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hyperosmolar hyperglycemic bicarbonate

Ivan Kruljac, Miroslav Ćaćić, Petra Ćaćić, Lora Stanka Kirigin Biloš, Davor Kust, Božidar Perić, Maja Filipović-Grčić, Gorana Mirošević, Vedran Ostojić, Mario Štefanović, Milan Vrkljan
Aims We compared characteristics of patients with hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state (HHS) and patients with severe hyperglycemia without the signs of hyperosmolarity and ketoacidosis; analyzed long-term all-cause mortality and potential prognostic factors. Methods The studied population included 261 749 adults. HHS was diagnosed in patients with plasma glucose >33.0 mmol/L, ketonuria <1+, and serum osmolarity >320 mmol/L. Patients with plasma glucose >33.0 mmol/L, ketonuria <1+ and serum osmolarity <320 mmol/L were considered as controls (nHHS)...
November 17, 2017: Experimental and Clinical Endocrinology & Diabetes
Alexandra L Hamelin, Justin W Yan, Ian G Stiell
OBJECTIVES: In 2013, the Association, now Diabetes Canada, published national clinical practice guidelines for the effective management of diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolar hyperglycemic states in adults. We sought to determine emergency physician compliance rates and attitudes toward these guidelines and to identify potential barriers to their use in Canadian emergency departments. METHODS: An online survey consisting of questions related to the awareness and use of the Canadian Diabetes Association 2013 Clinical Practice Guidelines for the Prevention and Management of Diabetes in Canada was distributed to 500 randomly selected members of the Canadian Association of Emergency Physicians...
July 19, 2017: Canadian Journal of Diabetes
Ronald Van Ness-Otunnu, Jason B Hack
BACKGROUND: Hyperglycemic crisis is a metabolic emergency associated with uncontrolled diabetes mellitus that may result in significant morbidity or death. Acute interventions are required to manage hypovolemia, acidemia, hyperglycemia, electrolyte abnormalities, and precipitating causes. Despite advances in the prevention and management of diabetes, its prevalence and associated health care costs continue to increase worldwide. Hyperglycemic crisis typically requires critical care management and hospitalization and contributes to global health expenditures...
November 2013: Journal of Emergency Medicine
Dyanne P Westerberg
Diabetic ketoacidosis is characterized by a serum glucose level greater than 250 mg per dL, a pH less than 7.3, a serum bicarbonate level less than 18 mEq per L, an elevated serum ketone level, and dehydration. Insulin deficiency is the main precipitating factor. Diabetic ketoacidosis can occur in persons of all ages, with 14 percent of cases occurring in persons older than 70 years, 23 percent in persons 51 to 70 years of age, 27 percent in persons 30 to 50 years of age, and 36 percent in persons younger than 30 years...
March 1, 2013: American Family Physician
Felicia Anumah, Augustine Ohwovoriole
BACKGROUND: Management of plasma biochemical changes plays an important role in determining the prognosis of patients with hyperglycemic emergencies. This biochemical aspect, which has not been examined in detail in Nigerians with hyperglycemic emergency was the focus of this study. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Patients who presented with hyperglycemic emergency over a one-year period were studied. Demographic data and clinical evaluation findings were documented in a protocol...
2008: Ethnicity & Disease
Abbas E Kitabchi, Guillermo E Umpierrez, Joseph N Fisher, Mary Beth Murphy, Frankie B Stentz
CONTEXT: Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state (HHS) cause major morbidity and significant mortality in patients with diabetes mellitus. For more than 30 yr, our group, in a series of prospective, randomized clinical studies, has investigated the pathogenesis and evolving strategies of the treatment of hyperglycemic crises. This paper summarizes the results of these prospective studies on the management and pathophysiology of DKA. SETTING: Our earliest studies evaluated the comparative efficacy of low-dose vs...
