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Fei He, Jing-Xian Xie, Chun-Lan Liu, Wei-Min Xiong, Qiu-Ping Xu, Zhi-Qiang Liu, Tao Lin, Ren-Dong Xiao, Xu Li, Lin Cai
The aim of this study was to investigate the association of menstrual and reproductive factors with risk of lung cancer in women. Potential etiological clues related to lung cancer in women are identified to inform preventive strategies.Case-control study of 477 newly diagnosed women with lung cancer and 479 age-matched (±2 years) controls. Data on menstrual and reproductive factors and history of oral contraceptive use were obtained on personal interviews using a structured questionnaire. Risk factors were analyzed by unconditional logistic regression analysis...
November 2017: Medicine (Baltimore)
Liv I B Sikkeland, Anne K Borander, Øyvind A Voie, Hans C D Aass, Reidun Øvstebø, Pål Aukrust, Kjetil Longva, Neil E Alexis, Johny Kongerud, Thor Ueland
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
November 16, 2017: American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine
Xiaochun Zheng, Kang Li, Jingyang Xu, Zhen Lin
This research successfully demonstrated the first use of simultaneous superglue & iodine fuming on leather surfaces compared to superglue, iodine, superglue-iodine and iodine-superglue fuming methods which typically give low fingermark yields. A novel fuming chamber was developed and used for simultaneous superglue & iodine fuming. Results show that the simultaneous fuming method produced significantly better enhancement for light-coloured leather substrates relative to other processing procedures, but was found to be ineffective on dark-coloured leather...
November 7, 2017: Forensic Science International
Beate Pesch, Swaantje Casjens, Tobias Weiss, Benjamin Kendzia, Marina Arendt, Lewin Eisele, Thomas Behrens, Nadin Ulrich, Noreen Pundt, Anja Marr, Sibylle Robens, Christoph Van Thriel, Rainer Van Gelder, Michael Aschner, Susanne Moebus, Nico Dragano, Thomas Brüning, Karl-Heinz Jöckel
Objectives: Exposure to manganese (Mn) may cause movement disorders, but less is known whether the effects persist after the termination of exposure. This study investigated the association between former exposure to Mn and fine motor deficits in elderly men from an industrial area with steel production. Methods: Data on the occupational history and fine motor tests were obtained from the second follow-up of the prospective Heinz Nixdorf Recall Study (2011-2014)...
November 10, 2017: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
Yaobo Ding, Wendel Wohlleben, Mael Boland, Klaus Vilsmeier, Michael Riediker
We tested the nanomaterial release from composites during two different mechanical treatment processes, automated drilling and manual sawing. Polyurethane (PU) polymer discs (1-cm thickness and 11-cm diameter) were created using different nanomaterial fillers: multiwall carbon nanotubes (MWCNT), carbon black (CB), silicon dioxide (SiO2), and an unfilled PU control. Drilling generated far more submicron range particles than sawing. In the drilling experiments, none of the tested nanofillers showed a significant influence on particle number concentrations or sizes, except for the PU/MWCNT samples, from which larger particles were released than from control samples...
November 10, 2017: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
Andrew Halterman, Sinan Sousan, Thomas M Peters
In 2016, the Mine Safety and Health Administration required the use of continuous monitors to measure respirable dust in mines and better protect miner health. The Personal Dust Monitor, PDM3700, has met stringent performance criteria for this purpose. In a laboratory study, respirable mass concentrations measured with the PDM3700 and a photometer (personal DataRam, pDR-1500) were compared to those measured gravimetrically for five aerosols of varying refractive index and density (diesel exhaust fume, welding fume, coal dust, Arizona road dust (ARD), and salt [NaCl] aerosol) at target concentrations of 0...
November 9, 2017: Annals of Work Exposures and Health
Xiaofeng Jiang, Shengpeng Zuo, Liangtao Ye, Wenxiu Hong
Nanomaterials and/or contaminants are becoming more common in the developing world, but their effects on interspecific interactions are rarely reported, particularly in aquatic ecosystems. Thus, the present study determined the effects of the novel pollutant nano-fumed silica (NFS) on algal control by a macrophyte via the allelochemical p-hydroxybenzoic acid in a microcosm test. The allelochemical p-hydroxybenzoic acid caused significant decreases in chlorophyll a, but increased the amount of superoxide anion radicals (O2(• -)) and the electric conductivity in Microcystis aeruginosa...
