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Cardiac studies

Derek Nelson, Rachael M Heuer, Georgina K Cox, John D Stieglitz, Ronald Hoenig, Edward M Mager, Daniel D Benetti, Martin Grosell, Dane A Crossley
Exposure to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) negatively impacts exercise performance in fish species but the physiological modifications that result in this phenotype are poorly understood. Prior studies have shown that embryonic and juvenile mahi-mahi (Coryphaeus hippurus) exposed to PAH exhibit morphological abnormalities, altered cardiac development and reduced swimming performance. It has been suggested that cardiovascular function inhibited by PAH exposure accounts for the compromised exercise performance in fish species...
October 14, 2016: Aquatic Toxicology
Joseph B Fisher, Audrey Horst, Tina Wan, Min-Su Kim, John Auchampach, John Lough
Tat-interactive protein 60 (Tip60), encoded by the Kat5 gene, is a member of the MYST family of acetyltransferases. Cancer biology studies have shown that Tip60 induces the DNA damage response, apoptosis, and cell-cycle inhibition. Although Tip60 is expressed in the myocardium, its role in cardiomyocytes (CMs) is unclear. Earlier studies here showed that application of cardiac stress to globally targeted Kat5+/-haploinsufficient mice resulted in inhibition of apoptosis and activation of the CM cell-cycle, despite only modest reduction of Tip60 protein levels...
2016: PloS One
Bellal Joseph, Kareem Ibraheem, Ansab A Haider, Narong Kulvatunyou, Andrew Tang, Terence O'Keeffe, Zachary M Bauman, Donald J Green, Rifat Latifi, Peter Rhee
BACKGROUND: Resuscitative thoracotomy (RT) has been the standard therapy in patients with acute arrest due to hemorrhagic shock. However, with the development of resuscitative endovascular balloon occlusion of the aorta (REBOA), its role as a potential adjunct to a highly morbid intervention such as RT is being discussed. The aim of this study was to identify patients who most likely would have potentially benefited from REBOA use based on autopsy findings. METHODS: We performed a 4-year retrospective review of all RTs performed at our Level I trauma center...
November 2016: Journal of Trauma and Acute Care Surgery
Jill Cox, Loretta Kaes, Miguel Martinez, Daniel Moles
Skin temperature may help prospectively determine whether an area of skin discoloration will evolve into necrosis. A prospective, observational study was conducted in 7 skilled nursing facilities to determine if skin temperature measured using infrared thermography could predict the progression of discolored intact skin (blanchable erythema, Stage 1 pressure ulcer, or sus- pected deep tissue injury [sDTI]) to necrosis and to evaluate if nurses could effectively integrate thermography into the clinical setting...
October 2016: Ostomy/wound Management
Irfan Sahin, Baris Gungor, Berk Ozkaynak, Fatih Uzun, Suat Hayri Küçük, Ilhan Iker Avci, Ender Ozal, Burak Ayça, Sukru Cetın, Ertugrul Okuyan, Mustafa Hakan Dinckal
BACKGROUND: Correlation of increased copeptin levels with various cardiovascular diseases has been described. The clinical use of copeptin levels in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) has not been investigated before. HYPOTHESIS: In this study, we aimed to investigate the prognostic value of copeptin levels in patients with hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM). METHODS: HCM was defined as presence of left ventricular wall thickness ≥15 mm in a subject without any concomitant disease that may cause left ventricular hypertrophy...
October 21, 2016: Clinical Cardiology
Riccardo Toninato, Silvia Scuri, Vincenzo Tarzia, Gino Gerosa, Francesca M Susin
PURPOSE: The gold standard therapy for patients with advanced heart failure is heart transplant. The gap between donors and patients in waiting lists promoted the development of circulatory support devices, such as the total artificial heart (TAH). Focusing on in vitro tests performed with CardioWest™ TAH (CW) driven by the SynCardia Freedom® portable driver (FD) the present study goals are: i) prove the reliability of a hydraulic circuit used as patient simulator to replicate a quasi-physiological scenario for various hydrodynamic conditions, ii) investigate the hydrodynamic performance of the CW FD, iii) help clinicians in possible interpretation of clinical cases outcomes...
October 15, 2016: International Journal of Artificial Organs
Wasay M Shaikh Qureshi, Lianjie Miao, David Shieh, Jingjing Li, Yangyang Lu, Saiyang Hu, Margarida Barroso, Joseph Mazurkiewicz, Mingfu Wu
Single clonal tracing and analysis at the whole-heart level can determine cardiac progenitor cell behavior and differentiation during cardiac development, and allow for the study of the cellular and molecular basis of normal and abnormal cardiac morphogenesis. Recent emerging technologies of retrospective single clonal analyses make the study of cardiac morphogenesis at single cell resolution feasible. However, tissue opacity and light scattering of the heart as imaging depth is increased hinder whole-heart imaging at single cell resolution...
