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Leptin and fibrosis

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27920819/co-administration-of-metformin-and-n-acetylcysteine-with-dietary-control-improves-the-biochemical-and-histological-manifestations-in-rats-with-non-alcoholic-fatty-liver
#1
Naglaa Mohamed El-Lakkany, Sayed Hassan Seif El-Din, Abdel-Nasser Abdel-Aal Sabra, Olfat Ali Hammam, Fatma Abdel-Latif Ebeid
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is a burgeoning health problem that affects 1/3 of the adult population and an increasing number of children in developed countries. Oxidative stress and insulin resistance are the mechanisms that seem to be mostly involved in its pathogenesis. This study was conceived in a NAFLD rat model to evaluate the efficacy of both metformin (MTF) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) with dietary control on biochemical and histologic liver manifestations. Rats were classified into nine groups; normal (I), NAFLD-induced by feeding high-fat diet (HFD; II) for 12 weeks, NAFLD switched to regular diet (RD; III), NAFLD-HFD or -RD treated with MTF in a dose of 150 mg/kg (IV, V), NAC in a dose of 500 mg/kg (VI, VII) or MTF+NAC (VIII, IX) respectively for 8 weeks...
October 2016: Research in Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27884680/caloric-restriction-ameliorates-cardiomyopathy-in-animal-model-of-diabetes
#2
Keren Cohen, Maayan Waldman, Nader G Abraham, Michal Laniado-Schwartzman, Danny Gurfield, Dan Aravot, Michael Arad, Edith Hochhauser
BACKGROUND: The db/db mouse is an animal model of diabetes in which leptin receptor activity is deficient resulting accelerated cardiomyopathy when exposed to angiotensin (AT). Toll-like receptors 4 and 2 (TLR4, TLR2) are pattern recognition receptors, that recognize pathogen-associated molecular patterns and exacerbate and release inflammatory cytokines. Fetuin A (Fet A) is a fatty acid carrier which affects inflammation and insulin resistance in obese humans and animals through TLRs...
November 21, 2016: Experimental Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27882166/galanin-receptor-2-mediates-antifibrogenic-effects-of-galanin-on-hepatic-stellate-cells
#3
Lingnan He, Zhenghong Li, Da Zhou, Yongnian Ding, Leiming Xu, Yuanwen Chen, Jiangao Fan
Galanin is an endogenous factor involved in the negative regulation of the biological effects of leptin in bioenergetic metabolism. Leptin promotes fibrogenic effects in hepatic stellate cells (HSCs), however, little is known about the effects of galanin on HSCs. In the present study, the biological functions of galanin and its receptors (GalRs) in HSCs were investigated using cell culture in vitro. It was found that galanin and GalR3 mRNA are expressed in quiescent and activated HSCs. GalR2 expression was undetectable in quiescent HSCs but was markedly induced in activated HSCs...
November 2016: Experimental and Therapeutic Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777595/soshiho-tang-aqueous-extract-exerts-antiobesity-effects-in-high-fat-diet-fed-mice-and-inhibits-adipogenesis-in-3t3-l1-adipocytes
#4
Sae-Rom Yoo, Mee-Young Lee, Byoung-Kab Kang, Hyeun-Kyoo Shin, Soo-Jin Jeong
Soshiho-tang (SST; sho-saiko-to in Japanese; xiaochaihu-tang in Chinese) has generally been used to improve liver fibrosis- and cirrhosis-related symptoms in traditional Korean medicine. Although many studies have investigated the pharmacological properties of SST, its antiobesity effect has not been elucidated. Thus, our present study was carried out to evaluate the antiobesity effect of SST using a high fat diet- (HFD) induced obese mouse model and 3T3-L1 adipose cells. C57BL/6J mice were randomly divided into four groups (n = 6/group), normal diet (ND), HFD-fed group, and HFD- and SST-fed groups (S200: 200 mg/kg of SST; S600: 600 mg/kg of SST) and given HFD with or without SST extract for 8 weeks...
