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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28333769/the-incidence-of-low-seroimmunity-to-hepatitis-b-virus-in-children-with-inflammatory-bowel-disease
#1
Abhishek Watts, William E Bennett, Jean P Molleston, Sandeep K Gupta, Joseph M Croffie, Shamaila Waseem, Brian A McFerron, Steven J Steiner, Sanjay Kumar, Charles P Vanderpool, Emily C Hon, Molly A Bozic, Girish C Subbarao, Marian D Pfefferkorn
OBJECTIVES: Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) often receive immunosuppressive therapy which may make them vulnerable to infections such as hepatitis B. We hypothesized that hepatitis B virus (HBV) titers are low in the vaccinated pediatric IBD population. The aims of our study were to identify the incidence of lower titers of hepatitis B surface antibody (HBsAb) and determine which patient factors may be associated with lower HBsAb titers. METHODS: Patients with diagnosis of IBD, ages 5-18 years, were prospectively enrolled...
March 22, 2017: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28332070/a-review-on-prevalence-control-measure-and-tolerance-of-tanzania-shorthorn-zebu-cattle-to-east-coast-fever-in-tanzania
#2
E L K Laisser, S W Chenyambuga, E D Karimuribo, G Msalya, M J Kipanyula, A J Mwilawa, R H Mdegela, L J M Kusiluka
In Tanzania, control of East Coast fever (ECF) has predominantly relied on tick control using acaricides and chemotherapy, little on ECF vaccination, and very little on dissemination regarding animal immunization. In this paper, the prevalence, control measure, and tolerance of Tanzania Shorthorn Zebu (TSHZ) cattle to ECF are reviewed. In addition, the opportunities available for reducing the use of acaricides for the benefit of the farmers in terms of reduction of costs of purchasing acaricides and environmental pollution are described...
March 22, 2017: Tropical Animal Health and Production
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28329932/-an-investigation-on-immunological-effect-of-hepatitis-b-vaccine-amongst-adult-population-in-high-labor-export-rural-regions-under-4-different-strategies
#3
X Y Zheng, Z H Ji, Z W Guo, Y W Liu, Z J Shao, Y P Yan
Objective: To grope for an ideal immune strategy in grown-ups via comparison of immunological effects under 4 different vaccination schemes. Methods: Study population was selected by stratified random cluster sampling. A total of 4 different vaccination proposals, including Strategy A (3 doses, 10 μg, administrated repeatedly into the unilateral deltoid muscle at 0-1-6 months), Strategy B (2 doses, 20 μg, administrated into the bilateral deltoid muscles simultaneously), Strategy C (3 doses, 10 μg, administrated repeatedly into the unilateral deltoid muscle at 0-1-2 months) and Strategy D (2 doses, 10 μg, administrated to the bilateral deltoid muscles at the same time), were conducted in Liangzhou, Minqin Gulang, and the Tianzhu Tibetan Autonomic county respectively, in Wuwei city, Gansu province...
March 10, 2017: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28324811/serum-acute-phase-response-induced-by-different-vaccination-protocols-against-circovirus-type-2-and-mycoplasma-hyopneumoniae-in-piglets
#4
Iván Hernández-Caravaca, Sebastian Figueras Gourgues, Víctor Rodríguez, Edgar Díaz Estrada, José J Cerón, Damián Escribano
The purpose of this study was to compare the acute phase reaction (APR) induced by different vaccination protocols used against Porcine Circovirus (PCV) type-2 and Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (M.hyo), studying two acute phase proteins (APPs) and changes in rectal temperature (RT). In addition, the possible influence of the time of vaccination and breed were analysed. In the first experiment, 40 commercial crossbred piglets were vaccinated, on the day of weaning, with FLEXcombo® (group A, n=20) or Porcilis PCV® and Stellamune® One (group B, n=20)...
