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Milda Šulcienė, Boris Kolvenbach, Erik Ammann, Inga Matijošytė
The production of biopolyols (sustainable, renewable and biodegradable precursors), is exclusively focused on the conventional chemical synthesis pathways, and currently, no polyols are produced by enzymatic processes at an industrial scale, because they are not competitive when compared to petrochemically based polyols due to the overall cost for their production. This can be mainly attributed to the high costs of commercial enzymes used in this process and their use is limited by their lack of stability during the bioprocess...
May 16, 2018: International Journal of Biological Macromolecules
Catherine P Whitby, Melinda Krebsz, Samuel J Booty
HYPOTHESIS: Fumed silica particles are thought to thicken organic solvents into gels by aggregating to form networks. Hydrogen bonding between silanol groups on different particle surfaces causes the aggregation. The gel structure and hence flow behaviour is altered by varying the proportion of silanol groups on the particle surfaces. However, characterising the gel using rheology measurements alone is not sufficient to optimise the aggregation. We have used confocal microscopy to characterise the changes in the network microstructure caused by altering the particle surface chemistry...
May 12, 2018: Journal of Colloid and Interface Science
Dan Murphy, Katy Bellis, David Hutchinson
OBJECTIVES: To quantify exposure to vapour, gas, dust and fumes (VGDF) and smoking in male rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and investigate impact on rheumatoid factor (RF) and anti-citrullinated protein antibody (ACPA) levels. DESIGN: A retrospective observational study. SETTING: The Royal Cornwall Hospital Trust, UK. A single university hospital setting. PARTICIPANTS: 726 men followed up between February 2015 and August 2016, fulfilling RA diagnostic criteria...
May 17, 2018: BMJ Open
Neserin Ali, Stefan Ljunggren, Helen M Karlsson, Aneta Wierzbicka, Joakim Pagels, Christina Isaxon, Anders Gudmundsson, Jenny Rissler, Jörn Nielsen, Christian H Lindh, Monica Kåredal
Background: Epidemiological studies have shown that many welders experience respiratory symptoms. During the welding process a large number of airborne nanosized particles are generated, which might be inhaled and deposited in the respiratory tract. Knowledge of the underlying mechanisms behind observed symptoms is still partly lacking, although inflammation is suggested to play a central role. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of welding fume particle exposure on the proteome expression level in welders suffering from respiratory symptoms, and changes in protein mediators in nasal lavage samples were analyzed...
2018: Clinical Proteomics
Tianlin Liu, Juanxiu Qi, Binshen Wang, Yunhe Jin, Chao Yan, Yi Wang, Qinghua Zhang
The design and synthesis of new hypergolic ionic liquids (HILs) as replacements for toxic hydrazine derivatives have been the focus of current academic research in the field of liquid bipropellant fuels. In most cases, however, the requirements of excellent ignition performances, good hydrolytic stability, and low synthetic costs are often contradictory which make the development of high-performance HILs an enormous challenge. Here we show how a fuel-rich boranophosphate anion was rationally designed and used to synthesize a series of high-performance HILs with excellent comprehensive properties...
May 14, 2018: Chemistry: a European Journal
Dilek Ergün, Recai Ergün, Begüm Ergan, Özlem Kar Kurt
OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relation of smoking with anxiety and depression in workers who were exposed to occupational risk factors. For this purpose, working time, smoking status, nicotine dependence, and respiratory functions of the workers who were exposed to physical and/or chemical harmful substances were evaluated and the presence of anxiety/depression was investigated. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Male workers who were exposed to occupational risk factors such as solvents, heavy metals, and dust and visited the outpatient clinic for occupational diseases within a one-year period were included...
April 2018: Turkish Thoracic Journal
Patrick D M C Katoto, Friedrich Thienemann, André N H Bulabula, Tonya M Esterhuizen, Aimé B Murhula, Pierre P M Lunjwire, Dieudonné M Bihehe, Jean B Nachega
OBJECTIVE: To determine the prevalence of and risk factors for metabolic syndrome (MS) in HIV-infected adults at three urban clinics in Bukavu, Democratic Republic of the Congo. DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. METHODS: From July to September 2016, baseline socio-demographics, risk factors, and clinical characteristics were collected using a structured questionnaire or extracted from medical records. Fasting blood sugar and lipids were measured...
