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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220721/novel-effect-of-methionine-enkephalin-against-influenza-a-virus-infection-through-inhibiting-tlr7-myd88-traf6-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-p65-signaling-pathway
#1
Jing Tian, Xue Jiao, Xiaonan Wang, Jin Geng, Reizhe Wang, Ning Liu, Xinhua Gao, Noreen Griffin, Fengping Shan
The morbidity and mortality associated with influenza A virus infections, have stimulated the search for novel prophylactic and therapeutic drugs. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prophylactic and therapeutic effect of synthetic methionine enkephalin (MENK) on mice infected by A/PR/8/34 influenza virus (H1N1) in vivo. The results showed that MENK could exert both prophylactic and therapeutic influences on infected mice, significantly improve the survival rate, relieve acute lung injury and decrease cytokine (IFN-α, IFN-β, TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-1β) levels...
December 5, 2017: International Immunopharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29220514/the-influence-of-social-norms-on-flu-vaccination-among-african-american-and-white-adults
#2
Sandra Crouse Quinn, Karen M Hilyard, Amelia M Jamison, Ji An, Gregory R Hancock, Donald Musa, Vicki S Freimuth
Adult influenza vaccination rates remain suboptimal, particularly among African Americans. Social norms may influence vaccination behavior, but little research has focused on influenza vaccine and almost no research has focused on racially-specific norms. This mixed methods investigation utilizes qualitative interviews and focus groups (n = 118) and national survey results (n = 1643) to assess both descriptive and subjective norms surrounding influenza vaccination. Qualitative results suggest a perceived descriptive norm that 'about half' of the population gets vaccinated...
December 6, 2017: Health Education Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217585/patient-hla-class-i-genotype-influences-cancer-response-to-checkpoint-blockade-immunotherapy
#3
Diego Chowell, Luc G T Morris, Claud M Grigg, Jeffrey K Weber, Robert M Samstein, Vladimir Makarov, Fengshen Kuo, Sviatoslav M Kendall, David Requena, Nadeem Riaz, Benjamin Greenbaum, James Carroll, Edward Garon, David M Hyman, Ahmet Zehir, David Solit, Michael Berger, Ruhong Zhou, Naiyer A Rizvi, Timothy A Chan
CD8+ T cell-dependent killing of cancer cells requires efficient presentation of tumor antigens by human leukocyte antigen class I (HLA-I) molecules. However, the extent to which patient-specific HLA-I genotype influences response to anti-PD-1 or anti-CTLA-4 is currently unknown. We determined the HLA-I genotype of 1,535 advanced cancer patients treated with immune checkpoint blockade (ICB). Maximal heterozygosity at HLA-I loci (A, B, and C) improved overall survival after ICB compared to patients who were homozygous for at least one HLA locus...
December 7, 2017: Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217369/influence-of-the-intestinal-microbiota-on-the-immunogenicity-of-oral-rotavirus-vaccine-given-to-infants-in-south-india
#4
Edward P K Parker, Ira Praharaj, Anna Zekavati, Robin P Lazarus, Sidhartha Giri, Darwin J Operario, Jie Liu, Eric Houpt, Miren Iturriza-Gómara, Beate Kampmann, Jacob John, Gagandeep Kang, Nicholas C Grassly
Oral rotavirus vaccines have consistently proven to be less immunogenic among infants in developing countries. Discrepancies in the intestinal microbiota, including a greater burden of enteropathogens and an altered commensal community composition, may contribute to this trend by inhibiting the replication of vaccine viruses. To test this possibility, we performed a nested case-control study in Vellore, India, in which we compared the intestinal microbiota of infants who responded serologically or not after two doses of Rotarix delivered at 6 and 10 weeks of age as part of a clinical trial (CTRI/2012/05/002677)...
