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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29451465/the-pap-test-20th-century-success-story-21st-century-has-been
#1
Jan Greene
This old standby's ultimate demise will likely take place when cervical cancer incidence declines as the HPV vaccine starts to take effect at a population level. New guidelines are being written, but insurers could have a major influence on how closely those guidelines are followed. So far, though, they haven't waded very far into the Pap-HPV debate.
February 2018: Managed Care
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29446800/biology-of-vibrio-cholera-editorial-overview
#2
EDITORIAL
Felipe Cava
In this monographic issue, we have the pleasure to present contributions from six of the leading laboratories at the forefront of Vibrio cholerae genetics, ecology and evolution, together with a brief tribute by Diego Romero to Doctor Jaime Ferrán y Clua, a pioneering Spanish bacteriologist who developed the first vaccine against this pathogen. V. cholerae is a free-living aquatic bacterium that interacts with and infects a variety of organisms. In humans it causes cholera, the deadly diarrhoea that was responsible for millions of deaths during seven pandemics since 1817, and still thousands every year...
September 2017: International Microbiology: the Official Journal of the Spanish Society for Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29445079/seropositivity-of-hepatitis-a-in-children-aged-7-14-years-in-diyarbakir-province-center
#3
Ayfer Gözü Pirinççioğlu, Salih Adıgüzel, Tuncer Özekinci
BACKGROUND Hepatitis A virus (HAV) is a common morbidity in society, and mortality is more common in older ages. It is important to identify the prevalence in the population, the development of primary protection methods, and vaccination policies. This study aimed to identify anti-HAV seropositivity in children in 3 different schools in Diyarbakır, Turkey, to evaluate the risk factors influencing prevalence, and thus to develop strategies to prevent infection. MATERIAL AND METHODS The study was a prospective investigation of 600 children with a mean age of 10...
February 15, 2018: Medical Science Monitor: International Medical Journal of Experimental and Clinical Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29441721/application-of-mono-or-disaccharides-in-drug-targeting-and-efficacy
#4
SiSi Yuan, MaoLin Li, Jiansheng Chen, Li Zhou, Wen Zhou
Carbohydrates and their conjugates play important roles in many life processes including fertilization, differentiation, development, immune response, and infection. Their activities were largely dependent on the properties of terminal mono- or disaccharides. Galactose, mannose, fucose, glucose, sialic acid, etc. are commonly used as powerful scaffolds installed on drug molecules for targeting specific tissues including brain, liver and cancers, and as epitopes for enhancing the targeting of various vaccination...
February 13, 2018: ChemMedChem
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29434600/negative-effect-of-age-but-not-of-latent-cytomegalovirus-infection-on-the-antibody-response-to-a-novel-influenza-vaccine-strain-in-healthy-adults
#5
Sara P H van den Berg, Albert Wong, Marion Hendriks, Ronald H J Jacobi, Debbie van Baarle, Josine van Beek
Older adults are more vulnerable to influenza virus infection and at higher risk for severe complications and influenza-related death compared to younger adults. Unfortunately, influenza vaccine responses tend to be impaired in older adults due to aging of the immune system (immunosenescence). Latent infection with cytomegalovirus (CMV) is assumed to enhance age-associated deleterious changes of the immune system. Although lower responses to influenza vaccination were reported in CMV-seropositive compared to CMV-seronegative adults and elderly, beneficial effects of CMV infection were observed as well...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29433135/-training-on-vaccination-for-health-care-professionals
#6
Elisa Langiano, Maria Ferrara, Elisabetta De Vito
Vaccinations in Italy show a downward trend since 2013 due to an evergrowing mistrust of the population with regard to vaccination that has resulted in lesser adherence to vaccination programs. The main cause of the reduction is due to a tendency observed in recent years, even at the international level, known as 'vaccine hesitancy'. A growing number of studies on vaccine hesitancy show that causes vary by country, population, vaccine, and context influences, but in all cases emerges the importance of health care professionals in patients decision about vaccine...