May 12, 2018: Tropical Medicine & International Health: TM & IH
S Bavikar Purva, K Dattarai More
Pickling paste is used for cleaning stainless steel weld seam heat marks. It is a mixture of hydrofluoric acid (HF) and nitric acid (HNO3 ) with surfactants and inhibitors. The substance is corrosive, toxic, and irritant. Air respirator and half mask air filter covering nose and mouth are mandatory before handling the pickling paste. This is a case report of a 28-year-old male complaining of sudden onset dyspnea at rest after accidental inhalation of pickling paste fumes. The patient developed acute lung injury and subsequently acute respiratory distress syndrome and was treated with noninvasive ventilation, steroids, and other supportive treatment...
January 2018: Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine
Shilpi Ahuja, Zhaoyin Zhu, Yongzhao Shao, Kenneth I Berger, Joan Reibman, Omer Ahmed
STUDY OBJECTIVES: A relationship between obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) and exposure to the World Trade Center (WTC) dust and fumes has been suggested in responders but little is known about a possible relationship in community members. We characterized sleep studies performed in community members with WTC dust exposure to improve our understanding of the relationship between the diagnosis and severity of OSA and WTC dust exposure in this population. METHODS: Single-center, retrospective study of patients enrolled in a clinical treatment program for community members with WTC dust exposure...
April 30, 2018: Journal of Clinical Sleep Medicine: JCSM: Official Publication of the American Academy of Sleep Medicine
Xiaoting Peng, Yanfei Peng, Baoqin Han, Wanshun Liu, Fuming Zhang, Robert J Linhardt
Catechol-functionalized polymers are of particular interest because of their strong water-resistant adhesive properties. Hydroxymethyl chitosan (HECTS) has been used as an implantable biomaterial having good water solubility, biodegradability and biocompatibility. Here, hydrocaffeic acid (HCA) grafted HECTS (HCA-g-HECTS) was prepared through carbodiimide coupling and the tethered catechol underwent periodate (IO4-)-stimulated mono and double cross-linking with genipin. The gelation time of these cross-linked HCA-g-HECTS hydrogels decreased with increasing molar ratio of cross-linker to grafted catechol group, increasing temperature, or the addition of genipin...
May 7, 2018: Journal of Biomedical Materials Research. Part B, Applied Biomaterials
Yonghai Huang, Honghong Yi, Xiaolong Tang, Shunzheng Zhao, Fengyu Gao, Jiangen Wang, Zhongyu Yang
Cooking emission is an important reason for the air quality deterioration in metropolitan area in China. Transition metal oxide and different loading of manganese oxide supported on cordierite were prepared by incipient wetness impregnation method and were used for Non-methane hydrocarbon (NMHC) oxidation in cooking oil fumes (COFs). The effects of different calcination temperature and different Mn content were also studied. The SEM photographs and CO2 -TPD revealed 5wt%Mn/cordierite had the best pore structure and largest number of the weak and moderate basic sites so it showed the best performance for NMHC oxidation...
May 4, 2018: Environmental Technology
Seyedeh Negar Assadi
Background: Occupational exposures can cause cardiovascular disorders. Some exposures may be harmful, and exposures to chemicals such as metal welding fumes, gases, and pesticides, and stress related to physical and occupational hazard, which results in cardiovascular disorders such as arrhythmia, could be prevented. The objective of this study was to determine the electrocardiographic changes in occupational exposure to organic solvents. Methods: It was a historical cohort study and was carried out on workers of industries...
February 2018: Journal of Arrhythmia
Maria Grazia Riccelli, Matteo Goldoni, Roberta Andreoli, Paola Mozzoni, Silvana Pinelli, Rossella Alinovi, Luisella Selis, Antonio Mutti, Massimo Corradi
The respiratory tract is the main target organ of the inhaled hexavalent chromium (Cr-VI) and nickel (Ni) contained in stainless steel (SS) welding fumes (WFs). The aim of this study was to investigate the Cr and Ni content of the exhaled breath condensate (EBC) of SS tungsten inert gas (TIG) welders, and relate their concentrations with oxidative stress and inflammatory biomarkers. EBC and urine from 100 SS TIG welders were collected pre-(T0 ) and post-shift (T1 ) on a Friday, and pre-shift (T2 ) on the following Monday morning...
