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Influence vaccination

Katsiaryna Holl, Christophe Sauboin, Emanuele Amodio, Paolo Bonanni, Giovanni Gabutti
BACKGROUND: Varicella is a highly infectious disease with a significant public health and economic burden, which can be prevented with childhood routine varicella vaccination. Vaccination strategies differ by country. Some factors are known to play an important role (number of doses, coverage, dosing interval, efficacy and catch-up programmes), however, their relative impact on the reduction of varicella in the population remains unclear. This paper aims to help policy makers prioritise the critical factors to achieve the most successful vaccination programme with the available budget...
October 21, 2016: BMC Public Health
J Jiang, S L Dai, J F Xu, Y Zou, L G Zhu, H Peng, F C Zhu, X J Zhai
Objective: To evaluate the effects of blocking transmission of HBV from mother to infant in Jiangsu, and discuss influencing factors related to development of chronic HBV infection in children of HBsAg positive mother. Methods: HBsAg positive mothers delivered during 2010-2015 in three counties of Jiangsu (Zhangjiagang, Danyang and Taixing) and their neonates were included in the study. The neonates were vaccinated with hepatitis B vaccine (10 μg) and hepatitis B immunoglobin (100 units) within 24 hours after birth...
October 10, 2016: Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue za Zhi, Zhonghua Liuxingbingxue Zazhi
Qian Qi, Mary M Cavanagh, Sabine Le Saux, Lisa E Wagar, Sally Mackey, Jinyu Hu, Holden Maecker, Gary E Swan, Mark M Davis, Cornelia L Dekker, Lu Tian, Cornelia M Weyand, Jörg J Goronzy
Vaccination with attenuated live varicella zoster virus (VZV) can prevent zoster reactivation, but protection is incomplete especially in an older population. To decipher the molecular mechanisms underlying variable vaccine responses, T- and B-cell responses to VZV vaccination were examined in individuals of different ages including identical twin pairs. Contrary to the induction of VZV-specific antibodies, antigen-specific T cell responses were significantly influenced by inherited factors. Diminished generation of long-lived memory T cells in older individuals was mainly caused by increased T cell loss after the peak response while the expansion of antigen-specific T cells was not affected by age...
October 2016: PLoS Pathogens
Walter H Moos, Carl A Pinkert, Michael H Irwin, Douglas V Faller, Krishna Kodukula, Ioannis P Glavas, Kosta Steliou
Preclinical Research Approximately 2,500 years ago, Hippocrates used the word herpes as a medical term to describe lesions that appeared to creep or crawl on the skin, advocating heat as a possible treatment. During the last 50 years, pharmaceutical research has made great strides, and therapeutic options have expanded to include small molecule antiviral agents, protease inhibitors, preventive vaccines for a handful of the papillomaviruses, and even cures for hepatitis C virus infections. However, effective treatments for persistent and recurrent viral infections, particularly the highly prevalent herpesviruses, continue to represent a significant unmet medical need, affecting the majority of the world's population...
October 20, 2016: Drug Development Research
Navnit Kumar Mishra, Anil Kumar Sharma, Tapan Kumar Mukherjee
Melanoma is a cancer associated with melanocytes of epidermis. There has been a consistent increase in the number of melanoma patients because of the depletion of the ozone layer which makes it of paramount importance to explore the immunogenic potential of various peptides in melanoma therapy. In the current study, a mutated decapeptide (ELAGIGILTV) epitope ID 12941 was taken from the melanoma antigen recognized by T-cells. This epitope displayed relatively better affinity for histocompatibility leukocyte antigen influencing the proliferation of cytotoxic T-cells...
November 2016: Journal of Molecular Modeling
M Śmiałek, B Tykałowski, D Pestka, J Welenc, T Stenzel, A Koncicki
Maternally derived antibodies (MDA) don not protect turkeys against rhinotracheitis (TRT) but high MDA influences upper respiratory tract (URT) immunity stimulation after avian Metapneumovirus (aMPV) vaccination. Humoral immunity can not be considered as an indicator of protection against TRT, but specific antibodies inhibit aMPV replication and alleviate the course of TRT. Scarce reports indicate the role of IgA in protection against TRT. The aim of our study was to investigate the impact of MDA on stimulation, antigen specificity acquisition of B lymphocytes, and the production of specific IgA after TRT vaccination of turkeys...
September 1, 2016: Polish Journal of Veterinary Sciences
A Farsang, R Lévai, T Barna, K Fábián, S Blome, K Belák, Á Bálint, F Koenen, G Kulcsár
Maternally Derived Antibodies (MDA) can have a negative effect on the efficacy of live attenuated vaccines against classical swine fever (CSF). For this reason, a marker vaccine candidate CP7_E2alf was tested for its efficacy in the presence of MDA. Pregnant sows were vaccinated four weeks before farrowing with CSF virus (CSFV) strain "Thiverval". A total of 40 piglets with MDAs were included in this study. At six weeks of age the piglets were allocated into three treatment groups using generalized randomized block design (GRBD) blocking on serological status and pen location...
