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Laura Kurth, Brent Doney, Sheila Weinmann
OBJECTIVES: To compare the occupational exposure levels assigned by our National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health chronic obstructive pulmonary disease-specific job exposure matrix (NIOSH COPD JEM) and by expert evaluation of detailed occupational information for various jobs held by members of an integrated health plan in the Northwest USA. METHODS: We analysed data from a prior study examining COPD and occupational exposures. Jobs were assigned exposure levels using 2 methods: (1) the COPD JEM and (2) expert evaluation...
October 24, 2016: Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Seok-Joon Kwon, Dong Hee Na, Jong Hwan Kwak, Marc Douaisi, Fuming Zhang, Eun Ji Park, Jong-Hwan Park, Hana Youn, Chang-Seon Song, Ravi S Kane, Jonathan S Dordick, Kyung Bok Lee, Robert J Linhardt
Rapid change and zoonotic transmission to humans have enhanced the virulence of the influenza A virus (IAV). Neutralizing antibodies fail to provide lasting protection from seasonal epidemics. Furthermore, the effectiveness of anti-influenza neuraminidase inhibitors has declined because of drug resistance. Drugs that can block viral attachment and cell entry independent of antigenic evolution or drug resistance might address these problems. We show that multivalent 6'-sialyllactose-polyamidoamine (6SL-PAMAM) conjugates, when designed to have well-defined ligand valencies and spacings, can effectively inhibit IAV infection...
October 24, 2016: Nature Nanotechnology
Fuming Fang, Takahiro Shinozaki, Yasuo Horiuchi, Shingo Kuroiwa, Sadaoki Furui, Toshimitsu Musha
Eye motion-based human-machine interfaces are used to provide a means of communication for those who can move nothing but their eyes because of injury or disease. To detect eye motions, electrooculography (EOG) is used. For efficient communication, the input speed is critical. However, it is difficult for conventional EOG recognition methods to accurately recognize fast, sequentially input eye motions because adjacent eye motions influence each other. In this paper, we propose a context-dependent hidden Markov model- (HMM-) based EOG modeling approach that uses separate models for identical eye motions with different contexts...
2016: Computational Intelligence and Neuroscience
Bruno Henrique Fumes, Mariane Aissa Andrade, Maraíssa Silva Franco, Fernando Mauro Lanças
The determination of residues and contaminants in complex matrices such as in the case of food, environmental and biological samples requires a combination of several steps to succeed in the aimed goal. At least three independent steps are integrated to provide the best available situation to deal with such matrices: (1) a sample preparation technique is employed to isolate the target compounds from the rest of the matrix; (2) a chromatographic (second) step further "purifies" the isolated compounds from the co-extracted matrix interferences; (3) a spectroscopy-based device acts as chromatographic detector (ideally containing a tandem high-resolution mass analyzer) for the qualitative and quantitative analysis...
October 19, 2016: Journal of Separation Science
Yin Chen, Megan Reddy, Yanlei Yu, Fuming Zhang, Robert J Linhardt
Glycosaminoglycans (GAGs) were prepared from the muscular stomach or gizzard of the chicken. The content of GAGs on a dry weight basis contains 0.4 wt.% a typical value observed for a muscle tissue. The major GAG components were chondroitin-6-sulfate and chondroitin-4-sulfate (~64 %) of molecular weight 21-22 kDa. Hyaluronan (~24 %) had a molecular weight 120 kDa. Smaller amounts (12 %) of heparan sulfate was also present which was made of more highly sulfated chains of molecular weight of 21-22 kDa and a less sulfated low molecular weight (< 10 kDa) heterogeneous partially degraded heparan sulfate...
October 17, 2016: Glycoconjugate Journal
Yanlei Yu, Yin Chen, Paiyz Mikael, Fuming Zhang, Apryll M Stalcup, Rebecca German, Francois Gould, Jocelyn Ohlemacher, Hong Zhang, Robert J Linhardt
Heparin, a member of a family of molecules called glycosaminoglycans, is biosynthesized in mucosal mast cells. This important anticoagulant polysaccharide is primarily produced by extraction of the mast cell-rich intestinal mucosa of hogs. There is concern about our continued ability to supply sufficient heparin to support the worldwide growth of advanced medical procedures from the static population of adult hogs used as food animals. While the intestinal mucosa of adult pigs is rich in anticoagulant heparin (containing a few hundred milligrams per animal), little is known about how the content of heparin changes with animal age...
October 15, 2016: Glycobiology
Cemil Aydoğan
In this study, a novel boronic acid-fumed silica nanoparticles incorporated hybrid monolithic stationary phase for glycoprotein separation by nano-liquid chromatography was developed. The stationary phase was prepared in 100 μm capillary by an in situ copolymerization of methacryloyl-fumed silica nanoparticle (MFSNP), 3-chloro-2-hydroxypropyl methacrylate (HPMA-Cl), and ethylene dimethacrylate (EDMA) in a binary porogenic solvent composed of cyclohexanol and dodecanol. The preparation of the monolith was optimized by investigating the ratio of functional monomer to crosslinker and the effect of MFSNP content...
