Legge
Purpose: People with central field loss (CFL) lose information in the scotomatous region. Remapping is a method to modify images to present the missing information outside the scotoma. This study tested the hypothesis that remapping improves reading performance for subjects with simulated CFL. Methods: Circular central scotomas, with diameters ranging from 4° to 16°, were simulated in normally sighted subjects using an eye tracker on either a head-mounted display (HMD) (experiments 1, 2) or a traditional monitor (experiment 3)...
February 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
Rebeca Lauren Emerson, Alberto García-Molina, Jaume López Carballo, Juan García Fernández, Celeste Aparicio-López, Junquera Novo, Rocío Sánchez-Carrión, Antonia Enseñat-Cantallops, Jordi Peña-Casanova
The objective of this study was to examine visual scanning performance in patients with Unilateral Spatial Neglect (USN) in a visual search task. Thirty-one right hemisphere stroke patients with USN were recruited. They performed a dynamic visual search task with two conditions, with and without distractors, while eye movements were monitored with an eye-tracker. The main goal of the task was to select target stimuli that appeared from the top of the screen and moved vertically downward. Target detection and visual scanning percentage were assessed over two hemispaces (right, left) on two conditions (distractor, no distractor)...
February 22, 2018: Applied Neuropsychology. Adult
Benjamin Thomas Curzon-Jones, Mark Andrew Hollands
Older adults with falls risk tend to look away prematurely from targets for safe foot placement to view future hazards; behaviour associated with increased anxiety and stepping inaccuracies. We aimed to determine the effectiveness of route previewing in reducing anxiety and optimizing gaze behaviour and stepping performance of younger and older adults. Nine younger and nine older adults completed six walks with three task complexities over two sessions. Each trial used either an isolated stepping target, or a target followed by either one or two obstacles...
February 13, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
Samuel Stuart, Sue Lord, Brook Galna, Lynn Rochester
Gait impairment is a core feature of Parkinson's disease (PD) with implications for falls risk. Visual cues improve gait in PD but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Evidence suggests that attention and vision play an important role however the relative contribution from each is unclear. Measurement of visual exploration (specifically saccade frequency) during gait allows for real-time measurement of attention and vision. Understanding how visual cues influence visual exploration may allow inferences of the underlying mechanisms to response which could help to develop effective therapeutics...
February 12, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
Thomas Yi, Vignesh Ramchandran, Jeffrey H Siewerdsen, Ali Uneri
A method for x-ray image-guided robotic instrument positioning is reported and evaluated in preclinical studies of spinal pedicle screw placement with the aim of improving delivery of transpedicle K-wires and screws. The known-component (KC) registration algorithm was used to register the three-dimensional patient CT and drill guide surface model to intraoperative two-dimensional radiographs. Resulting transformations, combined with offline hand-eye calibration, drive the robotically held drill guide to target trajectories defined in the preoperative CT...
April 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging
Eunice Wang, Yusuf O Cakmak, Mei Peng
Researchers have long sought to pinpoint factors underpinning individual differences in eating behaviour. Emerging data from eye-tracking studies have suggested that attentional biases to food exist among individuals and food types. However, such studies have thus far focussed primarily on food images and computerised tasks, limiting real-world implications. The present study tested 32 healthy male participants (16 being overweight) for attentional biases in an ad libitum buffet setting, using wearable eye-trackers...
February 7, 2018: Appetite
Erik Hernández, Santiago Hernández, David Molina, Rafael Acebrón, Cecilia E García Cena
Eye-movement analysis has grown exponentially in recent decades. The reason is that abnormalities in oculomotor movements are usually symptoms of injuries in the nervous system. This paper presents a novel regulated solution named OSCANN. OSCANN aims at providing an innovative tool for the control, management and visualization of oculomotor neurological examinations. This solution utilizes an eye-tracker sensor based on video electro-oculography (VOG) technology to capture eye movements and store them in video files...
February 9, 2018: Sensors
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