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Adipokines and fibrosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277835/serum-levels-of-visfatin-omentin-and-irisin-in-patients-with-end-stage-lung-disease-before-and-after-lung-transplantation
#1
Marek Ochman, Marcin Maruszewski, Jacek Wojarski, Sławomir Żegleń, Wojtek Karolak, Anita Stanjek-Cichoracka, Piotr Przybyłowski, Marian Zembala, Michał Kukla
BACKGROUND The aim of this study was to investigate serum concentrations of visfatin, irisin, and omentin in patients with end-stage lung diseases (ESLD) before and after lung transplantation (LTx) and to find relationship between adipokines levels and clinical outcomes. MATERIAL AND METHODS Fourteen consecutive lung transplant recipients (six males and seven females; age 32.0±14.2 years; body mass index (BMI) 21.8±5.3 kg/m²) who underwent lung transplantation with initial diagnosis of respiratory failure due to cystic fibrosis (CF), chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) were included...
December 26, 2017: Annals of Transplantation: Quarterly of the Polish Transplantation Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29217381/adiponectin-levels-and-insulin-resistance-among-patients-with-chronic-hepatitis-c
#2
Raoni Freitas Carvalho, Ajax Mercês Atta, Isabela Silva de Oliveira, Taciana Pereira Sant'Ana Santos, João Pedro A Santos, Maria Isabel Schinoni, Maria Luiza Brito de Sousa-Atta
Chronic hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection is associated with insulin resistance (IR), rapid disease progression, and decreased virological response to antiviral treatment. In addition, obesity is a risk factor for chronic hepatitis C evolution and is associated with IR. As adiponectin is an adipokine that is associated with obesity and IR, this study aimed to investigate serum levels of adiponectin among patients with HCV infection and IR. Thirty-three patients with untreated HCV infection underwent testing of serum adiponectin levels (capture ELISA) and were compared to 30 healthy subjects with similar body mass indexes (BMI)...
February 2018: Acta Tropica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29059354/inflammation-and-fibrosis-in-perirenal-adipose-tissue-of-patients-with-aldosterone-producing-adenoma
#3
Chunyan Wu, Huijian Zhang, Jiajun Zhang, Cuihua Xie, Cunxia Fan, Hongbin Zhang, Peng Wu, Qiang Wei, Wanlong Tan, Lingling Xu, Ling Wang, Yaoming Xue, Meiping Guan
The prevalence of primary aldosteronism is much higher than previously thought. Recent studies have shown that primary aldosteronism is related to a higher risk of cardiovascular events. However, the underlying mechanism is not yet clear. Here we investigate the characteristics, including inflammation, fibrosis and adipokine expression, of adipose tissues from different deposits in patients with aldosterone-producing adenoma (APA). Inflammation and fibrosis changes were evaluated in perirenal and subcutaneous adipose tissues obtained from patients with APA (n=16), normotension (NT; n=10) and essential hypertension (EH; n=5) undergoing laparoscopic surgery...
October 19, 2017: Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29056000/-the-progress-of-studying-the-mechanisms-of-immune-cells-in-the-regulation-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-diseases
#4
Y Bao
Non-alcoholic fatty liver diseases (NAFLD) are liver diseases which are strongly associated with obesity. The incidence of NAFLD has been gradually increased in recent years. According to different pathology of the liver, NAFLD include three disease states: simple fatty liver, hepatitis (nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, NASH) and fatty liver cirrhosis. The accumulations of fat around the internal organs, which secrete a wide range of adipokines, such as interleukin-6, contribute the development and progress of NAFLD in obesity...
July 20, 2017: Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing za Zhi, Zhonghua Ganzangbing Zazhi, Chinese Journal of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28875689/liver-fibrosis-in-the-context-of-nonalcoholic-steatohepatitis-the-role-of-adipokines
#5
Giovanni DI Maira, Mirella Pastore, Fabio Marra
Liver fibrosis is a multifaceted process that occurs as a consequence of chronic liver injury. This process is characterized by inflammation, activation of matrix-producing cells, matrix deposition and remodeling, and epithelial cell regeneration. In subjects with chronic liver damage, fibrogenesis is favored by the presence of obesity and insulin resistance, which are also relevant risk factors for the development and progression of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH). It is now well-known that adipose tissue is not only involved in energy storage but also functions as an endocrine organ that secretes various bioactive substances known as adipokines...
