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Leptin and fibrosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28442507/protein-kinase-stk25-aggravates-the-severity-of-non-alcoholic-fatty-pancreas-disease-in-mice
#1
Esther Nunez Duran, Belen Chanclon, Silva Sütt, Joana Real, Hanns-Ulrich Marschall, Ingrid Wernstedt-Asterholm, Emelie Cansby, Margit Mahlapuu
Characterising the molecular networks that negatively regulate pancreatic β-cell function is essential for understanding the underlying pathogenesis and developing new treatment strategies for type 2 diabetes. We recently identified serine/threonine protein kinase 25 (STK25) as a critical regulator of ectopic fat storage, meta-inflammation, and fibrosis in liver and skeletal muscle. Here, we assessed the role of STK25 in control of progression of non-alcoholic fatty pancreas disease in the context of chronic exposure to dietary lipids in mice...
April 25, 2017: Journal of Endocrinology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28281237/adipokine-levels-versus-hepatic-histopathology-in-bariatric-surgery-patients
#2
Rafael Bergesch D'Incao, Cristiane Valle Tovo, Vanessa Suñé Mattevi, Diego Olschowsky Borges, Jane Maria Ulbrich, Gabriela Perdomo Coral, Mauricio Jacques Ramos, Nelson Guardiola Meinhardt
BACKGROUND: Obesity is a worldwide prevalent disease and is an underlying factor of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). It has been understood as a chronic inflammatory state, being associated with the production of adipokines. The aim of this study was to analyze the levels of adipokines in the serum, visceral, and subcutaneous fat and to compare them with hepatic histopathology in morbidly obese patients. METHODS: This is a cross-sectional observational study, which analyzed the findings of liver biopsy in patients undergoing bariatric surgery and who had performed analysis of adipokines mRNA expression (adiponectin-ADIPOQ, leptin-LEP, and resistin-RETN) in subcutaneous and visceral adipose tissue and circulating adipokines in serum...
March 10, 2017: Obesity Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28257569/hyperleptinemia-exacerbates-high-fat-diet-mediated-atrial-fibrosis-and-fibrillation
#3
Akira Fukui, Yuki Ikebe-Ebata, Hidekazu Kondo, Shotaro Saito, Kohei Aoki, Naoya Fukunaga, Tetsuji Shinohara, Takayuki Masaki, Yasushi Teshima, Naohiko Takahashi
BACKGROUND: Obesity including metabolic syndrome is an independent risk factor of atrial fibrillation (AF). Although hyperleptinemia is usually a characteristic of obese subjects, the relationship with atrial fibrosis and AF is unknown. We tested the hypothesis that high-fat diet (HFD)-induced hyperleptinemia exacerbates atrial fibrosis and AF. METHODS AND RESULTS: Eight-week-old male C57BL/6 (WT) and leptin-deficient ob/ob (Ob) mice were treated with a normal-fat diet (NFD) or 60% HFD...
March 3, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Electrophysiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28161095/environmental-obesogen-tributyltin-chloride-leads-to-abnormal-hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal-axis-function-by-disruption-in-kisspeptin-leptin-signaling-in-female-rats
#4
Gabriela C Sena, Leandro C Freitas-Lima, Eduardo Merlo, Priscila L Podratz, Julia F P de Araújo, Poliane A A Brandão, Maria T W D Carneiro, Marina C Zicker, Adaliene V M Ferreira, Christina M Takiya, Carolina M de Lemos Barbosa, Marcelo M Morales, Ana Paula Santos-Silva, Leandro Miranda-Alves, Ian V Silva, Jones B Graceli
Tributyltin chloride (TBT) is a xenobiotic used as a biocide in antifouling paints that has been demonstrated to induce endocrine-disrupting effects, such as obesity and reproductive abnormalities. An integrative metabolic control in the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis was exerted by leptin. However, studies that have investigated the obesogenic TBT effects on the HPG axis are especially rare. We investigated whether metabolic disorders as a result of TBT are correlated with abnormal hypothalamus-pituitary-gonadal (HPG) axis function, as well as kisspeptin (Kiss) action...
March 15, 2017: Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28141918/profibrotic-infrapatellar-fat-pad-remodeling-without-m1-macrophage-polarization-precedes-knee-osteoarthritis-in-mice-with-diet-induced-obesity
#5
Erika Barboza, Joanna Hudson, Wan-Pin Chang, Susan Kovats, Rheal A Towner, Robert Silasi-Mansat, Florea Lupu, Collin Kent, Timothy M Griffin
OBJECTIVE: To test the hypothesis that high-fat (HF) diet-induced obesity increases proinflammatory cytokine expression, macrophage infiltration, and M1 polarization in the infrapatellar fat pad (IFP) prior to knee cartilage degeneration. METHODS: We characterized the effect of HF feeding on knee OA pathology, body adiposity, and glucose intolerance in male C57BL/6J mice and identified a diet duration that induces metabolic dysfunction prior to cartilage degeneration...
