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Kathryn Z Guyton, Ivan Rusyn, Weihsueh A Chiu, Denis E Corpet, Martin van den Berg, Matthew K Ross, David C Christiani, Frederick A Beland, Martyn T Smith
Smith et al. (Env. Health Perspect. 124: 713, 2016) identified 10 key characteristics (KCs), one or more of which are commonly exhibited by established human carcinogens. The KCs reflect the properties of a cancer-causing agent, such as 'is genotoxic,' 'is immunosuppressive' or 'modulates receptor-mediated effects,' and are distinct from the hallmarks of cancer, which are the properties of tumors. To assess feasibility and limitations of applying the KCs to diverse agents, methods and results of mechanistic data evaluations were compiled from eight recent IARC Monograph meetings...
February 21, 2018: Carcinogenesis
Julia Krabbe, André Esser, Stephanie Kanzler, Till Braunschweig, Svetlana Kintsler, Jan Spillner, Thomas Schröder, Sebastian Kalverkamp, Galina Balakirski, Benjamin Gerhards, Annette D Rieg, Thomas Kraus, Peter Brand, Christian Martin
Recently, the pro-inflammatory effects of metal inert gas brazing welding fumes containing zinc and copper have been demonstrated in humans. Here, murine, rat and human precision cut lung slices (PCLS) were incubated in welding fume containing media with 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 μg/ml for 24 or 48 h. 24 h incubation were determined either by incubation for the total time or for only 6 h followed by a 18 h post-incubation phase. Cytotoxicity, proliferation and DNA repair rates, and cytokine levels were determined...
March 10, 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
ChuanYang Cai, ShuangYu Yu, XinYue Li, Yu Liu, Shu Tao, WenXin Liu
Two typical types of electronic waste (E-waste) were selected to investigate the emission characteristics of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) during pyrolytic processing, including emission factor, compositional profile, size distribution and gas-particle partitioning. The mean emission factors (EFs) of total PAHs were measured to be 2.77 ± 1.41 μg/g and 23.65 ± 14.52 μg/g for printed wiring boards and plastic casings, respectively, lower than those for coal combustion and biomass burning...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Juan Andrés Abin-Carriquiry, Marcela Martínez-Busi, Martín Galvalisi, Manuel Minteguiaga, José Pedro Prieto, María Cecilia Scorza
Adulteration is a common practice in the illicit drugs market, but the psychoactive and toxic effects provided by adulterants are clinically underestimated. Coca-paste (CP) is a smokable form of cocaine which has an extremely high abuse liability. CP seized samples are sold adulterated; however, qualitative and quantitative data of CP adulteration in forensic literature is still scarce. Besides, it is unknown if adulterants remain stable when CP is heated. This study was designed to report the chemical content of an extensive series of CP seized samples and to demonstrate the stability (i...
March 13, 2018: Neurotoxicity Research
Ruijie Liu, Youfeng Zhang, Jun Wang, Qiqi Pan, Yingqi Luo, Yujie Sun, Qingzhe Jin, Xingguo Wang
Contamination sources of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in the raw material, oil production and storage processes of wood-pressed rapeseed oil were investigated in this study. The results showed that benzo[a]pyrene (BaP) and PAH4 (sum of BaP, benzo[a]fluoranthene, benzo[b]fluoranthene and chrysene) were unevenly distributed in the kernel (0.56-0.98 and 2.84-8.64 μg/kg, respectively) and hull (1.53-3.17 and 13.49-22.31 μg/kg, respectively) of the rapeseed raw materials. The contents of BaP and PAH4 continuously increased during the process of wood-pressed rapeseed oil, ranging from 2...
March 14, 2018: Food Additives & Contaminants. Part A, Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure & Risk Assessment
Milica Ljaljević Grbić, Nikola Unković, Ivica Dimkić, Peđa Janaćković, Milan Gavrilović, Olja Stanojević, Miloš Stupar, Ljubodrag Vujisić, Aleksa Jelikić, Slaviša Stanković, Jelena Vukojević
ETHNOPHARMACOLOGICAL RELEVANCE: Essential oils obtained from resins of Boswellia carteri Birdw. and Commiphora myrrha (Nees) Engl., commonly known as frankincense and true myrrh respectively, have been used extensively since 2800 B.C. for the treatment of skin sores, wounds, teeth, inflammation, and urinary tract diseases in traditional medicine; for preparation of mummification balms and unguents; and also as incense and perfumes. Since ancient times, burning of frankincense and myrrh in places of worship for spiritual purposes and contemplation (a ubiquitous practice across various religions) had hygienic functions, to refine the smell and reduce contagion by purifying the indoor air...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Ethnopharmacology
Alicia Khuu, Scott Chadwick, Sébastien Moret, Xanthe Spindler, Peter Gunn, Claude Roux
Fingermarks can be exploited for both their ridge detail and touch DNA. One-step luminescent cyanoacrylate (CA) fuming techniques used for fingermark enhancement, such as PolyCyano UV (Foster+Freeman Ltd) and Lumicyano™ (Crime Science Technology), claim to be compatible with DNA analysis as they reduce the need for post-staining to increase contrast of the developed fingermark. The aim of this study was to determine the impact that these one-step luminescent cyanoacrylates have on DNA analysis and how they compare to conventional CA techniques...
