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liver transplantation immunology

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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29322327/combined-and-sequential-liver-kidney-transplantation-in-children
#1
Ryszard Grenda, Piotr Kaliciński
Combined and sequential liver-kidney transplantation (CLKT and SLKT) is a definitive treatment in children with end-stage organ failure. There are two major indications: - terminal insufficiency of both organs, or - need for transplanting new liver as a source of lacking enzyme or specific regulator of the immune system in a patient with renal failure. A third (uncommon) option is secondary end-stage renal failure in liver transplant recipients. These three clinical settings use distinct qualification algorithms...
January 10, 2018: Pediatric Nephrology: Journal of the International Pediatric Nephrology Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29235144/histological-assessment-of-the-liver-explant-in-transplanted-hcv-patients-achieving-sustained-virologic-response-with-direct-acting-antiviral-agents
#2
Juan Putra, Thomas D Schiano, M Isabel Fiel
AIMS: The use of direct-acting anti-viral agents (DAAs) has resulted in extremely high sustained virologic response (SVR) rates in patients being treated while on liver transplantation (LT) waiting lists. The aim of this study was to evaluate the histological findings of HCV patients who achieved SVR after receiving DAA treatment (SVR(+)) prior to LT and comparing them to HCV patients who had not achieved SVR (SVR(-)). METHODS AND RESULTS: Fifty-eight adult HCV patients who underwent LT at our institution from 2014-2016 were included in the study...
December 13, 2017: Histopathology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29167827/hepatocellular-cancer-and-recurrence-after-liver-transplantation-what-about-the-impact-of-immunosuppression
#3
REVIEW
Jan Lerut, Samuele Iesari, Maxime Foguenne, Quirino Lai
Liver transplantation (LT) has originally been designed to treat hepatobiliary malignancies. The initial results of LT for hepatocellular cancer (HCC) were, however, dismal this mainly due to the poor patient selection procedure. Better surgical and perioperative care and, especially, the refinement of selection criteria led to a major improvement of results, making HCC nowadays (again!) one of the leading indications for LT. This evolution is clearly shown by the innumerable reports aiming to further extend inclusion criteria for LT in HCC patients...
2017: Translational Gastroenterology and Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29135830/tissue-resident-lymphocytes-in-solid-organ-transplantation-innocent-passengers-or-the-key-to-organ-transplant-survival
#4
Amy C Prosser, Axel Kallies, Michaela Lucas
Short-term outcomes of solid organ transplantation have improved dramatically over the past several decades; however, long-term survival has remained static over the same time period, and chronic rejection remains a major cause of graft failure. The importance of donor, or 'passenger', lymphocytes to the induction of tolerance to allografts was recognized in the 1990s; however, their precise contribution to graft acceptance or rejection has not been elucidated. Recently, specialized populations of tissue-resident lymphocytes in nonlymphoid organs have been described...
November 14, 2017: Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29100944/regulatory-dendritic-cells-for-promotion-of-liver-transplant-operational-tolerance-rationale-for-a-clinical-trial-and-accompanying-mechanistic-studies
#5
REVIEW
Angus W Thomson, Abhinav Humar, Fadi G Lakkis, Diana M Metes
Dendritic cells (DC) are rare, bone marrow (BM)-derived innate immune cells that critically maintain self-tolerance in the healthy steady-state. Regulatory DC (DCreg) with capacity to suppress allograft rejection and promote transplant tolerance in pre-clinical models can readily be generated from BM precursors or circulating blood monocytes. These DCreg enhance allograft survival via various mechanisms, including promotion of regulatory T cells. In non-human primates receiving minimal immunosuppressive drug therapy (IS), infusion of DCreg of donor origin, one week before transplant, safely prolongs renal allograft survival and selectively attenuates anti-donor CD8(+) memory T cell responses in the early post-transplant period...
October 31, 2017: Human Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29057387/toward-solving-the-etiological-mystery-of-primary-biliary-cholangitis
#6
Atsushi Tanakaa, Patrick Sc Leung, Howard A Young, M Eric Gershwin
Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is considered a model autoimmune disease due to its signature AMA autoantibody, female predominance and relatively specific portal infiltration and cholestasis. The identification and cloning of the major mitochondrial autoantigens, recognized by AMA, have served as an immunologic platform to identify the earliest events involved in loss of tolerance. Despite the relative high concordance rate in identical twins, genome wide association studies have not proven clinically useful and have led to suggestions of epigenetic events...