January 31, 2017: Arthritis & Rheumatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28086768/probiotic-mixture-improves-fatty-liver-disease-by-virtue-of-its-action-on-lipid-profiles-leptin-and-inflammatory-biomarkers
#6
Hessah Mohammed Al-Muzafar, Kamal Adel Amin
BACKGROUND: A high fat diet has an essential role in the pathogenesis of non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD). This condition is characterized by hepatic fat accumulation (steatosis) and is associated with obesity, diabetes, and fibrosis or cirrhosis of the liver. Probiotics may be useful in the treatment of steatosis. This study examined the effects of an ingested probiotic formulation on the lipid profiles, liver functions, leptin levels, and inflammatory marker levels of rats with NAFLD that had been induced via high fat and sucrose diet (HFSD)...
January 13, 2017: BMC Complementary and Alternative Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920819/co-administration-of-metformin-and-n-acetylcysteine-with-dietary-control-improves-the-biochemical-and-histological-manifestations-in-rats-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver
#7
Naglaa Mohamed El-Lakkany, Sayed Hassan Seif El-Din, Abdel-Nasser Abdel-Aal Sabra, Olfat Ali Hammam, Fatma Abdel-Latif Ebeid
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a burgeoning health problem that affects 1/3 of the adult population and an increasing number of children in developed countries. Oxidative stress and insulin resistance are the mechanisms that seem to be mostly involved in its pathogenesis. This study was conceived in a NAFLD rat model to evaluate the efficacy of both metformin (MTF) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) with dietary control on biochemical and histologic liver manifestations. Rats were classified into nine groups; normal (I), NAFLD-induced by feeding high-fat diet (HFD; II) for 12 weeks, NAFLD switched to regular diet (RD; III), NAFLD-HFD or -RD treated with MTF in a dose of 150 mg/kg (IV, V), NAC in a dose of 500 mg/kg (VI, VII) or MTF+NAC (VIII, IX) respectively for 8 weeks...
October 2016: Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884680/caloric-restriction-ameliorates-cardiomyopathy-in-animal-model-of-diabetes
#8
Keren Cohen, Maayan Waldman, Nader G Abraham, Michal Laniado-Schwartzman, Danny Gurfield, Dan Aravot, Michael Arad, Edith Hochhauser
BACKGROUND: The db/db mouse is an animal model of diabetes in which leptin receptor activity is deficient resulting accelerated cardiomyopathy when exposed to angiotensin (AT). Toll-like receptors 4 and 2 (TLR4, TLR2) are pattern recognition receptors, that recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns and exacerbate and release inflammatory cytokines. Fetuin A (Fet A) is a fatty acid carrier which affects inflammation and insulin resistance in obese humans and animals through TLRs...
January 1, 2017: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882166/galanin-receptor-2-mediates-antifibrogenic-effects-of-galanin-on-hepatic-stellate-cells
#9
Lingnan He, Zhenghong Li, Da Zhou, Yongnian Ding, Leiming Xu, Yuanwen Chen, Jiangao Fan
Galanin is an endogenous factor involved in the negative regulation of the biological effects of leptin in bioenergetic metabolism. Leptin promotes fibrogenic effects in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), however, little is known about the effects of galanin on HSCs. In the present study, the biological functions of galanin and its receptors (GalRs) in HSCs were investigated using cell culture in vitro. It was found that galanin and GalR3 mRNA are expressed in quiescent and activated HSCs. GalR2 expression was undetectable in quiescent HSCs but was markedly induced in activated HSCs...
