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Influence vaccination

Petra Zimmermann, Nigel Curtis
There is substantial variation between individuals in the immune response to vaccinations. The intestinal microbiome plays a crucial rule in the development and regulation of the immune system and therefore its composition might affect how individuals respond to vaccinations. In this review, we summarise studies that investigated the influence of the intestinal microbiome on humoral and cellular vaccine responses. To date, only four studies (three in infants and one in adults) have investigated the influence of the intestinal microbiome on vaccine responses...
June 13, 2018: Vaccine
Nadine Schmidt, Tim Luhmann, Liane Hüther, Ulrich Meyer, Stefanie A Barth, Lutz Geue, Christian Menge, Jana Frahm, Sven Dänicke
Vitamin E (vit E), an essential antioxidant for maintaining the stability of biological membranes and the function of the immune system, is considered to support adaptive immune responses and performance in cattle. The principal virulence factor of Shiga toxin (Stx)-producing Escherichia coli (STEC), the eponymous Stx, modulates cellular immune responses in cattle, the primary STEC reservoir. Active and passive immunization of calves with Shiga toxoids (rStxMUT ) was recently shown to reduce the STEC shedding...
June 15, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
Dudith Pierre-Victor, Dionne P Stephens, Angela Omondi, Rachel Clarke, Naomie Jean-Baptiste, Purnima Madhivanan
Background: Haitian women residing in the United States are disproportionately affected by cervical cancer. Human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine has been licensed in the United States since 2006. Vaccination rates are less than optimal overall, and the rates are particularly low among young black women. We investigated barriers to HPV vaccination in a sample of Haitian American college women. Methods: Thirty self-identified Haitian American women, aged 17-26 years, were recruited from a large university campus in southeastern United States ( n =30)...
2018: Health Equity
Jennifer B Dowd, Helen A Fletcher, Delia Boccia
A high burden of TB mortality persists despite the long-term availability of the bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine, whose efficacy has been highly variable across populations. Innovative and alternative approaches to TB prevention are urgently needed while optimal biomedical tools continue to be developed. We call for new interdisciplinary collaborations to expand and integrate our understanding of how social determinants influence the biological processes that lead to TB disease, how this translates into differential BCG efficacy and, ultimately, how social protection interventions can play a role in reducing the global burden of TB...
2018: F1000Research
Galit Alter, Tom H M Ottenhoff, Simone A Joosten
Antibodies are antigen recognizing immunoglobulins with an amazingly diverse repertoire in the antigen specific domain. The diversity of the antibody response is further increased by modifications such as somatic recombination and hypermutation. Furthermore, variation in the isotype and post-translational modifications such as Fc glycosylation further increase diversity of the effector functions. In particular variations in the glycan structures contribute significantly to the functional capacities of the antibodies...
June 11, 2018: Seminars in Immunology
Eva Maria Greunz, Anne K H Krogh, Wouter Pieters, Olga Amann Ruiz, Julia Bohner, Anja Reckendorf, Davide Monaco, Mads Frost Bertelsen
  Acute-phase reactants indicate inflammation and are increasingly used in veterinary medicine to indicate and to monitor progression of disease. Hemostasis and inflammation have interconnected pathophysiologic pathways and influence each other on different levels. This study established observed normal ranges for acute-phase reactants and for coagulation and thromboelastographic (TEG) parameters in 49 dromedary camels ( Camelus dromedarius) and assessed the response to chronic and acute inflammation. Chronically infected animals suffering from lymph abscessation due to Corynebacterium spp...
