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Judith Ewing, Lynsey Patterson, Neil Irvine, Lorraine Doherty, Anne Loughrey, Joe Kidney, Carmen Sheppard, Georgia Kapatai, Norman K Fry, Mary Ramsay, Lucy Jessop
Welders and those exposed to metal fume are known to be at increased risk of pneumococcal pneumonia and invasive pneumococcal disease. Current UK guidance recommends that vaccination against pneumococcus be considered in those at risk of frequent or continuous occupational exposure to metal fume, taking into account the exposure control measures in place. We report an outbreak of serious pneumococcal disease that occurred between April and June 2015 among a multinational workforce exposed to metal fumes while working on the refurbishment of an oil rig in a Belfast shipyard...
June 17, 2017: Vaccine
Yunus Çolak, Børge G Nordestgaard, Lars C Laursen, Shoaib Afzal, Peter Lange, Morten Dahl
BACKGROUND: Risk factors for chronic cough in the general population have not been described systematically. We identified and ranked chronic cough risk factors at the individual and community level using data from 14669 individuals from the Copenhagen General Population Study. METHODS: Severity of chronic cough was assessed using the Leicester Cough Questionnaire(LCQ). We ranked chronic cough risk factors based on magnitude of age-adjusted odds ratios(ORs) at the individual level and of the population attributable risks(PARs) at the community level...
June 15, 2017: Chest
Lisa A Bailey, Laura E Kerper, Julie E Goodman
Exposure to high levels of manganese (Mn) in occupational settings is known to lead to adverse neurological effects. Since Mn is an essential nutrient, there are mechanisms that maintain its homeostatic control in the body, and there is some level of Mn in air that does not perturb Mn homeostasis. However, the Mn exposure concentrations at which no adverse effects are expected in occupational settings vary considerably across regulatory agencies. We set out to derive a Mn Occupational Exposure Level (OEL) for welders based on a review of studies that evaluated Mn exposure concentrations from welding fumes and: (1) neurological effects in welders; (2) levels of Mn in the brains of welders (via pallidal index [PI] estimated from magnetic resonance imaging [MRI]); (3) other biomarkers of Mn exposure in welders (i...
June 14, 2017: Neurotoxicology
Kevin P Cole, Jennifer McClary Groh, Martin D Johnson, Christopher L Burcham, Bradley M Campbell, William D Diseroad, Michael R Heller, John R Howell, Neil J Kallman, Thomas M Koenig, Scott A May, Richard D Miller, David Mitchell, David P Myers, Steven S Myers, Joseph L Phillips, Christopher S Polster, Timothy D White, Jim Cashman, Declan Hurley, Robert Moylan, Paul Sheehan, Richard D Spencer, Kenneth Desmond, Paul Desmond, Olivia Gowran
Advances in drug potency and tailored therapeutics are promoting pharmaceutical manufacturing to transition from a traditional batch paradigm to more flexible continuous processing. Here we report the development of a multistep continuous-flow CGMP (current good manufacturing practices) process that produced 24 kilograms of prexasertib monolactate monohydrate suitable for use in human clinical trials. Eight continuous unit operations were conducted to produce the target at roughly 3 kilograms per day using small continuous reactors, extractors, evaporators, crystallizers, and filters in laboratory fume hoods...
June 16, 2017: Science
Jiyuan Feng, Fuming Shi, Shaoli Mao
Gorochov (1993) erected the subgenus Xizicus (Xizicus), with the type species Xizicus (Xizicus) fascipes (Bey-Bienko, 1955). This subgenus is distinguished from the other subgenera of Xizicus by the following characters: male tenth abdominal tergite with a pair of contiguous posterior processes in the middle; subgenital plate simple, styli slender, located on the apices or subapices of lateral margins; posterior margin of female subgenital plate rounded.
March 23, 2017: Zootaxa
Seyedtaghi Mirmohammadi, Yosef Moghaddasi, Jamshid Yazdani, Razyeh Yousefinejad, Yahya Esfandyari, Mohsen Gorgani, Manijeh Habibpour
BACKGROUND: Manganese (Mn) used as raw material for melting process in the ferrous foundry is considered as hazardous neurotoxic substance because it accumulates in the central nervous system and may cause neurological disorders. The furnace-men and melting department workers are potentially exposed to manganese particles or fume in the workplace. The objective of the research has been to investigate the sources and levels of manganese exposure in the foundry by correlation of blood-manganese (B-Mn) and air-manganese (air-Mn) measurement...
June 12, 2017: Medycyna Pracy
Ximo Guillem-Llobat
Huelva's copper mines (Spain) have been active for centuries but in the second half of the nineteenth century extractive activities in Riotinto, Tharsis, and other mines in the region were intensified in order to reach world leadership. The method used in these mines for copper extraction from low grade ores generated continuous emissions of fumes that were extremely controversial. The inhabitants had complained about the fumes for decades but as activity intensified so did complaints. The killing of anti-fumes demonstrators in 1888 led to the passing of a Royal Decree banning the open-air roasting of ore and to the drafting of numerous reports on the hazards of the fumes...