November 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777595/soshiho-tang-aqueous-extract-exerts-antiobesity-effects-in-high-fat-diet-fed-mice-and-inhibits-adipogenesis-in-3t3-l1-adipocytes
#10
Sae-Rom Yoo, Mee-Young Lee, Byoung-Kab Kang, Hyeun-Kyoo Shin, Soo-Jin Jeong
Soshiho-tang (SST; sho-saiko-to in Japanese; xiaochaihu-tang in Chinese) has generally been used to improve liver fibrosis- and cirrhosis-related symptoms in traditional Korean medicine. Although many studies have investigated the pharmacological properties of SST, its antiobesity effect has not been elucidated. Thus, our present study was carried out to evaluate the antiobesity effect of SST using a high fat diet- (HFD) induced obese mouse model and 3T3-L1 adipose cells. C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into four groups (n = 6/group), normal diet (ND), HFD-fed group, and HFD- and SST-fed groups (S200: 200 mg/kg of SST; S600: 600 mg/kg of SST) and given HFD with or without SST extract for 8 weeks...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753900/os-01-09-markers-of-early-renal-impairment-in-prehypertension
#11
Ana Vrdoljak, Vanja Ivković, Sandra Karanović, Živka Dika, Ivana Vuković, Jelena Kos, Mario Laganović, Tajana Željković Vrkić, Margareta Fištrek Prlić, Ivan Pećin, Bojan Jelaković
OBJECTIVE: It was observed that glomerular hyperfiltration (GHF) is associated with progression of kidney disease in diabetics, patients in stage 1 hypertension (HT), and we found previously that eGFR decreased faster also in prehypertensives (PHT) with GHF. Here we analyzed whether GHF in PHT is associated with other biomarkers of early renal impairment. DESIGN AND METHOD: From 954 subjects enrolled in ENAH follow-up study, 371(137 m;mean age = 46years) were eligible for further analysis:100 with optimal,72 with normal BP,70 with PHT(high normal BP),and 129 with newly diagnosed untreated HT...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709831/gata-binding-protein-3-is-correlated-with-leptin-regulation-of-ppar%C3%AE-1-in-hepatic-stellate-cells
#12
Wei Guan, Fangyun Cheng, Hao Wu, Qing Cao, Xiaofei Zhu, Yan Fan, Huixia Zhu, Yajun Zhou
Accumulating evidence reveals that hormone leptin, mainly produced by adipocyte, plays a unique role in promotion of liver fibrosis. Hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation is a key step in liver fibrosis and peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ) exerts a crucial role in inhibition of HSC activation. Our previous researches demonstrated that leptin reduced PPARγ1 (a major subtype of PPARγ in HSCs) expression through GATA binding protein 2 (GATA2) binding to a site around -2323 in PPARγ1 promoter...
March 2017: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690014/new-treatment-strategies-for-alcohol-induced-heart-damage
#13
REVIEW
Joaquim Fernández-Solà, Ana Planavila Porta
High-dose alcohol misuse induces multiple noxious cardiac effects, including myocyte hypertrophy and necrosis, interstitial fibrosis, decreased ventricular contraction and ventricle enlargement. These effects produce diastolic and systolic ventricular dysfunction leading to congestive heart failure, arrhythmias and an increased death rate. There are multiple, dose-dependent, synchronic and synergistic mechanisms of alcohol-induced cardiac damage. Ethanol alters membrane permeability and composition, interferes with receptors and intracellular transients, induces oxidative, metabolic and energy damage, decreases protein synthesis, excitation-contraction coupling and increases cell apoptosis...
September 29, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642238/plasma-leptin-is-elevated-in-acute-exacerbation-of-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis
#14
Mengshu Cao, Jeffery J Swigris, Xin Wang, Min Cao, Yuying Qiu, Mei Huang, Yonglong Xiao, Hourong Cai
Background. The natural history of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is very complex and unpredictable. Some patients will experience acute exacerbation (AE) and fatal outcomes. Methods. The study included 30 AE-IPF patients, 32 stable IPF (S-IPF) patients, and 12 healthy controls. We measured the plasma concentrations of leptin and KL-6. Simple correlation was used to assess associations between leptin and other variables. Plasma leptin levels were compared between AE-IPF and S-IPF subjects, decedents, and survivors...
2016: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27521417/diastolic-dysfunction-in-prediabetic-male-rats-role-of-mitochondrial-oxidative-stress
#15
Gábor Koncsos, Zoltán V Varga, Tamás Baranyai, Kerstin Boengler, Susanne Rohrbach, Ling Li, Klaus-Dieter Schlüter, Rolf Schreckenberg, Tamás Radovits, Attila Oláh, Csaba Mátyás, Árpád Lux, Mahmoud Al-Khrasani, Tímea Komlódi, Nóra Bukosza, Domokos Máthé, László Deres, Monika Barteková, Tomáš Rajtík, Adriana Adameová, Krisztián Szigeti, Péter Hamar, Zsuzsanna Helyes, László Tretter, Pál Pacher, Béla Merkely, Zoltán Giricz, Rainer Schulz, Péter Ferdinandy
Although incidence and prevalence of prediabetes are increasing, little is known about its cardiac effects. Therefore, our aim was to investigate the effect of prediabetes on cardiac function and to characterize parameters and pathways associated with deteriorated cardiac performance. Long-Evans rats were fed with either control or high-fat chow for 21 wk and treated with a single low dose (20 mg/kg) of streptozotocin at week 4 High-fat and streptozotocin treatment induced prediabetes as characterized by slightly elevated fasting blood glucose, impaired glucose and insulin tolerance, increased visceral adipose tissue and plasma leptin levels, as well as sensory neuropathy...