November 10, 2017: Environmental Technology
Yongxi Pan, Peipei Wang, Fuming Zhang, Yanlei Yu, Xing Zhang, Lei Lin, Robert J Linhardt
The swim bladder of fish is an internal gas-filled organ that allows fish to control their buoyancy and swimming depth. Fish maws (the dried swim bladders of fish) have been used over many centuries as traditional medicines, tonics and a luxurious gourmet food in China and Southeast Asia. Little is known about the structural information of polysaccharides comprising this important functional material of fish tissue. In the present study, the total glycosaminoglycan (GAG) from fish maw was characterized. Two GAGs were identified, chondroitin sulfate (CS, having a molecular weight of 18-40 kDa) and heparan sulfate (HS), corresponding to 95% and 5% of the total GAG, respectively...
November 10, 2017: Glycoconjugate Journal
Liang Liang Cui, Jing Wen Zhou, Xing Yi Geng, Xin Wei Li, Zhong Liu, George A Conway, Ji Zhang
Occupational carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning related to diesel motor fumes in an air-raid shelter (ARS) was first identified in Jinan City, China, in June 2015. A total of 17 cases were identified, including 14 possible cases of firemen and 3 confirmed cases of water channel clean-up workers. The overall attack rate (AR) of firemen was 42% (14/33). The firemen had a significantly higher AR with a longer exposure and more protracted time of rescue in the ARS (P < 0.05). All the cases stated that they did not realize the potentially high level of exposure to CO in the ARS...
October 2017: Biomedical and Environmental Sciences: BES
P Velumani, S Senthilkumar
Waste management plays a vital role in the reuse of industry wastes in to useful conversions. The treatment of effluents from the combined textile effluent treatment plant and hypo sludge from the paper industry results in sludge generation which poses a huge challenge for its disposal. Therefore, an eco friendly attempt is made to utilize them in the production of paver blocks. Paver blocks are a construction unit which imparts vast application in street roads, walking paths, fuel stations etc. In this study, an innovative attempt has been made to manufacture paver blocks incorporated with textile effluent treatment plant sludge and hypo sludge to utilize them with suitable proportions...
November 9, 2017: Journal of the Air & Waste Management Association
Yi-Chih Huang, Mei-Chen Yang
Purpose: To investigate associations between occupational inhalation risks and fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) levels in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Patients and methods: Data of 16,486 subjects who had undergone spirometry with pre-bronchodilator and post-bronchodilator lung function assessment were retrieved from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 2007-2012 database. After excluding 2,638 subjects with missing spirometry values, data of 13,336 subjects were included for analysis...
2017: International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
Yi-Pin Lin, Lingyun Li, Fuming Zhang, Robert J Linhardt
The spirochete bacterium Borrelia burgdorferisensu lato is the causative agent of Lyme disease, the most common vector-borne disease in Europe and the United States. The spirochetes can be transmitted to humans via ticks, and then spread to different tissues, leading to arthritis, carditis and neuroborreliosis. Although antibiotics have commonly been used to treat infected individuals, some treated patients do not respond to antibiotics and experience persistent, long-term arthritis. Thus, there is a need to investigate alternative therapeutics against Lyme disease...
November 8, 2017: Microbiology
Kenneth A Mundt, Linda D Dell, Lori Crawford, Sonja N Sax, Paolo Boffetta
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate whether cancer risks are increased among bitumen (asphalt) workers. METHODS: Systematic review and meta-analysis of cancer risks (lung, upper aerodigestive tract (UADT), esophagus, bladder, kidney, stomach, and skin) and bitumen exposure. Certainty in the epidemiological evidence that bitumen-exposed workers experience increased cancer risks was rated using GRADE criteria. RESULTS: After excluding lower quality studies, lung cancer risks were not increased among bitumen-exposed workers (meta-RR 0...
November 3, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Yanlei Yu, Jiana Duan, Franklin E Leach, Toshihiko Toida, Kyohei Higashi, Hong Zhang, Fuming Zhang, I Jonathan Amster, Robert J Linhardt
Glycomics represents one of the last frontiers and most challenging in omic analysis. Glycosylation occurs in the endoplasmic reticulum and the Golgi organelle and its control is neither well-understood nor predictable based on proteomic or genomic analysis. One of the most structurally complex classes of glycoconjugates is the proteoglycans (PGs) and their glycosaminoglycan (GAG) side chains. Previously, our laboratory solved the structure of the chondroitin sulfate chain of the bikunin PG. The current study examines the much more complex structure of the dermatan sulfate GAG chain of decorin PG...
