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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050417/influence-of-swimming-time-in-alleviating-the-deleterious-effects-of-hot-summer-on-growing-muscovy-duck-performance
#1
Mohamed F A Farghly, Khalid M Mahrose, Zafar Ullah, Zaib Ur Rehman, Chan Ding
This experiment was conducted to observe the effects of varying swimming times (ST) of Muscovy ducks, raised in an open-sided house, in alleviating the deleterious effects of high temperature in hotter times of the day in the summer season on growth performance (body weight, average daily gain, feed consumption, and feed conversion ratio), carcass characteristics, body temperature, and some health aspects. We hypothesized that swimming times during the hottest periods of the day would show different performances...
September 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29048987/health-literacy-and-vaccination-a-systematic-review
#2
Chiara Lorini, Francesca Santomauro, Martina Donzellini, Leonardo Capecchi, Angela Bechini, Sara Boccalini, Paolo Bonanni, Guglielmo Bonaccorsi
This systematic review describes the current relationship between health literacy (HL) and vaccination (including attitude to vaccines, intention to vaccinate, and vaccine uptake). The aim is to comprehend the role of HL as a determinant of vaccine hesitancy. For this purpose, the following databases were explored from 1 January 2007 to 15 January 2017: PubMed, Embase, PsycINFO, ERIC, Health Evidence, Centre for Reviews and Dissemination, Scopus, Web of Science, and Cochrane Library. Nine studies were included in the final synthesis...
October 19, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038424/frequency-dependent-selection-in-vaccine-associated-pneumococcal-population-dynamics
#3
Jukka Corander, Christophe Fraser, Michael U Gutmann, Brian Arnold, William P Hanage, Stephen D Bentley, Marc Lipsitch, Nicholas J Croucher
Many bacterial species are composed of multiple lineages distinguished by extensive variation in gene content. These often cocirculate in the same habitat, but the evolutionary and ecological processes that shape these complex populations are poorly understood. Addressing these questions is particularly important for Streptococcus pneumoniae, a nasopharyngeal commensal and respiratory pathogen, because the changes in population structure associated with the recent introduction of partial-coverage vaccines have substantially reduced pneumococcal disease...
October 16, 2017: Nature ecology & evolution
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29038117/will-systems-biology-deliver-its-promise-and-contribute-to-the-development-of-new-or-improved-vaccines-systems-biology-views-of-vaccine-innate-and-adaptive-immunity
#4
Rino Rappuoli, Emilio Siena, Oretta Finco
During the last decade, several high-throughput technologies have been applied to gather deeper understanding on the biological events elicited by vaccination. The main goal of systems biology is to integrate different sources of data and extract biologically meaningful information. This holistic approach has provided new insights on the impact that the innate immune status has on vaccine responsiveness. Other factors like chronic infections, age, microbiome, and metabolism can influence the outcome of vaccination, and systems biology offers unique opportunities to expand our understanding of their role on the immune response...
October 16, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037785/novel-bilayer-dissolving-microneedle-arrays-with-concentrated-plga-nano-microparticles-for-targeted-intradermal-delivery-proof-of-concept
#5
Lalit K Vora, Ryan F Donnelly, Eneko Larraneta, Patricia González-Vázquez, Raghu Raj Singh Thakur, Pradeep R Vavia
Polymeric microneedle (MN) arrays continue to receive growing attention due to their ability to bypass the skin's stratum corneum barrier in a minimally-invasive fashion and achieve enhanced transdermal drug delivery and "targeted" intradermal vaccine administration. In this research work, we fabricated biodegradable bilayer MN arrays containing nano - microparticles for targeted and sustained intradermal drug delivery. For this study, model drug (vitamin D3, VD3)-loaded PLGA nano- and microparticles (NMP) were prepared by a single emulsion solvent evaporation method with 72...
October 13, 2017: Journal of Controlled Release: Official Journal of the Controlled Release Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037575/using-best-worst-scaling-to-rank-factors-affecting-vaccination-demand-in-northern-nigeria
#6
Sachiko Ozawa, Chizoba Wonodi, Olufemi Babalola, Tukur Ismail, John Bridges
BACKGROUND: Understanding and ranking the reasons for low vaccination uptake among parents in northern Nigeria is critical to implement effective policies to save lives and prevent illnesses. This study applies best-worst scaling (BWS) to rank various factors affecting parents' demand for routine childhood immunization. METHODS: We conducted a household survey in Nahuche, Zamfara State in northern Nigeria. Nearly two hundred parents with children under age five were asked about their views on 16 factors using a BWS technique...
