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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28444834/direct-and-indirect-effects-of-attention-and-visual-function-on-gait-impairment-in-parkinson-s-disease-influence-of-task-and-turning
#1
Samuel Stuart, Brook Galna, Louise S Delicato, Sue Lord, Lynn Rochester
Gait impairment is a core feature of Parkinson's disease (PD) which has been linked to cognitive and visual deficits, but interactions between these features are poorly understood. Monitoring saccades allows investigation of real-time cognitive and visual processes and their impact on gait when walking. This study explored; 1) saccade frequency when walking under different attentional manipulations of turning and dual-task; and 2) direct and indirect relationships between saccades, gait impairment, vision and attention...
April 26, 2017: European Journal of Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28441164/information-acquisition-differences-between-experienced-and-novice-time-trial-cyclists
#2
Manhal Boya, Tom Foulsham, Florentina Hettinga, David Parry, Emily Williams, Hollie Jones, Andrew Sparks, David Marchant, Paul Ellison, Craig Bridge, Lars McNaughton, Dominic Micklewright
PURPOSE: To use eye-tracking technology to directly compare information acquisition behavior of experienced and novice cyclists during a self-paced 10 mile (16.1 km) time-trial. METHOD: Two groups of novice (N=10) and experienced cyclists (N=10) performed a 10-mile self-paced time-trial (TT) on two separate occasions during which a number of feedback variables (speed, distance, power output, cadence, heart rate, and time) were projected within their view. A large RPE scale was also presented next to the projected information and participants...
April 25, 2017: Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28433775/looking-is-buying-how-visual-attention-and-choice-are-affected-by-consumer-preferences-and-properties-of-the-supermarket-shelf
#3
Kerstin Gidlöf, Andrey Anikin, Martin Lingonblad, Annika Wallin
There is a battle in the supermarket isle, a battle between what the consumer wants and what the retailer and others want her to see, and subsequently to buy. Product packages and displays contain a number of features and attributes tailored to catch consumers' attention. These are what we call external factors comprising the visual saliency, the number of facings, and the placement of each product. But a consumer also brings with her a number of goals and interests related to the products and their attributes...
April 19, 2017: Appetite
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429733/sites-of-overt-and-covert-attention-define-simultaneous-spatial-reference-centers-for-visuomotor-response
#4
Yang Zhou, Lixin Liang, Yujun Pan, Ning Qian, Mingsha Zhang
The site of overt attention (fixation point) defines a spatial reference center that affects visuomotor response as indicated by the stimulus-response-compatibility (SRC) effect: When subjects press, e.g., a left key to report stimuli, their reaction time is shorter when stimuli appear to the left than to the right of the fixation. Covert attention to a peripheral site appears to define a similar reference center but previous studies did not control for confounding spatiotemporal factors or investigate the relationship between overt- and covert-attention-defined centers...
April 21, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424915/optimal-eye-movement-strategies-a-comparison-of-neurosurgeons-gaze-patterns-when-using-a-surgical-microscope
#5
Shahram Eivazi, Ahmad Hafez, Wolfgang Fuhl, Hoorieh Afkari, Enkelejda Kasneci, Martin Lehecka, Roman Bednarik
BACKGROUND: Previous studies have consistently demonstrated gaze behaviour differences related to expertise during various surgical procedures. In micro-neurosurgery, however, there is a lack of evidence of empirically demonstrated individual differences associated with visual attention. It is unknown exactly how neurosurgeons see a stereoscopic magnified view in the context of micro-neurosurgery and what this implies for medical training. METHOD: We report on an investigation of the eye movement patterns in micro-neurosurgery using a state-of-the-art eye tracker...
April 19, 2017: Acta Neurochirurgica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28422660/weak-classifier-for-density-estimation-in-eye-localization-and-tracking
#6
Gabriel M Araujo, Felipe M L Ribeiro, Waldir S Junior, Eduardo A B da Silva, Siome K Goldenstein
In this work, we propose a fast weak classifier that can detect and track eyes in video sequences. The approach relies on a least-squares detector based on the Inner Product Detector (IPD) that can estimate a probability density distribution for a feature's location - which fits naturally with a Bayesian estimation cycle, such as a Kalman or particle filter. As a leastsquares sliding window detector, it possesses tolerance to small variations in the desired pattern while maintaining good generalization capabilities and computational efficiency...
April 13, 2017: IEEE Transactions on Image Processing: a Publication of the IEEE Signal Processing Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28420114/fuzzy-system-based-target-selection-for-a-nir-camera-based-gaze-tracker
#7
Rizwan Ali Naqvi, Muhammad Arsalan, Kang Ryoung Park
Gaze-based interaction (GBI) techniques have been a popular subject of research in the last few decades. Among other applications, GBI can be used by persons with disabilities to perform everyday tasks, as a game interface, and can play a pivotal role in the human computer interface (HCI) field. While gaze tracking systems have shown high accuracy in GBI, detecting a user's gaze for target selection is a challenging problem that needs to be considered while using a gaze detection system. Past research has used the blinking of the eyes for this purpose as well as dwell time-based methods, but these techniques are either inconvenient for the user or requires a long time for target selection...
