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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28650339/ilc2-modulated-t-cell-to-mdsc-balance-is-associated-with-bladder-cancer-recurrence
#1
Mathieu F Chevalier, Sara Trabanelli, Julien Racle, Bérengère Salomé, Valérie Cesson, Dalila Gharbi, Perrine Bohner, Sonia Domingos-Pereira, Florence Dartiguenave, Anne-Sophie Fritschi, Daniel E Speiser, Cyrill A Rentsch, David Gfeller, Patrice Jichlinski, Denise Nardelli-Haefliger, Camilla Jandus, Laurent Derré
Non-muscle-invasive bladder cancer (NMIBC) is a highly recurrent tumor despite intravesical immunotherapy instillation with the bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine. In a prospective longitudinal study, we took advantage of BCG instillations, which increase local immune infiltration, to characterize immune cell populations in the urine of patients with NMIBC as a surrogate for the bladder tumor microenvironment. We observed an infiltration of neutrophils, T cells, monocytic myeloid-derived suppressor cells (M-MDSCs), and group 2 innate lymphoid cells (ILC2)...
June 26, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28648870/tlr7-and-tlr8-agonist-resiquimod-r848-differently-regulates-mif-expression-in-cells-and-organs
#2
Yao Mawulikplimi Adzavon, Pengxiang Zhao, Baobei Lv, Mengyu Liu, Xin Zhang, Fei Xie, Linqi Yang, Lei Shang, Mingzi Zhang, Qinjian Li, Xuemei Ma
Since its first description in 1966, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) was found to play a critical role in inflammatory and immune responses as well as in disease pathogenesis especially in tumor pathogenesis and cancer progression. MIF is expressed in different cell types and is associated with many disease severity and tumor pathogenesis. Here, we investigated the influence of TLR7 and TLR8 agonist resiquimod (R848), an immune response inducer used as a prophylactic agent for several infectious diseases as well as anticancer agents and vaccine adjuvant on MIF expression in cells and organs...
June 22, 2017: Cytokine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647973/-study-on-the-immunization-status-and-its-influencing-factors-among-workers-from-the-polio-network-laboratories-in-china
#3
Y S Guo, J Q Wang, C Xu, Y N Liu, X H He, Q Wei
Objective: To Investigate the immune status and influencing factors of provincial polio network laboratory (PNL) workers in China so as to provide evidence for the development of related strategies to protect personnel working at the PNLs. Methods: All the practitioners from the PNLs at the provincial centers for disease control, were selected as objects for this study, from October to December, 2016, under a questionnaire survey. Information on status of immunity and influencing factors was collected, with SAS software, trend chi-square used for statistics analysis...
June 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647907/a-constant-companion-immune-recognition-and-response-to-cytomegalovirus-with-aging-and-implications-for-immune-fitness
#4
REVIEW
Aisha Souquette, Justin Frere, Megan Smithey, Delphine Sauce, Paul G Thomas
Approximately 50% of individuals aged 6-49 years in the United States are infected with cytomegalovirus (CMV), with seroprevalence increasing with age, reaching 85-90% by 75-80 years according to Bate et al. (Clin Infect Dis 50 (11): 1439-1447, 2010) and Pawelec et al. (Curr Opin Immunol 24:507-511, 2012). Following primary infection, CMV establishes lifelong latency with periodic reactivation. Immunocompetent hosts experience largely asymptomatic infection, but CMV can cause serious illness in immunocompromised populations, such as transplant patients and the elderly...
June 24, 2017: GeroScience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28647168/communicating-infectious-disease-prevalence-through-graphics-results-from-an-international-survey
#5
Angela Fagerlin, Thomas S Valley, Aaron M Scherer, Megan Knaus, Enny Das, Brian J Zikmund-Fisher
BACKGROUND: Graphics are increasingly used to represent the spread of infectious diseases (e.g., influenza, Zika, Ebola); however, the impact of using graphics to adequately inform the general population is unknown. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether three ways of visually presenting data (heat map, dot map, or picto-trendline)-all depicting the same information regarding the spread of a hypothetical outbreak of influenza-influence intent to vaccinate, risk perception, and knowledge...