September 5, 2017: Minerva Gastroenterologica e Dietologica
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28721158/potential-novel-biomarkers-of-cardiovascular-dysfunction-and-disease-cardiotrophin-1-adipokines-and-galectin-3
#6
Simona Hogas, Stefana C Bilha, Dumitru Branisteanu, Mihai Hogas, Abduzhappar Gaipov, Mehmet Kanbay, Adrian Covic
Cardiovascular disease is one of the main burdens of healthcare systems worldwide. Nevertheless, assessing cardiovascular risk in both apparently healthy individuals and low/high-risk patients remains a difficult issue. Already established biomarkers (e.g. brain natriuretic peptide, troponin) have significantly improved the assessment of major cardiovascular events and diseases but cannot be applied to all patients and in some cases do not provide sufficiently accurate information. In this context, new potential biomarkers that reflect various underlying pathophysiological cardiac and vascular modifications are needed...
June 2017: Archives of Medical Science: AMS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28718060/innate-immune-responses-and-osteoarthritis
#7
REVIEW
Evangelia Kalaitzoglou, Timothy M Griffin, Mary Beth Humphrey
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: Osteoarthritis (OA) is a chronic, painful joint disease that affects approximately 40% of adults over 70 year. Age is the strongest predictor of OA, while obesity is considered the primary preventable risk factor for OA. Both conditions are associated with abnormal innate immune inflammatory responses that contribute to OA progression and are the focus of this review. RECENT FINDINGS: Recent studies have identified risk factors for OA progression including increased innate immune responses secondary to aging-associated myeloid skewing, obesity-related myeloid activation, and synovial tissue hyperplasia with activated macrophage infiltration...
August 2017: Current Rheumatology Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28692538/metabolic-syndrome-and-obesity-are-the-cornerstones-of-liver-fibrosis-in-hiv-monoinfected-patients
#8
Maud Lemoine, Karine Lacombe, Jean P Bastard, Manuela Sébire, Laurent Fonquernie, Nadia Valin, Soraya Fellahi, Jacqueline Capeau, Pierre-Marie Girard, Jean-Luc Meynard
BACKGROUND: Metabolic syndrome (MetS) and nonalcoholic fatty liver disease have become a common finding in HIV-infected patients. However, the severity, risk factors and pathogenesis of liver fibrosis in this population have been poorly documented. OBJECTIVES: To assess the impact of MetS on liver fibrosis and analyze the association between MetS, liver fibrosis and markers of adipose tissue and macrophage activation. METHODS: In a matched cohort of HIV-1-monoinfected patients with and without MetS, after exclusion of other causes of liver disease, we assessed liver stiffness measurement and measured levels of serum adipokines, homeostasis model assessment index and soluble CD163 (sCD163) and CD14 as markers of fat, insulin resistance and macrophage/monocyte activation, respectively...
September 10, 2017: AIDS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28667272/adiponectin-is-an-endogenous-anti-fibrotic-mediator-and-therapeutic-target
#9
Roberta G Marangoni, Yuri Masui, Feng Fang, Benjamin Korman, Gabriel Lord, Junghwa Lee, Katja Lakota, Jun Wei, Philipp E Scherer, Laszlo Otvos, Toshimasa Yamauchi, Naoto Kubota, Takashi Kadowaki, Yoshihide Asano, Shinichi Sato, Warren G Tourtellotte, John Varga
Skin fibrosis in systemic sclerosis (SSc) is accompanied by attrition of dermal white adipose tissue (dWAT) and reduced levels of circulating adiponectin. Since adiponectin has potent regulatory effects on fibroblasts, we sought to assess adiponectin signaling in SSc skin biopsies, and evaluate fibrosis in mice with adiponectin gain- and loss-of-function mutations. Furthermore, we investigated the effects and mechanism of action of agonist peptides targeting adiponectin receptors in vitro and in vivo. We found that adiponectin pathway activity was significantly reduced in a subset of SSc skin biopsies...
June 30, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28661458/adipokines-in-liver-cirrhosis
#10
REVIEW
Christa Buechler, Elisabeth M Haberl, Lisa Rein-Fischboeck, Charalampos Aslanidis
Liver fibrosis can progress to cirrhosis, which is considered a serious disease. The Child-Pugh score and the model of end-stage liver disease score have been established to assess residual liver function in patients with liver cirrhosis. The development of portal hypertension contributes to ascites, variceal bleeding and further complications in these patients. A transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt (TIPS) is used to lower portal pressure, which represents a major improvement in the treatment of patients...