September 2017: Igiene e Sanità Pubblica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29427482/how-to-improve-access-to-therapy-in-hepatitis-b-patients
#7
REVIEW
Miroslava Subic, Fabien Zoulim
Despite the availability of a preventive vaccine and active antiviral treatments that stop disease progression and reduce the risk of hepatocellular carcinoma, hepatitis B is still a major public health problem. Only an estimated 10% of the 257 million people living with HBV have been diagnosed and as few as 1% are being adequately treated. Barriers to diagnosis and treatment include: (i) limited awareness and lack of knowledge about HBV infection and HBV-related diseases; (ii) under-diagnosis with insufficient screening and referral to care; (iii) limited treatment due to drug availability, costs, reimbursement policies and the need for long-term or life-long therapy...
February 2018: Liver International: Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of the Liver
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426673/sex-bias-in-mouse-humoral-immune-response-to-influenza-vaccine-depends-on-the-vaccine-type
#8
Irena Živković, Raisa Petrović, Nevena Arsenović-Ranin, Vladimir Petrušić, Rajna Minić, Biljana Bufan, Olga Popović, Gordana Leposavić
The study explored influence of biological sex on development of humoral immune response to seasonal trivalent whole inactivated virus (WIV) and split virus (SV) influenza vaccines in outbred Swiss mouse model. To this end, mice of both sexes were immunized with WIV (WIV mice) and SV vaccines (SV mice) and examined for specific antibody response. Irrespective of sex, total IgG and neutralizing antibody responses to distinct virus strains were weaker in SV than in WIV mice. In WIV mice of both sexes, irrespective of strain specificity, IgG isotype response was dominated by IgG2a antibodies, while in SV mice nearly equal representation of IgG2a and IgG1 antibodies was found...
February 6, 2018: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29426662/the-impact-of-vaccination-and-patient-characteristics-on-influenza-vaccination-uptake-of-elderly-people-a-discrete-choice-experiment
#9
Esther W de Bekker-Grob, Jorien Veldwijk, Marcel Jonker, Bas Donkers, Jan Huisman, Sylvia Buis, Joffre Swait, Emily Lancsar, Cilia L M Witteman, Gouke Bonsel, Patrick Bindels
OBJECTIVES: To improve information for patients and to facilitate a vaccination coverage that is in line with the EU and World Health Organization goals, we aimed to quantify how vaccination and patient characteristics impact on influenza vaccination uptake of elderly people. METHODS: An online discrete choice experiment (DCE) was conducted among 1261 representatives of the Dutch general population aged 60 years or older. In the DCE, we used influenza vaccination scenarios based on five vaccination characteristics: effectiveness, risk of severe side effects, risk of mild side effects, protection duration, and absorption time...
February 6, 2018: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425779/dynamics-of-cholera-epidemics-with-impulsive-vaccination-and-disinfection
#10
Omprakash Singh Sisodiya, O P Misra, Joydip Dhar
Waterborne diseases have a tremendous influence on human life. The contaminated drinking water causes water-borne disease like cholera. Pulse vaccination is an important and effective strategy for the elimination of infectious diseases. A waterborne disease like cholera can also be controlled by using impulse technique. In this paper, we have proposed a delayed SEIRB epidemic model with impulsive vaccination and disinfection. We have studied the pulse vaccination strategy and sanitation to control the cholera disease...
February 6, 2018: Mathematical Biosciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29425695/hyaluronan-in-the-lymphatics-the-key-role-of-the-hyaluronan-receptor-lyve-1-in-leucocyte-trafficking
#11
REVIEW
David G Jackson
LYVE-1, a close relative of the leucocyte receptor, CD44, is the main receptor for hyaluronan (HA) in lymphatic vessel endothelium and a widely used marker for distinguishing between blood and lymphatic vessels. Enigmatic for many years because of its anomalous HA-binding characteristics, the function of LYVE-1 has just recently been identified as that of a lymphatic docking receptor for dendritic cells, selectively engaging with their surface HA glycocalyx to regulate entry to peripheral lymphatics and migration to downstream lymph nodes for immune activation...
