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primary cirrhosis

E Vashakidze, I Mikadze, E Pachkoria
Hepatitis C virus is responsible for the majority of persistent viral infections of the liver, chronic hepatitis, liver cirrhosis and/ or hepatocellular carcinoma. Two strategies are important to curtailing the rising prevalence of disease: efficient diagnosis of acute hepatitis and identification of the likely mode of transmission. The aim of this study was to identify the clinical and epidemiological hallmarks of acute hepatitis C. During 2013-2015, 31 patients were hospitalized with a diagnosis of acute C hepatitis...
September 2016: Georgian Medical News
Nicolás Merchante, Sofía Ibarra, Boris Revollo, Francisco Rodríguez-Arrondo, Esperanza Merino, Marcial Delgado-Fernández, Marta Montero-Alonso, Francisco Téllez, Maria J Galindo, Antonio Rivero-Juárez, Maria A García, Carlos Mínguez, Alberto Romero-Palacios, Miguel Del Toro, Juan A Pineda
OBJECTIVE: To report the real-life results of sorafenib use in a cohort of HIV-infected patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). METHODS: The GEHEP-002 cohort ( ID: NCT02785835) has recruited 302 HCC cases diagnosed in HIV-infected patients from 32 centers from Spain. RIS-HEP12 study included 44 (14%) cases that have received at least one dose of sorafenib. The overall survival after the start of treatment (OSaT) was the main efficacy outcome...
October 14, 2016: AIDS
Li-Li Wang, Ting-Ting Wei, Jian-Rong Yin, Bao-Dong Qin, Ning Ma, Qing-Qin Tang, Lin Zhou, Ren-Qian Zhong
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
October 18, 2016: Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine: CCLM
Ashwani K Singal, Xiao Fang, Mohamed Kaif, Mohsen Hasanin, Brendan M Mcguire, Yong-Fang Kuo, Russell H Wiesner
MAIN PROBLEM: Patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) have frequent episodes of cholangitis with potential for high mortality while waiting for liver transplantation. However, data on wait-list mortality specific to liver disease etiology are limited. RESULTS: Using UNOS database (2002-2013), of 81,592 listed patients, 11284 (13.8%) died waiting for transplant. Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC) patients (N=3491) compared to PSC (N=4905) differed for age (56 vs...
October 18, 2016: Transplant International: Official Journal of the European Society for Organ Transplantation
Sarah A Sterling, Michael A Puskarich, Alan E Jones
OBJECTIVE: To describe the effect of liver disease (LD) on lactate clearance during early sepsis resuscitation. METHODS: This is a multicenter randomized clinical trial. An initial lactate >2 mmol/L and subsequent serum lactate measurement within 6 hours were required for inclusion. LD was categorized by two methods: 1) past medical history (PMH) categorized as no LD, mild LD (no Child's score criteria, but PMH of hepatitis B/C), cirrhosis; and 2) measurable liver dysfunction determined by the liver component of the sequential organ failure assessment (L-SOFA) score as no dysfunction (L-SOFA score 0), mild dysfunction (score 1), moderate-severe dysfunction (score 2 to 4)...
December 2015: Clin Exp Emerg Med
Jem Ma Ahn, Chang Ha Kim, Soon Ho Um, Kyung Mee Kim, Tae Hyung Kim, Sun Young Yim, Hyuk Soon Choi, Eun Sun Kim, Bora Keum, Yeon Seok Seo, Hyung Joon Yim, Yoon Tae Jeen, Hong Sik Lee, Hoon Jai Chun, Chang Duck Kim, Ho Sang Ryu
BACKGROUND AND AIM: In a recent study, microsatellite variations (GCA tandem repeats) in the promoter region of the (kidney-type) glutaminase gene were associated with the development of hepatic encephalopathy (HE) in Spanish patients with cirrhosis. The objective of this study was to validate the relation between microsatellite variations in the glutaminase promoter region and the development of overt HE in Korean patients with liver cirrhosis. METHODS: We performed a prospective cohort study of 154 cirrhotic patients who underwent a glutaminase microsatellite study without previous overt HE history at baseline...
October 17, 2016: Journal of Gastroenterology and Hepatology
Robert Flisiak, Mitchell Shiffman, Juan Arenas, Hugo Cheinquer, Igor Nikitin, Yuping Dong, Khurram Rana, Subasree Srinivasan
BACKGROUND: A randomized, double-blind, multinational, phase 3 study was conducted comparing the efficacy and safety of peginterferon lambda-1a (Lambda)/ribavirin (RBV)/telaprevir (TVR) vs. peginterferon alfa-2a (Alfa)/RBV/TVR in patients with chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) genotype-1 (GT-1) infection. METHODS: Patients (treatment-naïve or relapsers on prior Alfa/RBV treatment) were randomly assigned in a 2:1 ratio to receive Lambda/RBV/TVR or Alfa/RBV/TVR. Total duration of treatment was either 24 or 48 weeks (response-guided treatment), with TVR administered for the first 12 weeks...
