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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29435606/route-previewing-results-in-altered-gaze-behaviour-increased-self-confidence-and-improved-stepping-safety-in-both-young-and-older-adults-during-adaptive-locomotion
#1
Benjamin Thomas Curzon-Jones, Mark Andrew Hollands
Older adults with falls risk tend to look away prematurely from targets for safe foot placement to view future hazards; behaviour associated with increased anxiety and stepping inaccuracies. We aimed to determine the effectiveness of route previewing in reducing anxiety and optimizing gaze behaviour and stepping performance of younger and older adults. Nine younger and nine older adults completed six walks with three task complexities over two sessions. Each trial used either an isolated stepping target, or a target followed by either one or two obstacles...
February 13, 2018: Experimental Brain Research. Experimentelle Hirnforschung. Expérimentation Cérébrale
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29431890/saccade-frequency-response-to-visual-cues-during-gait-in-parkinson-s-disease-the-selective-role-of-attention
#2
Samuel Stuart, Sue Lord, Brook Galna, Lynn Rochester
Gait impairment is a core feature of Parkinson's disease (PD) with implications for falls risk. Visual cues improve gait in PD but the underlying mechanisms are unclear. Evidence suggests that attention and vision play an important role however the relative contribution from each is unclear. Measurement of visual exploration (specifically saccade frequency) during gait allows for real-time measurement of attention and vision. Understanding how visual cues influence visual exploration may allow inferences of the underlying mechanisms to response which could help to develop effective therapeutics...
February 12, 2018: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29430481/robotic-drill-guide-positioning-using-known-component-3d-2d-image-registration
#3
Thomas Yi, Vignesh Ramchandran, Jeffrey H Siewerdsen, Ali Uneri
A method for x-ray image-guided robotic instrument positioning is reported and evaluated in preclinical studies of spinal pedicle screw placement with the aim of improving delivery of transpedicle K-wires and screws. The known-component (KC) registration algorithm was used to register the three-dimensional patient CT and drill guide surface model to intraoperative two-dimensional radiographs. Resulting transformations, combined with offline hand-eye calibration, drive the robotically held drill guide to target trajectories defined in the preoperative CT...
April 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427692/eating-with-eyes-comparing-eye-movements-and-food-choices-between-overweight-and-lean-individuals-in-a-real-life-buffet-setting
#4
Eunice Wang, Yusuf O Cakmak, Mei Peng
Researchers have long sought to pinpoint factors underpinning individual differences in eating behaviour. Emerging data from eye-tracking studies have suggested that attentional biases to food exist among individuals and food types. However, such studies have thus far focussed primarily on food images and computerised tasks, limiting real-world implications. The present study tested 32 healthy male participants (16 being overweight) for attentional biases in an ad libitum buffet setting, using wearable eye-trackers...
February 7, 2018: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425134/oscann-technical-characterization-of-a-novel-gaze-tracking-analyzer
#5
Erik Hernández, Santiago Hernández, David Molina, Rafael Acebrón, Cecilia E García Cena
Eye-movement analysis has grown exponentially in recent decades. The reason is that abnormalities in oculomotor movements are usually symptoms of injuries in the nervous system. This paper presents a novel regulated solution named OSCANN. OSCANN aims at providing an innovative tool for the control, management and visualization of oculomotor neurological examinations. This solution utilizes an eye-tracker sensor based on video electro-oculography (VOG) technology to capture eye movements and store them in video files...
February 9, 2018: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29415684/effects-of-combat-training-on-visuomotor-performance-in-children-aged-9-to-12-years-an-eye-tracking-study
#6
Yan-Ying Ju, Yen-Hsiu Liu, Chih-Hsiu Cheng, Yu-Lung Lee, Shih-Tsung Chang, Chi-Chin Sun, Hsin-Yi Kathy Cheng
BACKGROUND: Data on visuomotor performance in combat training and the effects of combat training on visuomotor performance are limited. This study aimed to investigate the effects of a specially designed combat sports (CS) training program on the visuomotor performance levels of children. METHODS: A pre-post comparative design was implemented. A total of 26 students aged 9-12 years underwent 40-min CS training sessions twice a week for 8 weeks during their physical education classes...
February 7, 2018: BMC Pediatrics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29409621/an-analysis-of-the-suitability-of-a-low-cost-eye-tracker-for-assessing-the-cognitive-load-of-drivers
#7
Tomaž Čegovnik, Kristina Stojmenova, Grega Jakus, Jaka Sodnik
This paper presents a driving simulator study in which we investigated whether the Eye Tribe eye tracker (ET) is capable of assessing changes in the cognitive load of drivers through oculography and pupillometry. In the study, participants were asked to drive a simulated vehicle and simultaneously perform a set of secondary tasks with different cognitive complexity levels. We measured changes in eye properties, such as the pupil size, blink rate and fixation time. We also performed a measurement with a Detection Response Task (DRT) to validate the results and to prove a steady increase of cognitive load with increasing secondary task difficulty...
