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Blended feeds

P E Eusebio-Balcazar, S Purdum, K Hanford, M M Beck
This study was conducted to evaluate limestone particle size (LPS) in 2 strains of laying hens housed in conventional cages or aviaries on bone integrity. Lohmann Brown and Bovan White pullet chicks were started in equal numbers on the floor or in battery brooders and were intermingled throughout all subsequent housing systems. At 5 wk of age, 432 floor-raised pullets were moved to 8 aviary cages. At 10 wk, 256 battery-raised pullets were transferred to 64 conventional layer cages. Pullets were given diets containing fine (LPS-FINE, 0...
February 28, 2018: Poultry Science
Sophia E Agapova, Kevin B Stephenson, Oscar Divala, Yankho Kaimila, Kenneth M Maleta, Chrissie Thakwalakwa, M Isabel Ordiz, Indi Trehan, Mark J Manary
Background: Chronic malnutrition, as manifested by linear growth faltering, is pervasive among rural African children. Improvements in complementary feeding may decrease the burden of environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) and thus improve growth in children during the critical first 1000 d of development. Objective: We tested the hypothesis that systematically including common bean or cowpea into complementary feeding would reduce EED and growth faltering among children in rural Malawi...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Ricardo Mitsuo Hayashi, Mariana Camargo Lourenço, Antônio Leonardo Kraieski, Raquel Bighetti Araujo, Ricardo Gonzalez-Esquerra, Eduardo Leonardecz, Anderson Ferreira da Cunha, Marcelo Falsarella Carazzolle, Paulo Sérgio Monzani, Elizabeth Santin
Salmonellosis is a poultry industry and public health concern worldwide. Recently, Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg (SH) has been reported in broilers in Brazil. The effect of feeding a blend of three strains of Bacillus subtilis (PRO) was studied in broilers orally challenged (107 CFU/chick) or not with a SH isolated in south of Brazil (UFPR1 strain). Twelve male Cobb 500 broilers per pen were randomly assigned to six treatments in a 3 × 2 factorial experiment where PRO was added at 0, 250, or 500 g/ton of broiler feed and fed to either SH-challenged (SH Control, SH + PRO 250, and SH + PRO 500) or non-challenged birds (Control, PRO 250, and PRO 500)...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
C L Faiola, A Buchholz, E Kari, P Yli-Pirilä, J K Holopainen, M Kivimäenpää, P Miettinen, D R Worsnop, K E J Lehtinen, A B Guenther, A Virtanen
Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) impact climate by scattering and absorbing radiation and contributing to cloud formation. SOA models are based on studies of simplified chemical systems that do not account for the chemical complexity in the atmosphere. This study investigated SOA formation from a mixture of real Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) emissions including a variety of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. SOA generation was characterized from different combinations of volatile compounds as the plant emissions were altered with an herbivore stress treatment...
February 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
Mingxia Liu, Chia-Chi Chuang Key, Allison Weckerle, Elena Boudyguina, Janet K Sawyer, Abraham K Gebre, Wayne Spoo, Om Makwana, John S Parks
Although epidemiological data and results from rodent studies support an inverse relationship between nicotine consumption and body weight, the molecular mechanisms are poorly understood. CD-1 mice were fed a basal diet or a basal diet containing low or high dose smokeless tobacco blend or high dose nicotine tartrate for 14 weeks. High dose tobacco blend and nicotine tartrate diets vs. basal diet reduced mouse body weight (16.3% and 19.7%, respectively), epididymal (67.6% and 72.5%, respectively) and brown adipose weight (42% and 38%, respectively), epididymal adipocyte size (46...
February 5, 2018: Food and Chemical Toxicology
Hanem F Khater, Ali M Ali, Galal A Abouelella, Marawan A Marawan, Marimuthu Govindarajan, Kadarkarai Murugan, Rao Z Abbas, Nelissa P Vaz, Giovanni Benelli
BACKGROUND: Myiasis induced by the sheep blowfly, Lucilia sericata, represents a public health problem widely distributed throughout the world. L. sericata larval stages feed on both humans and animals. L. sericata adults and larvae can play a role in spreading agents of mycobacterial infections. OBJECTIVES: It is critical to establish new and safe alternative methods of controlling L. sericata. METHODS: The insecticidal effectiveness and growth inhibition potential of three commercially available essential oils (EOs), vetiver (Chrysopogon zizanioides), cinnamon (Cinnamomum zeylanicum), and lavender (Lavandula angustifolia), as well as their blends, were tested against the second (L2) and third (L3) larval stages of L...