March 11, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323115/gene-transfection-efficiency-into-dendritic-cells-is-influenced-by-the-size-of-cationic-liposomes-dna-complexes
#5
Yoshikazu Inoh, Mie Nagai, Kayo Matsushita, Mamoru Nakanishi, Tadahide Furuno
Cationic liposomes have attracted recent attention as DNA vaccine carriers that can target dendritic cells (DCs). In general, cationic liposome/DNA complexes (lipoplexes) are taken up by various cells via clathrin-mediated endocytosis, caveolae-mediated endocytosis, macropinocytosis, or phagocytosis, with the mode of endocytosis determining further intracellular trafficking pathways. Moreover, the physicochemical properties of cationic lipoplexes, including lipid composition, shape, size, and charge, influence transfection efficiency, affecting uptake and subsequent intracellular pathways...
March 16, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321815/immune-therapy-for-sarcomas
#6
Peter M Anderson
Absolute lymphocyte count (ALC) recovery rapidly occurring at 14 days after start of chemotherapy for osteosarcoma and Ewing sarcoma is a good prognostic factor. Conversely, lymphopenia is associated with significantly decreased sarcoma survival. Clearly, the immune system can contribute towards better survival from sarcoma. This chapter will describe treatment and host factors that influence immune function and how effective local control and systemic interventions of sarcoma therapy can cause inflammation and/or immune suppression but are currently the standard of care...
2017: Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28321649/adolescent-participation-in-hpv-vaccine-clinical-trials-are-parents-willing
#7
Jennifer Cunningham Erves, Tilicia L Mayo-Gamble, Pamela C Hull, Lauren Duke, Stephania T Miller
Approximately one-quarter of human papillomavirus (HPV) infections are acquired by adolescents, with a higher burden among racial/ethnic minorities. However, racial/ethnic minorities have been underrepresented in previous HPV vaccine trials. Ongoing and future HPV vaccine optimization trials would benefit from racially- and ethnically-diverse sample of adolescent trial participants. This study examined factors influencing parental willingness to consent to their adolescents' participation in HPV vaccine clinical trials and tested for possible racial differences...
March 21, 2017: Journal of Community Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28320753/do-memory-b-cells-form-secondary-germinal-centers-impact-of-antibody-class-and-quality-of-memory-t-cell-help-at-recall
#8
Louise J McHeyzer-Williams, Chad Dufaud, Michael G McHeyzer-Williams
Antigen recall can clearly induce a germinal center (GC) reaction. What has become an issue for debate are the origins of the antigen-specific B cells that form memory-response GCs (mGCs). Using antigen labeling and adoptive transfer, memory B cells expressing different antibody class can give rise to mGCs with differing efficiency. Here, we will argue that the range of class-specific memory responses reported across multiple systems represents the spectrum of memory B-cell fate and function. While the formulation of recall immunogen and location of mGCs have an important role, we propose that effective cognate regulation is the key variable influencing recall outcome...
March 20, 2017: Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28319730/deconstructing-the-germinal-center-one-cell-at-a-time
#9
REVIEW
Chad R Dufaud, Louise J McHeyzer-Williams, Michael G McHeyzer-Williams
Successful vaccination relies on driving the immune response towards high specificity, affinity and longevity. Germinal centers facilitate the evolution of antigen-specific B cells by iterative rounds of diversification, selection, and differentiation to memory and plasma cells. Experimental evidence points to B cell receptor affinity and amount of antigen presented to follicular helper T cells as main drivers of clonal evolution. Concurrent studies suggest that modifiers of cognate contact, temporal mechanisms, and stochastic factors can also shape diversity and influence differentiation to memory and plasma cells, but molecular pathways driving these selection decisions are unresolved...
March 17, 2017: Current Opinion in Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28306717/barriers-to-dog-rabies-vaccination-during-an-urban-rabies-outbreak-qualitative-findings-from-arequipa-peru
#10
Ricardo Castillo-Neyra, Joanna Brown, Katty Borrini, Claudia Arevalo, Michael Z Levy, Alison Buttenheim, Gabrielle C Hunter, Victor Becerra, Jere Behrman, Valerie A Paz-Soldan
BACKGROUND: Canine rabies was reintroduced to the city of Arequipa, Peru in March 2015. The Ministry of Health has conducted a series of mass dog vaccination campaigns to contain the outbreak, but canine rabies virus transmission continues in Arequipa's complex urban environment, putting the city's 1 million inhabitants at risk of infection. The proximate driver of canine rabies in Arequipa is low dog vaccination coverage. Our objectives were to qualitatively assess barriers to and facilitators of rabies vaccination during mass campaigns, and to explore strategies to increase participation in future efforts...