April 2018: Applied Ergonomics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29392324/eye-movement-control-in-the-argus-ii-retinal-prosthesis-enables-reduced-head-movement-and-better-localization-precision
#8
Avi Caspi, Arup Roy, Varalakshmi Wuyyuru, Paul E Rosendall, Jason W Harper, Kapil D Katyal, Michael P Barry, Gislin Dagnelie, Robert J Greenberg
Purpose: Visual scanning by sighted individuals is done using eye and head movements. In contrast, scanning using the Argus II is solely done by head movement, since eye movements can introduce localization errors. Here, we tested if a scanning mode utilizing eye movements increases visual stability and reduces head movements in Argus II users. Methods: Eye positions were measured in real-time and were used to shift the region of interest (ROI) that is sent to the implant within the wide field of view (FOV) of the scene camera...
February 1, 2018: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29383565/an-across-target-study-on-visual-attentions-in-facial-expression-recognition
#9
Baomin Li, Fenglei Yang
As a simulation of human expression recognition, the studies on automatic expression recognition expect to draw useful enlightenment through close, accurate observation on human expression processing via advanced devices. Eye-trackers are mostly used devices that are technically designed to obtain eye-movement data. However, due to the discrepancy between target faces, across-target analysis is limited in these studies, and this much reduces the chance of finding the latent eye-behavior patterns. Through the utilization of correspondences between targets, this study achieves an across-target analysis to explore the attention pattern in expression recognition...
January 30, 2018: Interdisciplinary Sciences, Computational Life Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29376869/establishing-a-new-screening-system-for-mild-cognitive-impairment-and-alzheimer-s-disease-with-mental-rotation-tasks-that-evaluate-visuospatial-function
#10
Ayuko Suzuki, Jun Shinozaki, Shogo Yazawa, Yoshino Ueki, Noriyuki Matsukawa, Shun Shimohama, Takashi Nagamine
BACKGROUND: The mental rotation task is well-known for the assessment of visuospatial function; however, it has not been used for screening of dementia patients. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to create a simple screening test for patients with mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and Alzheimer's disease (AD) by focusing on non-amnestic symptoms. METHODS: Age-matched healthy controls (age 75.3±6.8), patients with MCI (76.5±5.5), and AD (78...
2018: Journal of Alzheimer's Disease: JAD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29359108/dioptric-defocus-maps-across-the-visual-field-for-different-indoor-environments
#11
Miguel García García, Arne Ohlendorf, Frank Schaeffel, Siegfried Wahl
One of the factors proposed to regulate the eye growth is the error signal derived from the defocus in the retina and actually, this might arise from defocus not only in the fovea but the whole visual field. Therefore, myopia could be better predicted by spatio-temporally mapping the 'environmental defocus' over the visual field. At present, no devices are available that could provide this information. A 'Kinect sensor v1' camera (Microsoft Corp.) and a portable eye tracker were used for developing a system for quantifying 'indoor defocus error signals' across the central 58° of the visual field...
January 1, 2018: Biomedical Optics Express
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29355469/the-relationship-between-handedness-and-valence-a-gesture-study
#12
Esra Nur Çatak, Alper Açık, Tilbe Göksun
People with different hand preferences assign positive and negative emotions to different sides of their bodies and produce co-speech gestures with their dominant hand when the content is positive. In this study, we investigated this side preference by handedness in both gesture comprehension and production. Participants watched faceless gesture videos with negative and positive content on eye tracker and were asked to retell the stories after each video. Results indicated no difference in looking preferences regarding being right- or left-handed...
January 1, 2018: Quarterly Journal of Experimental Psychology: QJEP
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29333474/saccades-in-progressive-supranuclear-palsy-maladapted-irregular-curved-and-slow
#13
Aasef G Shaikh, Stewart A Factor, Jorge Juncos
Background and objectives: Slowed and curved rapid eye movements, saccades, are the well-known features of progressive supranuclear palsy (PSP). We hypothesized that the saccades in PSP are not only slow and curved, but they are also irregular and have timing deficits. Methods: We tested this hypothesis in 12 patients with PSP by measuring vertical and horizontal visually guided saccades using a limbus tracker. Results: Both, horizontal and vertical saccades were slow and had irregular trajectory and velocity profiles, but deficits were much more robust in vertical saccades...
September 2017: Movement Disorders Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29282563/development-of-a-test-grid-using-eye-movement-perimetry-for-screening-glaucomatous-visual-field-defects
#14
N S Kadavath Meethal, D Mazumdar, R Asokan, M Panday, J van der Steen, K A Vermeer, H G Lemij, R J George, J J M Pel
BACKGROUND: Eye Movement Perimetry (EMP) uses Saccadic Eye Movement (SEM) responses for visual field evaluation. Previous studies have demonstrated significant delay in initiation of SEMs among glaucoma patients in comparison with healthy subjects. The aim of the current study was to develop an EMP-based screening grid to identify glaucomatous visual field defects. METHODS: An interactive test consisting of 36 locations and two stimulus contrasts (162 cd/m2 and 190 cd/m2 on a background of 140 cd/m2) was evaluated in 54 healthy subjects and 50 primary glaucoma patients...