June 2, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28643090/burrow-dusting-or-oral-vaccination-prevents-plague-associated-prairie-dog-colony-collapse
#6
Daniel W Tripp, Tonie E Rocke, Jonathan P Runge, Rachel C Abbott, Michael W Miller
Plague impacts prairie dogs (Cynomys spp.), the endangered black-footed ferret (Mustela nigripes) and other sensitive wildlife species. We compared efficacy of prophylactic treatments (burrow dusting with deltamethrin or oral vaccination with recombinant "sylvatic plague vaccine" [RCN-F1/V307]) to placebo treatment in black-tailed prairie dog (C. ludovicianus) colonies. Between 2013 and 2015, we measured prairie dog apparent survival, burrow activity and flea abundance on triplicate plots ("blocks") receiving dust, vaccine or placebo treatment...
June 22, 2017: EcoHealth
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28642758/time-and-antigen-stimulation-history-influence-memory-cd8-t-cell-bystander-responses
#7
Matthew D Martin, Qiang Shan, Hai-Hui Xue, Vladimir P Badovinac
Memory CD8 T cells can be activated and induced to produce cytokines and increase stores of cytolytic proteins not only in response to cognate antigen (Ag) but also in response to inflammatory cytokines (bystander responses). Importantly, bystander memory CD8 T cell functions have been shown to be dependent upon memory CD8 T cell fitness, since exhausted CD8 T cells have diminished capacity to respond to inflammatory cues. While it is known that memory CD8 T cell functional abilities, including ability to produce cytokines in response to cognate Ag, change with time after initial Ag encounter and upon multiple Ag stimulations (e...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28641531/application-of-alphaviral-vectors-for-immunomodulation-in-cancer-therapy
#8
Anna Zajakina, Karina Spunde, Kenneth Lundstrom
BACKGROUND: The lack of specific and efficient cancer therapies has influenced the development of novel approaches, such as immunotherapy, which from its original application of immunogenic protein delivery has developed into the use of more sophisticated recombinant gene delivery methods to achieve better safety and efficacy profiles. This approach involves viral and non-viral delivery systems. METHODS: Expression vectors have been engineered for alphaviruses, including Semliki Forest virus, Sindbis virus and Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus...
June 21, 2017: Current Pharmaceutical Design
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28639138/veterinary-vaccine-nanotechnology-pulmonary-and-nasal-delivery-in-livestock-animals
#9
REVIEW
Daniella Calderon-Nieva, Kalhari Bandara Goonewardene, Susantha Gomis, Marianna Foldvari
Veterinary vaccine development has several similarities with human vaccine development to improve the overall health and well-being of species. However, veterinary goals lean more toward feasible large-scale administration methods and low cost to high benefit immunization. Since the respiratory mucosa is easily accessible and most infectious agents begin their infection cycle at the mucosa, immunization through the respiratory route has been a highly attractive vaccine delivery strategy against infectious diseases...
June 21, 2017: Drug Delivery and Translational Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28637457/descriptive-and-network-analyses-of-the-equine-contact-network-at-an-equestrian-show-in-ontario-canada-and-implications-for-disease-spread
#10
Kelsey L Spence, Terri L O'Sullivan, Zvonimir Poljak, Amy L Greer
BACKGROUND: Identifying the contact structure within a population of horses attending a competition is an important element towards understanding the potential for the spread of equine pathogens as the horses subsequently travel from location to location. However, there is limited information in Ontario, Canada to quantify contact patterns of horses. The objective of this study was to describe the network of potential contacts associated with an equestrian show to determine how this network structure may influence potential disease transmission...