October 12, 2016: Analytical and Bioanalytical Chemistry
Shelly Sharma, Partap Bir Singh, Pooja Chadha, Harvinder Singh Saini
The study was aimed to evaluate the levels of chlorpyrifos (CPF) pollution in agricultural soil of Punjab, India, its detrimental effects on acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in rat brain and bioremediation of soils polluted with CPF using indigenous and adapted bacterial lab isolate. The analysis revealed that soil samples of Bathinda and Amritsar regions are highly contaminated with chlorpyrifos showing 19 to 175 mg/kg concentrations of CPF. The non-targeted animals may get poisoned with CPF by its indirect dermal absorption, inhalation of toxic fumes and regular consumption of soiled food grains...
October 8, 2016: Environmental Science and Pollution Research International
Bente Ulvestad, Britt Grethe Randem, Øivind Skare, Trond Mogens Aaløkken, Georg Karl Myranek, Karine Elihn, May Brit Lund
PURPOSE: To study longitudinal changes in lung function in asphalt pavers and a reference group of road maintenance workers, and to detect possible signs of lung disease by high-resolution computed tomography (HRCT) scans. METHODS: Seventy-five asphalt pavers and 71 road maintenance workers were followed up with questionnaires and measurements of lung function. Not every worker was tested every year, but most of them had four or more measurement points. The 75 asphalt pavers were also invited to have HRCT scans of the lungs at the end of the follow-up period...
October 8, 2016: International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health
Patricia McAllister, Eleanor Graham, Paul Deacon, Kevin J Farrugia
There appears to be a limited but growing body of research on the sequential analysis/treatment of multiple types of evidence. The development of an integrated forensic approach is necessary to maximise evidence recovery and to ensure that a particular treatment is not detrimental to other types of evidence. This study aims to assess the effect of latent and blood mark enhancement techniques (e.g. fluorescence, ninhydrin, acid violet 17, black iron-oxide powder suspension) on the subsequent detection of saliva...
September 2016: Science & Justice: Journal of the Forensic Science Society
Jun-Jie Gu, Yanli Yue, Fuming Shi, He Tian, Dong Ren
Orthoptera is divided into two suborders, the Ensifera (katydids, crickets and mole crickets) and the Caelifera (grasshoppers and pygmy mole crickets). The earliest definitive caeliferans are those found in the Triassic (Bethoux & Ross 2005). The extinct caeliferan families, such as Locustopsidae and Locustavidae, may prove to be stem groups to some of the modern superfamilies (Grimaldi & Engel 2005). Locustopsidae is known from the Late Triassic or Early Jurassic to Late Cretaceous, consisting of two subfamilies (Gorochov et al...
September 20, 2016: Zootaxa
N Rodella, M Pasquali, A Zacco, F Bilo, L Borgese, N Bontempi, G Tomasoni, L E Depero, E Bontempi
A sustainable economy can be achieved only by assessing processes finalized to optimize the use of resources. Waste can be a relevant source of energy thanks to energy-from-waste processes. Concerns regarding the toxic fly ashes can be solved by transforming them into resource as recycled materials. The commitment to recycle is driven by the need to conserve natural resources, reduce imports of raw materials, save landfill space and reduce pollution. A new method to stabilize fly ash from Municipal Solid Waste Incinerator (MSWI) at room temperature has been developed thanks to COSMOS-RICE LIFE+ project (www...
September 2016: Heliyon
Hang Li, Yangwu Ren, Lingzi Xia, Ruoyi Qu, Lingchao Kong, Zhihua Yin, Baosen Zhou
INTRODUCTION: Rs2292832 is a single nucleotide polymorphism located in the precursor of mir-149 and was reported to be associated with varieties of malignancies. So far, the effect of miR-149 rs2292832 polymorphism on lung cancer risk was unclear. In addition, cooking oil fume exposure was demonstrated to be an important environmental risk factor in Chinese female. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the associations of rs2292832 polymorphism, cooking oil fume exposure and multiplicative interaction of cooking oil fume exposure and rs2292832 polymorphism with lung cancer risk in Chinese non-smoking female population...
2016: PloS One
Bor-Cheng Han, I-Jung Liu, Hsiao-Chi Chuang, Chih-Hong Pan, Kai-Jen Chuang
Welding fume exposure is associated with heart rate variability (HRV) reduction. It is still unknown whether respirator can reduce effect of welding fume on HRV among welding workers in a shipyard. We recruited 68 welding workers with respirator and 52 welding workers without respirator to measure HRV indices, including standard deviation of normal-to-normal intervals (SDNN) and square root of the mean squared differences of successive intervals (r-MSSD) by ambulatory electrocardiographic (ECG). Personal exposure to particulate matter less than or equal to 2...