July 2017: Medical History
K Krajnak, K Sriram, C Johnson, J R Roberts, R Mercer, G R Miller, O Wirth, J M Antonini
Exposure to welding fumes may result in disorders of the pulmonary, cardiovascular, and reproductive systems. Welders are also at a greater risk of developing symptoms similar to those seen in individuals with idiopathic Parkinson's disease. In welders, there are studies that suggest that alterations in circulating prolactin concentrations may be indicative of injury to the dopamine (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra. The goal of these studies was to use an established model of welding particulate exposure to mimic the effects of welding fume inhalation on reproductive functions...
June 9, 2017: Journal of Toxicology and Environmental Health. Part A
Huibin Zhang, Xinli Liu, Yao Jiang, Lin Gao, Linping Yu, Nan Lin, Yuehui He, C T Liu
A temperature-controlled selective filtration technology for synchronous removal of arsenic and recovery of antimony from the fume produced from reduction smelting process of lead anode slimes was proposed. The chromium (Cr) alloyed FeAl intermetallic with an asymmetric pore structure was developed as the high-temperature filter material after evaluating its corrosive resistance, structural stability and mechanical properties. The results showed that porous FeAl alloyed with 20wt.% Cr had a long term stability in a high-temperature sulfide-bearing environment...
May 26, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
Daiane Tomacheski, Michele Pittol, Douglas Naue Simões, Vanda Ferreira Ribeiro, Ruth Marlene Campomanes Santana
In order to reduce the level of transmission of diseases caused by bacteria and fungi, the development of antimicrobial additives for use in personal care, hygiene products, clothing and others has increased. Many of these additives are based on metals such as silver and titanium. The disposal of these products in the environment has raised concerns pertaining to their potential harmfulness for beneficial organisms. The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of the shape, surface chemistry, size and carrier of three additives containing silver and one with titanium dioxide (TiO2) on microcrustacean survival...
June 2017: Journal of Environmental Sciences (China)
Aashika Sunil Janwadkar, Jitendra Rajendra Ingole
Various inflammatory markers have been used to show an association between welding and respiratory tract disorders due to inhalation of fumes. We hereby present a case of 19-year-old male, welder by occupation who presented with upper respiratory tract infection and was documented to have persistent moderate eosinophilia on serial Complete Blood Count (CBC) examination. This was also confirmed by bone marrow examination which was suggestive of increased eosinophilic precursors. Eosinophils are an inflammatory marker and are increased most commonly in respiratory tract of welders due to inhalation of metal fumes...
April 2017: Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research: JCDR
Avinash Kumar, Gyanendra Kumar Naik, Parvatam Giridhar
Exogenous exposure of coffee plants to 50 μM and 500 μM salicylic acid through liquid hydroponic medium or the exposure to volatile fumes of methyljasmonate was carried out to study the role of salicylic acid and methyljasmonate on the accumulation of caffeine and other methylxanthines like 7-methylxanthine, theobromine and theophylline. Transcript levels of the first, second and third N-methyltransferase involved in the core caffeine biosynthetic pathway namely, xanthosine methyltransferase (XMT), methylxanthine methyltransferase (MXMT) and di-methylxanthine methyltransferase (DXMT) was investigated by semi-quantitative RT-PCR for validating the reason behind the changes of caffeine biosynthetic potential under the influence of the two analogues of plant phytohormones...
August 2017: Data in Brief
Mariame Akouche, Maguy Jaber, Marie-Christine Maurel, Jean-Francois Lambert, Thomas Georgelin
In this contribution, we report the formation under prebiotic conditions of phosphoribosyl pyrophosphate (PRPP) as a molecular precursor in the one-pot synthesis of a canonical nucleotide, namely adenosine monophosphate (AMP) from its building blocks (KH2 PO4 or Pi , adenine, and d-ribose), on a fumed silica surface. The on-the-rocks approach has been successfully applied to the simultaneous phosphorylation and glycosylation of ribose. The one-pot formation mechanism of AMP involves a two-step pathway via an activated intermediate, namely PRPP, obtained by multiple ribose phosphorylations upon mild thermal activation...
June 26, 2017: Angewandte Chemie
Z R Gong, Z F Jiang, Fuming Xu, B Wang, H C Fu
We study the effects of the Berry phases of the valley excitons in the monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) when the valley excitons are manipulated by an external terahertz field. We find that the decoherence of the valley degree of freedom of the valley excitons is spontaneously induced because of the different Berry phases of valley excitons accumulated along the opposite trajectories under the manipulation of the external field. It is called the geometric decoherence because it completely results from the geometric phases...