February 8, 2018: International Journal of Dermatology
Fien De Leersnyder, Elisabeth Peeters, Hasna Djalabi, Valérie Vanhoorne, Bernd Van Snick, Ke Hong, Stephen Hammond, Angela Yang Liu, Eric Ziemons, Chris Vervaet, Thomas De Beer
A calibration model for in-line API quantification based on near infrared (NIR) spectra collection during tableting in the tablet press feed frame was developed and validated. First, the measurement set-up was optimised and the effect of filling degree of the feed frame on the NIR spectra was investigated. Secondly, a predictive API quantification model was developed and validated by calculating the accuracy profile based on the analysis results of validation experiments. Furthermore, based on the data of the accuracy profile, the measurement uncertainty was determined...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Julia Harting, Peter Kleinebudde
Raman spectroscopy was evaluated as a process analytical technology (PAT) tool for continuous API quantification during twin-screw wet granulation. Therefore, a Raman probe was implemented in front of the granulator barrel. This setup enabled the collection of Raman spectra upon a constant granule flow. To develop an in-line PLS calibration model, eight binary mixtures of the API and lactose monohydrate with API contents between 5-50% were pre-blended and granulated in a twin-screw granulator with a screw speed of 150 rpm and a powder feed rate of 40 g/min...
February 2, 2018: European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics
Eirini Anastasaki, Fryni Drizou, Panagiotis G Milonas
In response to attack by herbivorous insects, plants produce semiochemicals for intra- and interspecific communication. The perception of these semiochemicals by conspecifics of the herbivore defines their choice for oviposition and feeding. We aimed to investigate the role of herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) by Tuta absoluta larvae on the oviposition choice of conspecific females on tomato plants. We performed two- choice and non-choice bioassays with plants damaged by larvae feeding and intact control plants...
February 6, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Serge Dossou, Shunsuke Koshio, Manabu Ishikawa, Saichiro Yokoyama, Mahmoud A O Dawood, Mohammed F El Basuini, Adissin Olivier, Amr I Zaineldin
This study evaluated the effects of dietary substitution of fishmeal by graded levels of a blend composed of Aspergillus oryzae fermented rapeseed meal [0% (RM0), 25% (RM25), 50% (RM50), 75% (RM75) and 100% (RM100)] on growth performance, haemato-immunological responses and antioxidative status of Pagrus major (average weight 5.5 ± 0.02 g). After 56 days, growth performances were significantly improved in fish fed RM25 diet compared to control (P < 0.05). Meanwhile, up to 50% replacement of fishmeal did not affect growth performance, feed conversion efficiency, protein efficiency ratio, protein apparent digestibility, protease activity, fish somatic indices and survival compared to control...
January 19, 2018: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
Anna Ferre-Guell, James Winterburn
Volatile fatty acids (VFA) C2:0 to C6:0 were used as a sole carbon source the production of poly(3 hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) production with controllable composition and microstructure in Haloferax mediterranei. Feeding carbon even VFA gave >90 mol% poly(3-hydroxybutyrate) (3HB) PHBV while carbon odd VFA generated >87 mol% poly(3-hydroxyvalerate) (3HV) PHBV. Bespoke random, block and blend copolymers with 0-100 mol% 3HV were synthesized using C4:0/C5:0 mixtures. The copolymer 3HV fraction is proportional to the %C5:0 in the feed mixture, allowing control over composition...
January 23, 2018: Biomacromolecules
A Marcin, P Naď
The influence of essential oils (EOs) from medicinal and aromatic plants from sage (SA), cinnamon (CN), thyme (TH) and oregano (OR) on the amylolytic, proteolytic and cellulolytic activities in chyme of the duodenum (DU), the small (SI) and large intestine (LI), the caecum (CE) and the rectum (RE) as well as on the growth ability of laboratory ICR outbred mice were compared in four feeding trials. The negative control was present in the each trial. EOs were mixed into a feed mixture (crude protein (CP) 170...
