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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352526/ectrims-ean-guideline-on-the-pharmacological-treatment-of-people-with-multiple-sclerosis
#1
X Montalban, R Gold, A J Thompson, S Otero-Romero, M P Amato, D Chandraratna, M Clanet, G Comi, T Derfuss, F Fazekas, H P Hartung, E Havrdova, B Hemmer, L Kappos, R Liblau, C Lubetzki, E Marcus, D H Miller, T Olsson, S Pilling, K Selmaj, A Siva, P S Sorensen, M P Sormani, C Thalheim, H Wiendl, F Zipp
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a complex disease of the central nervous system. As new drugs are becoming available, knowledge on diagnosis and treatment must continuously evolve. There is therefore a need for a reference tool compiling current data on benefit and safety, to aid professionals in treatment decisions and use of resources across Europe. The European Committee of Treatment and Research in Multiple Sclerosis (ECTRIMS) and the European Academy of Neurology (EAN) have joined forces to meet this need...
January 19, 2018: European Journal of Neurology: the Official Journal of the European Federation of Neurological Societies
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352226/spatio-temporal-characteristics-of-urban-air-pollutions-and-their-causal-relationships-evidence-from-beijing-and-its-neighboring-cities
#2
Lei Jiang, Ling Bai
China has been suffering from serious air pollution for years in response to the rapid industrialization and urbanization. Notably Beijing is one of the most polluted capitals in the world. Hence, the focus of the study area is on Beijing. In the first stage, we analyze spatial and temporal characteristics of air pollution of the 6 cities while in the second stage the Granger causality test is applied to investigate whether air pollution of a city is affected by its neighbors, and vice versa. The findings are the following...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352196/hyper-hippocampal-glycogen-induced-by-glycogen-loading-with-exhaustive-exercise
#3
Mariko Soya, Takashi Matsui, Takeru Shima, Subrina Jesmin, Naomi Omi, Hideaki Soya
Glycogen loading (GL), a well-known type of sports conditioning, in combination with exercise and a high carbohydrate diet (HCD) for 1 week enhances individual endurance capacity through muscle glycogen supercompensation. This exercise-diet combination is necessary for successful GL. Glycogen in the brain contributes to hippocampus-related memory functions and endurance capacity. Although the effect of HCD on the brain remains unknown, brain supercompensation occurs following exhaustive exercise (EE), a component of GL...
January 19, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29352102/teenage-onset-progressive-myoclonic-epilepsy-due-to-a-familial-c9orf72-repeat-expansion
#4
Jelle van den Ameele, Ivana Jedlickova, Anna Pristoupilova, Anne Sieben, Sara Van Mossevelde, Chantal Ceuterick-de Groote, Helena Hůlková, Radoslav Matej, Alfred Meurs, Christine Van Broeckhoven, Samuel F Berkovic, Patrick Santens, Stanislav Kmoch, Bart Dermaut
BACKGROUND: The progressive myoclonic epilepsies (PME) are a heterogeneous group of disorders in which a specific diagnosis cannot be made in a subset of patients, despite exhaustive investigation. C9orf72 repeat expansions are emerging as an important causal factor in several adult-onset neurodegenerative disorders, in particular frontotemporal lobar degeneration and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. An association with PME has not been reported previously. OBJECTIVE: To identify the causative mutation in a Belgian family where the proband had genetically unexplained PME...