February 23, 2018: Forensic Science International
Jaehoon Ryu, Wookhwan Kim, Juyoung Yun, Kisu Lee, Jungsup Lee, Haejun Yu, Jae Hyun Kim, Jae Jeong Kim, Jyongsik Jang
A simple one-pot method is reported for the fabrication of uniform wrinkled silica nanoparticles (WSNs). Rapid cooling of reactants at the appropriate moment during synthesis allowed the separation of nucleation and growth stages, resulting in uniform particles. The factors affecting particle size and inter-wrinkle distance were also investigated. WSNs with particle sizes of 65 - 400 nm, inter-wrinkle distances of 10 - 33 nm, and surface areas up to 617 m2g-1 were fabricated. Furthermore, our results demonstrate the advantages of WSNs over comparable non-porous silica nanospheres and fumed silica-based products as an abrasive material in chemical mechanical planarization (CMP) processes...
March 9, 2018: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Tinchou Li, Mingcheng Lee, Fuming Tsai, Yunhsiang Chen, Yiyin Lin, Maoliang Chen
BACKGROUND: Based on accumulating evidence, the regulation of protein expression by antipsychotic drugs (APDs) might be closely related to the control of psychotic symptoms when these drugs are used to treat mental disorders. The low quantity of nuclear proteins in the cell hinders their detection because signal for rare proteins are masked in most proteomic detection systems. METHODS: Nuclear proteins fractionated from APD-treated B35 cells were labeled with iTRAQ and detected by LC/MS/MS to investigate APD-induced alterations in nuclear protein expression...
March 7, 2018: BMC Pharmacology & Toxicology
Ceylan Bal, Erol R Ağış, Murat Büyükşekerci, Meşide Gündüzöz, Lütfiye Tutkun, Ömer H Yılmaz
OBJECTIVES: We designed the present study to determine the effect of occupational exposure to asphalt fumes on oxidative status and DNA damage in road paving workers. METHODS: Sixty road paving workers exposed to asphalt fumes and forty non-exposed control subjects were recruited. Occupational exposure to PAHs was assessed by urinary 1-hydroxypyrene (1-OHP) excretion. Serum thiol disulfide homeostasis (TDH), total oxidant status (TOS) and total antioxidant status (TAS) and urinary 8-hydro-deoxyguanosine (8-OH-dG) level were evaluated by automated colourimetric method...
March 7, 2018: American Journal of Industrial Medicine
Sara Naderizadeh, Athanassia Athanassiou, Ilker S Bayer
HYPOTHESIS: Nanoparticle films are one of the most suitable platforms for obtaining sub-micrometer and nanometer dual-scale surface texture required for liquid repellency. The assembly of superhydrophobic nanoparticles into conformal and strongly adherent films having abrasion-induced wear resistance still poses a significant challenge. Various techniques have been developed over the years to render nanoparticle films with good liquid repellent properties and transparency. However, forming abrasion resistant superhydrophobic nanoparticle films on hard surfaces is challenging...
February 24, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Anqiang Zhang, Jiaying Deng, Xiaoqing Liu, Pengfei He, Liang He, Fuming Zhang, Robert J Linhardt, Peilong Sun
Agaricus blazei Murill is an edible and medicinal mushroom favored in many countries, by virtue of both its delicious taste and its potential health benefits such as its purported anticancer activity. A neutral α-glucan (ABM40-1) with a carbohydrate content of 96% was purified from the high-speed shearing homogenization extracts of A. Blazei Murill by ethanol precipitation and column chromatography. Methylation analysis along with nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy revealed that ABM40-1 was an α-(1 → 4)-d-glucopyranan with O-6 position occasionally occupied with α-Glcp-(1 → or α-Glcp-(1 → 6)-β-Glcp-(1 → side chains...
March 1, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Patience Sanderson, Morgan Stickney, Franklin E Leach, Qiangwei Xia, Yanlei Yu, Fuming Zhang, Robert J Linhardt, I Jonathan Amster
Reverse polarity capillary zone electrophoresis coupled to negative ion mode mass spectrometry (CZE-MS) is shown to be an effective and sensitive tool for the analysis of glycosaminoglycan mixtures. Covalent modification of the inner wall of the separation capillary with neutral or cationic reagents produces a stable and durable surface that provides reproducible separations. By combining CZE-MS with a cation-coated capillary and a sheath flow interface, a rapid and reliable method has been developed for the analysis of sulfated oligosaccharides from dp4 to dp12...