February 6, 2018: Matrix Biology: Journal of the International Society for Matrix Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424779/impact-of-aging-and-hiv-infection-on-serologic-response-to-seasonal-influenza-vaccination
#12
Suresh Pallikkuth, Lesley R De Armas, Rajendra Pahwa, Stefano Rinaldi, Varghese K George, Celeste M Sanchez, Li Pan, Gordon Dickinson, Allan Rodriguez, Margaret Fischl, Maria Alcaide, Savita Pahwa
OBJECTIVE: To determine influence of age and HIV infection on influenza vaccine responses. DESIGN: Evaluate serologic response to seasonal trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) as the immunologic outcome in HIV-infected (HIV) and age-matched HIV negative (HIV) adults. METHODS: During 2013-2016, 151 virologically controlled HIV individuals on antiretroviral therapy and 164 HIV volunteers grouped by age as young (<40 years), middle aged (40-59 years) and old (≥60 years) were administered TIV and investigated for serum antibody response to vaccine antigens...
February 8, 2018: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29424034/total-and-toxocara-canis-larval-excretory-secretory-antigen-and-allergen-specific-ige-in-atopic-and-non-atopic-dogs
#13
Lena L M N Zwickl, Deborah E Joekel, Nina M Fischer, Ana Rostaher, Kristian Thamsborg, Peter Deplazes, Claude Favrot
BACKGROUND: Total IgE concentrations are higher in dogs than in humans. Persistent Toxocara canis larval infection is prevalent in dogs and is associated with substantial specific antibody reactions. A correlation, however, between total IgE and T. canis-specific antibody levels in dogs has not been evaluated. OBJECTIVES: To determine the relationship between total IgE, T. canis-specific IgG and IgE, and allergen-specific IgE levels in atopic and non-atopic dogs, and to evaluate possible confounding factors...
February 9, 2018: Veterinary Dermatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423949/genetic-diversity-of-equine-herpesvirus-1-isolated-from-neurological-abortigenic-and-respiratory-disease-outbreaks
#14
N A Bryant, G S Wilkie, C A Russell, L Compston, D Grafham, L Clissold, K McLay, L Medcalf, R Newton, A J Davison, D M Elton
Equine herpesvirus 1 (EHV-1) causes respiratory disease, abortion, neonatal death and neurological disease in equines and is endemic in most countries. The viral factors that influence EHV-1 disease severity are poorly understood, and this has hampered vaccine development. However, the N752D substitution in the viral DNA polymerase catalytic subunit has been shown statistically to be associated with neurological disease. This has given rise to the term "neuropathic strain," even though strains lacking the polymorphism have been recovered from cases of neurological disease...
February 9, 2018: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29423883/prescribing-immunoglobulin-replacement-therapy-for-patients-with-non-classical-and-secondary-antibody-deficiency-an-analysis-of-the-practice-of-clinical-immunologists-in-the-uk-and-republic-of-ireland
#15
John David M Edgar, Alex G Richter, Aarnoud P Huissoon, Dinakantha S Kumararatne, Helen E Baxendale, Claire A Bethune, Tomaz Garcez, Siraj A Misbah, Ricardo U Sorensen
BACKGROUND: Immunologists are increasingly being asked to assess patients with non-classical and secondary antibody deficiency to determine their potential need for immunoglobulin replacement therapy (IGRT). Immunoglobulin is a limited, expensive resource and no clear guidance exists for this broad patient group. The purpose of this survey is to establish what factors influence the decision to commence IGRT in adult patients, when diagnostic criteria for primary antibody deficiency are not fulfilled...
February 8, 2018: Journal of Clinical Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29419678/tour-leaders-with-detailed-knowledge-of-travel-related-diseases-play-a-key-role-in-disease-prevention
#16
Shu-Hua Hsu, Hsien-Liang Huang, Chia-Wen Lu, Shao-Yi Cheng, Long-Teng Lee, Tai-Yuan Chiu, Kuo-Chin Huang
In Taiwan, group tours are a popular mode of international travel; hence, group tour leaders must ensure traveler safety and health. This study identified factors influencing tour leaders' willingness to recommend pretravel medical consultation and vaccination.A cross-sectional questionnaire survey was administered to tour leaders from January 2011 to December 2012. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were performed to estimate the odds ratios of having a positive attitude and willingness based on different knowledge scores of the tour leaders after adjustments for age, sex, education level, and seniority...
