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pain , neural correlate , anesthesia

Robert E Jacobson, Michelle Granville, Jesse Hatgis DO
INTRODUCTION: By using a combination of magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) of the lumbar spine, it is possible to distinguish between spinal stenosis caused by bone compression and specific soft tissue epidural intraspinal lesions that cause localized spinal canal stenosis and neural compression. Examples include facet cysts and yellow ligament hypertrophy. Many of these patients are elderly with medical comorbidities that make open surgery problematic. MATERIALS & METHODS: This is a study of patients with predominantly soft tissue stenosis being treated with targeted intraspinal radiofrequency (RF) heat ablation...
March 10, 2017: Curēus
Fuqiang Zhao, Mangay Williams, Mark Bowlby, Andrea Houghton, Richard Hargreaves, Jeffrey Evelhoch, Donald S Williams
fMRI can objectively measure pain-related neural activities in humans and animals, providing a valuable tool for studying the mechanisms of nociception and for developing new analgesics. However, due to its extreme sensitivity to subject motion, pain fMRI studies are performed in animals that are immobilized, typically with anesthesia. Since anesthesia could confound the nociceptive processes, it is unknown how well nociceptive-related neural activities measured by fMRI in anesthetized animals correlate with nociceptive behaviors in conscious animals...
January 1, 2014: NeuroImage
Patricia L Foley, Bret D Ulery, Ho M Kan, Martin V Burks, Zhanwu Cui, Qian Wu, Lakshmi S Nair, Cato T Laurencin
Postoperative pain within the first days following musculoskeletal surgeries is a significant problem for which appropriate management correlates to positive clinical outcomes. While a variety of pain management modalities are currently used for postoperative pain, an optimal strategy has yet to be identified. Utilizing local anesthetics to convey analgesia through neural blockade represents a promising approach to alleviate postoperative pain. Unfortunately, local anesthetics are often associated with short half-lives, local tissue site reactions, and systemic toxicity...
March 2013: Biomaterials
Lucie A Low, Maria Fitzgerald
BACKGROUND: The importance of neonatal experience upon behaviour in later life is increasingly recognised. The overlap between pain and reward pathways led us to hypothesise that neonatal pain experience influences reward-related pathways and behaviours in adulthood. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Rat pups received repeat plantar skin incisions (neonatal IN) or control procedures (neonatal anesthesia only, AN) at postnatal days (P)3, 10 and 17. When adult, rats with neonatal 'pain history' showed greater sensory sensitivity than control rats following acute plantar skin incision...
2012: PloS One
Ashish Dhir, Christoph Lossin, Michael A Rogawski
Propofol is a rapidly acting water-insoluble non-barbiturate anesthetic agent that is widely used as an intravenous sedative-hypnotic agent. Anecdotal evidence indicates that propofol may be effective at terminating intractable migraine headache. Cortical spreading depression (CSD) is believed to be the neural correlate of migraine aura and may be a trigger for migraine pain. Agents that block the induction or slow the spread of CSD may be of utility in treating migraine. Here we examined the ability of propofol hemisuccinate (PHS), a water-soluble prodrug of propofol, to affect CSD in mice...
April 11, 2012: Neuroscience Letters
S Kelly, J P Dunham, F Murray, S Read, L F Donaldson, S N Lawson
OBJECTIVE: Osteoarthritis (OA) pain mechanisms are poorly understood. We used the monosodium iodoacetate (MIA) model of knee OA to characterize changes in excitability during the course of OA in different classes of mechanosensitive afferents projecting to joint-associated tissues, and examine whether these afferent responses and pain behavior are correlated. METHODS: Rats were injected intra-articularly with MIA (1mg in 50 μl). Hind-limb weight bearing was studied 3 (MIA3) and 14 (MIA14) days after MIA, followed by deep anesthesia and teased-nerve-fiber recordings...