October 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27501771/differences-in-metabolic-biomarkers-in-the-blood-and-gene-expression-profiles-of-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-among-normal-weight-mildly-obese-and-moderately-obese-subjects
#16
Un Ju Jung, Yu Ri Seo, Ri Ryu, Myung-Sook Choi
We compared metabolic biomarkers in the blood and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) gene expression profiles among normal weight (BMI, 18·5-23 kg/m2), mildly obese (BMI, 25-27·5 kg/m2) and moderately obese Korean adult men (BMI, 27·5-30 kg/m2). High leptin, lipids (except LDL- and HDL-cholesterol) and apoB levels and low adiponectin and HDL-cholesterol levels were present in the plasma of both mildly and moderately obese subjects. Circulating levels of inflammatory cytokines and markers of insulin resistance, oxidative stress and liver damage were altered in moderately obese subjects but not in mildly obese subjects...
September 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27355753/case-report-of-diet-related-improvements-of-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-evaluated-by-four-consecutive-liver-biopsies
#17
Miwa Kawanaka, Kazuhiro Nouso, Syoichiro Yano, Jun Nakamura, Ken Nishino, Mitsuhiko Suehiro, Hirofumi Kawamoto
We report the case of a 46-year-old man who achieved remarkable improvement of characteristic non-alcoholic steatohepatitis by dieting. Initially, his body mass index was 40.7 kg/m(2) . He proactively commenced a low calorie diet and his body mass index decreased to 28 kg/m(2) after 4 years. During the same period, we carried out liver biopsy four times. Liver fibrosis as well as inflammation, steatosis and ballooning improved, and the non-alcoholic fatty liver disease activity score decreased from 4 to 0...
April 2017: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27337945/differences-between-perivascular-adipose-tissue-surrounding-the-heart-and-the-internal-mammary-artery-possible-role-for-the-leptin-inflammation-fibrosis-hypoxia-axis
#18
COMPARATIVE STUDY
Ioannis Drosos, Georgios Chalikias, Maria Pavlaki, Dimitra Kareli, Grigorios Epitropou, Georgios Bougioukas, Dimitrios Mikroulis, Fotios Konstantinou, Alexandra Giatromanolaki, Konstantinos Ritis, Thomas Münzel, Dimitrios Tziakas, Stavros Konstantinides, Katrin Schäfer
AIM: The factors mediating the paracrine effects of perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) in atherosclerosis are largely unknown. The adipokine leptin has been implicated in the increased cardiovascular risk in obesity and may locally promote neointima formation independently of circulating leptin levels. In patients with established coronary artery disease, we examined the expression of leptin as well as of its possible inducers in 'cardiac' PVAT surrounding the aortic root and coronary arteries (C-PVAT), and compared it to the PVAT surrounding the internal mammary artery (IMA-PVAT), a vessel resistant to atherosclerosis...
November 2016: Clinical Research in Cardiology: Official Journal of the German Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27134129/leptin-pre-existing-vascular-disease-and-increased-arteriovenous-fistula-maturation-failure-in-dialysis-patients
#19
Jwa-Kyung Kim, Sun Ryoung Choi, Won Yong Lee, Mi Jin Park, Hyung Suk Lee, Young Rim Song, Hyung Jik Kim, Sung Gyun Kim
BACKGROUND: The adipocytokine leptin is an independent cardiovascular risk factor and exerts proatherogenic effect. Pre-existing vascular disease is an important cause of arteriovenous fistula (AVF) maturation failure. We explored the association between serum leptin, pre-existing vascular disease, and AVF maturation failure in incident hemodialysis patients. METHODS: Vein samples from 62 patients were collected at the time of AVF creation. Pre-existing vascular disease was evaluated with histologic changes and immunohistochemical characteristics of cellular phenotypes in intima...
April 28, 2016: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27126698/effect-of-trans-chalcone-on-atheroma-plaque-formation-liver-fibrosis-and-adiponectin-gene-expression-in-cholesterol-fed-nmri-mice
#20
Leyla Karkhaneh, Parichehreh Yaghmaei, Kazem Parivar, Majid Sadeghizadeh, Azadeh Ebrahim-Habibi
BACKGROUND: Trans-chalcone is the precursor molecule to flavonoids and possesses antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of trans-chalcone on atheroma plaque formation and the relevant biochemical parameters in high cholesterol diet (HCD)-fed NMRI mice. METHODS: Fifty male NMRI mice were divided into 5 groups (n=10 per group): control (received a normal diet); HCD (received an additional 2% cholesterol for 18 weeks); sham (received a HCD for 12 weeks and were then shifted to a normal diet and trans-chalcone vehicle (sunflower oil) for 6 weeks), and two experimental groups (received a HCD for 12 weeks and were then shifted to a normal diet and either 12mg/kg or 24mg/kg trans-chalcone for 6 weeks)...
August 2016: Pharmacological Reports: PR
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