2016: Evidence-based Complementary and Alternative Medicine: ECAM
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27753900/os-01-09-markers-of-early-renal-impairment-in-prehypertension
#5
Ana Vrdoljak, Vanja Ivković, Sandra Karanović, Živka Dika, Ivana Vuković, Jelena Kos, Mario Laganović, Tajana Željković Vrkić, Margareta Fištrek Prlić, Ivan Pećin, Bojan Jelaković
OBJECTIVE: It was observed that glomerular hyperfiltration (GHF) is associated with progression of kidney disease in diabetics, patients in stage 1 hypertension (HT), and we found previously that eGFR decreased faster also in prehypertensives (PHT) with GHF. Here we analyzed whether GHF in PHT is associated with other biomarkers of early renal impairment. DESIGN AND METHOD: From 954 subjects enrolled in ENAH follow-up study, 371(137 m;mean age = 46years) were eligible for further analysis:100 with optimal,72 with normal BP,70 with PHT(high normal BP),and 129 with newly diagnosed untreated HT...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27709831/gata-binding-protein-3-is-correlated-with-leptin-regulation-of-ppar%C3%AE-1-in-hepatic-stellate-cells
#6
Wei Guan, Fangyun Cheng, Hao Wu, Qing Cao, Xiaofei Zhu, Yan Fan, Huixia Zhu, Yajun Zhou
Accumulating evidence reveals that hormone leptin, mainly produced by adipocyte, plays a unique role in promotion of liver fibrosis. Hepatic stellate cell (HSC) activation is a key step in liver fibrosis and peroxisome-proliferator activated receptor γ (PPARγ) exerts a crucial role in inhibition of HSC activation. Our previous researches demonstrated that leptin reduced PPARγ1 (a major subtype of PPARγ in HSCs) expression through GATA binding protein 2 (GATA2) binding to a site around -2323 in PPARγ1 promoter...
October 6, 2016: Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27690014/new-treatment-strategies-for-alcohol-induced-heart-damage
#7
Joaquim Fernández-Solà, Ana Planavila Porta
High-dose alcohol misuse induces multiple noxious cardiac effects, including myocyte hypertrophy and necrosis, interstitial fibrosis, decreased ventricular contraction and ventricle enlargement. These effects produce diastolic and systolic ventricular dysfunction leading to congestive heart failure, arrhythmias and an increased death rate. There are multiple, dose-dependent, synchronic and synergistic mechanisms of alcohol-induced cardiac damage. Ethanol alters membrane permeability and composition, interferes with receptors and intracellular transients, induces oxidative, metabolic and energy damage, decreases protein synthesis, excitation-contraction coupling and increases cell apoptosis...
September 29, 2016: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27642238/plasma-leptin-is-elevated-in-acute-exacerbation-of-idiopathic-pulmonary-fibrosis
#8
Mengshu Cao, Jeffery J Swigris, Xin Wang, Min Cao, Yuying Qiu, Mei Huang, Yonglong Xiao, Hourong Cai
Background. The natural history of idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is very complex and unpredictable. Some patients will experience acute exacerbation (AE) and fatal outcomes. Methods. The study included 30 AE-IPF patients, 32 stable IPF (S-IPF) patients, and 12 healthy controls. We measured the plasma concentrations of leptin and KL-6. Simple correlation was used to assess associations between leptin and other variables. Plasma leptin levels were compared between AE-IPF and S-IPF subjects, decedents, and survivors...
2016: Mediators of Inflammation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27521417/diastolic-dysfunction-in-prediabetic-male-rats-role-of-mitochondrial-oxidative-stress
#9
Gábor Koncsos, Zoltán V Varga, Tamás Baranyai, Kerstin Boengler, Susanne Rohrbach, Ling Li, Klaus-Dieter Schlüter, Rolf Schreckenberg, Tamás Radovits, Attila Oláh, Csaba Mátyás, Árpád Lux, Mahmoud Al-Khrasani, Tímea Komlódi, Nóra Bukosza, Domokos Máthé, László Deres, Monika Barteková, Tomáš Rajtík, Adriana Adameová, Krisztián Szigeti, Péter Hamar, Zsuzsanna Helyes, László Tretter, Pál Pacher, Béla Merkely, Zoltán Giricz, Rainer Schulz, Péter Ferdinandy
Although incidence and prevalence of prediabetes are increasing, little is known about its cardiac effects. Therefore, our aim was to investigate the effect of prediabetes on cardiac function and to characterize parameters and pathways associated with deteriorated cardiac performance. Long-Evans rats were fed with either control or high-fat chow for 21 wk and treated with a single low dose (20 mg/kg) of streptozotocin at week 4 High-fat and streptozotocin treatment induced prediabetes as characterized by slightly elevated fasting blood glucose, impaired glucose and insulin tolerance, increased visceral adipose tissue and plasma leptin levels, as well as sensory neuropathy...
October 1, 2016: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27501771/differences-in-metabolic-biomarkers-in-the-blood-and-gene-expression-profiles-of-peripheral-blood-mononuclear-cells-among-normal-weight-mildly-obese-and-moderately-obese-subjects
#10
Un Ju Jung, Yu Ri Seo, Ri Ryu, Myung-Sook Choi
We compared metabolic biomarkers in the blood and peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) gene expression profiles among normal weight (BMI, 18·5-23 kg/m2), mildly obese (BMI, 25-27·5 kg/m2) and moderately obese Korean adult men (BMI, 27·5-30 kg/m2). High leptin, lipids (except LDL- and HDL-cholesterol) and apoB levels and low adiponectin and HDL-cholesterol levels were present in the plasma of both mildly and moderately obese subjects. Circulating levels of inflammatory cytokines and markers of insulin resistance, oxidative stress and liver damage were altered in moderately obese subjects but not in mildly obese subjects...