April 2012: Osteoarthritis and Cartilage
Jun Hozumi, Masahiko Sumitani, Arito Yozu, Toshiya Tomioka, Hiroshi Sekiyama, Satoru Miyauchi, Yoshitsugu Yamada
Neural blockades are considered an alternative to pharmacotherapy for neuropathic pain although these blockades elicit limited effects. We encountered a patient with postbrachial plexus avulsion injury pain, which was refractory to conventional treatments but disappeared temporarily with the administration of the local anesthetic lidocaine around the left mandibular molar tooth during dental treatments. This analgesic effect on neuropathic pain by oral local anesthesia was reproducible. Under conditions of neuropathic pain, cerebral somatotopic reorganization in the sensorimotor cortices of the brain has been observed...
2011: Anesthesiology Research and Practice
Ning Wang, Yang Zhang, Jin-Yan Wang, Ge Gao, Fei Luo
OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of pentobarbital anesthesia on nociceptive processing in the medial and lateral pain pathways. METHODS: Laser stimulation was employed to evoke nociceptive responses in rats under awake or anesthetic conditions. Pain-related neuronal activities were simultaneously recorded from the primary somatosensory cortex (SI), ventral posterolateral thalamus (VPL), anterior cingulate cortex (ACC), and medial dorsal thalamus (MD) with 4 eight-wire microelectrode arrays...
June 2010: Neuroscience Bulletin
A Tashiro, K Okamoto, Z Chang, D A Bereiter
Ocular exposure to ultraviolet irradiation (UVR) induces photokeratitis, a common environmental concern that inflames ocular tissues and causes pain. The central neural mechanisms that contribute to the sensory aspects of photokeratitis after UVR are not known. In awake male rats, ocular surface application of hypertonic saline evoked eye wipe behavior that was enhanced 2-3 days after UVR and returned to control levels by 7 days. Similarly, under isoflurane anesthesia, hypertonic saline-evoked activity of ocular neurons in superficial laminae at the trigeminal subnucleus caudalis/cervical (Vc/C1) region was enhanced 2 days, but not 7 days, after UVR...
August 11, 2010: Neuroscience
Vincent Colucci, Gary Strichartz, Ferenc Jolesz, Natalia Vykhodtseva, Kullervo Hynynen
Minimally invasive applications of thermal and mechanical energy to selective areas of the human anatomy have led to significant advances in treatment of and recovery from typical surgical interventions. Image-guided focused ultrasound allows energy to be deposited deep into the tissue, completely noninvasively. There has long been interest in using this focal energy delivery to block nerve conduction for pain control and local anesthesia. In this study, we have performed an in vitro study to further extend our knowledge of this potential clinical application...
October 2009: Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology
B Saniova, M Drobny
An explanation of consciousness is one of the major unsolved problems of modern science. The modern view of consciousness arose in the nineteenth century; the view presumed that mental activity correlates with distinct physical states. Is the problem of consciousness real? Crick and Koch made a tentative assumption that all different aspects of consciousness (pain, seeing, thinking, emotion, self-consciousness) are connected by a basic common mechanism. The next step towards understanding involved the neuronal theories of consciousness (correlates of consciousness), often referred as the NNC (neural correlates of consciousness)...
December 2008: Neuro Endocrinology Letters
Michael T Alkire, Jason Miller
The neural correlates of consciousness must be identified, but how? Anesthetics can be used as tools to dissect the nervous system. Anesthetics not only allow for the experimental investigation into the conscious-unconscious state transition, but they can also be titrated to subanesthetic doses in order to affect selected components of consciousness such as memory, attention, pain processing, or emotion. A number of basic neuroimaging examinations of various anesthetic agents have now been completed. A common pattern of regional activity suppression is emerging for which the thalamus is identified as a key target of anesthetic effects on consciousness...
2005: Progress in Brain Research
Agnes Floel, Ulrike Nagorsen, Konrad J Werhahn, Shashi Ravindran, Niels Birbaumer, Stefan Knecht, Leonardo G Cohen
In healthy volunteers, reduction of somatosensory input from one hand leads to rapid performance improvements in the other hand. Thus, it is possible that reduction of somatosensory input from the healthy hand can influence motor function in the paretic hand of chronic stroke patients with unilateral hand weakness. To test this hypothesis, we had 13 chronic stroke patients perform motor tasks with the paretic hand and arm during cutaneous anesthesia of the healthy hand and healthy foot in separate sessions...