September 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
Fei Li, Zhaoyuan Fang, Jian Zhang, Chen Li, Hongyan Liu, Jufeng Xia, Hongwen Zhu, Chenchen Guo, Zhen Qin, Fuming Li, Xiangkun Han, Yuetong Wang, Yan Feng, Ye Wang, Wenjing Zhang, Zuoyun Wang, Yujuan Jin, Yihua Sun, Wenyi Wei, Rong Zeng, Haiquan Chen, Hongbin Ji
Lung squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is one of the major subtypes of lung cancer. Our current knowledge of oncogenic drivers in this specific subtype of lung cancer is largely limited compared with lung adenocarcinoma (ADC). Through exon array analyses, molecular analyses and functional studies, we here identify the TRA2B-DNAH5 fusion as a novel oncogenic driver in lung SCC. We found that this gene fusion occurs exclusively in lung SCC (3.1%, 5/163), but not in lung ADC (0/119). Through mechanistic studies, we further revealed that this TRA2B-DNAH5 fusion promotes lung SCC malignant progression through regulating a SIRT6-ERK1/2-MMP1 signaling axis...
October 2016: Cell Research
Lei Fang, Danqi Chen, Clinton Yu, Hongjie Li, Jason Brocato, Lan Huang, Chunyuan Jin
Acrolein is a major component of cigarette smoke and cooking fumes. Previously, we reported that acrolein compromises chromatin assembly; however, underlying mechanisms have not been defined. Here, we report that acrolein reacts with lysine residues including lysines 5 and 12 on histone H4 in vitro and in vivo, sites important for chromatin assembly. Acrolein-modified histones are resistant to acetylation, suggesting that the reduced H4K12 acetylation following acrolein exposure is likely due to the formation of acrolein-histone lysine adducts...
September 26, 2016: Molecular and Cellular Biology
Xue Fang, Zhihua Yin, Xuelian Li, Lingzi Xia, Baosen Zhou
MicroRNA biosynthesis genes can affect the regulatory effect of global microRNAs to target mRNA and hence influence the genesis and development of human cancer. Here, we selected five single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) (rs7813, rs2740349, rs2291778, rs910924, rs595961) in two key microRNA biosynthesis genes (GEMIN4 and AGO1) and systematically evaluated the association between these SNPs, the gene-environment interaction and lung cancer risk. To control the impact of cigarette smoking on lung cancer, we recruited Chinese female non-smokers for the study...
2016: International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Siegal Sadetzki, Angela Chetrit, Michelle C Turner, Martie van Tongeren, Geza Benke, Jordi Figuerola, Sarah Fleming, Martine Hours, Laurel Kincl, Daniel Krewski, Dave McLean, Marie-Elise Parent, Lesley Richardson, Brigitte Schlehofer, Klaus Schlaefer, Maria Blettner, Joachim Schüz, Jack Siemiatycki, Elisabeth Cardis
The aim of the study was to examine associations between occupational exposure to metals and meningioma risk in the international INTEROCC study. INTEROCC is a seven-country population-based case-control study including 1906 adult meningioma cases and 5565 population controls. Incident cases were recruited between 2000 and 2004. A detailed occupational history was completed and job titles were coded into standard international occupational classifications. Estimates of mean workday exposure to individual metals and to welding fumes were assigned based on a job-exposure-matrix...
September 23, 2016: Journal of Neuro-oncology
Yuejie Zhao, Arunima Singh, Yongmei Xu, Chengli Zong, Fuming Zhang, Geert-Jan Boons, Jian Liu, Robert J Linhardt, Robert J Woods, I Jonathan Amster
Fibroblast growth factors (FGFs) regulate several cellular developmental processes by interacting with cell surface heparan proteoglycans and transmembrane cell surface receptors (FGFR). The interaction of FGF with heparan sulfate (HS) is known to induce protein oligomerization, increase the affinity of FGF towards its receptor FGFR, promoting the formation of the HS-FGF-FGFR signaling complex. Although the role of HS in the signaling pathways is well recognized, the details of FGF oligomerization and formation of the ternary signaling complex are still not clear, with several conflicting models proposed in literature...
September 23, 2016: Journal of the American Society for Mass Spectrometry
Zhihua Yin, Zhigang Cui, Hang Li, Yangwu Ren, Biyun Qian, Nathaniel Rothman, Qing Lan, Baosen Zhou
BACKGROUND: The associations between microRNAs and lung cancer have received increasing attention. This study assess the association between polymorphisms in miR-135a-2, miR-219-2 and miR-211 genes and the risk of lung cancer, as well as the gene-environment interaction between these polymorphisms and cooking oil fume exposure. METHODS: A case-control study featuring 268 cases and 266 controls was conducted. The associations of miR-135a-2 rs10459194, miR-219-2 rs10988341 and miR-211 rs1514035 polymorphisms with the risk of lung cancer were analyzed...
2016: BMC Cancer
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