December 4, 2017: Vaccine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216343/nonhuman-primate-models-of-respiratory-disease-past-present-and-future
#5
Lisa A Miller, Christopher M Royer, Kent E Pinkerton, Edward S Schelegle
The respiratory system consists of an integrated network of organs and structures that primarily function for gas exchange. In mammals, oxygen and carbon dioxide are transmitted through a complex respiratory tract, consisting of the nasal passages, pharynx, larynx, and lung. Exposure to ambient air throughout the lifespan imposes vulnerability of the respiratory system to environmental challenges that can contribute toward development of disease. The importance of the respiratory system to human health is supported by statistics from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention; in 2015, chronic lower respiratory diseases were the third leading cause of death in the United States...
December 5, 2017: ILAR Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29216220/retarded-germination-of-nicotiana-tabacum-seeds-following-insertion-of-exogenous-dna-mimics-the-seed-persistent-behavior
#6
Elisabetta Onelli, Alessandra Moscatelli, Assunta Gagliardi, Mauro Zaninelli, Luca Bini, Antonella Baldi, Marco Caccianiga, Serena Reggi, Luciana Rossi
Tobacco seeds show a coat-imposed dormancy in which the seed envelope tissues (testa and endosperm) impose a physical constraint on the radicle protrusion. The germination-limiting process is represented by the endosperm rupture which is induced by cell-wall weakening. Transgenic tobacco seeds, obtained by insertion of exogenous genes codifying for seed-based oral vaccines (F18 and VT2eB), showed retarded germination with respect to the wild type and modified the expression of endogenous proteins. Morphological and proteomic analyses of wild type and transgenic seeds revealed new insights into factors influencing seed germination...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29213258/the-complexity-of-antibody-responses-elicited-against-the-respiratory-syncytial-virus-glycoproteins-in-hospitalized-children-younger-than-2-years
#7
Alfonsina Trento, Rosa Rodríguez-Fernández, María I González-Sánchez, Felipe González-Martínez, Vicente Mas, Mónica Vázquez, Concepción Palomo, José A Melero
The influence of age and maternal antibodies on the antibody responses to human respiratory syncytial virus (hRSV) glycoproteins in very young children has been a matter of controversy. Both, immaturity of the immune system at very early age and suppression of the host immune response by high level of maternal antibodies have been claimed to limit the host antibody response to virus infection and to jeopardize the use of hRSV vaccines under development in that age group. Hence, the antibody responses to the two major hRSV glycoproteins (F and G) were evaluated in children younger than 2 years, hospitalized with laboratory confirmed hRSV bronchiolitis...
2017: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29205701/antibody-response-to-seasonal-influenza-vaccination-in-multiple-sclerosis-patients-receiving-immunomodulatory-therapy
#8
Henning K Olberg, Geir Egil Eide, Rebecca J Cox, Åsne Jul-Larsen, Sarah Larteley Lartey, Christian A Vedeler, Kjell-Morten Myhr
BACKGROUND: We have previously shown that multiple sclerosis patients receiving immunomodulatory treatment have reduced seroprotection rates after influenza immunization. OBJECTIVES: To further investigate the influence of immunomodulatory therapies on the antibody response and seroprotection rates in patients immunized with seasonal influenza vaccine in 2012/2013 compared to healthy controls. METHODS: Ninety patients receiving fingolimod, glatiramer acetate, interferon beta-1a/1b, natalizumab or no therapy were compared to 62 healthy controls...
December 4, 2017: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29204462/human-papillomavirus-vaccine-sources-of-information-and-adolescents-knowledge-and-perceptions
#9
Brittany L Rosen, Marcia L Shew, Gregory D Zimet, Lili Ding, Tanya L K Mullins, Jessica A Kahn
Understanding where adolescents obtain information about human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccines may be helpful in designing public health interventions promoting HPV vaccination. This study assessed the following: (1) exposure to specific sources of information about HPV vaccines, (2) self-reported helpfulness of these sources of information, and (3) whether the specific source of information was associated with knowledge and perceptions about HPV vaccines among adolescent girls. There were 339 adolescent girls (mean age = 16...
