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Blended feeds

Dong H Cha, Alejandro E Mieles, Paola F Lahuatte, Andrea Cahuana, Marie Piedad Lincango, Charlotte E Causton, Sabine Tebbich, Arno Cimadom, Stephen A Teale
We investigated the role of olfactory cues from actively fermenting yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) in attraction of adult Philornis downsi and identified two synergistically attractive yeast volatiles. Larvae of this invasive fly parasitize the hatchlings of passerines and threaten the Galapagos avifauna. Gas chromatography coupled with electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD), coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and field trapping experiments were used to identify volatile compounds from a yeast-sugar solution...
October 15, 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Ruey-Chee Weng
The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the interplay of dietary lipid sources and feeding regime in the transition from sow milk to solid food of abruptly weaned piglets. 144 weaned piglets were trained over a 15 day period to experience gradually reducing dietary fat content from 12% to 6% for lard (L), soybean oil (S) and coconut oil (C) and their feeding behavior and diet preference then tested in a behavior observation experiment. Another 324 weaned piglets were used in three consecutive feeding experiments to measure the effect of different dietary fats on performance and feed choice in the four weeks after abrupt weaning...
October 5, 2016: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
Tolulope Morawo, Henry Fadamiro
Herbivores emit plant-associated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) after feeding on plants. These plant-associated VOCs can be used by parasitoids to locate their hosts. It is hypothesized that certain compounds play key roles in the attractiveness of host-associated odor blends. The larval parasitoid, Microplitis croceipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and its herbivore host, Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), a major pest of cotton plant were used as model species to identify key compounds mediating attraction of parasitoids to hosts...
October 8, 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Annemarie Heiduk, Irina Brake, Michael von Tschirnhaus, Matthias Göhl, Andreas Jürgens, Steven D Johnson, Ulrich Meve, Stefan Dötterl
Four to six percent of plants, distributed over different angiosperm families, entice pollinators by deception [1]. In these systems, chemical mimicry is often used as an efficient way to exploit the olfactory preferences of animals for the purpose of attracting them as pollinators [2,3]. Here, we report a very specific type of chemical mimicry of a food source. Ceropegia sandersonii (Apocynaceae), a deceptive South African plant with pitfall flowers, mimics attacked honeybees. We identified kleptoparasitic Desmometopa flies (Milichiidae) as the main pollinators of C...
September 27, 2016: Current Biology: CB
Katrin Luck, Jan Jirschitzka, Sandra Irmisch, Meret Huber, Jonathan Gershenzon, Tobias G Köllner
BACKGROUND: Amino acid-derived aldoximes and nitriles play important roles in plant defence. They are well-known as precursors for constitutive defence compounds such as cyanogenic glucosides and glucosinolates, but are also released as volatiles after insect feeding. Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYP) of the CYP79 family catalyze the formation of aldoximes from the corresponding amino acids. However, the majority of CYP79s characterized so far are involved in cyanogenic glucoside or glucosinolate biosynthesis and only a few have been reported to be responsible for nitrogenous volatile production...
October 4, 2016: BMC Plant Biology
Mohammad Raoufi, Neda Aslankoohi, Christine Mollenhauer, Heike Boehm, Joachim P Spatz, Dorothea Brüggemann
Biomedical applications ranging from tissue engineering to drug delivery systems require versatile biomaterials based on the scalable and tunable production of biopolymer nanofibers under physiological conditions. These requirements can be successfully met by a novel extrusion process through nanoporous aluminum oxide templates, which is presented in this study. With this simple method we are able to control the nanofiber diameter by chosing the size of the nanopores and the concentration of the biopolymer feed solution...
October 10, 2016: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
Mesfin Yimam, Ping Jiao, Mei Hong, Lidia Brownell, Young-Chul Lee, Eu-Jin Hyun, Hyun-Jin Kim, Tae-Woo Kim, Jeong-Bum Nam, Mi-Ran Kim, Qi Jia
Background. Obesity and its comorbidities continue to challenge the world at an alarming rate. Although the long term solution lies on lifestyle changes in the form of dieting and exercising, drug, medical food, or dietary supplement interventions are required for those who are already obese. Here we describe a standardized blend composed of extracts from three medicinal plants: Morus alba, Yerba mate, and Magnolia officinalis for appetite suppression and metabolic disorders management. Method. Extracts were standardized to yield a composition designated as UP601...
