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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27910283/feeding-behaviors-during-home-based-treatment-of-moderate-acute-malnutrition-using-corn-soy-blends-or-lipid-based-nutrient-supplements
#1
Ann-Sophie Iuel-Brockdorf, Albertine Ouedraogo, Christian Ritz, Tania Aase Draebel, Per Ashorn, Suzanne Filteau, Kim F Michaelsen
Feeding behaviors have an important impact on children's nutritional status and are essential to consider when implementing nutrition programs. The objective of this study was to explore and compare feeding behaviors related to supplementary feeding with corn-soy blends (CSB) and lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) based on best practice feeding behaviors. The study was conducted as part of a randomized controlled trial assessing the effectiveness of new formulations of CSB and LNS and comprised 1,546 children from 6 to 23 months...
December 2, 2016: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27902914/inactivation-of-avian-influenza-virus-in-nonpelleted-chicken-feed
#2
H Toro, V L van Santen, C Breedlove
Corn stored outside could become contaminated with avian influenza virus (AIV) from wild bird droppings. AIV-contaminated ingredients could pass into the poultry flocks in nonpelleted chicken feed. The efficacy of two disinfectants at inactivating AIV in chicken feed was evaluated. Both Termin-8 (a blend of formaldehyde, propionic acid, terpenes, and surfactant) and Finio (a blend of approved phytochemicals and carboxylic acids) effectively inactivated AIV in chicken feed. Because stability of infectious AIV in chicken feed is limited, we evaluated addition of protein (skim milk powder) to the virus suspension...
December 2016: Avian Diseases
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27901056/rice-volatiles-lure-gravid-malaria-mosquitoes-anopheles-arabiensis
#3
Betelehem Wondwosen, Göran Birgersson, Emiru Seyoum, Habte Tekie, Baldwyn Torto, Ulrike Fillinger, Sharon R Hill, Rickard Ignell
Mosquito oviposition site selection is essential for vector population dynamics and malaria epidemiology. Irrigated rice cultivations provide ideal larval habitats for malaria mosquitoes, which has resulted in increased prevalence of the malaria vector, Anopheles arabiensis, in sub-Saharan Africa. The nature and origin of the cues regulating this behaviour are only now being elucidated. We show that gravid Anopheles arabiensis are attracted and oviposit in response to the odour present in the air surrounding rice...
November 30, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898887/effects-of-processing-treated-corn-stover-and-distillers-grains-on-performance-and-total-tract-digestion-of-finishing-cattle
#4
J L Gramkow, C J Bittner, M L Jolly-Breithaupt, D B Burken, G E Erickson, J C MacDonald
Two studies evaluated effects of replacing corn with a pellet containing alkaline treated corn stover, dried distillers' grains plus solubles (DDGS), and distillers' solubles on total tract digestion and performance of finishing cattle. Experiment 1 used 4 ruminally fistulated steers in a 4 × 6 Latin rectangle to evaluate total tract digestion. Treatments consisted of a control (CON) containing 50.3% dry-rolled corn (DRC), 40% modified distillers' grains plus solubles (MDGS), and 5% untreated corn stover. The next 2 treatments replaced 25% DRC (DM basis) with either a CaO-treated stover pellet (STOVPEL) or a pellet consisting of 64% CaO-treated corn stover, 18% DDGS, and 18% corn distillers' solubles (COMBPEL)...
September 2016: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27898676/dietary-butyrate-helps-to-restore-the-intestinal-status-of-a-marine-teleost-sparus-aurata-fed-extreme-diets-low-in-fish-meal-and-fish-oil
#5
Itziar Estensoro, Gabriel Ballester-Lozano, Laura Benedito-Palos, Fabian Grammes, Juan Antonio Martos-Sitcha, Liv-Torunn Mydland, Josep Alvar Calduch-Giner, Juan Fuentes, Vasileios Karalazos, Álvaro Ortiz, Margareth Øverland, Ariadna Sitjà-Bobadilla, Jaume Pérez-Sánchez
There is a constant need to find feed additives that improve health and nutrition of farmed fish and lessen the intestinal inflammation induced by plant-based ingredients. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of adding an organic acid salt to alleviate some of the detrimental effects of extreme plant-ingredient substitution of fish meal (FM) and fish oil (FO) in gilthead sea bream diet. Three experiments were conducted. In a first trial (T1), the best dose (0.4%) of sodium butyrate (BP-70 ®NOREL) was chosen after a short (9-weeks) feeding period...