2017: Global Pediatric Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29202704/prevention-of-tick-bites-an-evaluation-of-a-smartphone-app
#10
L Antonise-Kamp, D J M A Beaujean, R Crutzen, J E van Steenbergen, D Ruwaard
BACKGROUND: Lyme borreliosis (LB) is the most common reported tick-borne infection in Europe, and involves transmission of Borrelia by ticks. As long as a vaccine is not available and effective measures for controlling tick populations are insufficient, LB control is focused on preventive measures to avoid tick bites. To inform citizens about the risk of ticks, motivate them to check for tick bites, and encourage them to remove any attached tick as quickly as possible, a mobile app called 'Tekenbeet' (Dutch for 'tick bite') was developed and released...
December 4, 2017: BMC Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29197147/immune-response-to-hepatitis-b-vaccine-in-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c-infection-a-systematic-review-and-meta-analysis
#11
REVIEW
Jiaye Liu, Hui Wu, Hui Chen
AIM: Hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) co-infection can add to the severity of hepatitis and the risks of liver cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Whether chronic HCV infection decreases antibody response to hepatitis B vaccination is still controversial. METHODS: We evaluate the influence of HCV infection on antibody response to hepatitis B vaccination by performing a systematic review of the literature with a meta-analysis of clinical trials...
December 1, 2017: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195632/parents-involvement-in-the-human-papillomavirus-vaccination-decision-for-their-sons
#12
Samara Perez, Hannah Restle, Anila Naz, Ovidiu Tatar, Gilla K Shapiro, Zeev Rosberger
OBJECTIVES: Parents are critical to ensure sufficient human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine coverage. No studies to date have examined how mothers and fathers perceive their own, their partners' and their sons' involvement in HPV vaccination decision-making process. METHODS: An online survey methodology was used to collect data from a national sample of Canadian parents (33% fathers, 67% mothers, Mage=44) who had a 9-16years old son (n=3117). MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Parent's perception of their self-involvement, partner-involvement and son's involvement in the decision to get their son the HPV vaccine were measured on a Likert scale and were classified as 'no involvement', 'moderate involvement' and 'high involvement'...
December 2017: Sexual & Reproductive Healthcare: Official Journal of the Swedish Association of Midwives
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29195189/-one-of-the-greatest-medical-success-stories-physicians-and-nurses-small-stories-about-vaccine-knowledge-and-anxieties
#13
Terra Manca
In recent years, the Canadian province of Alberta experienced outbreaks of measles, mumps, pertussis, and influenza. Even so, the dominant cultural narrative maintains that vaccines are safe, effective, and necessary to maintain population health. Many vaccine supporters have expressed anxieties that stories contradicting this narrative have lowered herd immunity levels because they frighten the public into avoiding vaccination. As such, vaccine policies often emphasize educating parents and the public about the importance and safety of vaccination...
November 20, 2017: Social Science & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194615/the-impact-of-wic-on-infant-immunizations-and-health-care-utilization
#14
Tim Bersak, Lyudmyla Sonchak
OBJECTIVE: To test how prenatal participation in the Special Supplemental Nutrition Program for Women, Infants and Children (WIC) impacts health care utilization and immunizations within the first year of an infant's life. DATA SOURCE: We utilize comprehensive South Carolina Medicaid claims data from 2004 to 2013 linked with birth certificates data from 2004 to 2012. These data contain information on WIC participation and all health care utilization within the first year of an infant's life...