2016: PloS One
Vijendra Kirnake, Anil Arora, Varun Gupta, Praveen Sharma, Vikas Singla, Naresh Bansal, Mohan Goyal, Romesh Chawlani, Ashish Kumar
BACKGROUND: Non-selective beta-blockers (NSBBs), e.g. propranolol, are recommended for prophylaxis of variceal bleeding in cirrhosis. Carvedilol, a newer NSBB with additional anti-α1-adrenergic activity, is superior to propranolol in reducing portal pressure. Repeated HVPG measurements are required to identify responders to NSBB. We aimed to determine whether a single-time HVPG measurement, using acute-hemodynamic-response-testing, is sufficient to predict long-term response to carvedilol, and whether these responders have better clinical outcome...
September 2016: Journal of Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
Takuya Iwamoto, Masaki Maeda, Takuro Hisanaga, Issei Saeki, Koichi Fujisawa, Toshihiko Matsumoto, Isao Hidaka, Tsuyoshi Ishikawa, Taro Takami, Isao Sakaida
Objective Tolvaptan was first approved for use for cirrhosis in Japan in September 2013. The aim of the study was to examine the effect of tolvaptan, a vasopressin V2 receptor antagonist, on the prognosis of cirrhosis. Methods The effect of tolvaptan was evaluated in 26 patients with cirrhosis treated at our hospital from September 2013 to April 2015. Results The primary disease was hepatitis C in 20 patients, hepatitis B in 2, nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in 2 and others in 2; and 12 had hepatocellular carcinoma...
2016: Internal Medicine
J E Edwards, C LaCerte, T Peyret, N H Gosselin, J F Marier, A F Hofmann, D Shapiro
Obeticholic acid (OCA), a semisynthetic bile acid, is a selective and potent farnesoid X receptor (FXR) agonist in development for the treatment of chronic nonviral liver diseases. Physiologic pharmacokinetic models have been previously used to describe the absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) of bile acids. OCA plasma levels were measured in healthy volunteers and cirrhotic subjects. A physiologic pharmacokinetic model was developed to quantitatively describe the ADME of OCA in patients with and without hepatic impairment...
October 15, 2016: Clinical and Translational Science
Ha-Na Kim, Sung-Goo Kang, Yong Kyun Roh, Min-Kyu Choi, Sang-Wook Song
PURPOSE: Alcoholic liver disease or non-alcoholic fatty liver disease/non-alcoholic steatohepatitis are well-known risk factors for liver fibrosis or cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma; it is a major global health concern, but there are few effective and safe management options. Therefore, we aimed to investigate the effects of fermented garlic extracts (FGEs) on hepatic function in adults with mild hepatic dysfunction without underlying hepatic disease. METHODS: In this double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled study, seventy-five adults with elevated serum gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (GGT) levels were included in a FGE-administered group (n = 36) or a placebo group (n = 39), and received either two sachets/day containing FGEs or placebo over a 12-week period...
October 14, 2016: European Journal of Nutrition
Perica Davitkov, Apoorva Krishna Chandar, Amy Hirsch, Anita Compan, Marina G Silveira, Donald D Anthony, Suzanne Smith, Clare Gideon, Robert A Bonomo, Yngve Falck-Ytter
BACKGROUND: Clinicians often face dilemmas with decisions related to formulary choices when two similar drugs are simultaneously available in the market. We studied the comparative safety, effectiveness, and treatment costs of the two first generation direct-acting antiviral agents (DAA), boceprevir and telaprevir as uncertainty existed regarding the drug of choice between these two seemingly equally Hepatitis-C treatment options. METHODS: We randomly assigned 50 patients in an open-label, pragmatic randomized controlled trial (RCT) at a VA Medical Center to either boceprevir or telaprevir in combination with peginterferon and ribavirin, stratified by the presence of cirrhosis and prior treatment experience...