2016: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27892474/caterpillar-induced-plant-volatiles-attract-conspecific-adults-in-nature
#6
Ashraf M El-Sayed, Alan L Knight, John A Byers, Gary J R Judd, David M Suckling
Plants release volatiles in response to caterpillar feeding that attract natural enemies of the herbivores, a tri-trophic interaction which has been considered an indirect plant defence against herbivores. The caterpillar-induced plant volatiles have been reported to repel or attract conspecific adult herbivores. To date however, no volatile signals that either repel or attract conspecific adults under field conditions have been chemically identified. Apple seedlings uniquely released seven compounds including acetic acid, acetic anhydride, benzyl alcohol, benzyl nitrile, indole, 2-phenylethanol, and (E)-nerolidol only when infested by larvae of the light brown apple moth, Epiphyas postvittana...
November 28, 2016: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27831909/blended-foods-for-tube-fed-children-a-safe-and-realistic-option-a-rapid-review-of-the-evidence
#7
REVIEW
Jane Coad, Alex Toft, Susie Lapwood, Joseph Manning, Mark Hunter, Huw Jenkins, Clare Sadlier, Julie Hammonds, Ailsa Kennedy, Simon Murch, David Widdas
With the growing number of children and young people with complex care needs or life-limiting conditions, alternative routes for nutrition have been established (such as gastrostomy feeding). The conditions of children and young people who require such feeding are diverse but could relate to problems with swallowing (dysphagia), digestive disorders or neurological/muscular disorders. However, the use of a blended diet as an alternative to prescribed formula feeds for children fed via a gastrostomy is a contentious issue for clinicians and researchers...
October 18, 2016: Archives of Disease in Childhood
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27777570/interactions-between-obesity-status-and-dietary-intake-of-monounsaturated-and-polyunsaturated-oils-on-human-gut-microbiome-profiles-in-the-canola-oil-multicenter-intervention-trial-comit
#8
Shuaihua Pu, Hamidreza Khazanehei, Peter J Jones, Ehsan Khafipour
Long-term dietary fatty acid intake is believed to induce changes in the human gut microbiome which might be associated with human health or obesity status; however, considerable debate remains regarding the most favorable ratios of fatty acids to optimize these processes. The objective of this sub-study of a double-blinded randomized crossover clinical study, the canola oil multi-center intervention trial, was to investigate effects of five different novel oil blends fed for 30 days each on the intestinal microbiota in 25 volunteers with risk of metabolic syndrome...
2016: Frontiers in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27744622/identification-and-optimization-of-microbial-attractants-for-philornis-downsi-an-invasive-fly-parasitic-on-galapagos-birds
#9
Dong H Cha, Alejandro E Mieles, Paola F Lahuatte, Andrea Cahuana, Marie Piedad Lincango, Charlotte E Causton, Sabine Tebbich, Arno Cimadom, Stephen A Teale
We investigated the role of olfactory cues from actively fermenting yeast (Saccharomyces cerevisiae) in attraction of adult Philornis downsi and identified two synergistically attractive yeast volatiles. Larvae of this invasive fly parasitize the hatchlings of passerines and threaten the Galapagos avifauna. Gas chromatography coupled with electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD), coupled gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and field trapping experiments were used to identify volatile compounds from a yeast-sugar solution...
November 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27739293/dietary-fat-preference-and-effects-on-performance-of-piglets-at-weaning
#10
Ruey-Chee Weng
The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the interplay of dietary lipid sources and feeding regime in the transition from sow milk to solid food of abruptly weaned piglets. 144 weaned piglets were trained over a 15 day period to experience gradually reducing dietary fat content from 12% to 6% for lard (L), soybean oil (S) and coconut oil (C) and their feeding behavior and diet preference then tested in a behavior observation experiment. Another 324 weaned piglets were used in three consecutive feeding experiments to measure the effect of different dietary fats on performance and feed choice in the four weeks after abrupt weaning...