January 19, 2018: Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351629/housing-conditions-and-risk-of-physical-function-limitations-a-prospective-study-of-community-dwelling-older-adults
#5
Bibiana Pérez-Hernández, Esther Lopez-García, Auxiliadora Graciani, José Luis Ayuso-Mateos, Fernando Rodríguez-Artalejo, Esther García-Esquinas
Background: Poor housing conditions have been associated with an increased risk of morbidity and mortality in old age. Methods: Prospective cohort of 1602 older adults followed from 2012 to 2015. Poor conditions were defined as living in a walk-up building, lacking piped hot water or heating, feeling frequently cold at home, lacking a bathtub/shower, a refrigerator, a washing machine, an own room or a landline. Frailty was assessed with the Fried criteria, lower extremities performance with the Short Physical Performance Battery (SPPB), and disability in instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) with the Lawton and Brody questionnaire...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Public Health
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351483/prenatal-exposure-to-diesel-exhaust-pm2-5-causes-offspring-%C3%AE-cell-dysfunction-in-adulthood
#6
Minjie Chen, Shuai Liang, Xiaobo Qin, Li Zhang, Lianglin Qiu, Sufang Chen, Ziying Hu, Yanyi Xu, Wanjun Wang, Yuhao Zhang, Qi Cao, Zhekang Ying
BACKGROUND: Environmental stressors that encounter in early-life and cause abnormal fetal and/or neonatal development may increase susceptibility to non-communicable diseases such as diabetes. Maternal exposure to ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) is associated with various fetal abnormalities, suggesting that it may program offspring's susceptibility to diabetes. In the present study, we therefore examined whether maternal exposure to diesel exhaust PM2.5 (DEP), one of the major sources of ambient PM2...
December 26, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Endocrinology and Metabolism
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351462/maximal-strength-training-induced-improvements-in-forearm-work-efficiency-are-associated-with-reduced-blood-flow
#7
Ole Kristian Berg, Stian Kwak Nyberg, Tobias Midtvedt Windedal, Eivind Wang
Maximal strength training (MST) improves work efficiency. However, since blood flow is greatly dictated by muscle contractions in arms during exercise, and vascular conductance is lower, it has been indicated that arms rely more upon adapting oxygen extraction than legs in response to the enhanced work efficiency. Thus, to investigate if metabolic and vascular responses are arm-specific, we utilized Doppler-ultrasound and a catheter placed in the subclavian vein to measure blood flow and a-vO2diff during steady state work in seven young males (24{plus minus}3(SD) years) following six-weeks of handgrip MST...
December 29, 2017: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29351455/thrombosis-systemic-and-cardiac-oxidative-stress-and-dna-damage-induced-by-pulmonary-exposure-to-diesel-exhaust-particles-and-the-effect-of-nootkatone-thereon
#8
Abderrahim Nemmar, Suhail Al-Salam, Sumaya Beegam, Priya Yuvaraju, Badreldin H Ali
Adverse cardiovascular effects of particulate air pollution persist even at lower concentrations than those of the current air quality limit. Therefore, identification of safe and effective measures against particles-induced cardiovascular toxicity is needed. Nootkatone is a sesquiterpenoid in grapefruit with diverse bioactivities including anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. However, its protective effect on the cardiovascular injury induced by diesel exhaust particles (DEP) has not been studied before...
January 5, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Heart and Circulatory Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350470/specific-expression-of-pd-l1-in-rela-fusion-supratentorial-ependymoma-implications-for-pd-1-targeted-therapy
#9
Davis A Witt, Andrew M Donson, Vladimir Amani, Daniel C Moreira, Bridget Sanford, Lindsey M Hoffman, Michael H Handler, Jean M Mulcahy Levy, Kenneth L Jones, Anandani Nellan, Nicholas K Foreman, Andrea M Griesinger
BACKGROUND: A desperate need for novel therapies in pediatric ependymoma (EPN) exists, as chemotherapy remains ineffective and radiotherapy often fails. EPN have significant infiltration of immune cells, which correlates with outcome. Immune checkpoint inhibitors provide an avenue for new treatments. This study characterizes tumor-infiltrating immune cells in EPN and aims at predicting candidates for clinical trials using checkpoint inhibitors targeting PD-L1/PD-1 (programmed death ligand 1/programmed death 1)...
January 19, 2018: Pediatric Blood & Cancer
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29350321/sliding-to-predict-vision-based-beating-heart-motion-estimation-by-modeling-temporal-interactions
#10
Angelica I Aviles-Rivero, Samar M Alsaleh, Alicia Casals
PURPOSE: Technical advancements have been part of modern medical solutions as they promote better surgical alternatives that serve to the benefit of patients. Particularly with cardiovascular surgeries, robotic surgical systems enable surgeons to perform delicate procedures on a beating heart, avoiding the complications of cardiac arrest. This advantage comes with the price of having to deal with a dynamic target which presents technical challenges for the surgical system. In this work, we propose a solution for cardiac motion estimation...