May 2008: Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism
Karen De Beer, Sindhu Michael, Meera Thacker, Elizabeth Wynne, Caroline Pattni, Mandy Gomm, Carol Ball, Dominic Walsh, Andrew Thomlinson, Kevin Ullah
BACKGROUND: The aim of this study was to establish a standardized approach to the initial care of patients with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperglycaemic hyperosmolar syndrome (HHS). DKA and HHS are metabolic emergencies. Effective and efficient management is the responsibility of the multidisciplinary team. The admission of patients to the intensive care unit (ICU) with DKA and HHS is rare, and management of patients' diverse problems is prone to error because of a lack of familiarity...
January 2008: Nursing in Critical Care
Abbas E Kitabchi, Ebenezer A Nyenwe
Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state (HHS) potentially are fatal but largely preventable acute metabolic conditions of uncontrolled diabetes, the incidence of which continues to increase. Mortality from DKA has declined remarkably over the years because of better understanding of its pathophysiology and treatment. The mortality rate of HHS remains alarmingly high, however, owing to older age and mode of presentation of patients and associated comorbid conditions. DKA and HHS also are economically burdensome; therefore, any resources invested in their prevention would be rewarding...
December 2006: Endocrinology and Metabolism Clinics of North America
Nicole Glaser
Diabetic ketoacidosis is an important complication of diabetes in children and is the most frequent diabetes-related cause of death in childhood. The pathophysiology of this condition can be viewed as an exaggeration of the normal physiologic mechanisms responsible for maintaining an adequate fuel supply to the brain and other tissues during periods of fasting and physiologic stress. The optimal therapy has been a subject of controversy, particularly because the most frequent serious complication of diabetic ketoacidosis-cerebral edema-and the relationship of this complication to treatment are incompletely understood...
December 2005: Pediatric Clinics of North America
Shannon H Fourtner, Stuart A Weinzimer, Lorraine E Levitt Katz
OBJECTIVE: Hyperglycemic hyperosmolar non-ketotic (HHNK) syndrome is thought to be a rare entity in the pediatric population, associated with significant mortality based on case reports in the literature. As obesity and type 2 diabetes in childhood grow in prevalence, such related complications may also increase. This study will serve to provide updated information regarding typical clinical course and sequelae of HHNK syndrome in childhood. METHODS: Patients diagnosed with type 2 diabetes at Children's Hospital of Philadelphia (CHOP) over a period of 5 yr were screened retrospectively for any laboratory evidence of previous episodes of HHNK syndrome...
September 2005: Pediatric Diabetes
K Klouche, S Avenas, L Amigues, P Ceballos, J-J Béraud
OBJECTIVE: We studied elderly patients admitted for hyperosmolar state (HS) to evaluate current outcome of HS and identify prognosis factors associated with mortality. STUDY DESIGN: A clinical retrospective study in an eight bed ICU. PATIENTS AND METHODS: Eighteen over 65-year-old patients admitted with a serum osmolality greater than 325 mOsm/kg were reviewed. Age, sex, diabetes mellitus, underlying medical condition, presence of an acute precipitating factor, Apache II and Glasgow scores, systolic arterial pressure, state of hydration, core temperature, heart rate, serum osmolality, creatininemia, lactatemia, plasma urea and bicarbonate, and protidemia were collected at the admission...
April 2004: Annales Françaises D'anesthèsie et de Rèanimation
Z Yared, J-L Chiasson
Diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and the hyperosmolar hyperglycemic state (HHS) are serious acute decompensations of type 1 and 2 diabetes mellitus due to various degrees of insulin deficiency and increased levels of counterregulatory hormones. They are characterized by hyperglycemia and hyperosmolarity in HHS, and by hyperglycemia and ketoacidosis in DKA with major electrolyte imbalance; both can co-exist. Precipitating factors can usually be identified. The diagnosis can usually be suspected on clinical grounds, but must be confirmed by laboratory investigation...
December 2003: Minerva Medica
J Hensen
This review describes the current guidelines of German diabetes association for the management of diabetic coma, both of diabetic ketoacidosis and hyperosmolal coma. The outline focuses on emergency treatment and the management on the intensive care unit, in particular, volume and insulin therapy, and potassium replacement. The delineation of the concept of low insulin therapy is emphasized to avoid the incidence of disequilibrium syndrome. Also, the indications for bicarbonate therapy in diabetic ketoacidosis are critically discussed, as well as phosphate and magnesium replacement...