October 13, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29037541/zika-virus-an-emerging-challenge-for-obstetrics-and-gynecology
#7
REVIEW
Jhe-Jhih Lin, Ting-Yu Chin, Chih-Ping Chen, Hong-Lin Chan, Tzong-Yuan Wu
Microcephaly is a rare birth defect, however, the re-emerging mosquito and sexual transmitted flavivirus, Zika virus (ZIKV), had changed the situation and caused an urgent challenge for the obstetrics and gynecology. This review will brief summarize the epidemiology and virology of ZIKV. And compared the animal models that had developed for the ZIKV infections. These animal models will be benefit for the development of vaccines and anti-ZIKV drugs. Furthermore, the genes that are involved in the causation of microcephaly were also summarized...
October 2017: Taiwanese Journal of Obstetrics & Gynecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29033936/coinhibitory-receptor-expression-and-immune-checkpoint-blockade-maintaining-a-balance-in-cd8-t-cell-responses-to-chronic-viral-infections-and-cancer
#8
REVIEW
Isobel S Okoye, Michael Houghton, Lorne Tyrrell, Khaled Barakat, Shokrollah Elahi
In cancer and chronic viral infections, T cells are exposed to persistent antigen stimulation. This results in expression of multiple inhibitory receptors also called "immune checkpoints" by T cells. Although these inhibitory receptors under normal conditions maintain self-tolerance and prevent immunopathology, their sustained expression deteriorates T cell function: a phenomenon called exhaustion. Recent advances in cancer immunotherapy involve blockade of cytotoxic T lymphocyte antigen-4 and programmed cell death 1 in order to reverse T cell exhaustion and reinvigorate immunity, which has translated to dramatic clinical remission in many cases of metastatic melanoma and lung cancer...
2017: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032243/dna-methylation-patterns-are-related-to-co-morbidity-status-and-circulating-c-reactive-protein-levels-in-the-nursing-home-elderly
#9
Chris P Verschoor, Lisa M McEwen, Michael S Kobor, Mark B Loeb, Dawn M E Bowdish
Elderly residents of long-term care commonly exhibit a number of age-related health deficits, including impaired physical and cognitive function, chronic illnesses, and chronic inflammation. Given our previous data relating the phenotype and function of innate and adaptive leukocytes from the nursing home elderly to chronic conditions and inflammatory biomarkers, we hypothesized that these factors would influence the regulatory programming of immune cells, thereby contributing to immune dysfunction. Since DNA methylation represents both an important regulatory mechanism of cells as well as a biomarker of health and disease, we sought to characterize the methylome of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) from the nursing home elderly (n=23; 82-98years old, 70% female), and compare these patterns to pathological factors such as dementia, co-morbidity score and frailty, and immune-related factors such as serum C-reactive protein (CRP) and cytokine levels and varicella-zoster virus (VZV) vaccine responsiveness...
October 12, 2017: Experimental Gerontology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031694/a-formative-research-guided-educational-intervention-to-improve-the-knowledge-and-attitudes-of-seniors-towards-influenza-and-pneumococcal-vaccinations
#10
Hanley J Ho, Yin Ying Chan, Muhamad Alif Bin Ibrahim, Anurupa A Wagle, Christina M Wong, Angela Chow
BACKGROUND: Adult influenza and pneumococcal vaccination rates in Singapore are low, and factors influencing knowledge and attitudes of seniors towards influenza, pneumonia and their respective vaccines are not well-known. Our study aims to understand the barriers and facilitators towards getting influenza and pneumococcal vaccinations among seniors in Singapore, and subsequently inform the conduct of a relevant community-based educational intervention, as well as evaluate the intervention outcomes...