June 2017: Hepatology Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28982257/prognostic-value-of-lectin-pathway-molecules-and-complement-proteins-in-ascitic-fluid-and-blood-in-patients-with-liver-cirrhosis
#7
Signe Glargaard, Trine Boysen, Katrine Pilely, Peter Garred, Henriette Ytting
BACKGROUND AND AIM: Patients with liver cirrhosis and ascites have a poor prognosis with increased risk of infection related death, as advanced stages of cirrhosis are associated with immunodeficiency. We aimed to investigate immunologically active molecules in ascitic fluid and blood and their potential association to survival. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In an exploratory pilot study; blood and ascitic fluid from 34 patients with liver cirrhosis of different etiology were analyzed for pattern recognition molecules (ficolin-1, ficolin-2, ficolin-3 and MBL) and complement proteins (C4 and C3)...
October 6, 2017: Scandinavian Journal of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28923633/changes-in-dna-methylation-of-glucocorticoid-induced-tumor-necrosis-factor-receptor-and-its-ligand-in-liver-transplantation
#8
W Wang, G Ji, Y Chen, J Wang, J Sun, G Tang, Z Xie, H Zhao, G Liu, S Tan, G Chen, H Xue
Liver transplantation (LT) is the criterion standard of care in patients with end-stage liver disease and those with tumors of hepatic origin in the setting of liver dysfunction. Chronic immune rejection of the liver transplant can lead to bad prognosis for patients. Glucocorticoid-induced tumor necrosis factor receptor (GITR) play a key role in dominant immunologic self-tolerance maintained by CD25+/CD4+ regulatory T cells. Here, we investigated the DNA methylation variations of GITR and GITR ligand (GITRL) using pyrosequencing by analyzing blood DNA samples of patients after LT...
October 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28864336/analysis-of-transfusion-related-acute-lung-injury-and-possible-transfusion-related-acute-lung-injury-reported-to-the-french-hemovigilance-network-from-2007-to-2013
#9
REVIEW
Georges Andreu, Karim Boudjedir, Jean-Yves Muller, Elodie Pouchol, Yves Ozier, Guillaume Fevre, Chantal Gautreau, Jean-François Quaranta, Christian Drouet, Claire Rieux, Paul-Michel Mertes, Benoit Clavier, Monique Carlier, Imad Sandid
Using the French Hemovigilance Network database from 2007 to 2013, we provide information on demographics, incidence, and risk factors of reported transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) and possible TRALI, analyze TRALI mitigation efforts for fresh frozen plasma and platelet concentrates, and consider the impact of platelet additive solutions on TRALI incidence. We applied the Toronto consensus conference definitions for TRALI and possible TRALI. Two TRALI subgroups were considered: "antibody positive" when a donor has human leukocyte antigen (class I or II) and/or human neutrophil antigen antibodies and the recipient has cognate antigen, and "antibody negative" when immunological investigation is negative or not done...
July 15, 2017: Transfusion Medicine Reviews
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28860953/comparative-analyses-of-signature-genes-in-acute-rejection-and-operational-tolerance
#10
Jeong-Woo Choi, Yong-Hee Kim, Ji Won Oh
Using biomarkers as prediction tools or therapeutic targets can be a valuable strategy in transplantation. Recent studies identified biomarkers of acute rejection (AR) and operational tolerance (TOL) through the application of meta-analysis. In this study, we comparatively analyzed the signature genes in acute rejection and operational tolerance seen in human allogeneic transplantations using massive bioinformatical meta-analysis. To identify the signature genes in opposite immunological conditions, AR and TOL, we first collected the 1,252 gene expression data specifically intended for those circumstances...