2016: Journal of Obesity
Elizabeth Bobo
A blenderized tube feeding (BTF) is a mixture of food and liquid that is pureed and administered through a feeding tube. This method of providing nourishment has been used for millenniums. In fact, it could be viewed as the original form of nutrition support. However, over time, the role of BTF has changed. Initially, it was the only method of nourishing a patient who could not sustain himself or herself on oral feeds. With the development of commercial formulas in the mid-20th century, the usage of this feeding modality declined drastically due to the nutrition precision, ease, and sterility of commercial formulas...
September 19, 2016: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
Glen S Patten, Luz Sanguansri, Mary Ann Augustin, Mahinda Y Abeywardena, Anthony R Bird, Craig S Patch, Damien P Belobrajdic
Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) may be more bioavailable from krill oil compared to fish oil due to their phospholipid structure. We tested whether a microencapsulated krill and tuna oil blend (ME-TOKO) provided greater LC n-3 PUFA bioavailability, improved blood lipid profiles and increased intestinal contractility compared to microencapsulated tuna oil (ME-TO). Rats were divided into three groups to receive isocaloric diets containing ME-TO, ME-TOKO and microencapsulated olive oil (ME-OO) at 0...
September 18, 2016: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
Xoaquín Moreira, Colleen S Nell, Angelos Katsanis, Sergio Rasmann, Kailen A Mooney
It is well known that plant damage by leaf-chewing herbivores can induce resistance in neighbouring plants. It is unknown whether such communication occurs in response to sap-feeding herbivores, whether communication is specific to herbivore identity, and the chemical basis of communication, including specificity. We carried out glasshouse experiments using the California-native shrub Baccharis salicifolia and two ecologically distinct aphid species (one a dietary generalist and the other a specialist) to test for specificity of plant-plant communication and to document the underlying volatile organic compounds (VOCs)...
September 6, 2016: New Phytologist
Nupur Sarkar, Amarnath Karmakar, Anandamay Barik
Epilachna vigintioctopunctata Fabr. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and Aulacophora foveicollis Lucas (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) are important pests of Solena amplexicaulis (Lam.) Gandhi (Cucurbitaceae), commonly known as creeping cucumber. The profiles of volatile organic compounds from undamaged plants, plants after 48 hr continuous feeding of adult females of either E. vigintioctopunctata or A. foveicollis, by adults of both species, and after mechanical damaging were identified and quantified by GC-MS and GC-FID analyses...
September 3, 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Joseph C H Wong, Lawrence M Hanks
Because larvae of cerambycid beetles feed within woody plants, they are difficult to detect, and are readily transported in lumber and other wooden products. As a result, increasing numbers of exotic cerambycid species are being introduced into new regions of the world through international commerce, and many of these species pose a threat to woody plants in natural and managed forests. There is a great need for effective methods for detecting exotic and potentially invasive cerambycid species, and for monitoring native species for conservation purposes...
October 2016: Journal of Economic Entomology
K Weiss, B Kroschewski, H Auerbach
Ensiling conditions strongly influence fermentation characteristics, yeast count, and aerobic stability. Numerous volatile organic compounds including esters are produced, which may negatively affect feed intake and animal performance and air quality. In addition to a farm survey, 3 laboratory experiments were carried out to study the effects of air (by delayed sealing or by air infiltration during anaerobic storage), temperature (20 and 35°C), and various types of additives [blends of either sodium benzoate and sodium propionate (SBSP) or of sodium benzoate and potassium sorbate (SBPS); buffered mixture of formic and propionic acids (FAPA); homofermentative inoculant (LAB)]...
October 2016: Journal of Dairy Science
Kate Samela, Jasmeet Mokha, Karan Emerick, Zev H Davidovics
Due to concerns related primarily to allergic response and malabsorption, enteral nutrition therapy has traditionally relied on the use of elemental formulas in children with intestinal failure (IF). Blended food diets via a gastrostomy tube have been reported to improve feeding tolerance in pediatric populations receiving long-term enteral nutrition therapy. Complex macronutrients have been shown to stimulate intestinal adaptation in animal models. We report on our experience in children with IF who had an overall improvement in stool output when transitioned from an elemental formula to a tube feeding formula with real food ingredients (TFRF)...