April 29, 2018: Toxicology Letters
Xing Zhang, Ke Xia, Lei Lin, Fuming Zhang, Yanlei Yu, Kalib St Ange, Xiaorui Han, Eric Edsinger, Joel Sohn, Robert J Linhardt
The skate, a cartilaginous fish related to sharks and rays, possesses a unique electrosensitive sensory organ known as the ampullae of Lorenzini (AoL). This organ is responsible for the detection of weak electric field changes caused by the muscle contractions of their prey. While keratan sulfate (KS) is believed to be a component of a jelly that fills this sensory organ and has been credited with its high proton conductivity, modern analytical methods have not been applied to its characterization. Surprisingly, total glycosaminoglycan (GAG) analysis demonstrates that the KS from skate jelly is extraordinarily pure, containing no other GAGs...
May 9, 2018: ACS Chemical Biology
Lanhong Zheng, Xiukun Lin, Zhixin Yuan, Minghua Liu, Shousong Cao, Fuming Zhang, Robert J Linhardt
BACKGROUND: Marine environment constitutes an almost infinite resource for novel anticancer drugs discovery. The biodiversity of marine organisms provides a rich source for the discovery and development of novel anticancer peptides in the treatment of human cancer. Marine peptides represent a new opportunity to obtain lead compounds in biomedical field, particularly for cancer therapy. OBJECTIVE: Providing an insight of the recent progress of patented marine peptides and presenting information about the structures and mechanistic mode of anticancer activities of these marine peptides...
April 29, 2018: Recent Patents on Anti-cancer Drug Discovery
Mehrnoosh Abtahi, Ali Koolivand, Sina Dobaradaran, Kamyar Yaghmaeian, Shokooh Sadat Khaloo, Sahand Jorfi, Saeed Keshmiri, Amir Hossein Nafez, Reza Saeedi
We estimated age-sex specific and cause-specific mortality, years of life lost due to premature mortality (YLLs), years lived with disability (YLDs) and disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) attributable to 17 individual occupational risks in Iran at the national and subnational levels in 1990-2015 based on the Global Burden of Disease Study 2015 (GBD 2015). The burden of disease attributable to occupational risk factors was calculated using the comparative risk assessment methodology based on 10 outcomes and 21 risk-outcome pairs...
April 26, 2018: Environmental Research
A Zanoletti, F Bilo, L E Depero, D Zappa, E Bontempi
This work presents a new porous material (SUNSPACE) designed for air particulate matter (PM) capture. It was developed in answer to the European Commission request of an innovative, affordable, and sustainable solution, based on design-driven material, to reduce the concentration of air particulate matter in urban areas. SUNSPACE material was developed from by-products and low-cost materials, such as silica fume and sodium alginate. Its capability to catch ultrafine PM was evaluated by different ad-hoc tests, considering diesel exhaust fumes and incense smoke PM...
April 25, 2018: Journal of Environmental Management
Francisco Ríos, Alejandro Fernández-Arteaga, Mercedes Fernández-Serrano, Encarnación Jurado, Manuela Lechuga
In this work, the toxicity of hydrophilic fumed silica micro- and nanoparticles of various sizes (7 nm, 12 nm, and 50 μm) was evaluated using the luminescent bacteria Vibrio fischeri. In addition, the toxicity of an anionic surfactant solution (ether carboxylic acid), a nonionic surfactant solution (alkyl polyglucoside), and a binary (1:1) mixture of these solutions all containing these silica particles was evaluated. Furthermore, this work discusses the adsorption of surfactants onto particle surfaces and evaluates the effects of silica particles on the surface tension and critical micellar concentration (CMC) of these anionic and nonionic surfactants...
April 20, 2018: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Fuming Sang, Jia Liu, Xue Zhang, Jianxin Pan
A colorimetric method is described for the determination of Pt(II). It is based on the use of gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) which are known to aggregate in the presence of a cationic polymer such as poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride) (PDDA). If, however, a mismatched aptamer (AA) electrostatically binds to PDDA, aggregation is prevented. Upon the addition of Pt(II), it will bind to the aptamer and induce the formation of a hairpin structure. Hence, interaction between aptamer and PDDA is suppressed and PDDA will induce the aggregation of the AuNPs...
April 25, 2018: Mikrochimica Acta
Kentaro Yamada, Daniel Citterio, Charles S Henry
An improved paper-based analytical device (PAD) using color screening to enhance device performance is described. Current detection methods for PADs relying on the distance-based signalling motif can be slow due to the assay time being limited by capillary flow rates that wick fluid through the detection zone. For traditional distance-based detection motifs, analysis can take up to 45 min for a channel length of 5 cm. By using a color screening method, quantification with a distance-based PAD can be achieved in minutes through a "dip-and-read" approach...
April 25, 2018: Lab on a Chip
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