September 2016: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27355753/case-report-of-diet-related-improvements-of-non-alcoholic-steatohepatitis-evaluated-by-four-consecutive-liver-biopsies
#11
Miwa Kawanaka, Kazuhiro Nouso, Syoichiro Yano, Jun Nakamura, Ken Nishino, Mitsuhiko Suehiro, Hirofumi Kawamoto
We report the case of a 46-year-old patient who achieved remarkable improvement of characteristic non-alcoholic steatohepatitis by dieting. Initially, his body mass index (BMI) was 40.7 kg/m(2) . He proactively commenced a low calorie diet and his BMI decreased to 28 kg/m(2) after 4 years. During the same period, we performed liver biopsy four times. Liver fibrosis as well as inflammation, steatosis, and ballooning improved, and NAFLD activity score (NAS) decreased from 4 to 0. The fat deposits of liver tissue changed from macrovesicular droplets to microvesicular, and finally disappeared...
June 29, 2016: Hepatology Research: the Official Journal of the Japan Society of Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27337945/differences-between-perivascular-adipose-tissue-surrounding-the-heart-and-the-internal-mammary-artery-possible-role-for-the-leptin-inflammation-fibrosis-hypoxia-axis
#12
Ioannis Drosos, Georgios Chalikias, Maria Pavlaki, Dimitra Kareli, Grigorios Epitropou, Georgios Bougioukas, Dimitrios Mikroulis, Fotios Konstantinou, Alexandra Giatromanolaki, Konstantinos Ritis, Thomas Münzel, Dimitrios Tziakas, Stavros Konstantinides, Katrin Schäfer
AIM: The factors mediating the paracrine effects of perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) in atherosclerosis are largely unknown. The adipokine leptin has been implicated in the increased cardiovascular risk in obesity and may locally promote neointima formation independently of circulating leptin levels. In patients with established coronary artery disease, we examined the expression of leptin as well as of its possible inducers in 'cardiac' PVAT surrounding the aortic root and coronary arteries (C-PVAT), and compared it to the PVAT surrounding the internal mammary artery (IMA-PVAT), a vessel resistant to atherosclerosis...
June 23, 2016: Clinical Research in Cardiology: Official Journal of the German Cardiac Society
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27134129/leptin-pre-existing-vascular-disease-and-increased-arteriovenous-fistula-maturation-failure-in-dialysis-patients
#13
Jwa-Kyung Kim, Sun Ryoung Choi, Won Yong Lee, Mi Jin Park, Hyung Suk Lee, Young Rim Song, Hyung Jik Kim, Sung Gyun Kim
BACKGROUND: The adipocytokine leptin is an independent cardiovascular risk factor and exerts proatherogenic effect. Pre-existing vascular disease is an important cause of arteriovenous fistula (AVF) maturation failure. We explored the association between serum leptin, pre-existing vascular disease, and AVF maturation failure in incident hemodialysis patients. METHODS: Vein samples from 62 patients were collected at the time of AVF creation. Pre-existing vascular disease was evaluated with histologic changes and immunohistochemical characteristics of cellular phenotypes in intima...
April 28, 2016: Journal of Vascular Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27126698/effect-of-trans-chalcone-on-atheroma-plaque-formation-liver-fibrosis-and-adiponectin-gene-expression-in-cholesterol-fed-nmri-mice
#14
Leyla Karkhaneh, Parichehreh Yaghmaei, Kazem Parivar, Majid Sadeghizadeh, Azadeh Ebrahim-Habibi
BACKGROUND: Trans-chalcone is the precursor molecule to flavonoids and possesses antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. This study aimed to evaluate the effects of trans-chalcone on atheroma plaque formation and the relevant biochemical parameters in high cholesterol diet (HCD)-fed NMRI mice. METHODS: Fifty male NMRI mice were divided into 5 groups (n=10 per group): control (received a normal diet); HCD (received an additional 2% cholesterol for 18 weeks); sham (received a HCD for 12 weeks and were then shifted to a normal diet and trans-chalcone vehicle (sunflower oil) for 6 weeks), and two experimental groups (received a HCD for 12 weeks and were then shifted to a normal diet and either 12mg/kg or 24mg/kg trans-chalcone for 6 weeks)...