April 14, 2017: Sensors
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28375373/pupil-motion-analysis-and-tracking-in-ophthalmic-systems-equipped-with-wavefront-sensing-technology
#8
Serge Meimon, Jessica Jarosz, Cyril Petit, Elena Gofas Salas, Kate Grieve, Jean-Marc Conan, Bruno Emica, Michel Paques, Kristina Irsch
Our eyes are constantly in motion, even during "steady" fixation. In ophthalmic systems equipped with wavefront technology, both eye and head motion potentially degrade its performance and/or increase the cost and complexity, as they induce a movement of the entrance optical pupil of the system. Here, we characterize the pupil motion in an aberrometry setting, using a custom, high-speed pupil tracker (478 Hz), and draw conclusions on design considerations of future ophthalmic systems. We also demonstrate the feasibility of tracking such motion directly with a custom-built Hartmann-Shack sensor (236 Hz) using a method that offers certain benefits over previously suggested approaches, thereby paving the way to an efficient and cost-effective approach...
March 20, 2017: Applied Optics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28353574/a-crucial-temporal-accuracy-test-of-combining-eeg-and-tobii-eye-tracker
#9
Jiguo Xue, Cheng Quan, Chunyong Li, Jingwei Yue, Chenggang Zhang
Eye tracking and event-related potentials have been widely used in the field of cognitive psychology and neuroscience. Both techniques have the ability to refine cognitive models through a precise timeline description; nevertheless, they also have severe limitations. Combining measures of event-related potentials and eye movements can contribute to cognitive process capture, which provides the possibility to determine precisely when and in which order different cognitive operations occur. Combining of event-related potentials and eye movements has been recently conducted by synchronizing measures from an infrared eye tracker with an electroencephalograph to allow simultaneous data recording...
March 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28348644/navigation-synchronized-multimodal-control-wheelchair-from-brain-to-alternative-assistive-technologies-for-persons-with-severe-disabilities
#10
Dilok Puanhvuan, Sarawin Khemmachotikun, Pongsakorn Wechakarn, Boonyanuch Wijarn, Yodchanan Wongsawat
Currently, electric wheelchairs are commonly used to improve mobility in disabled people. In severe cases, the user is unable to control the wheelchair by themselves because his/her motor functions are disabled. To restore mobility function, a brain-controlled wheelchair (BCW) would be a promising system that would allow the patient to control the wheelchair by their thoughts. P300 is a reliable brain electrical signal, a component of visual event-related potentials (ERPs), that could be used for interpreting user commands...
April 2017: Cognitive Neurodynamics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323583/pilots-attention-distributions-between-chasing-a-moving-target-and-a-stationary-target
#11
Wen-Chin Li, Chung-San Yu, Graham Braithwaite, Matthew Greaves
INTRODUCTION: Attention plays a central role in cognitive processing; ineffective attention may induce accidents in flight operations. The objective of the current research was to examine military pilots' attention distributions between chasing a moving target and a stationary target. METHOD: In the current research, 37 mission-ready F-16 pilots participated. Subjects' eye movements were collected by a portable head-mounted eye-tracker during tactical training in a flight simulator...
December 1, 2016: Aerospace Medicine and Human Performance
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315309/effects-of-task-demands-on-the-early-neural-processing-of-fearful-and-happy-facial-expressions
#12
Roxane J Itier, Karly N Neath-Tavares
Task demands shape how we process environmental stimuli but their impact on the early neural processing of facial expressions remains unclear. In a within-subject design, ERPs were recorded to the same fearful, happy and neutral facial expressions presented during a gender discrimination, an explicit emotion discrimination and an oddball detection tasks, the most studied tasks in the field. Using an eye tracker, fixation on the face nose was enforced using a gaze-contingent presentation. Task demands modulated amplitudes from 200-350ms at occipito-temporal sites spanning the EPN component...
March 14, 2017: Brain Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28302390/matching-pairs-difficulty-in-children-with-spinal-muscular-atrophy-type-i
#13
Graziela Jorge Polido, Alessandra Ferreira Barbosa, Carlos Hitoshi Morimoto, Fátima Aparecida Caromano, Francis Meire Favero, Edmar Zanoteli, Umbertina Conti Reed, Mariana Callil Voos
This study aimed to investigate the performance on pair-matching tasks in children with Spinal Muscular Atrophy type I (SMA-I) and the relationship between this performance and motor function, functional independence and quality of life. SMA-I (n = 12; 6.0 ± 2.3 yrs; 9 boys, 3 girls) and control sex-, age-matched children (n = 12; 6.2 ± 2.6 yrs) performed four pair-matching figure, number and letter tasks. The eye tracker detected eye movements. SMA-I children were assessed with CHOP INTEND, Pediatric Evaluation of Disability Inventory, and Pediatric Quality of Life Inventory...