June 29, 2017: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28651038/brief-report-association-of-elevated-adipsin-levels-with-pulmonary-arterial-hypertension-in-systemic-sclerosis
#11
Benjamin D Korman, Roberta Goncalves Marangoni, Monique Hinchcliff, Sanjiv J Shah, Mary Carns, Aileen Hoffmann, Rosalind Ramsey-Goldman, John Varga
OBJECTIVE: Adipose tissues secrete adipokines, peptides with potent effects modulating fibrosis, inflammation, and vascular homeostasis. Dysregulated adipose tissue biology and adipokine balance have recently been implicated in systemic sclerosis (SSc). This study was undertaken to determine whether altered circulating adipokine levels correlate with SSc disease subsets or clinical manifestations. METHODS: Multiplex assays were used to measure circulating adipokine levels in 198 patients with SSc and 33 healthy controls...
October 2017: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28640444/impact-of-growth-hormone-on-regulation-of-adipose-tissue
#12
Katie M Troike, Brooke E Henry, Elizabeth A Jensen, Jonathan A Young, Edward O List, John J Kopchick, Darlene E Berryman
Increasing prevalence of obesity and obesity-related conditions worldwide has necessitated a more thorough understanding of adipose tissue (AT) and expanded the scope of research in this field. AT is now understood to be far more complex and dynamic than previously thought, which has also fueled research to reevaluate how hormones, such as growth hormone (GH), alter the tissue. In this review, we will introduce properties of AT important for understanding how GH alters the tissue, such as anatomical location of depots and adipokine output...
June 18, 2017: Comprehensive Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28629772/impact-of-the-cardiovascular-system-associated-adipose-tissue-on-atherosclerotic-pathology
#13
REVIEW
Dimitry A Chistiakov, Andrey V Grechko, Veronika A Myasoedova, Alexandra A Melnichenko, Alexander N Orekhov
Cardiac obesity makes an important contribution to the pathogenesis of cardiovascular disease. One of the important pathways of this contribution is the inflammatory process that takes place in the adipose tissue. In this review, we consider the role of the cardiovascular system-associated fat in atherosclerotic cardiovascular pathology and a non-atherosclerotic cause of coronary artery disease, such as atrial fibrillation. Cardiovascular system-associated fat not only serves as the energy store, but also releases adipokines that control local and systemic metabolism, heart/vascular function and vessel tone, and a number of vasodilating and anti-inflammatory substances...
August 2017: Atherosclerosis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28588299/protective-effect-of-rosiglitazone-on-kidney-function-in-high-fat-challenged-human-crp-transgenic-mice-a-possible-role-for-adiponectin-and-mir-21
#14
Martine C Morrison, Gopala K Yakala, Wen Liang, Peter Y Wielinga, Kanita Salic, Arianne van Koppen, Tushar Tomar, Robert Kleemann, Peter Heeringa, Teake Kooistra
Obesity-related albuminuria is associated with decline of kidney function and is considered a first sign of diabetic nephropathy. Suggested factors linking obesity to kidney dysfunction include low-grade inflammation, insulin resistance and adipokine dysregulation. Here, we investigated the effects of two pharmacological compounds with established anti-inflammatory properties, rosiglitazone and rosuvastatin, on kidney dysfunction during high-fat diet (HFD)-induced obesity. For this, human CRP transgenic mice were fed standard chow, a lard-based HFD, HFD+rosuvastatin or HFD+rosiglitazone for 42 weeks to study effects on insulin resistance; plasma inflammatory markers and adipokines; and renal pathology...
June 6, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28533262/acute-and-chronic-changes-in-rat-soleus-muscle-after-high-fat-high-sucrose-diet
#15
Kelsey H Collins, David A Hart, Ian C Smith, Anthony M Issler, Raylene A Reimer, Ruth A Seerattan, Jaqueline L Rios, Walter Herzog
The effects of obesity on different musculoskeletal tissues are not well understood. The glycolytic quadriceps muscles are compromised with obesity, but due to its high oxidative capacity, the soleus muscle may be protected against obesity-induced muscle damage. To determine the time-course relationship between a high-fat/high-sucrose (HFS) metabolic challenge and soleus muscle integrity, defined as intramuscular fat invasion, fibrosis and molecular alterations over six time points. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a HFS diet (n = 64) and killed at serial short-term (3 days, 1 week, 2 weeks, 4 weeks) and long-term (12 weeks, 28 weeks) time points...