August 4, 2016: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
I Andretta, C Pomar, M Kipper, L Hauschild, J Rivest
The feeding behavior of growing-finishing pigs reared under precision feeding strategies was studied in 35 barrows and 35 females (average initial BW of 30.4 ± 2.2 kg) over 84 d. Five different feeding programs were evaluated, namely a conventional 3-phase program in which pigs were fed with a constant blend of diet A (high nutrient density) and diet B (low nutrient density) and 4 daily phase-feeding programs in which pigs were fed daily with a blend meeting 110, 100, 90, or 80% of the individual Lys requirements...
July 2016: Journal of Animal Science
E W Stephenson, M A Vaughn, D D Burnett, C B Paulk, M D Tokach, S S Dritz, J M DeRouchey, R D Goodband, J C Woodworth, J M Gonzalez
A total of 160 finishing pigs (PIC 327 × 1050; initially 45.6 kg) were used in an 84-d experiment to evaluate the effects of dietary fat source and feeding duration on growth performance, carcass characteristics, and carcass fat quality. There were 2 pigs per pen with 8 pens per treatment. The 10 dietary treatments were a corn-soybean meal control diet with no added fat and a 3 × 3 factorial with main effects of fat source (4% tallow, 4% soybean oil, or a blend of 2% tallow and 2% soybean oil) and feeding duration (d 0 to 42, 42 to 84, or 0 to 84)...
July 2016: Journal of Animal Science
Lisa Blackmon-Jones
The purpose of this article is to share the findings of implementing a standardized, blended approach to school nurse orientation. This includes using classroom training, mentor/supervisory support, and skills labs to assure specific competencies that are needed for new nurses to successfully transition into this independent setting. This includes a description of the specialized skills and knowledge that are needed to successfully transition into this nursing specialty. School nurses are caring for more complex students...
August 1, 2016: NASN School Nurse
H-K Wei, H-X Xue, Z X Zhou, J Peng
Recent studies indicate that intestinal oxidative stress and microbiota imbalance is involved in weaning-induced intestinal dysfunction in piglets. We have investigated the effect of feeding a carvacrol-thymol blend supplemented diet on intestinal redox status, selected microbial populations and the intestinal barrier in weaning piglets. The piglets (weaned at 21 days of age) were randomly allocated to two groups with six pens per treatment and 10 piglets per pen. At weaning day (21 days of age), six piglets were sacrificed before weaning to serve as the preweaning group...
July 15, 2016: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
Pravin M Ganorkar, Jhanvi M Patel, Vrushti Shah, Vihang V Rangrej
Considering the evidence of flaxseed and its defatted flaxseed meal (DFM) for human health benefits, response surface methodology (RSM) based on three level four factor central composite rotatable design (CCRD) was employed for the development of DFM incorporated corn - rice flour blend based extruded snack. The effect of DFM fortification (7.5-20 %), moisture content of feed (14-20 %, wb), extruder barrel temperature (115-135 °C) and screw speed (300-330 RPM) on expansion ratio (ER), breaking strength (BS), overall acceptability (OAA) score and water solubility index (WSI) of extrudates were investigated using central composite rotatable design (CCRD)...
April 2016: Journal of Food Science and Technology
Shuaihua Pu, Celia Rodríguez-Pérez, Vanu Ramkumar Ramprasath, Antonio Segura-Carretero, Peter J H Jones
Proprotein convertase subtilisin/kexin type 9 (PCSK9) is a novel circulating protein which plays an important role in regulation of cholesterol metabolism by promoting hepatic LDL receptor degradation. However, the action of dietary fat composition on PCSK9 levels remains to be fully elucidated. The objective was to investigate the action of different dietary oils on circulating PCSK9 levels in the Canola Oil Multicenter Intervention Trial (COMIT). COMIT employed a double-blinded crossover randomized control design, consisting of five 30-d treatment periods...
June 30, 2016: Vascular Pharmacology
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