May 2017: Neuromuscular Disorders: NMD
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285388/effect-of-iris-registration-on-visual-outcome-in-wavefront-guided-lasek-for-myopic-astigmatism
#14
Jong Joo Lee, Mee Kum Kim, Won Ryang Wee
PURPOSE: This study aimed to investigate the effect of iris registration (IR) on visual outcomes in wavefront-guided LASEK for myopic astigmatism. METHODS: The retrospective chart review was performed for wavefront-guided LASEK using VISX Star S4 in patients with myopic astigmatism (cylinder ≥ 1.00 diopter[D]). Eyes were divided into IR group (LASEK with IR at the time of surgery) and Non-IR group (LASEK without IR system + failed-IR engagement during LASEK)...
March 11, 2017: International Ophthalmology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281908/increasing-navigation-speed-at-endoluminal-ct-colonography-reduces-colonic-visualization-and-polyp-identification
#15
Andrew A Plumb, Peter Phillips, Graeme Spence, Susan Mallett, Stuart A Taylor, Steve Halligan, Thomas Fanshawe
Purpose To investigate the effect of increasing navigation speed on the visual search and decision making during polyp identification for computed tomography (CT) colonography Materials and Methods Institutional review board permission was obtained to use deidentified CT colonography data for this prospective reader study. After obtaining informed consent from the readers, 12 CT colonography fly-through examinations that depicted eight polyps were presented at four different fixed navigation speeds to 23 radiologists...
March 10, 2017: Radiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28275950/regularization-and-a-general-linear-model-for-event-related-potential-estimation
#16
Emmanuelle Kristensen, Anne Guerin-Dugué, Bertrand Rivet
The usual event-related potential (ERP) estimation is the average across epochs time-locked on stimuli of interest. These stimuli are repeated several times to improve the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and only one evoked potential is estimated inside the temporal window of interest. Consequently, the average estimation does not take into account other neural responses within the same epoch that are due to short inter stimuli intervals. These adjacent neural responses may overlap and distort the evoked potential of interest...
March 8, 2017: Behavior Research Methods
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264128/small-incision-lenticule-extraction-smile-for-hyperopia-optical-zone-centration
#17
Dan Z Reinstein, Kishore R Pradhan, Glenn I Carp, Timothy J Archer, Marine Gobbe, Walter Sekundo, Raynan Khan, Kim Citron, Purushottam Dhungana
PURPOSE: To evaluate optical zone centration of hyperopic small incision lenticule extraction (SMILE). METHODS: This prospective study of 60 consecutive hyperopic SMILE procedures used the VisuMax femtosecond laser and matched LASIK procedures with the VisuMax and MEL 80 excimer lasers (Carl Zeiss Meditec AG, Jena, Germany). Inclusion criteria were maximum attempted hyperopic meridian of between +1.00 and +7.00 diopters (D) and astigmatism up to 6.00 D. For SMILE, the optical zone was between 6...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Refractive Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28264100/the-relation-between-light-induced-lacrimation-and-the-melanopsin-driven-postillumination-pupil-response
#18
Shaobo Lei, Herbert C Goltz, Xingqiao Chen, Marija Zivcevska, Agnes M F Wong
Purpose: To investigate the chromatic characteristics and intensity-response function of light-induced reflex lacrimation and its correlation with the melanopsin-driven postillumination pupil response (PIPR). Methods: Eleven visually normal participants completed the experiment. Lacrimation was measured in one eye by placing a calibrated filter paper strip in the conjunctival sac over a 1 minute-interval (Schirmer's test) during which participants received either no light stimulation (baseline trial) or one flash of blue or red light stimuli presented binocularly with a Ganzfeld stimulator, while the pupil response was recorded simultaneously from the fellow eye by using an eye tracker...
March 1, 2017: Investigative Ophthalmology & Visual Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28252197/death-anxiety-and-visual-oculomotor-processing-of-arousing-stimuli-in-a-free-view-setting
#19
Linda Wendelberg, Frode Volden, Sule Yildirim-Yayilgan
The main goal of this study was to determine how death anxiety (DA) affects visual processing when confronted with arousing stimuli. A total of 26 males and females were primed with either DA or a neutral primer and were given a free view/free choice task where eye movement was measured using an eye tracker. The goal was to identify measurable/observable indicators of whether the subjects were under the influence of DA during the free view. We conducted an eye tracking study because this is an area where we believe it is possible to find observable indicators...
April 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Psychology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237023/workflows-and-individual-differences-during-visually-guided-routine-tasks-in-a-road-traffic-management-control-room
#20
Sandra D Starke, Chris Baber, Neil J Cooke, Andrew Howes
Road traffic control rooms rely on human operators to monitor and interact with information presented on multiple displays. Past studies have found inconsistent use of available visual information sources in such settings across different domains. In this study, we aimed to broaden the understanding of observer behaviour in control rooms by analysing a case study in road traffic control. We conducted a field study in a live road traffic control room where five operators responded to incidents while wearing a mobile eye tracker...
May 2017: Applied Ergonomics
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