October 15, 2016: Biologicals: Journal of the International Association of Biological Standardization
T Hertz, M G Logan, M Rolland, C A Magaret, C Rademeyer, A Fiore-Gartland, P T Edlefsen, A DeCamp, H Ahmed, N Ngandu, B B Larsen, N Frahm, J Marais, R Thebus, D Geraghty, J Hural, L Corey, J Kublin, G Gray, M J McElrath, J I Mullins, P B Gilbert, C Williamson
INTRODUCTION: The Merck Adenovirus-5 Gag/Pol/Nef HIV-1 subtype-B vaccine evaluated in predominately subtype B epidemic regions (Step Study), while not preventing infection, exerted vaccine-induced immune pressure on HIV-1 breakthrough infections. Here we investigated if the same vaccine exerted immune pressure when tested in the Phambili Phase 2b study in a subtype C epidemic. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A sieve analysis, which compares breakthrough viruses from placebo and vaccine arms, was performed on 277 near full-length genomes generated from 23 vaccine and 20 placebo recipients...
October 15, 2016: Vaccine
Andrew J Highton, Adam Girardin, Georgia M Bell, Sarah M Hook, Roslyn A Kemp
BACKGROUND: Vaccination generating a robust memory population of CD8(+) T cells may provide protection against cancer. However, immune therapies for cancer are influenced by the local tumour immune microenvironment. An infiltrate of T cells into tumours of people with colorectal cancer has proven to be a significant indicator of good prognosis. METHODS: We used an intracaecal mouse model of cancer to determine whether a protective immune response against a mucosal gut tumour could be generated using a systemic intervention...
October 18, 2016: BMC Immunology
Juan Gea-Banacloche, Krishna Komanduri, Paul Carpenter, Sophie Paczesny, Stefanie Sarantopoulos, Jo-Anne Young, Nahed El Kassar, Robert Q Le, Kirk Schultz, Linda M Griffith, Bipin Savani, John R Wingard
Immune reconstitution following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT) beyond one year is not completely understood. Many transplant recipients who are free of graft versus host disease (GVHD) and not receiving any immunosuppression more than a year after transplant seem to be able to mount appropriate immune responses to common pathogens and respond adequately to immunizations. However, two large registry studies over the last two decades seem to indicate that infection is a significant cause of late mortality in some patients, even in the absence of concomitant GVHD...
October 14, 2016: Biology of Blood and Marrow Transplantation
Zhangmin Tan, Yuzhu Yin, Jin Zhou, Lingling Wu, Chengfang Xu, Hongying Hou
This prospective study evaluated the viability of telbivudine for blocking mother-to-child transmission (MTCT) of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection.Pregnant women positive for the hepatitis B surface antigen began telbivudine treatment before 14 weeks of gestation (i.e., early), between 14 and 28 weeks of gestation (late), or not at all (control). In the late-treatment group, 55 women terminated telbivudine therapy within puerperium. All neonates underwent routine hepatitis B immunoglobulin plus vaccination...
October 2016: Medicine (Baltimore)
Amy K Erbe, Wei Wang, Jacob Goldberg, Mikayla Gallenberger, KyungMann Kim, Lakeesha Carmichael, Dustin Hess, Eneida A Mendonca, Yiqiang Song, Jacquelyn A Hank, Su-Chun Cheng, Sabina Signoretti, Michael Atkins, Alexander Carlson, James W Mier, David J Panka, David F McDermott, Paul M Sondel
BACKGROUND: Fc-gamma receptors (FCGRs) are expressed on immune cells, bind to antibodies, and trigger antibody-induced cell-mediated anti-tumor responses when tumor-reactive antibodies are present. The affinity of the FCGR/antibody interaction is variable and dependent upon FCGR polymorphisms. Prior studies of cancer patients treated with immunotherapy indicate that FCGR polymorphisms can influence antitumor response for certain immunotherapies that act via therapeutically administered mAbs or via endogenous tumor-reactive antibodies induced from tumor antigen vaccines...