May 2017: Physiological Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28521681/effects-of-diets-on-adipose-tissue
#16
Silvia Ezquerro, Amaia Rodríguez, Piero Portincasa, Gema Frühbeck
Obesity is a major health problem that has become a global epidemic. Overweight and obesity are commonly associated with the development of several pathologies, such as insulin resistance, cardiovascular diseases, sleep apnea and several types of cancer, which can lead to further morbidity and mortality. An increased abdominal adiposity renders overweight and obese individuals more prone to metabolic and cardiovascular problems. In this sense, excess adiposity leads to several changes in the biology, morphology and function of the adipose tissue, such as adipocyte hypertrophy and hyperplasia, adipose tissue inflammation and fibrosis and an impaired secretion of adipokines, contributing to the onset of obesity-related co-morbidities...
May 17, 2017: Current Medicinal Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28452101/effects-of-combined-low-dose-spironolactone-plus-vitamin-e-vs-vitamin-e-monotherapy-on-insulin-resistance-non-invasive-indices-of-steatosis-and-fibrosis-and-adipokine-levels-in-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-a-randomized-controlled-trial
#17
Stergios A Polyzos, Jannis Kountouras, Christos S Mantzoros, Vaia Polymerou, Panagiotis Katsinelos
The beneficial effects of mineralocorticoid receptor blockade by spironolactone have been shown in animal models of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). The aim of the present 52-week randomized controlled trial was to compare the effects of low-dose spironolactone and vitamin E combination with those of vitamin E monotherapy on insulin resistance, non-invasive indices of hepatic steatosis and fibrosis, liver function tests, circulating adipokines and hormones in patients with histologically confirmed NAFLD...
April 28, 2017: Diabetes, Obesity & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28334911/mertk-rs4374383-variant-predicts-incident-nonalcoholic-fatty-liver-disease-and-diabetes-role-of-mononuclear-cell-activation-and-adipokine-response-to-dietary-fat
#18
Giovanni Musso, Maurizio Cassader, Franco De Michieli, Elena Paschetta, Silvia Pinach, Francesca Saba, Daria Bongiovanni, Luciana Framarin, Mara Berrutti, Nicola Leone, Stefania Corvisieri, Renato Parente, Federica Molinaro, Antonio Sircana, Simona Bo, Roberto Gambino
The loss-of-function rs4374383 G > A variant in Myeloid-epithelial-reproductive Tyrosine Kinase (MERTK) gene has been linked to hepatic fibrosis in chronic liver diseases. MERTK is expressed by immune and non-immune cells involved in inflammation, metabolism and vascular homeostasis. We assessed the impact of MERTK rs4374383 G > A variant on nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) incidence and severity and on glucose and lipid metabolism. We followed-up 305 healthy nonobese nondiabetic, metabolic syndrome-free insulin sensitive participants in a population-based study, characterized for MERTK G > A polymorphism, adipokine profile and inflammatory markers...
May 1, 2017: Human Molecular Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281237/adipokine-levels-versus-hepatic-histopathology-in-bariatric-surgery-patients
#19
Rafael Bergesch D'Incao, Cristiane Valle Tovo, Vanessa Suñé Mattevi, Diego Olschowsky Borges, Jane Maria Ulbrich, Gabriela Perdomo Coral, Mauricio Jacques Ramos, Nelson Guardiola Meinhardt
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a worldwide prevalent disease and is an underlying factor of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). It has been understood as a chronic inflammatory state, being associated with the production of adipokines. The aim of this study was to analyze the levels of adipokines in the serum, visceral, and subcutaneous fat and to compare them with hepatic histopathology in morbidly obese patients. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional observational study, which analyzed the findings of liver biopsy in patients undergoing bariatric surgery and who had performed analysis of adipokines mRNA expression (adiponectin-ADIPOQ, leptin-LEP, and resistin-RETN) in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue and circulating adipokines in serum...
August 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28191635/the-role-of-epicardial-adipose-tissue-in-cardiac-biology-classic-concepts-and-emerging-roles
#20
Alexios S Antonopoulos, Charalambos Antoniades
Classic concepts about the role of epicardial adipose tissue (EpAT) in heart physiology include its role in cardiac metabolism, mechanical protection of coronaries, innervation and possibly cryoprotection of the heart too. Nevertheless, recent evidence has revealed that epicardial adipose tissue regulates multiple aspects of cardiac biology including myocardial redox state, intracellular Ca(2+) cycling, the electrophysiological and contractile properties of cardiomyocytes, cardiac fibrosis as well as coronary atherosclerosis progression...
June 15, 2017: Journal of Physiology
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