October 7, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Benoîte Bourdin, Emilie Segura, Marie-Philippe Tétreault, Sylvie Lesage, Lucie Parent
Inherited or de novo mutations in cation-selective channels may lead to sudden cardiac death. Alteration in the plasma membrane trafficking of these multi-spanning transmembrane proteins, with or without change in channel gating, is often postulated to contribute significantly in this process. It has thus become critical to develop a method to quantify the change of the relative cell surface expression of cardiac ion channels on a large scale. Herein, a detailed protocol is provided to determine the relative total and cell surface expression of cardiac L-type calcium channels CaV1...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Bhavisha Bakrania, Joey P Granger, Romain Harmancey
The mammalian heart is a major consumer of ATP and requires a constant supply of energy substrates for contraction. Not surprisingly, alterations of myocardial metabolism have been linked to the development of contractile dysfunction and heart failure. Therefore, unraveling the link between metabolism and contraction should shed light on some of the mechanisms governing cardiac adaptation or maladaptation in disease states. The isolated working rat heart preparation can be used to follow, simultaneously and in real time, cardiac contractile function and flux of energy providing substrates into oxidative metabolic pathways...
September 28, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Guilielmus H J M Ellenbroek, Gerardus P J van Hout, Leo Timmers, Pieter A Doevendans, Gerard Pasterkamp, Imo E Hoefer
Mortality after acute myocardial infarction remains substantial and is associated with significant morbidity, like heart failure. Novel therapeutics are therefore required to confine cardiac damage, promote survival and reduce the disease burden of heart failure. Large animal experiments are an essential part in the translational process from experimental to clinical therapies. To optimize clinical translation, robust and representative outcome measures are mandatory. The present manuscript aims to address this need by describing the assessment of three clinically relevant outcome modalities in a pig acute myocardial infarction (AMI) model: infarct size in relation to area at risk (IS/AAR) staining, 3-dimensional transesophageal echocardiography (TEE) and admittance-based pressure-volume (PV) loops...
October 14, 2016: Journal of Visualized Experiments: JoVE
Walter H Reinhart
The hematocrit (Hct) determines the oxygen carrying capacity of blood, but also increases blood viscosity and thus flow resistance. From this dual role the concept of an optimum Hct for tissue oxygenation has been derived. Viscometric studies using the ratio Hct/blood viscosity at high shear rate showed an optimum Hct of 50-60% for red blood cell (RBC) suspensions in plasma. For the perfusion of an artificial microvascular network with 5-70μm channels the optimum Hct was 60-70% for high driving pressures. With lower shear rates or driving pressures the optimum Hct shifted towards lower values...
October 21, 2016: Clinical Hemorheology and Microcirculation
Markus Zutt, Hagen Rudolph, Kjell Matthias Kaune, Werner Wosniok, Ulrich Gärtner, Rainer Linke
BACKGROUND: In recent years, cardiac comorbidities in psoriasis patients have increasingly moved into the focus of clinical research. The objective of the present study was to evaluate myocardial scintigraphy as a screening method in patients with psoriasis. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Assessment of various comorbidities in 50 psoriasis patients without clinical symptoms of cardiac disease. Myocardial scintigraphy was employed to detect cardiac risk/exercise-induced ischemia...
October 2016: Journal der Deutschen Dermatologischen Gesellschaft, Journal of the German Society of Dermatology: JDDG
Alexander Bernt, Ashraf Y Rangrez, Matthias Eden, Andreas Jungmann, Sylvia Katz, Claudia Rohr, Oliver J Müller, Hugo A Katus, Samuel T Sossalla, Tatjana Williams, Oliver Ritter, Derk Frank, Norbert Frey
The objective of this study was to identify unknown modulators of Calcineurin (Cn)-NFAT signaling. Measurement of NFAT reporter driven luciferase activity was therefore utilized to screen a human cardiac cDNA-library (~10(7) primary clones) in C2C12 cells through serial dilutions until single clones could be identified. This extensive screening strategy culminated in the identification of SUMO2 as a most efficient Cn-NFAT activator. SUMO2-mediated activation of Cn-NFAT signaling in cardiomyocytes translated into a hypertrophic phenotype...