August 2004: Annals of Neurology
R Terayama, R Dubner, K Ren
Previous studies indicate that descending modulation of nociception is progressively increased following persistent inflammation. The present study was designed to further examine the role of supraspinal neurons in descending modulation following persistent inflammation. Constant levels of paw withdrawal (PW) and tail flick (TF) latencies to noxious heat stimuli were achieved in lightly anesthetized rats (pentobarbital sodium 3-10 mg/kg/h, i.v.). Electrical stimulation (ES, 0.1 ms, 100 Hz, 20-200 A) was delivered to the rostral ventromedial medulla (RVM), mainly the nucleus raphe magnus (NRM)...
May 2002: Pain
F Z Shaw, R F Chen, C T Yen
In this investigation, changes of mechanical- (MEP) and laser-evoked potentials (LEP) in rat primary somatosensory cortex during the course of pentobarbital (PB) anesthesia were examined. Temporal analysis of changes in the magnitude and latency of MEP and LEP, EEG activity, gross motor behaviors, and the tail flick response following laser stimulation before, during, and after PB administration (50 mg/kg, i.p.) was performed and correlated in chronically implanted rats. During the wakeful condition, there were two major cortical components each following mechanical stimulation (MEP1 and MEP2, n=17) and laser stimulation (LEP1 and LEP2, n=10), respectively...
August 24, 2001: Brain Research
B Antkowiak, K Kirschfeld
Positron emission tomography studies on volunteers showed that, at concentrations inducing the loss of consciousness, propofol, halothane and isoflurane reduce glucose metabolism of neocortical neurones by 20-50%. To find out whether these effects are caused by direct anaesthetic actions on cortical structures, experiments were carried out on isolated neocortical brain slices. In these investigations an excellent correlation was observed between anaesthetic concentrations causing a half-maximal depression of action potential firing in neocortical brain slices and anaesthetic blood concentrations monitored during awaking from anaesthesia in humans...
December 2000: Anästhesiologie, Intensivmedizin, Notfallmedizin, Schmerztherapie: AINS
T A Hadlock, R Koka, J P Vacanti, M L Cheney
Assessment of functional recovery following any peripheral nerve manipulation is critical. While quantitative neurobehavioral testing has been developed in the anesthesia literature for the assessment of neural function, the surgical literature relies mainly on walking track analysis for evaluation of motor recovery. The latter method is both cumbersome to perform and difficult to quantify. We compared standard walking track analysis with the quantitative neurobehavioral tests recently developed for anesthetic testing...
1999: Journal of the Peripheral Nervous System: JPNS
D G Porter, A R Valentine, R Bradford
Fifty-six patients with low back pain and sciatica following radiological investigation were found to have abnormalities at multiple levels, more than one of which could be responsible for the clinical picture or at a single level, which correlated poorly with the clinical findings. Thirty-four patients had a diagnostic peri-neural root infiltration to clarify whether surgery would be appropriate. Evaluation of the technique was by reduction in analgesia. Eighteen patients have had surgery, 14 with a successful, two a moderate and two a poor outcome...
June 1999: British Journal of Neurosurgery
S Sakura, M Sumi, Y Yamada, Y Saito, Y Kosaka
The study was performed to evaluate differential neural blockade during lumbar epidural anesthesia with a cutaneous current perception threshold (CPT) sensory testing device. Fourteen patients undergoing elective gynecological surgery received 10 ml of 2% lidocaine through an epidural catheter inserted at the L 1/2 interspace. CPTs at 2000, 250, and 5 Hz stimulation and sensation to light touch, temperature, and pinprick at ipsilateral dermatomes V, Th 9, and L 2 were measured before and every 5 min, until 60 min after the epidural lidocaine...
July 1998: Masui. the Japanese Journal of Anesthesiology
A Pertovaara
Tissue injury produces hyperalgesia not only in the injured area (primary hyperalgesia) but also outside of it (secondary hyperalgesia). In the present investigation, the submodality selectivity and the contribution of supraspinal influence to a neural correlate of the secondary hyperalgesia induced by neurogenic inflammation was studied in the presumed pain relay neurons of the rat spinal dorsal horn. Mechanically and thermally evoked responses to wide-dynamic range (WDR) neurons of the spinal dorsal horn were recorded under sodium pentobarbital anesthesia in rats...
January 1998: Experimental Neurology
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