March 17, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303720/primary-newcastle-disease-vaccination-of-broilers-comparison-of-the-antibody-seroresponse-and-adverse-vaccinal-reaction-after-eye-nose-drop-or-coarse-spray-application-and-implication-of-the-results-for-a-previously-developed-coarse-dry-powder-vaccine
#11
W J M Landman, C Vervaet, J P Remon, K Huyge, J H H van Eck
To compare antibody seroresponse and adverse vaccinal reaction induced by Newcastle disease (ND) vaccination after eye-nose drop or coarse spray, groups of SPF broiler hens were vaccinated at day 4 (day of hatch is day 0) and intratracheally inoculated with Escherichia coli at day 11. Body weight gain (BWG) was assessed between day 4 and day 18; colibacillosis lesions and serum antibodies were determined at day 18. Meaningful comparison requires similar vaccine uptake. Vaccine virus loss during spray relative to eye-nose drop, which was assessed by comparing the results of endpoint titrations, was 3 log10...
March 17, 2017: Avian Pathology: Journal of the W.V.P.A
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28301479/ligb-subunit-vaccine-confers-sterile-immunity-against-challenge-in-the-hamster-model-of-leptospirosis
#12
Neida L Conrad, Flávia W Cruz McBride, Jéssica D Souza, Marcelle M Silveira, Samuel Félix, Karla S Mendonça, Cleiton S Santos, Daniel A Athanazio, Marco A Medeiros, Mitermayer G Reis, Odir A Dellagostin, Alan J A McBride
Neglected tropical diseases, including zoonoses such as leptospirosis, have a major impact on rural and poor urban communities, particularly in developing countries. This has led to major investment in antipoverty vaccines that focus on diseases that influence public health and thereby productivity. While the true, global, impact of leptospirosis is unknown due to the lack of adequate laboratory diagnosis, the WHO estimates that incidence has doubled over the last 15 years to over 1 million cases that require hospitalization every year...
March 16, 2017: PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300562/hypoxia-and-b-cells
#13
Natalie Burrows, Patrick Henry Maxwell
The ability of cells to sense and adapt to changes in oxygen is mediated by hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF). Immune cells function in physiologically complex and varying environments whereby oxygen, pH, nutrients, metabolites and cytokines are continuously fluctuating. HIF is well known to play an important role in coordinating the adaptation and function of both innate immune cells and T cells in these complex environments. This review summarises recent discoveries concerning how hypoxia and HIF control B cell behaviour, and regulate antibody quality and decisions concerning tolerance...
March 12, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28300047/knowledge-attitude-and-experience-of-cervical-cancer-and-screening-among-sub-saharan-african-female-students-in-a-uk-university
#14
Faith Sopuruchukwu Ogbonna
BACKGROUND: Cervical cancer is one of the major diseases that affect women of child bearing age. Its main cause is the human papilloma virus; although, other associated factors have been evidenced to increase its risk. Pap-smear screening and vaccination which has been shown to be successful in reducing the incidence and prevalence of the disease in developed countries, has been neglected in developing countries due to lack of knowledge, misconceptions, and cultural beliefs. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A cross-sectional study involving only female Sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) students in a UK university setting...
January 2017: Annals of African Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28299897/towards-canine-rabies-elimination-economic-comparisons-of-three-project-sites
#15
J L Elser, B G Hatch, L H Taylor, L H Nel, S A Shwiff
An appreciation of the costs of implementing canine rabies control in different settings is important for those planning new or expanded interventions. Here we compare the costs of three canine rabies control projects in South Africa, the Philippines and Tanzania to identify factors that influence the overall costs of rabies control efforts. There was considerable variation in the cost of vaccinating each dog, but across the sites these were lower where population density was higher, and later in the projects when dog vaccination coverage was increased...