October 2003: Der Internist
Jean-Louis Chiasson, Nahla Aris-Jilwan, Raphaël Bélanger, Sylvie Bertrand, Hugues Beauregard, Jean-Marie Ekoé, Hélène Fournier, Jana Havrankova
Diabetic ketoacidosis and the hyperglycemic hyperosmolar state are the most serious complications of diabetic decompensation and remain associated with excess mortality. Insulin deficiency is the main underlying abnormality. Associated with elevated levels of counterregulatory hormones, insulin deficiency can trigger hepatic glucose production and reduced glucose uptake, resulting in hyperglycemia, and can also stimulate lipolysis and ketogenesis, resulting in ketoacidosis. Both hyperglycemia and hyperketonemia will induce osmotic diuresis, which leads to dehydration...
April 1, 2003: CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal, Journal de L'Association Medicale Canadienne
Guillermo Umpierrez, Amado X Freire
BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to evaluate the incidence and prognosis of abdominal pain in patients with diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) and hyperglycemic hyperosmolar nonketotic state (HHS). Abdominal pain, sometimes mimicking an acute abdomen, is a frequent manifestation in patients with DKA. The prevalence and clinical significance of gastrointestinal symptoms including abdominal pain in HHS have not been prospectively evaluated. MATERIALS AND METHODS: This is a prospectively collected evaluation of 200 consecutive patients with hyperglycemic crises admitted to a large inner-city teaching hospital in Atlanta, GA...
March 2002: Journal of Critical Care
D Grimaud, J Levraut
Because of several factors, including a change in the hormonal behavior, the postoperative period is at high risk for the diabetic patient to present a metabolic complication. On the other hand, a diabetic metabolic disorder may be secondary and reveal a severe underlying complication (sepsis...). Ketoacidosis is the consequence of an absolute or relative lack of insulin and occurs mainly in insulin dependent diabetic patients. Its incidence should be very low during the postoperative period since insulin protocols are systematically used...
April 2001: Minerva Anestesiologica
K Ikeguchi
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
2000: Ryōikibetsu Shōkōgun Shirīzu
W Berger
Based on case reports pathogenesis and treatment of the following diabetic emergencies were discussed: 1. The hyperosmolar non-ketotic coma without or with only modest ketosis occurring mainly in type II diabetics and the severe ketoacidosis with or without disturbed consciousness occurring mainly in type I diabetics are the two forms of severe metabolic decompensation of diabetes mellitus. 2. Severe hypoglycaemia may be caused by treatment with sulfonylureas and insulin. 3. The most dangerous life threatening adverse effect of biguanides is lactic acidosis...
February 18, 1997: Praxis
B Vandercam, M P Hermans, P Coumans, D Jacques, J L Gala, J Kolanowski
A 33-year-old woman with AIDS was treated with somatostatin (continuous infusion 6 mg/day) for intractable diarrhoea. Improvement was insufficient and the dose was increased to 12 mg/day 5 days later. Hyperosmolar non-ketotic coma occurred two days later (blood glucose 53 mmol/l, bicarbonate 8 mmol/l, pH of arterial blood 7.2). Search for urinary ketones was negative. Klebsiella pneumonia was isolated in the urine sample. Somatostatin was withdrawn and the patient improved with parenteral nutrition and intravenous insulin...
October 14, 1995: La Presse Médicale
J A Piniés, G Cairo, S Gaztambide, J A Vazquez
One hundred and thirty two episodes of diabetic non ketotic hyperosmolar states were studied after a prospective schedule of treatment was designed. The admission data, the prognostic factors and their outcome were analyzed. Initial high osmolarity, urea and sodium plasma levels and low plasma pH were related to the admission level of consciousness (p < 0.01). High glucose, osmolarity, urea and sodium plasma levels at entry were related to the admission level of dehydration (p < 0.01). In multivariate regression analysis, osmolarity was the most influential variable in both the level of consciousness and the admission level of dehydration (p < 0...
January 1994: Diabète & Métabolisme
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