February 24, 2018: Journal of Chromatography. A
Ana S Fonseca, Eelco Kuijpers, Kirsten I Kling, Marcus Levin, Antti J Koivisto, Signe H Nielsen, W Fransman, Yijri Fedutik, Keld A Jensen, Ismo K Koponen
Fume hoods are one of the most common types of equipment applied to reduce the potential of particle exposure in laboratory environments. A number of previous studies have shown particle release during work with nanomaterials under fume hoods. Here, we assessed laboratory workers' inhalation exposure during synthesis and handling of CuO, TiO2 and ZnO in a fume hood. In addition, we tested the capacity of a fume hood to prevent particle release to laboratory air during simulated spillage of different powders (silica fume, zirconia TZ-3Y and TiO2 )...
2018: Journal of Nanoparticle Research: An Interdisciplinary Forum for Nanoscale Science and Technology
Dong-Hee Koh, Sun-Woo Lee, Byeong-Jin Ye, Jung-Il Kim
Welding fume exposure can increase the risk of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). The aim of this study was to evaluate the optimal grouping schemes of welding fume exposure in shipyard welders for future accurate examination of the association between welding fume exposure and COPD. Industrial hygiene records, including welding fume measurements between 2002 and 2009 were collected from a shipyard. A total of 2,360 personal welding fume measurements was compiled with a geometric mean of 1.66 mg/m3 and a geometric standard deviation of 4...
March 1, 2018: Journal of Occupational and Environmental Hygiene
Bingjun Qian, Lirong Yin, Xiaomin Yao, Yaoguang Zhong, Juan Gui, Feifeng Lu, Fuming Zhang, Jianhua Zhang
The saponins, as components of tea seed meal (TSM), are undesirable hemolytic components, and should be degraded for reducing their hemolytic activity in order to be used in animal feed. In this study, β-glucuronidase was verified to be a potent hydrolase of tea seed saponins to reduce their hemolytic activity, and a β-glucuronidase-producing Lactobacillus crustorum (L. crustorum) strain was screened from raw bovine milk. Next, solid-state fermentation with the isolated L. crustorum and a Bacillus subtilis natto strain, which can produce cellulase and hence improve the fermentation performance of tea seed meal, was processed for detoxification of tea seed meal...
February 20, 2018: FEMS Microbiology Letters
Tao Li, Linsheng Wang, Yongming Du, Si Xie, Xi Yang, Fuming Lian, Zhongjun Zhou, Chengmin Qian
UHRF1 plays multiple roles in regulating DNMT1-mediated DNA methylation maintenance during DNA replication. The UHRF1 C-terminal RING finger functions as an ubiquitin E3 ligase to establish histone H3 ubiquitination at Lys18 and/or Lys23, which is subsequently recognized by DNMT1 to promote its localization onto replication foci. Here, we present the crystal structure of DNMT1 RFTS domain in complex with ubiquitin and highlight a unique ubiquitin binding mode for the RFTS domain. We provide evidence that UHRF1 N-terminal ubiquitin-like domain (UBL) also binds directly to DNMT1...
February 19, 2018: Nucleic Acids Research
Ana L De Toffoli, Bruno H Fumes, Fernando M Lanças
On-line in-tube solid phase microextraction (in-tube SPME) coupled to high performance liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS) was successfully applied to the determination of selected triazines in water samples. The method based on the employment of a packed column containing graphene oxide (GO) supported on aminopropyl silica (Si) showed that the extraction phase has a high potential for triazines extraction aiming to its physical-chemical properties including ultrahigh specific surface area, good mechanical and thermal stability and high fracture strength...
February 22, 2018: Journal of Environmental Science and Health. Part. B, Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes
Antian Xu, Chen Zhuang, Shuxin Xu, Fuming He, Lijun Xie, Xianyan Yang, Zhongru Gou
Bioceramic particulates capable of filling bone defects have gained considerable interest over the last decade. Herein, dual-shell bioceramic microspheres (CaP@CaSi@CaP, CaSi@CaP@CaSi) with adjustable beta-tricalcium phosphate (CaP) and beta-calcium silicate (CaSi) distribution were fabricated using a co-concentric capillary system enabling bone repair via a tailorable biodegradation process. The in vitro results showed the optimal concentration (1/16 of 200 mg/ml) of extracts of dual-shell microspheres could promote bone marrow mesenchymal cell (BMSC) proliferation and enhance the level of ALP activity and Alizarin Red staining...
February 21, 2018: Scientific Reports
S P Sivapirakasam, Sreejith Mohan, M C Santhosh Kumar, Ashley Thomas Paul, M Surianarayanan
Background Cr(VI) is a suspected human carcinogen formed as a by-product of stainless steel welding. Nano-alumina and nano-titania coating of electrodes reduced the welding fume levels. Objective To investigate the effect of nano-coating of welding electrodes on Cr(VI) formation rate (Cr(VI) FR) from a shielded metal arc welding process. Methods The core welding wires were coated with nano-alumina and nano-titania using the sol-gel dip coating technique. Bead-on plate welds were deposited on SS 316 LN plates kept inside a fume test chamber...
February 20, 2018: International Journal of Occupational and Environmental Health
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