June 21, 2017: BMC Veterinary Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636633/playing-with-fire-what-is-influencing-horse-owners-decisions-to-not-vaccinate-their-horses-against-deadly-hendra-virus-infection
#11
Kailiea Arianna Goyen, John David Wright, Alexandra Cunneen, Joerg Henning
Hendra virus is a zoonotic paramyxovirus, which causes severe respiratory and neurological disease in horses and humans. Since 2012, the Hendra virus sub-unit G vaccine has been available for horse vaccination in Australia. Uptake of the vaccine has been limited and spill-over events of Hendra virus infection in horses continue to occur. We conducted an online, questionnaire-based cross-sectional study of 376 horse owners belonging to a variety of different equestrian clubs in Queensland, Australia, to identify risk factors for non-vaccination against Hendra virus...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28636419/poison-or-prevention-understanding-the-linkages-between-vaccine-negative-individuals-knowledge-deficiency-motivations-and-active-communication-behaviors
#12
Arunima Krishna
The last few decades have seen growing concerns among parents regarding the safety of childhood vaccines, arguably leading to the rise of the anti-vaccine movement. This study is an effort to understand situational and cross-situational factors that influence individuals' negative attitudes toward vaccines, referred to as vaccine negativity. In doing so, this study elucidated how situational and cross-situational factors influence vaccine negativity. Specifically, this study tested how knowledge deficiency, or acceptance of scientifically inaccurate data about vaccines, and institutional trust influenced negative attitudes toward vaccines...
June 21, 2017: Health Communication
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28635675/co-infection-with-marek-s-disease-virus-and-reticuloendotheliosis-virus-increases-illness-severity-and-reduces-marek-s-disease-vaccine-efficacy
#13
Guo-Rong Sun, Yan-Ping Zhang, Lin-Yi Zhou, Hong-Chao Lv, Feng Zhang, Kai Li, Yu-Long Gao, Xiao-Le Qi, Hong-Yu Cui, Yong-Qiang Wang, Li Gao, Qing Pan, Xiao-Mei Wang, Chang-Jun Liu
Marek's disease virus (MDV) and reticuloendotheliosis virus (REV) cause Marek's disease (MD) and reticuloendotheliosis (RE), respectively. Co-infection with MDV and REV is common in chickens, causing serious losses to the poultry industry. However, experimental studies of such co-infection are lacking. In this study, Chinese field strains of MDV (ZW/15) and REV (JLR1501) were used as challenge viruses to evaluate the pathogenicity of co-infection and the influence of MD vaccination in chickens. Compared to the MDV-challenged group, the mortality and tumor rates increased significantly by 20...
June 21, 2017: Viruses
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28634747/evaluation-of-vaccination-strategies-for-sir-epidemics-on-random-networks-incorporating-household-structure
#14
Frank Ball, David Sirl
This paper is concerned with the analysis of vaccination strategies in a stochastic susceptible [Formula: see text] infected [Formula: see text] removed model for the spread of an epidemic amongst a population of individuals with a random network of social contacts that is also partitioned into households. Under various vaccine action models, we consider both household-based vaccination schemes, in which the way in which individuals are chosen for vaccination depends on the size of the households in which they reside, and acquaintance vaccination, which targets individuals of high degree in the social network...
June 20, 2017: Journal of Mathematical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633864/perinatal-group-b-streptococcal-infections-virulence-factors-immunity-and-prevention-strategies
#15
REVIEW
Jay Vornhagen, Kristina M Adams Waldorf, Lakshmi Rajagopal
Group B streptococcus (GBS) or Streptococcus agalactiae is a β-hemolytic, Gram-positive bacterium that is a leading cause of neonatal infections. GBS commonly colonizes the lower gastrointestinal and genital tracts and, during pregnancy, neonates are at risk of infection. Although intrapartum antibiotic prophylaxis during labor and delivery has decreased the incidence of early-onset neonatal infection, these measures do not prevent ascending infection that can occur earlier in pregnancy leading to preterm births, stillbirths, or late-onset neonatal infections...