October 5, 2016: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27722877/identification-of-key-plant-associated-volatiles-emitted-by-heliothis-virescens-larvae-that-attract-the-parasitoid-microplitis-croceipes-implications-for-parasitoid-perception-of-odor-blends
#11
Tolulope Morawo, Henry Fadamiro
Herbivores emit plant-associated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) after feeding on plants. These plant-associated VOCs can be used by parasitoids to locate their hosts. It is hypothesized that certain compounds play key roles in the attractiveness of host-associated odor blends. The larval parasitoid, Microplitis croceipes (Hymenoptera: Braconidae) and its herbivore host, Heliothis virescens (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae), a major pest of cotton plant were used as model species to identify key compounds mediating attraction of parasitoids to hosts...
November 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27720617/ceropegia-sandersonii-mimics-attacked-honeybees-to-attract-kleptoparasitic-flies-for-pollination
#12
Annemarie Heiduk, Irina Brake, Michael von Tschirnhaus, Matthias Göhl, Andreas Jürgens, Steven D Johnson, Ulrich Meve, Stefan Dötterl
Four to six percent of plants, distributed over different angiosperm families, entice pollinators by deception [1]. In these systems, chemical mimicry is often used as an efficient way to exploit the olfactory preferences of animals for the purpose of attracting them as pollinators [2,3]. Here, we report a very specific type of chemical mimicry of a food source. Ceropegia sandersonii (Apocynaceae), a deceptive South African plant with pitfall flowers, mimics attacked honeybees. We identified kleptoparasitic Desmometopa flies (Milichiidae) as the main pollinators of C...
September 27, 2016: Current Biology: CB
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27716065/cyp79d-enzymes-contribute-to-jasmonic-acid-induced-formation-of-aldoximes-and-other-nitrogenous-volatiles-in-two-erythroxylum-species
#13
Katrin Luck, Jan Jirschitzka, Sandra Irmisch, Meret Huber, Jonathan Gershenzon, Tobias G Köllner
BACKGROUND: Amino acid-derived aldoximes and nitriles play important roles in plant defence. They are well-known as precursors for constitutive defence compounds such as cyanogenic glucosides and glucosinolates, but are also released as volatiles after insect feeding. Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYP) of the CYP79 family catalyze the formation of aldoximes from the corresponding amino acids. However, the majority of CYP79s characterized so far are involved in cyanogenic glucoside or glucosinolate biosynthesis and only a few have been reported to be responsible for nitrogenous volatile production...
October 4, 2016: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27713971/template-assisted-extrusion-of-biopolymer-nanofibers-under-physiological-conditions
#14
Mohammad Raoufi, Neda Aslankoohi, Christine Mollenhauer, Heike Boehm, Joachim P Spatz, Dorothea Brüggemann
Biomedical applications ranging from tissue engineering to drug delivery systems require versatile biomaterials based on the scalable and tunable production of biopolymer nanofibers under physiological conditions. These requirements can be successfully met by a novel extrusion process through nanoporous aluminum oxide templates, which is presented in this study. With this simple method we are able to control the nanofiber diameter by chosing the size of the nanopores and the concentration of the biopolymer feed solution...
October 10, 2016: Integrative Biology: Quantitative Biosciences From Nano to Macro
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27699065/appetite-suppression-and-antiobesity-effect-of-a-botanical-composition-composed-of-morus-alba-yerba-mate-and-magnolia-officinalis
#15
Mesfin Yimam, Ping Jiao, Mei Hong, Lidia Brownell, Young-Chul Lee, Eu-Jin Hyun, Hyun-Jin Kim, Tae-Woo Kim, Jeong-Bum Nam, Mi-Ran Kim, Qi Jia
Background. Obesity and its comorbidities continue to challenge the world at an alarming rate. Although the long term solution lies on lifestyle changes in the form of dieting and exercising, drug, medical food, or dietary supplement interventions are required for those who are already obese. Here we describe a standardized blend composed of extracts from three medicinal plants: Morus alba, Yerba mate, and Magnolia officinalis for appetite suppression and metabolic disorders management. Method. Extracts were standardized to yield a composition designated as UP601...