June 2018: Journal of Zoo and Wildlife Medicine: Official Publication of the American Association of Zoo Veterinarians
Maximilian Koblischke, Karin Stiasny, Stephan W Aberle, Stefan Malafa, Georgios Tschouchnikas, Julia Schwaiger, Michael Kundi, Franz X Heinz, Judith H Aberle
Zika virus (ZIKV) has recently caused explosive outbreaks in Pacific islands, South- and Central America. Like with other flaviviruses, protective immunity is strongly dependent on potently neutralizing antibodies (Abs) directed against the viral envelope protein E. Such Ab formation is promoted by CD4 T cells through direct interaction with B cells that present epitopes derived from E or other structural proteins of the virus. Here, we examined the extent and epitope dominance of CD4 T cell responses to capsid (C) and envelope proteins in Zika patients...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Gemma Lasseter, Hareth Al-Janabi, Caroline L Trotter, Fran E Carroll, Hannah Christensen
BACKGROUND: Decisions regarding which vaccines are funded in the United Kingdom (UK) are increasingly informed by cost-effectiveness analyses. Such analyses use Quality Adjusted Life Years (QALYs) as a measure of effectiveness and assume that QALYs are equal regardless of where and in whom they occur in the population. However, there is increasing debate about whether this QALY approach is appropriate and whether societal preferences for childhood vaccinations should be used to help inform childhood immunisation policy...
2018: PloS One
Ayako Sumi
OBJECTIVE: In this study, we sought to explore the temperature-dependent transition of patterns of reported chickenpox cases in the northern European countries of Denmark and Finland to help determine the potential relationship with epidemiological factors of the disease. We performed time-series analysis consisting of a spectral analysis based on the maximum entropy method in the frequency domain and the nonlinear least squares method in the time domain, using the following time-series data: monthly data of reported chickenpox cases and mean temperatures in the pre-vaccination era for Denmark and Finland...
June 13, 2018: BMC Research Notes
J Zheng, H Xue, H Zhang, L Wang, L Zheng, X Wang, X Lin, S Jin, J Wu
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection is a major public health problem and immune tolerance is responsible for persistent HBV infection. HBV therapeutic vaccines targeting HBV e antigen (HBeAg) may have an excellent effect in overcoming HBV immune tolerance. Thus, there is urgency for designing therapeutic vaccine candidates that target HBeAg. In this research, we fused the C (472-507) gene sequence of HBV with the extracellular domain of human CD40 ligand sequence and ligated this fused sequence into the pEGFP-N1 vector to construct the recombinant plasmid pEGFP-N1-C (472-507)-ecdCD40L...
2018: Acta Virologica
Mai-Chi Trieu, Åsne Jul-Larsen, Marianne Sævik, Anders Madsen, Jane Kristin Nøstbakken, Fan Zhou, Steinar Skrede, Rebecca Jane Cox
Background: The 2009 influenza pandemic was caused by A/H1N1pdm09 virus, which was subsequently included in the seasonal vaccine as the A/H1N1 strain up to 2016/17. This provided a unique opportunity to investigate the antibody response to H1N1pdm09 over time. Methods: Healthcare workers (HCWs) were immunized with the AS03-adjuvanted H1N1pdm09 vaccine in 2009 (N=250), and subsequently vaccinated with seasonal vaccines containing H1N1pdm09 for 4 seasons (repeated group), <4 seasons (occasional group), or received no further vaccinations (single group)...
June 9, 2018: Clinical Infectious Diseases: An Official Publication of the Infectious Diseases Society of America
Laura C Roberts, Geoffrey T Fosgate
Foot-and-mouth disease (FMD) prevention and control is a challenge worldwide but the situation in southern Africa is particularly complex because the virus is endemic in wild African buffalo (Syncerus caffer). The objective of this study was to compare stakeholder perceptions of the FMD control methods employed to restrict FMD virus to the infected zone of South Africa. Data collection was performed using an online questionnaire distributed to FMD experts, government veterinarians, private livestock veterinarians, people involved within the wildlife sector, and "other" occupation groups including the general public...
August 1, 2018: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
Gayle DeLong
Birth rates in the United States have recently fallen. Birth rates per 1000 females aged 25-29 fell from 118 in 2007 to 105 in 2015. One factor may involve the vaccination against the human papillomavirus (HPV). Shortly after the vaccine was licensed, several reports of recipients experiencing primary ovarian failure emerged. This study analyzed information gathered in National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, which represented 8 million 25-to-29-year-old women residing in the United States between 2007 and 2014...