December 1, 2017: Health Services Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194547/neutralizing-antibody-correlates-analysis-of-tetravalent-dengue-vaccine-efficacy-trials-in-asia-and-latin-america
#15
Zoe Moodie, Michal Juraska, Ying Huang, Yingying Zhuang, Youyi Fong, Lindsay N Carpp, Steven G Self, Laurent Chambonneau, Robert Small, Nicholas Jackson, Fernando Noriega, Peter B Gilbert
Background: In the CYD14 and CYD15 Phase 3 trials of the CYD-TDV dengue vaccine, estimated vaccine efficacy (VE) against symptomatic, virologically-confirmed dengue (VCD) occurring between Months 13 and 25 was 56.5% and 60.8%, respectively. Methods: Neutralizing antibody titers to the four dengue serotypes in the CYD-TDV vaccine insert were measured at Month 13 in a randomly sampled immunogenicity sub-cohort and in all VCD cases through Month 25 (2848 vaccine, 1574 placebo) and studied for their association with VCD and with the level of VE to prevent VCD...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Infectious Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29194019/an-analysis-of-factors-associated-with-influenza-pneumoccocal-tdap-and-herpes-zoster-vaccine-uptake-in-the-us-adult-population-and-corresponding-inter-state-variability
#16
Elizabeth M La, Laurel Trantham, Samantha K Kurosky, Dawn Odom, Emmanuel Aris, Cosmina Hogea
Despite longstanding recommendations for routine vaccination against influenza; pneumococcal; tetanus, diphtheria, acellular pertussis (Tdap); and herpes zoster (HZ) among the United States general adult population, vaccine uptake remains low. Understanding factors that influence adult vaccination and coverage variability beyond the national level are important steps toward developing targeted strategies for increasing vaccination coverage. A retrospective analysis was conducted using data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (2011-2014)...
December 1, 2017: Human Vaccines & Immunotherapeutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193760/measles-vaccination-status-of-nurses-and-associated-factors-during-community-measles-outbreaks
#17
Kyung Mi Kim, Jeong Sil Choi
AIM: To identify the measles vaccination status of nurses, their knowledge and health beliefs about measles, and the associated factors that influence their measles vaccination status during a community measles outbreak in South Korea. METHODS: The participants were 156 nurses from four hospitals in a region where a community measles outbreak occurred. RESULTS: The measles vaccination rate of the nurses was 73.7%. The nurses' health belief score about measles was 2...
November 29, 2017: Japan Journal of Nursing Science: JJNS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29193554/do-delays-in-data-availability-limit-the-implementation-of-near-real-time-vaccine-safety-surveillance-using-the-clinical-practice-research-datalink
#18
Andreia Leite, Sara L Thomas, Nick J Andrews
PURPOSE: Near real-time vaccine safety surveillance (NRTVSS) using electronic health records has been used to detect timely vaccine safety signals. Trial implementation of NRTVSS using the Clinical Practice Research Datalink (CPRD) has shown that there is limited power to detect safety signals for rare events. Delays in recording outcomes and receiving data influence the power and timeliness to identify a signal. Our work aimed to compare how different sources of delays influence power and expected time to signal to implement NRTVSS using CPRD...
November 28, 2017: Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29189612/evaluation-of-the-influence-of-gastrointestinal-co-infections-on-rotavirus-vaccine-effectiveness-in-botswana
#19
Margaret Mokomane, Jacqueline E Tate, Andrew P Steenhoff, Mathew D Esona, Michael D Bowen, Kwana Lechiile, Jeffrey M Pernica, Ishmael Kasvosve, Umesh D Parashar, David M Goldfarb
BACKGROUND: Studies have demonstrated reduced rotavirus vaccine effectiveness (VE) in resource-limited settings. Enteropathogen co-infections in rotavirus cases have been hypothesized to contribute to the lower vaccine effectiveness in such settings. We sought to determine if co-infections affect rotavirus VE in Botswana. METHODS: Between June 2013 and April 2015, children <60 months old, presenting with severe gastroenteritis at four hospitals as part of a national rotavirus surveillance were enrolled...
November 16, 2017: Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29187919/factors-affecting-access-to-information-on-routine-immunization-among-mothers-of-under-5-children-in-kaduna-state-nigeria-2015
#20
Lydia Taiwo, Suleiman Idris, Aisha Abubakar, Patrick Nguku, Peter Nsubuga, Saheed Gidado, Lilian Okeke, Samuel Emiasegen, Endie Waziri
Introduction: Immunization is one of the most effective interventions to prevent disease and early child death. A substantial number of children worldwide do not complete immunization schedules because neither health services nor conventional communication mechanisms regularly reach their communities. Knowledge and perception of mothers/caregivers regarding VPDs influence demand and utilization of immunization services. We examined the associations between knowledge, perception and information on routine immunization received by mothers/caregivers in Kaduna State...
2017: Pan African Medical Journal
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