August 2016: Pharmacological Reports: PR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27087477/metabolic-and-histopathological-effects-of-sleeve-gastrectomy-and-gastric-plication-an-experimental-rodent-model
#15
Osman Bilgin Gulcicek, Kamil Ozdogan, Ali Solmaz, Hakan Yigitbas, Serdar Altınay, Aysegul Gunes, Duygu Sultan Celik, Erkan Yavuz, Atilla Celik, Fatih Celebi
INTRODUCTION: Obesity has recently become a major health problem, and researchers have been directed to work toward the development of surgical techniques, with new mediators playing an important role in nutrition. Gastric plication (GP) and sleeve gastrectomy (SG) have become popular recently. These are widely used techniques in bariatric surgery. OBJECTIVES: In this study, we aimed to compare the efficiency of SG and GP techniques on rats. METHODS: Wistar-Hannover rats (n=18) were divided into three equal groups, namely SG, GP, and control...
2016: Food & Nutrition Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26925344/cardiovascular-manifestations-of-renovascular-hypertension-in-diabetic-mice
#16
Sonu Kashyap, Sean Engel, Mazen Osman, Yousif Al-Saiegh, Asarn Wongjarupong, Joseph P Grande
Purpose. Type 2 diabetes is the leading cause of end stage renal disease in the United States. Atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis is commonly observed in diabetic patients and impacts the rate of renal and cardiovascular disease progression. We sought to test the hypothesis that renovascular hypertension, induced by unilateral renal artery stenosis, exacerbates cardiac remodeling in leptin-deficient (db/db) mice, which serves as a model of human type II diabetes. Methods. We employed a murine model of renovascular hypertension through placement of a polytetrafluoroethylene cuff on the right renal artery in db/db mice...
2016: PeerJ
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26918024/high-fructose-and-high-fat-diet-induced-disorders-in-rats-impact-on-diabetes-risk-hepatic-and-vascular-complications
#17
Iona Lozano, Remmelt Van der Werf, William Bietiger, Elodie Seyfritz, Claude Peronet, Michel Pinget, Nathalie Jeandidier, Elisa Maillard, Eric Marchioni, Séverine Sigrist, Stéphanie Dal
BACKGROUND: As a result of the increased consumption of sugar-rich and fatty-products, and the increase in preference for such products, metabolic disorders are becoming more common at a younger age. Fructose is particularly used in prepared foods and carbonated beverages. We investigated the impact of regular consumption of fructose, in combination or not with fatty food, on the onset of metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes (T2D). We evaluated the metabolic, oxidative, and functional effects on the liver and blood vessels, both related to diabetes complications...
2016: Nutrition & Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26912155/protective-effects-of-ginger-zingiber-officinale-extract-against-diabetes-induced-heart-abnormality-in-rats
#18
Behrouz Ilkhanizadeh, Alireza Shirpoor, Mohamad Hasan Khadem Ansari, Samira Nemati, Yusef Rasmi
BACKGROUND: Diabetic cardiomyopathy is an important causal factor in morbidity and mortality among diabetic patients, and currently, no effective means are available to reverse its pathological progress. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of ginger extract on apolipoproteins (apo) A and B, hyperhomocysteinemia, cathepsin G and leptin changes, as well as cardiac fibrosis and heart muscle cell proliferation under hyperglycemic conditions in vivo. METHODS: Twenty-four male Wistar rats were divided into three groups, namely: control, non-treated diabetic, and ginger extract-treated diabetic groups...
February 2016: Diabetes & Metabolism Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26898767/the-infrapatellar-fat-pad-is-affected-by-injury-induced-inflammation-in-the-rabbit-knee-use-of-dexamethasone-to-mitigate-damage
#19
Bryan J Heard, Nathan M Solbak, May Chung, Yamini Achari, Nigel G Shrive, Cyril B Frank, David A Hart
OBJECTIVE AND DESIGN: The health of the infrapatellar fat pad (IFP) has been linked to pain, joint inflammation, and the onset of post-traumatic osteoarthritis. Thus, early inflammation effects on the IFP could have long term sequelae on joint integrity. This study was designed to characterize the natural history of the IFP in a model of surgically induced knee injury and inflammation, and to test the efficacy of one intra-articular (IA) administration of dexamethasone (DEX) immediately following surgery...
June 2016: Inflammation Research: Official Journal of the European Histamine Research Society ... [et Al.]
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/26891322/phlorizin-supplementation-attenuates-obesity-inflammation-and-hyperglycemia-in-diet-induced-obese-mice-fed-a-high-fat-diet
#20
Su-Kyung Shin, Su-Jung Cho, Un Ju Jung, Ri Ryu, Myung-Sook Choi
Obesity, along with its related complications, is a serious health problem worldwide. Many studies reported the anti-diabetic effect of phlorizin, while little is known about its anti-obesity effect. We investigated the beneficial effects of phlorizin on obesity and its complications, including diabetes and inflammation in obese animal. Male C57BL/6J mice were divided into three groups and fed their respective experimental diets for 16 weeks: a normal diet (ND, 5% fat, w/w), high-fat diet (HFD, 20% fat, w/w), or HFD supplemented with phlorizin (PH, 0...
February 16, 2016: Nutrients
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