January 19, 2018: International Journal of Computer Assisted Radiology and Surgery
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349889/t-cell-immunoglobulin-and-itim-domain-contributes-to-cd8-t-cell-immunosenescence
#11
Yangzi Song, Beibei Wang, Rui Song, Yu Hao, Di Wang, Yuxin Li, Yu Jiang, Ling Xu, Yaluan Ma, Hong Zheng, Yaxian Kong, Hui Zeng
Aging is associated with immune dysfunction, especially T-cell defects, which result in increased susceptibility to various diseases. Previous studies showed that T cells from aged mice express multiple inhibitory receptors, providing evidence of the relationship between T-cell exhaustion and T-cell senescence. In this study, we showed that T-cell immunoglobulin and immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif (ITIM) domain (TIGIT), a novel co-inhibitory receptor, was upregulated in CD8+ T cells of elderly adults...
January 19, 2018: Aging Cell
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349763/immune-checkpoint-blockade-for-breast-cancer
#12
April Swoboda, Rita Nanda
An effective antitumor immune response requires interaction between cells of the adaptive and innate immune system. Three key elements are required: generation of activated tumor-directed T cells, infiltration of activated T cells into the tumor microenvironment, and killing of tumor cells by activated T cells. Tumor immune evasion can occur as a result of the disruption of each of these three key T cell activities, resulting in three distinct cancer-immune phenotypes. The immune inflamed phenotype, characterized by the presence of a robust tumor immune infiltrate, suggests impaired activated T cell killing of tumor cells related to the presence of inhibitory factors...
2018: Cancer Treatment and Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29349721/effects-of-load-on-the-acute-response-of-muscles-proximal-and-distal-to-blood-flow-restriction
#13
Matthew B Jessee, J Grant Mouser, Samuel L Buckner, Scott J Dankel, Kevin T Mattocks, Takashi Abe, Jeremy P Loenneke
To determine the effects of load and blood flow restriction (BFR) on muscular responses, we asked 12 participants to perform chest presses under four different conditions [30/0, 30/40, 50/0, and 50/40, presented as percentage one-repetition maximum (1RM)/percentage arterial occlusion pressure (AOP)]. Muscle thickness increased pre- to post-exercise [chest: mean 0.29, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.21, 0.37 cm; triceps: mean 0.44, 95% CI 0.34, 0.54 cm], remaining elevated for 15 min post-exercise. Electromyography amplitude was greater with 50% 1RM and increased over time for the first three repetitions of each set of chest presses...
January 18, 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348698/effects-of-fame-biodiesel-and-hvord-on-emissions-from-an-older-technology-diesel-engine
#14
A D Bugarski, J A Hummer, S E Vanderslice
The results of laboratory evaluations were used to compare the potential of two alternative, biomass-derived fuels as a control strategy to reduce the exposure of underground miners to aerosols and gases emitted by diesel-powered equipment. The effects of fatty acid methyl ester (FAME) biodiesel and hydrotreated vegetable oil renewable diesel (HVORD) on criteria aerosol and gaseous emissions from an older-technology, naturally aspirated, mechanically controlled engine equipped with a diesel oxidation catalytic converter were compared with those of widely used petroleum-derived, ultralow-sulfur diesels (ULSDs)...
December 2017: Mining Engineering
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348692/genome-wide-search-for-higher-order-epistasis-as-modifiers-of-treatment-effects-on-bone-mineral-density-in-childhood-cancer-survivors
#15
Cindy Im, Kirsten K Ness, Sue C Kaste, Wassim Chemaitilly, Wonjong Moon, Yadav Sapkota, Russell J Brooke, Melissa M Hudson, Leslie L Robison, Yutaka Yasui, Carmen L Wilson
Single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) contributing to interactions between regulatory elements that modulate gene transcription may explain some of the uncharacterized variation for complex traits. We explored this hypothesis among 856 adult survivors of pediatric cancer exposed to curative treatments that adversely affect bone mineral density (BMD). To restrict our search to interactions among SNPs in regulatory elements, our analysis considered 75523 SNPs mapped to putative promoter or enhancer regions. In anticipation that power to detect higher order epistasis would be low using an exhaustive search and a Bonferroni-corrected threshold for genome-wide significance (e...
