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eye tracker

Jana Annina Müller, Dorothea Wendt, Birger Kollmeier, Thomas Brand
The aim of this study was to validate a procedure for performing the audio-visual paradigm introduced by Wendt et al. (2015) with reduced practical challenges. The original paradigm records eye fixations using an eye tracker and calculates the duration of sentence comprehension based on a bootstrap procedure. In order to reduce practical challenges, we first reduced the measurement time by evaluating a smaller measurement set with fewer trials. The results of 16 listeners showed effects comparable to those obtained when testing the original full measurement set on a different collective of listeners...
2016: PloS One
Marcus Nyström, Diederick C Niehorster, Tim Cornelissen, Henrik Garde
Technological advancements in combination with significant reductions in price have made it practically feasible to run experiments with multiple eye trackers. This enables new types of experiments with simultaneous recordings of eye movement data from several participants, which is of interest for researchers in, e.g., social and educational psychology. The Lund University Humanities Laboratory recently acquired 25 remote eye trackers, which are connected over a local wireless network. As a first step toward running experiments with this setup, demanding situations with real time sharing of gaze data were investigated in terms of network performance as well as clock and screen synchronization...
October 14, 2016: Behavior Research Methods
Joana Carvalho, Raquel Pereira, Diana Barreto, Pedro J Nobre
The relationship between emotions and sexual functioning has been documented since early sex research. Among other effects, emotions are expected to impact sexual response by shaping individuals' attention to sexual cues; yet, this assumption has not been tested. This study aimed to investigate whether attentional processes to sexual cues are impacted by state emotions, and whether the processes impacted by emotions relate to subjective sexual arousal to a sex film clip. A total of 52 men and 73 women were randomly assigned to one of three experimental conditions: (1) a negative mood induction condition (sadness as dominant emotion), (2) a positive mood induction condition (amusement as dominant emotion), and a (3) neutral/control condition...
October 12, 2016: Archives of Sexual Behavior
Raza Naseem Malik, Rachel Cote, Tania Lam
BACKGROUND: Skilled walking, such as obstacle crossing, is an essential component of functional mobility. Sensorimotor integration of visual and proprioceptive inputs is important for successful obstacle crossing. The objective of this study was to understand how proprioceptive deficits affect obstacle-crossing strategies when controlling for variations in motor deficits in ambulatory individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI). METHODS: 15 ambulatory individuals with SCI and 15 able-bodied controls were asked to step over an obstacle scaled to their motor abilities under full and obstructed vision conditions...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Neurophysiology
Mari Videman, Susanna Stjerna, Reina Roivainen, Taina Nybo, Sampsa Vanhatalo, Eija Gaily, Jukka M Leppänen
INTRODUCTION: Prenatal antiepileptic drug (AED) exposure is associated with an increased risk of cognitive impairment and autism spectrum disorders detected mainly at the age of two to six years. We examined whether the developmental aberrations associated with prenatal AED exposure could be detected already in infancy and whether effects on visual attention can be observed at this early age. MATERIAL AND METHODS: We compared a prospective cohort of infants with in utero exposure to AED (n=56) with infants without drug exposures (n=62)...
October 9, 2016: Epilepsy & Behavior: E&B
Ziho Kang, Saptarshi Mandal, Jerry Crutchfield, Angel Millan, Sarah N McClung
Design concepts and algorithms were developed to address the eye tracking analysis issues that arise when (1) participants interrogate dynamic multielement objects that can overlap on the display and (2) visual angle error of the eye trackers is incapable of providing exact eye fixation coordinates. These issues were addressed by (1) developing dynamic areas of interests (AOIs) in the form of either convex or rectangular shapes to represent the moving and shape-changing multielement objects, (2) introducing the concept of AOI gap tolerance (AGT) that controls the size of the AOIs to address the overlapping and visual angle error issues, and (3) finding a near optimal AGT value...