June 11, 2018: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Laura A Palomares, Indresh K Srivastava, Octavio T Ramírez, Manon M J Cox
The insect cell-baculovirus expression system technology (BEST) has a prominent role in producing recombinant proteins to be used as research and diagnostic reagents and vaccines. The glycosylation profile of proteins produced by the BEST is composed predominantly of terminal mannose glycans, and, in Trichoplusia ni cell lines, core α3 fucosylation, a profile different to that in mammals. Insects contain all the enzymatic activities needed for complex N- and O-glycosylation and sialylation, although few reports of complex glycosylation and sialylation by the BEST exist...
June 10, 2018: Advances in Biochemical Engineering/biotechnology
Guanguan Luo, Pierre Yves Boelle, Clément Turbelin, Félicie Costantino, Solen Kerneis, Roula Said Nahal, Maxime Breban, Thomas Hanslik
OBJECTIVE: The contribution of environmental factors to spondyloarthritis (SpA) course remains poorly characterized. We previously reported a possible triggering of disease flares by stressful life events and vaccination. The objective of the present study was to specify the types of vaccine and life event that may influence disease activity. METHODS: A prospective cohort of adult SpA was followed for two years. Patients logged on to a secured website every month to complete a standardized auto-questionnaire...
June 5, 2018: Joint, Bone, Spine: Revue du Rhumatisme
Geneviève Baron, Virginie Gosselin, Geneviève Petit, Maryse Guay, Arnaud Gagneur
OBJECTIVES: Very low uptake has been noted for influenza vaccination in the province of Quebec. This study aimed to identify the determinants of influenza vaccination among a large regional population. METHODS: A telephone survey was administered to a random digit sample in the Eastern Townships region (Quebec, Canada). Respondents were asked questions on several health topics such as perceived knowledge and beliefs about influenza immunization, medical consultations, perceived health status and life habits...
June 8, 2018: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
Petra Zimmermann, Nigel Curtis
Bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) vaccine is one of the most widely used vaccines worldwide. In addition to providing protection against tuberculosis, it has non-specific (heterologous) immunomodulatory effects. Areas covered: In our systematic review, we found eight studies, involving 2439 participants, investigating the influence of BCG vaccination on the humoral response to 16 different vaccines. A beneficial effect of BCG on vaccine responses was reported in five of the eight studies. Previous or concurrent administration of BCG was associated with significantly higher levels of antibodies against hepatitis B, polio virus type 1, pneumococcus and influenza in some studies...
June 8, 2018: Expert Review of Vaccines
Katharine J Looker, Minttu M Rönn, Patrick M Brock, Marc Brisson, Melanie Drolet, Philippe Mayaud, Marie-Claude Boily
INTRODUCTION: Observational studies suggest HIV and human papillomavirus (HPV) infections may have multiple interactions. We reviewed the strength of the evidence for the influence of HIV on HPV acquisition and clearance, and the influence of HPV on HIV acquisition. METHODS: We performed meta-analytic systematic reviews of longitudinal studies of HPV incidence and clearance rate by HIV status (review 1) and of HIV incidence by HPV status (review 2). We pooled relative risk (RR) estimates across studies using random-effect models...
June 2018: Journal of the International AIDS Society
Khairul Dzakirin Bin Rusli, Rosamund Bryar
Adults ≥65 are more susceptible to influenza infection and its associated complications. This paper critically reviews the literature, identifying the need for and priorities of a public health strategy to improve vaccination awareness and uptake among older adults. Four electronic databases were searched for peer-reviewed articles in English published between 2001 and 2016. Twelve studies were included. Three themes were identified on analysis: impact on healthcare services; barriers and motivators influencing influenza vaccination uptake; and health promotion interventions...
June 2, 2018: British Journal of Community Nursing
Sam L Stephen, Lucy Beales, Hadrien Peyret, Amy Roe, Nicola J Stonehouse, David J Rowlands
The hepatitis B virus (HBV) core protein (HBc) has formed the building block for virus-like particle (VLP) production for more than 30 years. The ease of production of the protein, the robust ability of the core monomers to dimerize and assemble into intact core particles, and the strong immune responses they elicit when presenting antigenic epitopes all demonstrate its promise for vaccine development (reviewed in Pumpens and Grens (Intervirology 44: 98-114, 2001)). HBc has been modified in a number of ways in attempts to expand its potential as a novel vaccine platform...
2018: Methods in Molecular Biology
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