March 15, 2017: Transboundary and Emerging Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28294099/tetanus-vaccination-antibody-persistence-and-decennial-booster-a-serosurvey-of-university-students-and-at-risk-workers
#16
M Borella-Venturini, C Frasson, F Paluan, D DE Nuzzo, G DI Masi, M Giraldo, F Chiara, A Trevisan
The aim of the present research is to verify the immune status against tetanus in students and workers exposed to risk and to ascertain whether a decennial booster is necessary. Antibodies against tetanus were measured in 1433 workers and students of Padua University (Italy). The enrolment criterion was the ability to provide a booklet of vaccinations released by a public health office. The influence of age, gender, the number of vaccine doses, and the interval since the last dose was determined. Ten years after the last dose, the majority of subjects (95·0%) displayed an antibody titre above the protective level (⩾0·10 IU/ml), and half of these (49·1%) had a long-term protective level (⩾1·0 IU/ml)...
March 15, 2017: Epidemiology and Infection
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28290225/influence-of-protein-fold-stability-on-immunogenicity-and-its-implications-for-vaccine-design
#17
Sandra Scheiblhofer, Josef Laimer, Yoan Machado, Richard Weiss, Josef Thalhamer
In modern vaccinology and immunotherapy, recombinant proteins more and more replace whole organisms to induce protective or curative immune responses. Structural stability of proteins is of crucial importance for efficient presentation of antigenic peptides on MHC, which plays a decisive role for triggering strong immune reactions. Areas covered: In this review, we discuss structural stability as a key factor for modulating the potency of recombinant vaccines and its importance for antigen proteolysis, presentation, and stimulation of B and T cells...
March 14, 2017: Expert Review of Vaccines
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288614/women-s-intention-to-screen-and-willingness-to-vaccinate-their-daughters-against-cervical-cancer-a-cross-sectional-study-in-eastern-uganda
#18
Rawlance Ndejjo, Trasias Mukama, Geofrey Musinguzi, Abdullah Ali Halage, John C Ssempebwa, David Musoke
BACKGROUND: The World Health Organization recommends cervical cancer screening and vaccination programmes as measures to combat cervical cancer. The uptake of these measures remains low in Uganda, most especially in rural areas. An understanding of the factors that influence women's decision to attend screening, and willingness to have their daughters vaccinated against cervical cancer is essential for any attempts to increase uptake of these services. This study assessed the factors associated with intention to screen for cervical cancer among women in eastern Uganda, and willingness to have their daughters vaccinated against the disease...
March 14, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28288597/school-based-vaccination-programmes-a-systematic-review-of-the-evidence-on-organisation-and-delivery-in-high-income-countries
#19
Sarah Perman, Simon Turner, Angus I G Ramsay, Abigail Baim-Lance, Martin Utley, Naomi J Fulop
BACKGROUND: Many countries have recently expanded their childhood immunisation programmes. Schools are an increasingly attractive setting for delivery of these new immunisations because of their ability to reach large numbers of children in a short period of time. However, there are organisational challenges to delivery of large-scale vaccination programmes in schools. Understanding the facilitators and barriers is important for improving the delivery of future school-based vaccination programmes...
March 14, 2017: BMC Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28283786/we-strongly-support-childhood-immunisation-statement-from-the-european-academy-of-paediatrics-eap
#20
Hans Juergen Dornbusch, Adamos Hadjipanayis, Stefano Del Torso, Jean-Christophe Mercier, Corinne Wyder, Lenneke Schrier, Robert Ross-Russell, Tom Stiris, Jonas F Ludvigsson
The eradication of smallpox and the elimination of several other infectious diseases from much of the world has provided convincing evidence that vaccines are among the most effective interventions for promoting health. The current scepticism about immunisation among members of the new US administration carries a risk of decreasing immunisation rates also in Europe. While only a small minority of the population are strongly anti-vaccine, their public activities have significantly influenced an uncertainty among the general population about both the safety of and the necessity for vaccination...
March 10, 2017: European Journal of Pediatrics
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