October 21, 2016: Scientific Reports
Assila Ben Salem, Fatma Megdich, Olfa Kacem, Malek Souayeh, Faten Hachani Ben Ali, Sondes Hizem, Faouzi Janhai, Mounir Ajina, Muhammad Abu-Elmagd, Mourad Assidi, Mohammed H Al Qahtani, Touhami Mahjoub
BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is characterized by the growth of a number of small cysts on the ovaries which leads to sex hormonal imbalance. Women who are affected by this syndrome suffer from irregular menstrual cycles, decline in their fertility, excessive hair growth, obesity, acne and most importantly cardiac function problems. The vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a pivotal role in tissue vascularization in general and in the pathogenesis of many diseases...
October 17, 2016: BMC Genomics
Francesca Guidotti, Gioia Piatti, Alessia Marcon, Elena Cassinerio, Marianna Giuditta, Alberto Roghi, Valter Fasano, Dario Consonni, Maria Domenica Cappellini
Although pulmonary function abnormalities in thalassaemia major (TM) were described in 1980, the pathogenetic mechanism is not clear and data are contradictory, probably because of study heterogeneity and the multifactorial nature of the pathogenesis. We retrospectively analysed 73 adult TM patients to evaluate the prevalence of pulmonary dysfunction in adult TM and investigate relationships with iron load. All patients underwent body plethysmography and carbon monoxide diffusion (DLCO) was assessed in 63, in addition to blood tests, echocardiogram and T2* myocardial and liver magnetic resonance imaging...
October 21, 2016: British Journal of Haematology
C Roehrig, M Govier, J Robinson, A Aneman
BACKGROUND: It remains unclear whether measuring carotid arterial flow by the time velocity integral using vascular Doppler ultrasound can be used to monitor cardiac output and volume responsiveness. METHODS: The carotid Doppler flow (time velocity integral and peak flow velocity variation) was assessed in triplicate by an intensivist with formal vascular ultrasound training. Thirty-three patients admitted following coronary by-pass surgery were studied before and after a passive leg-raising manoeuvre to investigate volume responsiveness (more than 10% increase in cardiac output) along with indices of arterial load measuring cardiac output by thermodilution...
October 21, 2016: Acta Anaesthesiologica Scandinavica
Jessica Vanhaebost, Kewin Ducrot, Sébastien de Froidmont, Maria Pia Scarpelli, Coraline Egger, Pia Baumann, Gregory Schmit, Silke Grabherr, Cristian Palmiere
PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to assess whether the identification of pathological myocardial enhancement at multiphase postmortem computed tomography angiography was correlated with increased levels of troponin T and I in postmortem serum from femoral blood as well as morphological findings of myocardial ischemia. We further aimed to investigate whether autopsy cases characterized by increased troponin T and I concentrations as well as morphological findings of myocardial ischemia were also characterized by pathological myocardial enhancement at multiphase postmortem computed tomography angiography...
October 20, 2016: La Radiologia Medica
Vikrant Rai, Poonam Sharma, Swati Agrawal, Devendra K Agrawal
Heart disease causing cardiac cell death due to ischemia-reperfusion injury is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in the United States. Coronary heart disease and cardiomyopathies are the major cause for congestive heart failure, and thrombosis of the coronary arteries is the most common cause of myocardial infarction. Cardiac injury is followed by post-injury cardiac remodeling or fibrosis. Cardiac fibrosis is characterized by net accumulation of extracellular matrix proteins in the cardiac interstitium and results in both systolic and diastolic dysfunctions...
October 20, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry
Daniel Schober, Nicole Schwendener, Wolf-Dieter Zech, Christian Jackowski
Segmentation of the lungs using post-mortem computed tomography (PMCT) data was so far not feasible due to post-mortem changes such as internal livores. Recently, an Osirix plug-in has been developed allowing automatically segmenting lungs also in PMCT data. The aim of this study was to investigate if the Hounsfield unit (HU) profiles obtained in PMCT data of the segmented lung tissue present with specific behaviour in relation to the cause of death. In 105 PMCT data sets of forensic cases, the entire lung volumes were segmented using the Mia Lite plug-in on Osirix...
October 20, 2016: International Journal of Legal Medicine
Lois Choy, Jie Ming Yeo, Vivian Tse, Shing Po Chan, Gary Tse
The mouse is the second mammalian species, after the human, in which substantial amount of the genomic information has been analyzed. With advances in transgenic technology, mutagenesis is now much easier to carry out in mice. Consequently, an increasing number of transgenic mouse systems have been generated for the study of cardiac arrhythmias in ion channelopathies and cardiomyopathies. Mouse hearts are also amenable to physical manipulation such as coronary artery ligation and transverse aortic constriction to induce heart failure, radiofrequency ablation of the AV node to model complete AV block and even implantation of a miniature pacemaker to induce cardiac dyssynchrony...
September 2016: IJC Heart & Vasculature
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