2016: PloS One
Kristy Na Kubícková, Iva Subhanová, Renáta Konícková, Linda Matousová, Petr Urbánek, Hana Parobková, Martin Kupec, Jirí Pudil, Libor Vítek
:  Introduction and aim. Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the most common primary malignant liver tumor. It is primarily caused by hepatic cirrhosis or chronic viral hepatitis. Hepatic carcinogenesis is associated with increased oxidative stress. Thus, the aim of our study was to assess expression of the genes involved in the homeostasis of oxidative stress in patients with HCC. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study was performed on 32 patients with primary HCC (verified by liver histology in 29 patients) and 27 control subjects (in 11 subjects, liver histology was available either with no or minimal changes in the liver tissue)...
November 2016: Annals of Hepatology
Katarzyna Sikorska, Agnieszka Bernat, Anna Wroblewska
BACKGROUND: The liver, as the main iron storage compartment and the place of hepcidin synthesis, is the central organ involved in maintaining iron homeostasis in the body. Excessive accumulation of iron is an important risk factor in liver disease progression to cirrhosis and hepatocellular carcinoma. Here, we review the literature on the molecular pathogenesis of iron overload and its clinical consequences in chronic liver diseases. DATA SOURCES: PubMed was searched for English-language articles on molecular genesis of primary and secondary iron overload, as well as on their association with liver disease progression...
October 2016: Hepatobiliary & Pancreatic Diseases International: HBPD INT
E B Tapper, B R Bacon, M P Curry, D T Dieterich, S L Flamm, L E Guest, K V Kowdley, Y Lee, N C Tsai, Z M Younossi, N H Afdhal
Early data regarding the "real-world" experience with novel therapies for hepatitis C (HCV) are encouraging. Data are still limited, however, regarding real-world rates of sustained virologic response (SVR) for ledipasvir-sofosbuvir (LDV-SOF), particularly for patients with prior treatment failure. We performed a retrospective cohort study of 1597 patients with chronic genotype 1 HCV who were treated using 12 weeks of the following regimens LDV-SOF±ribavirin (RBV) (n=1521 without RBV, n=76 with RBV). The primary outcome was SVR-determined at 12 weeks in an intention-to-treat design...
October 11, 2016: Journal of Viral Hepatitis
Rodrigo Liberal, Charlotte R Grant
Primary biliary cirrhosis (PBC), primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) and autoimmune hepatitis (AIH) constitute the classic autoimmune liver diseases (AILDs). While AIH target the hepatocytes, in PBC and PSC the targets of the autoimmune attack are the biliary epithelial cells. Persistent liver injury, associated with chronic AILD, leads to un-resolving inflammation, cell proliferation and the deposition of extracellular matrix proteins by hepatic stellate cells and portal myofibroblasts. Liver cirrhosis, and the resultant loss of normal liver function, inevitably ensues...
October 8, 2016: World Journal of Hepatology
Ioannis Varbobitis, George V Papatheodoridis
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a primary concern for patients with chronic hepatitis B (CHB). Antiviral therapy has been reasonably the focus of interest for HCC prevention, with most studies reporting on the role of the chronologically preceding agents, interferon-alfa and lamivudine. The impact of interferon-alfa on the incidence of HCC is clearer in Asian patients and those with compensated cirrhosis, as several meta-analyses have consistently shown HCC risk reduction, compared to untreated patients. Nucleos(t)ide analogues also seem to have a favorable impact on the HCC incidence when data from randomized or matched controlled studies are considered...
September 2016: Clinical and Molecular Hepatology
G Ramesh
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
January 2016: Journal of the Association of Physicians of India
Václav Hejda
Cirrhosis is the end stage of progressive development of different liver diseases and is associated with significant morbidity and mortality rates. Cirrhosis is associated with a number of potential complications, in particular with development of portal hypertension. Portal hypertension with the production of ascites, hepatic and gastric varices bleeding in the upper part of the gastrointestinal tract, presents the breakpoint in the natural course of cirrhosis, and it is associated with a considerably worse prognosis of patients, with a dramatically increased risk of mortality...
2016: Vnitr̆ní Lékar̆ství
Hanno Ehlken, Raluca Wroblewski, Christophe Corpechot, Lionel Arrivé, Tim Rieger, Johannes Hartl, Susanne Lezius, Peter Hübener, Kornelius Schulze, Roman Zenouzi, Marcial Sebode, Moritz Peiseler, Ulrike W Denzer, Alexander Quaas, Christina Weiler-Normann, Ansgar W Lohse, Olivier Chazouilleres, Christoph Schramm
BACKGROUND: Patients with primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC) develop progressive liver fibrosis and end-stage liver disease. Non-invasive and widely available parameters are urgently needed to assess disease stage and the risk of clinical progression. Transient elastography (TE) has been reported to predict fibrosis stage and disease progression. However, these results have not been confirmed in an independent cohort and comparison of TE measurement to other non-invasive means is missing...
2016: PloS One
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