2016: Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience
David M McCord, Margaret C Achee, Elissa M Cannon, Tiffany M Harrop, William D Poynter
The National Institute of Mental Health has proposed a paradigm shift in the conceptualization of psychopathology, abandoning the traditional categorical model in favor of one based on hierarchically organized dimensional constructs (Insel et al., 2010 ). One explicit goal of this initiative, the Research Domain Criteria (RDoC) project, is to facilitate the incorporation of newly available neurobiologic variables into research on psychopathology. The Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory-2-Restructured Form (MMPI-2-RF; Ben-Porath & Tellegen, 2008/2011 ) represents a similar paradigm shift, also adopting a hierarchical arrangement of dimensional constructs...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Personality Assessment
Melanie C Wright, Sherry Dunbar, Brekk C Macpherson, Eugene W Moretti, Guillherme Del Fiol, Jean Bolte, Jeffrey M Taekman, Noa Segall
OBJECTIVES: Electronic health information overload makes it difficult for providers to quickly find and interpret information to support care decisions. The purpose of this study was to better understand how clinicians use information in critical care to support the design of improved presentation of electronic health information. METHODS: We conducted a contextual analysis and visioning project. We used an eye-tracker to record 20 clinicians' information use activities in critical care settings...
October 5, 2016: Applied Clinical Informatics
Linnéa Larsson, Andrea Schwaller, Marcus Nyström, Martin Stridh
BACKGROUND: The complexity of analyzing eye-tracking signals increases as eye-trackers become more mobile. The signals from a mobile eye-tracker are recorded in relation to the head coordinate system and when the head and body move, the recorded eye-tracking signal is influenced by these movements, which render the subsequent event detection difficult. NEW METHOD: The purpose of the present paper is to develop a method that performs robust event detection in signals recorded using a mobile eye-tracker...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Neuroscience Methods
Reza Farivar, Danny Michaud-Landry
Measurements of the fast and precise movements of the eye-critical to many vision, oculomotor, and animal behavior studies-can be made non-invasively by video oculography. The protocol here describes the construction and operation of a research-grade video oculography system with ~0.1° precision over the full typical viewing range at over 450 Hz with tight synchronization with stimulus onset. The protocol consists of three stages: (1) system assembly, (2) calibration for both cooperative, and for minimally cooperative subjects (e...
2016: Frontiers in Systems Neuroscience
Satoshi Kawase, Satoshi Obata
Visual information has been observed to be crucial for audience members during musical performances. The present study used an eye tracker to investigate audience members' gazes while appreciating an audiovisual musical ensemble performance, based on evidence of the dominance of musical part in auditory attention when listening to multipart music that contains different melody lines and the joint-attention theory of gaze. We presented singing performances, by a female duo. The main findings were as follows: (1) the melody part (soprano) attracted more visual attention than the accompaniment part (alto) throughout the piece, (2) joint attention emerged when the singers shifted their gazes toward their co-performer, suggesting that inter-performer gazing interactions that play a spotlight role mediated performer-audience visual interaction, and (3) musical part (melody or accompaniment) strongly influenced the total duration of gazes among audiences, while the spotlight effect of gaze was limited to just after the singers' gaze shifts...
September 24, 2016: Consciousness and Cognition
Preshanta Naicker, Shailendra Anoopkumar-Dukie, Gary D Grant, Justin J Kavanagh
RATIONALE: Acetylcholine is an important neuromodulator in the central nervous system, where it plays a significant role in central functions such as the regulation of movement. OBJECTIVE: This study investigated the pharmacological effects of over-the-counter anticholinergic medications on saccadic and smooth pursuit eye movements, in order to establish the significance of central cholinergic pathways in the control of these centrally regulated oculomotor processes...
September 26, 2016: Psychopharmacology
Jan W Brascamp, Marnix Naber
In several research contexts it is important to obtain eye-tracking measures while presenting visual stimuli independently to each of the two eyes (dichoptic stimulation). However, the hardware that allows dichoptic viewing, such as mirrors, often interferes with high-quality eye tracking, especially when using a video-based eye tracker. Here we detail an approach to combining mirror-based dichoptic stimulation with video-based eye tracking, centered on the fact that some mirrors, although they reflect visible light, are selectively transparent to the infrared wavelength range in which eye trackers record their signal...
September 8, 2016: Behavior Research Methods
Laura N van der Laan, Esther K Papies, Ignace T C Hooge, Paul A M Smeets
Objective: Several lab and field experiments have shown that goal priming interventions can be highly effective in promoting healthy food choices. Less is known, however, about the mechanisms by which goal priming affects food choice. This experiment tested the hypothesis that goal priming affects food choices through changes in visual attention. Specifically, it was hypothesized that priming with the dieting goal steers attention toward goal-relevant, low energy food products, which, in turn, increases the likelihood of choosing these products...