October 11, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29031691/understanding-vaccine-hesitancy-in-polio-eradication-in-northern-nigeria
#11
Sebastian Taylor, Mahmud Khan, Ado Muhammad, Okey Akpala, Marit van Strien, Chris Morry, Warren Feek, Ellyn Ogden
BACKGROUND: Vaccine hesitancy constitutes a major threat to the Global Polio Eradication Initiative (GPEI), and to further expansion of routine immunisation. Understanding hesitancy, leading in some cases to refusal, is vital to the success of GPEI. Re-emergence of circulating wild poliovirus in northern Nigeria in mid-2016, after 24months polio-free, gives urgency to this. But it is equally important to protect and sustain the global gains available through routine immunisation in a time of rising scepticism and potential rejection of specific vaccines or immunisation more generally...
October 11, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030308/engineering-intranasal-mrna-vaccines-to-enhance-lymph-node-trafficking-and-immune-responses
#12
Man Li, You Li, Ke Peng, Ying Wang, Tao Gong, Zhirong Zhang, Qin He, Xun Sun
Intranasal mRNA vaccination provides immediate immune protection against pandemic diseases. Recent studies have shown that diverse forms of polyethyleneimine (PEI) have potent mucosal adjuvant activity, which could significantly facilitate the delivery of intranasal mRNA vaccines. Nevertheless, optimizing the chemical structure of PEI to maximize its adjuvanticity and decrease its toxicity remains a challenge. Here we show that the chemical structure of PEI strongly influences how well nanocomplexes of PEI and mRNA migrate to the lymph nodes and elicit immune responses...
October 10, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29030304/interaction-of-cruciferin-based-nanoparticles-with-caco-2-cells-and-caco-2-ht29-mtx-co-cultures
#13
Ali Akbari, Afsaneh Lavasanifar, Jianping Wu
The objective of this work was to assess the potential of Cruciferin/Calcium (Cru/Ca) and Cruciferin/Chitosan (Cru/Cs) nanoparticles for oral drug delivery. For this purpose, Cru/Ca and Cru/Cs nanoparticles were developed through cold gelation of Cruciferin, a major canola protein, and in interaction with calcium and chitosan, respectively. The extent and rate of particle uptake in Caco-2 cells and Caco-2/HT29 co-culture was then evaluated by fluorescence spectroscopy as well as flow cytometry. Through pre-incubation of Caco-2 cell monolayer with specific endocytosis inhibitors, the mechanism of cell uptake was investigated...
October 10, 2017: Acta Biomaterialia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29029166/beyond-antigenic-match-possible-agent-host-and-immuno-epidemiological-influences-on-influenza-vaccine-effectiveness-during-the-2015-16-season-in-canada
#14
Danuta M Skowronski, Catharine Chambers, Suzana Sabaiduc, Gaston De Serres, Anne-Luise Winter, James A Dickinson, Jonathan B Gubbay, Steven J Drews, Christine Martineau, Hugues Charest, Mel Krajden, Nathalie Bastien, Yan Li
Background: Vaccine effectiveness (VE) estimates are reported from Canada's Sentinel Practitioner Surveillance Network (SPSN) for the 2015-16 influenza season, characterized by a delayed A(H1N1)pdm09 epidemic and concurrent B(Victoria) activity. Potential influences beyond antigenic match are explored including viral genomic variation, birth cohort effects, prior vaccination and epidemic period. Methods: VE was estimated by test-negative design comparing adjusted-odds ratio for influenza test-positivity among vaccinated vs...