August 2017: Immune Network
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28856282/the-occurrence-of-autoantibodies-in-patients-with-chronic-hcv-infection-including-patients-dialyzed-and-after-kidney-transplantation
#11
Tadeusz W Łapiński, Magdalena Rogalska-Płońska, Anna Parfieniuk-Kowerda, Magdalena Świderska, Robert Flisiak
INTRODUCTION: There are reports suggesting that hepatitis C virus (HCV) may stimulate the autoimmune process. Studies have been undertaken to evaluate the occurrence and type of autoantibodies in HCV-infected patients with and without immunosuppression. Results were analyzed according to HCV genotype, intensity of inflammation and liver fibrosis stage. MATERIAL AND METHODS: The study included 105 patients chronically infected with HCV, including 25 with immunological suppression administered for kidney disease or kidney transplantation...
December 2016: Clinical and Experimental Hepatology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28839882/primary-biliary-cholangitis-new-treatments-for-an-old-disease
#12
REVIEW
Hirsh D Trivedi, Blanca Lizaola, Elliot B Tapper, Alan Bonder
Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC) is an immunological condition that causes a significant health disturbance and dramatically reduces the quality of life for those affected with the disease. It is a potentially fatal disease that can lead to multiple hepatic and extrahepatic complications. Having adequate therapeutic interventions that can improve the course of the disease is imperative in reducing the associated morbidity and mortality. Ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) is the gold standard therapy. However, it has been associated with suboptimal response rates in a significant proportion of patients...
January 2017: Frontline Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28838454/acute-graft-rejection-and-formation-of-de-novo-donor-specific-antibodies-triggered-by-low-cyclosporine-levels-and-interferon-therapy-for-recurrent-hepatitis-c-infection-after-liver-transplantation-a-case-report
#13
R Nakano, M Ohira, K Ishiyama, K Ide, T Kobayashi, H Tahara, S Shimizu, K Arihiro, M Imamura, K Chayama, Y Tanaka, H Ohdan
BACKGROUND: We report a case of acute rejection of a liver graft, together with the occurrence of de novo donor-specific antibodies (DSAs), in a 53-year-old Japanese man who had undergone deceased-donor liver transplantation. METHODS: The graft rejection was triggered by low cyclosporine levels and pegylated interferon treatment for the recurrence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) infection 18 months after transplantation. Although the graft was ABO-compatible, pre-formed DSA B51 was detected; therefore, total plasma exchange was performed and intravenous rituximab (500 mg/body) was administered before transplantation...
September 2017: Transplantation Proceedings
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28795147/impact-of-the-trough-level-of-calcineurin-inhibitor-on-the-prevalence-of-donor-specific-human-leukocyte-antigen-antibodies-during-long-term-follow-up-after-pediatric-liver-transplantation-antibody-strength-and-complement-binding-ability
#14
Kazuaki Tokodai, Shigehito Miyagi, Chikashi Nakanishi, Yasuyuki Hara, Wataru Nakanishi, Masafumi Goto, Michiaki Unno, Takashi Kamei
BACKGROUND: In pediatric patients, long-term immunosuppression after liver transplantation (LT) is typically minimal. However, posttransplant donor-specific HLA antibodies (DSAs) may be prevalent under these conditions. Here, we evaluated the effects of minimized calcineurin inhibitor (CNI) on DSA development to assess the validity of minimized/withdrawn immunosuppression. METHODS: We retrospectively examined 66 patients who underwent pediatric LT at our institution between July 1991 and October 2013...
August 2017: Transplantation Direct
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758336/dual-graft-adult-living-donor-liver-transplantation-with-abo-incompatible-graft-short-term-and-long-term-outcomes
#15
J H Kwon, G W Song, S Hwang, K H Kim, C S Ahn, D B Moon, T Y Ha, D H Jung, G C Park, S H Kim, W H Kang, H D Cho, E K Jwa, E Y Tak, V A Kirchner, S G Lee
ABO-incompatible (ABOi) dual-graft (DG) adult living donor liver transplantation (ALDLT) is not commonly performed due to its inherently intricate surgical technique and immunological complexity. Therefore, data are lacking on the short- and long-term clinical outcomes of ABOi DG ALDLT. We performed a retrospective study by reviewing the medical records of patients who underwent ABOi DG ALDLT between 2008 and 2014. Additionally, computed tomography volumetric analysis was conducted to assess the graft regeneration rate...