November 13, 2017: Journal of the American Chemical Society
Rui Ding, Chao Zhang, Xiaoxia Zhu, Han Cheng, Furong Zhu, Yachun Xu, Ying Liu, Longping Wen, Jiyu Cao
Cooking oil fumes-derived PM2.5 (COFs-derived PM2.5) exposure can induce oxidative stress and cytotoxic effects. Here we investigated the role of ROS-AKT-mTOR axis in COFs-derived PM2.5-induced autophagy in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). HUVECs were treated with different concentrations of COFs-derived PM2.5, together with or without N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC, a radical scavenger) or 3-methyladenine (3-MA, an autophagy inhibitor). Cell viability was assessed with MTT assay, and ROS level was measured with DCFH-DA assay after the treatment...
October 28, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
Brent C Doney, Paul K Henneberger, Michael J Humann, Xiaoming Liang, Kevin M Kelly, Jean M Cox-Ganser
PROBLEM/CONDITION: Many rural residents work in the field of agriculture; however, employment in nonagricultural jobs also is common. Because previous studies in rural communities often have focused on agricultural workers, much less is known about the occupational exposures in other types of jobs in rural settings. Characterizing airborne occupational exposures that can contribute to respiratory diseases is important so that differences between rural and urban working populations can be assessed...
November 3, 2017: MMWR. Surveillance Summaries: Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. Surveillance Summaries
James Fay
The purpose of this study was to compare personal exposures to isoflurane from participants' breathing zone samples during animal anesthesia procedures by the method of anesthetic gas delivery and the waste anesthetic gas (WAG) control method utilized. WAG control methods included passive scavenging using charcoal canisters, active scavenging using a building vacuum system, and various local exhaust ventilation systems such as laboratory fume hoods and capture hoods. Methods of anesthesia delivery included induction chambers, face masks (also known as nose cones), and intubation...
October 30, 2017: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Edward Bormashenko, Mark Frenkel, Yelena Bormashenko, Gilad Chaniel, Viktor Valtsifer, Bernard P Binks
Self-locomotion of liquid marbles, coated with lycopodium or fumed fluorosilica powder, filled with a saturated aqueous solution of camphor and placed on a water/vapor interface is reported. Self-propelled marbles demonstrated a complicated motion, representing a superposition of translational and rotational motions. Oscillations of the velocity of the center of mass and the angular velocity of marbles, occurring in the antiphase, were registered and explained qualitatively. Self-propulsion occurs because of the Marangoni solutocapillary flow inspired by the adsorption of camphor (evaporated from the liquid marble) by the water surface...
November 8, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
Sin-Liang Ou, Fei-Peng Yu, Dong-Sing Wuu
A novel fabrication method for single crystalline ZnO nanorods by pulsed laser deposition (PLD) using a chemical-bath-deposited ZnS seed layer is proposed. For the substrate temperature (Ts) lower than 700 °C, the PLD-ZnO showed a polycrystalline phase and film-type morphology, resulting from the ZnS seed layer with a cubic phase. However, the ZnS film became a sacrifical layer and single crystalline ZnO(002) nanorods can be achieved at Ts of 900 °C, where ZnS was decomposed to zinc metals and sulfur fumes...
October 27, 2017: Scientific Reports
Christophe Paris, Pascal Do, Bénédicte Mastroianni, Adrien Dixmier, Patrick Dumont, Eric Pichon, Christos Chouaid, Bruno Coudert, Pascal Foucher, Séverine Fraboulet, Myriam Locatelli-Sanchez, Nathalie Baize, Eric Dansin, Lionel Moreau, Michel Vincent, Pascale Missy, Franck Morin, Denis Moro-Sibilot, Sébastien Couraud
Occupational exposure constitutes a common risk factor for lung cancer. We observed molecular alterations in 73% of never-smokers, 35% of men and 8% of women were exposed to at least one occupational carcinogen. We report herein associations between molecular patterns and occupational exposure.BioCAST was a cohort study of lung cancer in never-smokers that reported risk factor exposure and molecular patterns. Occupational exposure was assessed via a validated 71-item questionnaire. Patients were categorised into groups that were unexposed and exposed to polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), asbestos, silica, diesel exhaust fumes (DEF), chrome and paints...
October 2017: European Respiratory Journal: Official Journal of the European Society for Clinical Respiratory Physiology
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