2016: Journal of Obesity
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27646862/reemergence-of-blenderized-tube-feedings-exploring-the-evidence
#16
Elizabeth Bobo
A blenderized tube feeding (BTF) is a mixture of food and liquid that is pureed and administered through a feeding tube. This method of providing nourishment has been used for millenniums. In fact, it could be viewed as the original form of nutrition support. However, over time, the role of BTF has changed. Initially, it was the only method of nourishing a patient who could not sustain himself or herself on oral feeds. With the development of commercial formulas in the mid-20th century, the usage of this feeding modality declined drastically due to the nutrition precision, ease, and sterility of commercial formulas...
September 19, 2016: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27643849/microencapsulated-krill-and-tuna-oil-blend-raises-plasma-long-chain-n-3-polyunsaturated-fatty-acid-levels-compared-to-tuna-oil-with-similar-increases-in-ileal-contractility-in-rats
#17
Glen S Patten, Luz Sanguansri, Mary Ann Augustin, Mahinda Y Abeywardena, Anthony R Bird, Craig S Patch, Damien P Belobrajdic
Long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC n-3 PUFA) may be more bioavailable from krill oil compared to fish oil due to their phospholipid structure. We tested whether a microencapsulated krill and tuna oil blend (ME-TOKO) provided greater LC n-3 PUFA bioavailability, improved blood lipid profiles and increased intestinal contractility compared to microencapsulated tuna oil (ME-TO). Rats were divided into three groups to receive isocaloric diets containing ME-TO, ME-TOKO and microencapsulated olive oil (ME-OO) at 0...
September 18, 2016: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27597176/herbivore-specificity-and-the-chemical-basis-of-plant-plant-communication-in-baccharis-salicifolia-asteraceae
#18
Xoaquín Moreira, Colleen S Nell, Angelos Katsanis, Sergio Rasmann, Kailen A Mooney
It is well known that plant damage by leaf-chewing herbivores can induce resistance in neighbouring plants. It is unknown whether such communication occurs in response to sap-feeding herbivores, whether communication is specific to herbivore identity, and the chemical basis of communication, including specificity. We carried out glasshouse experiments using the California-native shrub Baccharis salicifolia and two ecologically distinct aphid species (one a dietary generalist and the other a specialist) to test for specificity of plant-plant communication and to document the underlying volatile organic compounds (VOCs)...
September 6, 2016: New Phytologist
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27592244/volatiles-of-solena-amplexicaulis-lam-gandhi-leaves-influencing-attraction-of-two-generalist-insect-herbivores
#19
Nupur Sarkar, Amarnath Karmakar, Anandamay Barik
Epilachna vigintioctopunctata Fabr. (Coleoptera: Coccinellidae) and Aulacophora foveicollis Lucas (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) are important pests of Solena amplexicaulis (Lam.) Gandhi (Cucurbitaceae), commonly known as creeping cucumber. The profiles of volatile organic compounds from undamaged plants, plants after 48 hr continuous feeding of adult females of either E. vigintioctopunctata or A. foveicollis, by adults of both species, and after mechanical damaging were identified and quantified by GC-MS and GC-FID analyses...
September 3, 2016: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/27567221/influence-of-fermenting-bait-and-vertical-position-of-traps-on-attraction-of-cerambycid-beetles-to-pheromone-lures
#20
Joseph C H Wong, Lawrence M Hanks
Because larvae of cerambycid beetles feed within woody plants, they are difficult to detect, and are readily transported in lumber and other wooden products. As a result, increasing numbers of exotic cerambycid species are being introduced into new regions of the world through international commerce, and many of these species pose a threat to woody plants in natural and managed forests. There is a great need for effective methods for detecting exotic and potentially invasive cerambycid species, and for monitoring native species for conservation purposes...
October 2016: Journal of Economic Entomology
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