July 31, 2017: American Journal of Transplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28744748/biliary-complications-after-living-donor-liver-transplantation-a-retrospective-analysis-of-the-kyoto-experience-1999-2004
#16
Ayman Zaki Azzam, Koichi Tanaka
BACKGROUND AND AIM: In living donor liver transplantation (LDLT), biliary complications continue to be the most frequent cause of morbidity and may contribute to mortality of recipients although there are advances in surgical techniques. This study will evaluate retrospectively the short-term and long-term management of biliary complications. METHODS: During the period from May 1999, to May 2004, 505 patients underwent 518 LDLT in the Department of Liver Transplantation and Immunology, Kyoto University Hospital, Japan...
July 2017: Indian Journal of Gastroenterology: Official Journal of the Indian Society of Gastroenterology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28720146/analysis-of-long-term-cd4-cd25highcd127-t-reg-cells-kinetics-in-peripheral-blood-of-lung-transplant-recipients
#17
Davide Piloni, Monica Morosini, Sara Magni, Alice Balderacchi, Luigia Scudeller, Emanuela Cova, Tiberio Oggionni, Giulia Stella, Carmine Tinelli, Filippo Antonacci, Andrea Maria D'Armini, Federica Meloni
BACKGROUND: The role of CD4(+)CD25(high)CD127(-) T-reg cells in solid-organ Transplant (Tx) acceptance has been extensively studied. In previous studies on kidney and liver recipients, peripheral T-reg cell counts were associated to graft survival, while in lung Tx, there is limited evidence for similar findings. This study aims to analyze long term peripheral kinetics of T-reg-cells in a cohort of lung recipients and tests its association to several clinical variables. METHODS: From jan 2009 to dec 2014, 137 lung Tx recipients were submitted to an immunological follow up (median: 105...
July 18, 2017: BMC Pulmonary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28714241/cytokine-profiles-in-tibetan-macaques-following-%C3%AE-1-3-galactosyltransferase-knockout-pig-liver-xenotransplantation
#18
Zhuochao Zhang, Xiao Li, Hong Zhang, Xuan Zhang, Hui Chen, Dengke Pan, Hongchen Ji, Liang Zhou, Juan Ling, Jingshi Zhou, Shuqiang Yue, Desheng Wang, Zhaoxu Yang, Kaishan Tao, Kefeng Dou
BACKGROUND: Pig-to-nonhuman primate orthotopic liver xenotransplantation is often accompanied by thrombocytopenia and coagulation disorders. Furthermore, the release of cytokines can trigger cascade reactions of coagulation and immune attacks within transplant recipients. To better elucidate the process of inflammation in liver xenograft recipients, we utilized a modified heterotopic auxiliary liver xenotransplantation model for xeno-immunological research. We studied the cytokine profiles and the relationship between cytokine levels and xenograft function after liver xenotransplantation...
July 17, 2017: Xenotransplantation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28669591/primary-biliary-cholangitis-old-and-novel-therapy
#19
Annarosa Floreani, Chiara Mangini
Primary biliary cholangitis (PBC), formerly called primary biliary cirrhosis, is a chronic cholestatic liver disease that progresses slowly to end-stage liver disease. The first Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved treatment for PBC was ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA). This treatment slows the progress of the disease, but approximatively 30-40% of patients fail to respond to UDCA. A number of options are under investigation as second line treatment. Obeticholic acid (OCA), a Farnesoid X Receptor agonist, has been approved in May 2017 by FDA for patients non responders or intolerant to UDCA...
June 29, 2017: European Journal of Internal Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28665300/transplant-trials-with-tregs-perils-and-promises
#20
REVIEW
Qizhi Tang, Flavio Vincenti
Modern immunosuppression regimens effectively control acute rejection and decrease graft loss in the first year after transplantation; however, these regimens do not have a durable effect on long-term graft survival owing to a combination of drug toxicities and the emergence of chronic alloimmune responses. Eliminating drugs and their toxicities while maintaining graft acceptance has been the primary aim of cellular therapies. Tregs suppress both autoimmune and alloimmune responses and are particularly effective in protecting allografts in experimental transplant models...
June 30, 2017: Journal of Clinical Investigation
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