January 18, 2018: European Journal of Human Genetics: EJHG
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29348648/specific-cyclic-adp-ribose-phosphohydrolase-obtained-by-mutagenic-engineering-of-mn2-dependent-adp-ribose-cdp-alcohol-diphosphatase
#16
João Meireles Ribeiro, José Canales, Alicia Cabezas, Joaquim Rui Rodrigues, Rosa María Pinto, Iralis López-Villamizar, María Jesús Costas, José Carlos Cameselle
Cyclic ADP-ribose (cADPR) is a messenger for Ca2+ mobilization. Its turnover is believed to occur by glycohydrolysis to ADP-ribose. However, ADP-ribose/CDP-alcohol diphosphatase (ADPRibase-Mn) acts as cADPR phosphohydrolase with much lower efficiency than on its major substrates. Recently, we showed that mutagenesis of human ADPRibase-Mn at Phe37, Leu196 and Cys253 alters its specificity: the best substrate of the mutant F37A + L196F + C253A is cADPR by a short difference, Cys253 mutation being essential for cADPR preference...
January 18, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29347406/fast-inverse-nonlinear-fourier-transformation-using-exponential-one-step-methods-darboux-transformation
#17
V Vaibhav
This paper considers the non-Hermitian Zakharov-Shabat (ZS) scattering problem which forms the basis for defining the SU(2) nonlinear Fourier transformation (NFT). The theoretical underpinnings of this generalization of the conventional Fourier transformation are quite well established in the Ablowitz-Kaup-Newell-Segur formalism; however, efficient numerical algorithms that could be employed in practical applications are still unavailable. In this paper, we present a unified framework for the forward and inverse NFT using exponential one-step methods which are amenable to FFT-based fast polynomial arithmetic...
December 2017: Physical Review. E
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29346637/scleroderma-renal-crisis-and-cancer
#18
Colombe Crosnier, Aurélie Achille, Marie Lecouffe-Desprets, Antoine Néel, Cécile Durant, Christian Agard
We report two cases of elderly patients with diffuse systemic sclerosis (SSc) and inaugural scleroderma renal crisis (SRC). Initial exhaustive search for an underlying cancer was negative, but aggressive metastatic neoplasia was diagnosed after 1 year of follow-up. We emphasize the role of 18-FDG PET-scan to detect neoplasia in the following months after inaugural SRC in elderly.
January 15, 2018: QJM: Monthly Journal of the Association of Physicians
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344913/cardiac-basal-autophagic-activity-and-increased-exercise-capacity
#19
Fang-Hui Li, Tao Li, Ying-Min Su, Jing-Yi Ai, Rui Duan, Timon Cheng-Yi Liu
To investigate whether high-intensity interval training (HIIT) and continuous moderate-intensity training (CMT) have different impacts on exercise performance and cardiac function and to determine the influence of these exercise protocols on modulating basal autophagy in the cardiac muscle of rats. Rats were assigned to three groups: sedentary control (SC), CMT, and HIIT. Total exercise volume and mean intensity were matched between the two protocols. After a 10-week training program, rats were evaluated for exercise performance, including exercise tolerance and grip strength...
January 17, 2018: Journal of Physiological Sciences: JPS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29344729/sodium-bicarbonate-supplementation-improves-severe-intensity-intermittent-exercise-under-moderate-acute-hypoxic-conditions
#20
Sanjoy K Deb, Lewis A Gough, S Andy Sparks, Lars R McNaughton
Acute moderate hypoxic exposure can substantially impair exercise performance, which occurs with a concurrent exacerbated rise in hydrogen cation (H+) production. The purpose of this study was therefore, to alleviate this acidic stress through sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3) supplementation and determine the corresponding effects on severe-intensity intermittent exercise performance. Eleven recreationally active individuals participated in this randomised, double-blind, crossover study performed under acute normobaric hypoxic conditions (FiO2% = 14...
January 17, 2018: European Journal of Applied Physiology
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