October 14, 2016: Clinical Cancer Research: An Official Journal of the American Association for Cancer Research
Kai Li, Yongzhen Liu, Changjun Liu, Li Gao, Yanping Zhang, Yulong Gao, Hongyu Cui, Xiaole Qi, Li Zhong, Xiaomei Wang
The vaccine efficacy of recombinant viruses can be influenced by many factors. Accordingly, the activity of promoters has been one of the major factors affecting the antigen expression and protection rate. In the present study, two recombinant Marek's disease virus type 1 (MDV1) vaccines containing the VP2 gene of infectious bursal disease virus (IBDV) under control of different promoters were generated from overlapping fosmid DNAs. The rMDV-Pec-VP2 virus containing the VP2 gene under control of the Pec promoter (CMV enhancer and chicken β-actin chimera promoter) demonstrated higher VP2 expression and stronger antibody response against IBDV in chickens than the rMDV-CMV-VP2 virus using the CMV promoter...
October 11, 2016: Vaccine
Kirsten Maertens, Tessa Braeckman, Geert Top, Pierre Van Damme, Elke Leuridan
In Belgium, pertussis vaccination is recommended for all pregnant women in every pregnancy. Adults in close contact with young infants are equally advised to receive a pertussis containing booster dose. Maternal influenza vaccination is likewise recommended in Belgium in the second or third trimester of pregnancy, within the influenza season. A quantitative multicenter survey study has been performed between October 2014 and May 2015 in both postpartum women (N=823, response rate=89.2%) and health care workers (HCWs) (N=261) to assess the coverage of both vaccines during pregnancy along with the coverage of the pertussis cocoon strategy, and to evaluate the knowledge and recommending attitude of HCWs towards the maternal vaccination strategies and the cocoon strategy among surveyed women and HCWs...
October 11, 2016: Vaccine
Adelaide R Murray, Rosemary M Caron
BACKGROUND: The American College Health Association's, National College Health Assessment (ACHA's NCHA) estimates 46.1% of college students reported being vaccinated in the last year. OBJECTIVE: 1) To understand the college student's knowledge, attitude, and beliefs in regards to influenza vaccination; 2) To establish recommendations in a population where high risk transmission does not consistently translate into high vaccination rates. METHODS: Utilizing the health belief model (HBM), a cross-sectional study of college student perspectives of influenza vaccination was conducted...
October 14, 2016: International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health
William J Liu, Shuguang Tan, Min Zhao, Chuansong Quan, Yuhai Bi, Ying Wu, Shuijun Zhang, Haifeng Zhang, Haixia Xiao, Jianxun Qi, Jinghua Yan, Wenjun Liu, Hongjie Yu, Yuelong Shu, Guizhen Wu, George F Gao
BACKGROUND:  The emergence of infections by the novel avian influenza A (H7N9) virus has posed a threat to human health. Cross-immunity between H7N9 and other heterosubtypic influenza viruses affected by antigenicity-dependent substitutions needs to be investigated. METHODS:  We investigated the cellular and humoral immune responses against H7N9 and the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza viruses, by serological and T-cell-specific assays in a healthy population. The molecular bases of the cellular and humoral antigenic variability of H7N9 were illuminated by structural determination...
October 12, 2016: Journal of Infectious Diseases
Tamer Oraby, Vivek Thampi, Chris T Bauch
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 12, 2016: Proceedings. Biological Sciences
Tigest Shifraw, Yemane Berhane, Hanna Gulema, Tamil Kendall, Anne Austin
BACKGROUND: Facility based delivery for mothers is one of the proven interventions to reduce maternal and neonatal morbidity and mortality. This study identified women's reasons for seeking to give birth in a health facility and captured their perceptions of the quality of care they received during their most recent birth, in a population with high utilization of facility based deliveries. METHODS: This qualitative study was conducted in eight health centers in Addis Ababa...
October 12, 2016: BMC Pregnancy and Childbirth
Sarah A Buchan, Jeffrey C Kwong
BACKGROUND: Influenza immunization coverage among Canadian health care personnel remains below national targets. Targeting this group is of particular importance given their elevated risk of influenza infection, role in transmission and influence on patients' immunization status. We examined influenza immunization coverage in health care personnel in Canada, reasons for not being immunized and the impact of "vaccinate-or-mask" influenza prevention policies. METHODS: In this national cross-sectional study, we pooled data from the 2007 to 2014 cycles of the Canadian Community Health Survey and restricted it to respondents who reported a health care occupation...
July 2016: CMAJ Open
Laetitia Duval, François-Charles Wolff, Martin McKee, Bayard Roberts
AIM: To investigate differences in vaccination coverage between Roma and otherwise comparable non-Roma children, including factors associated with the vaccination gap, health care access and discrimination faced by Roma. METHODS: We analyse data from the Roma Regional Survey 2011 implemented in twelve countries of Central and South-East Europe. Our sample comprises 8233 children aged up to 6 with 7072 Roma children and 1161 non-Roma children. Estimates of the Roma vaccination gap are estimated using Logit regressions...
October 7, 2016: Vaccine
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