September 15, 2016: Health Psychology: Official Journal of the Division of Health Psychology, American Psychological Association
Julia Habicht, Birger Kollmeier, Tobias Neher
This study assessed the effects of hearing aid (HA) experience on how quickly a participant can grasp the meaning of an acoustic sentence-in-noise stimulus presented together with two similar pictures that either correctly (target) or incorrectly (competitor) depict the meaning conveyed by the sentence. Using an eye tracker, the time taken by the participant to start fixating the target (the processing time) was measured for two levels of linguistic complexity (low vs. high) and three HA conditions: clinical linear amplification (National Acoustic Laboratories-Revised), single-microphone noise reduction with National Acoustic Laboratories-Revised, and linear amplification ensuring a sensation level of ≥ 15 dB up to at least 4 kHz for the speech material used here...
2016: Trends in Hearing
Weiyuan Pan, Dongwook Jung, Hyo Sik Yoon, Dong Eun Lee, Rizwan Ali Naqvi, Kwan Woo Lee, Kang Ryoung Park
Gaze tracking is the technology that identifies a region in space that a user is looking at. Most previous non-wearable gaze tracking systems use a near-infrared (NIR) light camera with an NIR illuminator. Based on the kind of camera lens used, the viewing angle and depth-of-field (DOF) of a gaze tracking camera can be different, which affects the performance of the gaze tracking system. Nevertheless, to our best knowledge, most previous researches implemented gaze tracking cameras without ground truth information for determining the optimal viewing angle and DOF of the camera lens...
2016: Sensors
William W Sprague, Emily A Cooper, Sylvain Reissier, Baladitya Yellapragada, Martin S Banks
Blur from defocus can be both useful and detrimental for visual perception: It can be useful as a source of depth information and detrimental because it degrades image quality. We examined these aspects of blur by measuring the natural statistics of defocus blur across the visual field. Participants wore an eye-and-scene tracker that measured gaze direction, pupil diameter, and scene distances as they performed everyday tasks. We found that blur magnitude increases with increasing eccentricity. There is a vertical gradient in the distances that generate defocus blur: Blur below the fovea is generally due to scene points nearer than fixation; blur above the fovea is mostly due to points farther than fixation...
August 1, 2016: Journal of Vision
Andreas Klausen, Rainer Röhrig, Myriam Lipprandt
Achieving a good understanding of the socio-technical system in critical or emergency situations is important for patient safety. Research in human-computer interaction in the field of anesthesia or surgery has the potential to improve usability of the user interfaces and enhance patient safety. Therefore eye-tracking is a technology for analyzing gaze patterns. It can also measure what is being perceived by the physician during medical procedures. The aim of this review is the applicability of eye-tracker in the domain of simulated or real environments of anesthesia, surgery or intensive care...
2016: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
Soudabeh Khodambashi, Heidi Gilstad, Øystein Nytrø
Publishing clinical guidelines (GLs) on the web increases their accessibility. However, evaluating their usability and understanding how users interact with the websites has been neglected. In this study we used Tobii eye-tracker to analyse users' interaction with five commercial and public GL sites popular in Norway (four in Norwegian and one English of US origin (UpToDate)). We measured number of clicks and usage rate for search functions, task completion time, users' objective and perception of task success rate...
2016: Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
Joan N Vickers, Joe Causer, Michael Stuart, Elaine Little, Sean Dukelow, Marc LeVangie, Sandro Nigg, Gina Arsenault, Barry Morton, Matt Scott, Carolyn Emery
A "look-up line" (LUL) has been proposed for ice hockey, which is an orange 1 m (40') warning line (WL) painted on the ice at the base of the boards. The LUL purports to provide an early warning to players to keep their head up prior to and as they are being checked. We determined if players looked up more on a rink with the LUL compared to a traditional Control rink. Elite offensive (O) and defensive (D) players competed 1 vs. 1, while wearing an eye tracker that recorded their quiet eye (QE) and fixation and tracking (F-T) and an electrogoniometer that measured head angle...
August 30, 2016: European Journal of Sport Science
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