October 4, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29028841/efficacies-of-prevention-and-control-measures-applied-during-an-outbreak-in-southwest-madrid-spain
#15
Anaiá da Paixão Sevá, Maia Martcheva, Necibe Tuncer, Isabella Fontana, Eugenia Carrillo, Javier Moreno, James Keesling
Leishmaniasis is a vector-borne disease of worldwide distribution, currently present in 98 countries. Since late 2010, an unusual increase of human visceral and cutaneous leishmaniasis cases has been observed in the south-western Madrid region, totaling more than 600 cases until 2015. Some hosts, such as human, domestic dog and cat, rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus), and hare (Lepus granatensis), were found infected by the parasite of this disease in the area. Hares were described as the most important reservoir due to their higher prevalence, capacity to infect the vector, and presence of the same strains as in humans...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29026141/combined-skin-and-muscle-vaccination-differentially-impact-the-quality-of-effector-t-cell-functions-the-cuthivac-001-randomized-trial
#16
G Haidari, A Cope, A Miller, S Venables, C Yan, H Ridgers, K Reijonen, D Hannaman, A Spentzou, P Hayes, G Bouliotis, A Vogt, S Joseph, B Combadiere, S McCormack, R J Shattock
Targeting of different tissues via transcutaneous (TC), intradermal (ID) and intramuscular (IM) injection has the potential to tailor the immune response to DNA vaccination. In this Phase I randomised controlled clinical trial in HIV-1 negative volunteers we investigate whether the site and mode of DNA vaccination influences the quality of the cellular immune responses. We adopted a strategy of concurrent immunization combining IM injection with either ID or TC administration. As a third arm we assessed the response to IM injection administered with electroporation (EP)...
October 12, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29025500/the-influence-of-self-efficacy-in-medical-drama-television-programming-on-behaviors-and-emotions-that-promote-cervical-cancer-prevention
#17
Sungsu Kim, Jay D Hmielowski
OBJECTIVES: We explored the influences of medical drama viewing on health behaviors and emotions, and examined the role of self-efficacy in medical drama programming. METHODS: A single-factor, 2-condition experimental design that manipulated self-efficacy levels was adopted. A total of 131 female undergraduate students who were likely involved with the issues of HPV vaccination and cervical cancer participated in this experiment. RESULTS: In line with social cognitive theory, the results indicated that participants in the high self-efficacy condition showed greater behavioral intention to receive a Pap smear (F (1, 126) = 4...
November 1, 2017: American Journal of Health Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29023157/public-health-and-school-nurses-perceptions-of-barriers-to-hpv-vaccination-in-missouri
#18
Darson Rhodes, Joseph Visker, Carol Cox, Emily Forsyth, Kendra Woolman
Human Papilloma Virus (HPV) is associated with various forms of cancer and is preventable with vaccination. Nurses are in a unique position to directly influence a person's decision to receive the HPV vaccine. A statewide sample of both school and public health nurses was used to assess knowledge and attitudes related to the HPV vaccine as well as nurse's behaviors and behavioral intentions toward educating parents and recommending the vaccine. Positive attitudes and adequate knowledge levels were found, however, the majority of school nurses did not provide information and resources to parents...
October 2017: Journal of Community Health Nursing
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020801/factors-influencing-influenza-vaccination-among-patients-with-chronic-obstructive-pulmonary-disease-a-population-based-cross-sectional-study
#19
Hyun-Young Shin, Hee-Jin Hwang, Jae Ho Chung
This study aimed to investigate the factors associated with vaccination coverage among chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) patients in Korea using the fourth to the sixth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (KNHANES IV, V, VI). A total of 16 812 subjects aged 40 years and older who underwent spirometry and had an "influenza vaccination history" were analyzed. The vaccination rate of middle-aged (40-64 years) COPD patients was only 31.9%; whereas, the vaccination rate of elderly (65 years and older) COPD patients was 80...
October 1, 2017: Asia-Pacific Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29020186/rabies-postexposure-prophylaxis-pep-noncompletion-after-dog-bites-estimating-the-unseen-to-meet-the-needs-of-the-underserved
#20
Arnaud Tarantola, Sophie Blanchi, Julien Cappelle, Sowath Ly, Malen Chan, Sotheary In, Yiksing Peng, Chanthy Hing, Chun Navy Taing, Sovann Ly, Hervé Bourhy, Philippe Buchy, Philippe Dussart, Jean-Yves Mary
Post exposure prophylaxis prevents human rabies and is accessible in Cambodia principally in Phnom Penh, the capital. Timely, affordable access to post-exposure prophylaxis is a challenge for the mainly rural population. We aimed to identify districts independently associated with post-exposure prophylaxis (PEP) noncompletion to position frontline vaccination centers. We analyzed the 2009-2013 database at the rabies prevention center of the Institut Pasteur du Cambodge, Phnom Penh. Logistic regressions identified non-geographic determinants of PEP noncompletion and districts after adjustment for these determinants...
August 23, 2017: American Journal of Epidemiology
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