February 2018: Medicine (Baltimore)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417468/antibody-response-of-growing-german-holstein-bulls-to-a-vaccination-against-bovine-viral-diarrhea-virus-bvdv-is-influenced-by-fusarium-toxin-exposure-in-a-non-linear-fashion
#17
Sven Dänicke, Janine Winkler, Ulrich Meyer, Susanne Kersten, Kerstin Wernike, Martin Beer, Jana Frahm
The Fusarium toxin deoxynivalenol (DON) is a frequent contaminant of feedstuffs and is supposed to interfere with immune responses. As the relevance for growing bulls is less clear than for other livestock, the trial was designed according to the dose-response principal with a control group fed a diet with background contamination (CON, 0.36 mg DON per kilogram dry matter [DM]) and three groups with increasing concentrations of DON (mg/kg DM); FUS I, 3.01; FUS II, 5.66; FUS III, 8.31. Half of each treatment group was vaccinated against BVDV at days 1 and 21 of the 70 days lasting experiment...
February 7, 2018: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29417054/aujeszky-s-disease-and-hepatitis-e-viruses-transmission-between-domestic-pigs-and-wild-boars-in-corsica-evaluating-the-importance-of-wild-domestic-interactions-and-the-efficacy-of-management-measures
#18
François Charrier, Sophie Rossi, Ferran Jori, Oscar Maestrini, Céline Richomme, François Casabianca, Christian Ducrot, Johan Jouve, Nicole Pavio, Marie-Frédérique Le Potier
Wildlife species as reservoirs of infectious pathogens represent a serious constraint in the implementation of disease management strategies. In the Mediterranean island of Corsica, the dynamics of hepatitis E virus (HEV) and Aujeszky's disease virus (ADV) are suspected to be influenced by interactions between wild and domestic pigs. To improve our understanding of these influences, we first compared the seroprevalences of both viruses in domestic pig populations from different locations with contrasted levels of wild-domestic interactions, ADV vaccination, biosafety, and farm husbandry...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416597/peptide-adjacent-to-glycosylation-sites-impacts-immunogenicity-of-glycoconjugate-vaccine
#19
Zhongrui Ma, Huajie Zhang, Peng George Wang, Xian-Wei Liu, Min Chen
Glycoconjugate vaccine is composed of polysaccharides (PSs) covalently linked with carrier protein. Glycosylation site selection, as a significant factor leading to heterogeneities of glycoconjugate structure, draws more and more attentions for its impact on the immunogenicity of glycoconjugate vaccine. To elucidate the relationship between glycosylation connectivity and immunogenicity of glycoconjugate vaccine, in this study, anti-E. coli O157:H7 glycoconjugate O-PS-MBP with defined connectivity, and three selected peptide segments GS1, GS2, GS3 derived from O-PS-MBP was synthesized...
January 2, 2018: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29416317/the-influence-of-prebiotic-or-probiotic-supplementation-on-antibody-titers-after-influenza-vaccination-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis-of-randomized-controlled-trials
#20
Tzu-Lin Yeh, Pei-Ching Shih, Shu-Jung Liu, Chao-Hsu Lin, Jui-Ming Liu, Wei-Te Lei, Chien-Yu Lin
Background: Influenza infection is a common disease with a huge disease burden. Influenza vaccination has been widely used, but concerns regarding vaccine efficacy exist, especially in the elderly. Probiotics are live microorganisms with immunomodulatory effects and may enhance the immune responses to influenza vaccination. Methods: We conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to determine the influence of prebiotics/probiotics/synbiotics supplementation on vaccine responses to influenza vaccination...
2018: Drug Design, Development and Therapy
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