May 30, 2017: Journal of Physics. Condensed Matter: An Institute of Physics Journal
Gleb Zilberstein, Roman Zilberstein, Svetlana Zilberstein, Uriel Maor, Emmanuil Baskin, Shoumo Zhang, Pier Giorgio Righetti
A miniaturized chemical sensor is here described for analysis of environmental pollutants (VOC: volatile organic chemicals). It is used for remote detection of formaldehyde (FA) fumes in the atmosphere, and is based on the redox reaction between FA and silver nitrate. The sensor is worn as a bracelet and the data acquired are transferred via a blue-tooth channel to a smartphone. A dedicated software transforms the signal from a grey to a colour scale. The signal response has been assessed over low (20 to 120 ppb) as well as higher (1-15 ppm range) levels...
May 29, 2017: Electrophoresis
Tao Zheng, Zaixing Yang, Daxiang Gui, Zhiyong Liu, Xiangxiang Wang, Xing Dai, Shengtang Liu, Linjuan Zhang, Yang Gao, Lanhua Chen, Daopeng Sheng, Yanlong Wang, Juan Diwu, Jianqiang Wang, Ruhong Zhou, Zhifang Chai, Thomas E Albrecht-Schmitt, Shuao Wang
Metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) based on zirconium phosphonates exhibit superior chemical stability suitable for applications under harsh conditions. These compounds mostly exist as poorly crystallized precipitates, and precise structural information has therefore remained elusive. Furthermore, a zero-dimensional zirconium phosphonate cluster acting as secondary building unit has been lacking, leading to poor designability in this system. Herein, we overcome these challenges and obtain single crystals of three zirconium phosphonates that are suitable for structural analysis...
May 30, 2017: Nature Communications
Yanlei Yu, Makoto Hirakane, Daisuke Mori, Lei Lin, Fuming Zhang, Hong Zhang, Robert J Linhardt
Heparin is a structurally complex polysaccharide used as a clinical anticoagulant. It is comprised of a heterogeneous mixture of polysaccharide chains having a variety of sequences and lengths. The production methods and regulatory controls of pharmaceutical heparins have changed over the years. This study assesses the structural and activity uniformity of the polysaccharide chains comprising two contemporary heparin products. The heparin fractions with different sizes and charges were separated with size exclusion and ion exchange chromatography...
May 29, 2017: Glycoconjugate Journal
Bingjia Xu, Haozhong Wu, Junru Chen, Zhan Yang, Zhiyong Yang, Yuan-Chun Wu, Yi Zhang, Chongjun Jin, Po-Yen Lu, Zhenguo Chi, Siwei Liu, Jiarui Xu, Matthew Aldred
Two heavy atom-free luminophores (SHB2t and SDB2t) with simple molecular structures have been synthesized via Suzuki coupling reactions in which both display white-light emission with prompt fluorescence and room temperature phosphorescence (RTP) in the solid state. The impressive RTP of the luminophores is produced by a synergistic effect of the strong intermolecular hydrogen bonding in addition to the spin-orbit coupling of the sulfonyl oxygen atoms and the moderate singlet-triplet energy gaps (ΔEST). These factors facilitate the intersystem crossing (ISC) process to generate triplet excitons in which the molecular conformations become immobilized to effectively suppress radiationless decay...
March 1, 2017: Chemical Science
Patrícia Dionísio, Luís Martins, Susana Moreira, Alda Manique, Rita Macedo, Fátima Caeiro, Luísa Boal, Cristina Bárbara
Objective: To characterize clinically all of the patients with spontaneous pneumomediastinum (SPM) admitted to an adult pulmonology ward in Lisbon, Portugal. Methods: This was a retrospective descriptive study of all adult patients (≥ 18 years of age) diagnosed with SPM between January of 2004 and September of 2015. Results: At least one predisposing factor was identified in most (88.9%) of the 18 patients who presented with SPM during the study period...
March 2017: Jornal Brasileiro de Pneumologia: Publicaça̋o Oficial da Sociedade Brasileira de Pneumologia e Tisilogia
Eman A Abdelfattah, Maria Augustyniak, Hesham A Yousef
Phosphate fertilizer industry is considered as one of the main sources of environmental pollutants. Besides solid waste products, e.g. phosphates, sulphates, and heavy metals, also atmospheric pollutants, such as hydrofluoric acid fumes (HF), sulphur dioxide (SO2), nitrogen oxides (NO2), and particulate matter with diameter up to 10 μm (PM10) can be dangerous. Genotoxic effect of these pollutants was monitored by assessing the DNA damage using alkaline comet assay on cells from brain, thoracic muscles and gut of Aiolopus thalassinus collected at three sites (A-C) located at 1, 3, and 6 km away from Abu-Zaabal Company for Fertilizers and Chemical Industries...
May 16, 2017: Chemosphere
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