June 17, 2017: Trends in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28633491/optimization-of-inactivated-h5n9-highly-pathogenic-avian-influenza-vaccine-and-inactivated-salmonella-enterica-serovar-typhimurium-vaccine-with-antigen-dose-and-prime-boost-regimen-in-domestic-ducks
#16
Seong-Su Yuk, Eredene-Ochir To, Jung-Hoon Kwon, Jin-Yong Noh, Woo-Tack Hong, Jei-Hyun Jeong, Gyeong-Bin Gwon, Chang-Seon Song
Owing to the increase in the number of diseases affecting ducks and the demand for food safety by consumers, vaccination has become one of the factors that influence duck meat productivity. The highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) virus is one of the most prevalent and causes one of the most lethal diseases in domestic ducks, and Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium is a food-borne pathogen persistent in the domestic duck population. To better understand the optimal usage of HPAI and S. enterica serovar Typhimurium vaccines, we aimed to determine antigen dose, oil and gel adjuvant usage with prime-boost regimen, and vaccination age, inducing the best immune response in ducks, without an effect on body weight gain...
June 17, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28632192/coverage-and-influencing-determinants-of-influenza-vaccination-in-elderly-patients-in-a-country-with-a-poor-vaccination-implementation
#17
Maria Ganczak, Karolina Gil, Marcin Korzeń, Marta Bażydło
The seasonal influenza vaccination uptake of the elderly in Poland is one of the lowest in Europe. Objective: to assess the vaccination coverage and influencing determinants in patients ≥65 years of age. METHODS: A cross-sectional study was conducted (November 2015-April 2016) among consecutive patients admitted to a municipal hospital located in the city of Szczecin, North-west Poland. Patients completed researcher-administered, anonymous questionnaires on socio- demographic data/factors related to the vaccination...
June 20, 2017: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28628400/west-nile-virus-seroprevalence-in-animals-in-palestine-and-israel
#18
Kifaya Azmi, Sharon Tirosh-Levy, Mu'taz Manasrah, Rotem Mizrahi, Abed Nasereddin, Amer Al-Jawabreh, Suheir Ereqat, Ziad Abdeen, Yaniv Lustig, Boris Gelman, Gili Schvartz, Amir Steinman
West Nile virus (WNV) epidemiological situation in Israel and Palestine, due to their unique location, draws attention following to the global spread of West Nile fever (WNF). Although much information is available from Israel on clinical cases and prevalence of WNV, clinical cases are rarely reported in Palestine, and prevalence is not known. The objectives of this study were to determine WNV seroprevalence in various domestic animals in Palestine and to reevaluate current seroprevalence, force of infection, and risk factors for WNV exposure in horses in Israel...
June 19, 2017: Vector Borne and Zoonotic Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28626253/socio-economic-and-demographic-determinants-of-full-immunization-among-children-of-12-23-months-in-afghanistan
#19
Fraidoon Farzad, Joshua A Reyer, Eiko Yamamoto, Nobuyuki Hamajima
Immunization is one of the most cost-effective interventions to reduce vaccine-preventable diseases morbidity and mortality. Vaccination coverage is very low in Afghanistan; National Risk and Vulnerability Assessment (NRVA) Survey 2008 estimated the coverage of fully immunized children to be 37%. The current study was designed to examine the factors influencing full immunization among children aged 12-23 months. Demographic and vaccination data of 2,561 children of 12-23 months was extracted from the Afghanistan Health Survey (AHS) 2012...
February 2017: Nagoya Journal of Medical Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28620959/parental-disease-prevention-health-beliefs-and-triggers-for-keeping-children-home-from-childcare-a-qualitative-study-in-sydney-australia
#20
C L King, J Leask
BACKGROUND: Infectious diseases cause considerable morbidity and mortality in children less than 5 years of age. Children attending childcare centres are at increased risk of contracting infections. It is of public health interest to understand what triggers and underpins parental decisions to send an unwell child to childcare, with the obvious attendant risks to other children and childcare staff as well as the affected child. This study aimed to examine parents' disease prevention health beliefs and practices with a particular focus on how these factors influence childcare attendance decisions...
June 15, 2017: Child: Care, Health and Development
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