December 28, 2017: Graefe's Archive for Clinical and Experimental Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277075/gaze-gesture-based-human-robot-interaction-for-laparoscopic-surgery
#15
Kenko Fujii, Gauthier Gras, Antonino Salerno, Guang-Zhong Yang
While minimally invasive surgery offers great benefits in terms of reduced patient trauma, bleeding, as well as faster recovery time, it still presents surgeons with major ergonomic challenges. Laparoscopic surgery requires the surgeon to bimanually control surgical instruments during the operation. A dedicated assistant is thus required to manoeuvre the camera, which is often difficult to synchronise with the surgeon's movements. This article introduces a robotic system in which a rigid endoscope held by a robotic arm is controlled via the surgeon's eye movement, thus forgoing the need for a camera assistant...
November 28, 2017: Medical Image Analysis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29275899/analysis-of-the-treatment-plan-evaluation-process-in-radiotherapy-through-eye-tracking
#16
A Kyroudi, K Petersson, M Ozsahin, J Bourhis, F Bochud, R Moeckli
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Treatment plan evaluation is a clinical decision-making problem that involves visual search and analysis in a contextually rich environment, including delineated structures and isodose lines superposed on CT data. It is a two-step process that includes visual analysis and clinical reasoning. In this work, we used eye tracking methods to gain more knowledge about the treatment plan evaluation process in radiation therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Dose distributions on a single transverse slice of ten prostate cancer treatment plans were presented to eight decision makers...
December 21, 2017: Zeitschrift Für Medizinische Physik
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29250569/influence-of-radiology-expertise-on-the-perception-of-nonmedical-images
#17
Brendan Kelly, Louise A Rainford, Mark F McEntee, Eoin C Kavanagh
Identifying if participants with differing diagnostic accuracy and visual search behavior during radiologic tasks also differ in nonradiologic tasks is investigated. Four clinician groups with different radiologic experience were used: a reference expert group of five consultant radiologists, four radiology registrars, five senior house officers, and six interns. Each of the four clinician groups is known to have significantly different performance in the identification of pneumothoraces in chest x-ray. Each of the 20 participants was shown 6 nonradiologic images (3 maps and 3 sets of geometric shapes) and was asked to perform search tasks...
July 2018: Journal of Medical Imaging
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29249933/chronic-organic-solvent-exposure-changes-visual-tracking-in-men-and-women
#18
Ana R de Oliveira, Armindo de Arruda Campos Neto, Paloma C Bezerra de Medeiros, Michael J O de Andrade, Natanael A Dos Santos
Organic solvents can change CNS sensory and motor function. Eye-movement analyses can be important tools when investigating the neurotoxic changes that result from chronic organic solvent exposure. The current research measured the eye-movement patterns of men and women with and without histories of chronic organic solvent exposure. A total of 44 volunteers between 18 and 41 years old participated in this study; 22 were men (11 exposed and 11 controls), and 22 were women (11 exposed and 11 controls). Eye movement was evaluated using a 250-Hz High-Speed Video Eye Tracker Toolbox (Cambridge Research Systems) via an image of a maze...
2017: Frontiers in Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29231890/development-and-verification-of-a-novel-robot-integrated-fringe-projection-3d-scanning-system-for-large-scale-metrology
#19
Hui Du, Xiaobo Chen, Juntong Xi, Chengyi Yu, Bao Zhao
Large-scale surfaces are prevalent in advanced manufacturing industries, and 3D profilometry of these surfaces plays a pivotal role for quality control. This paper proposes a novel and flexible large-scale 3D scanning system assembled by combining a robot, a binocular structured light scanner and a laser tracker. The measurement principle and system construction of the integrated system are introduced. A mathematical model is established for the global data fusion. Subsequently, a robust method is introduced for the establishment of the end coordinate system...
December 12, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29214208/eye-movement-feedback-fails-to-improve-visual-search-performance
#20
Chad Peltier, Mark W Becker
Many real-world searches (e.g., radiology and baggage screening) have rare targets. When targets are rare, observers perform rapid, incomplete searches, leading to higher miss rates. To improve search for rare (10% prevalence) targets, we provided eye movement feedback (EMF) to observers during their searches. Although the nature of the EMF varied across experiments, each method informed observers about the regions of the display that had not yet been inspected. We hypothesized that feedback would help guide attention to unsearched areas and increase the proportion of the display searched before making a target-absent response, thereby increasing accuracy...
2017: Cognitive Research: Principles and Implications
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