December 30, 2017: Physiological Research
Alessandra Coscia, Enrico Bertino, Paola Tonetto, Chiara Peila, Francesco Cresi, Sertac Arslanoglu, Guido E Moro, Elena Spada, Silvano Milani, Marzia Giribaldi, Sara Antoniazzi, Amedeo Conti, Laura Cavallarin
BACKGROUND: Fortification of human milk is a standard practice for feeding very low birth weight infants. However, preterm infants often still experience suboptimal growth and feeding intolerance. New fortification strategies and different commercially available fortifiers have been developed. Commercially available fortifiers are constituted by a blend of ingredients from different sources, including plant oils and bovine milk proteins, thus presenting remarkable differences in the quality of macronutrients with respect to human milk...
January 9, 2018: Nutrition Journal
Yuntao Zhao, Xiao Wang, Yiwei Ren, Desheng Pei
In this work, mesh-embedded polysulfone (PSU)/sulfonated polysulfone (sPSU) supported thin film composite (TFC) membranes were developed for forward osmosis (FO). The robust mesh integrated in PSU/sPSU sublayer imparts impressive mechanical durability. The blending of hydrophilic sPSU in PSU sublayer affects the hydrophilicity, porosity, pore structure and pore size of mesh-embedded PSU/sPSU substrates, and the total thickness, crosslinking degree and roughness of the corresponding TFC-FO membrane active layers...
December 26, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
Thomas O Butler, Gordon J McDougall, Raymond Campbell, Michele S Stanley, John G Day
Astaxanthin from Haematococcus pluvialis is commercially produced in a two-stage process, involving green vegetative (macrozooid) and red aplanospore stages. This approach has been scaled up to an industrial process but constraints limit its commercial success and profitability, including: contamination issues, high pigment extraction costs, requirements for high light levels and photo-bleaching in the red stage. However, in addition to the aplanospore stage, this alga can produce astaxanthin in vegetative palmelloid and motile macrozooid cells...
December 26, 2017: Biology
Krista Taipale-Kovalainen, Anssi-Pekka Karttunen, Jarkko Ketolainen, Ossi Korhonen
The objective of this study was to devise robust and stable continuous manufacturing process settings, by exploring the design space after an investigation of the lubrication-based parameters influencing the continuous direct compression tableting of high dose paracetamol tablets. Experimental design was used to generate a structured study plan which involved 19 runs. The formulation variables studied were the type of lubricant (magnesium stearate or stearic acid) and its concentration (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5%). Process variables were total production feed rate (5, 10...
December 22, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
Sarra Bouagga, Alberto Urbaneja, José L Rambla, Víctor Flors, Antonio Granell, Josep A Jaques, Meritxell Pérez-Hedo
BACKGROUND: In addition to their services as predators, mirid predators are able to induce plant defences by phytophagy. However, whether this induction occurs in sweet pepper and whether it could be an additional benefit to their role as biological control agent in this crop remains unknown. Here, these questions are investigated in two model insects, the mirids Nesidiocoris tenuis and Macrolophus pygmaeus. RESULTS: Plant feeding behaviour was observed in both N...
December 23, 2017: Pest Management Science
David Walsh, Dolores R Serrano, Zelalem Ayenew Worku, Brid A Norris, Anne Marie Healy
Spray drying is a well-established scale-up technique for the production of cocrystals. However, to the best of our knowledge, the effect of introducing a third component into the feed solution during the spray drying process has never been investigated. Cocrystal formation in the presence of a third component by a one-step spray drying process has the potential to reduce the number of unit operations which are required to produce a final pharmaceutical product (e.g. by eliminating blending with excipient)...
December 11, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
Teresa W Johnson, Amy L Spurlock, Lisa Epp, Ryan T Hurt, Manpreet S Mundi
OBJECTIVE: Healthcare providers (HCPs) report increased interest in blenderized tube feeding (BTF) as an alternative to commercial formula (CF) feeding-particularly in families of tube fed children. The objective of this study was to explore parents' reported experiences of CF and BTF in their children. DESIGN: Prospective descriptive study utilizing a convenience sample. SETTING/SUBJECTS: Parents (n = 433) of tube fed children in an online tube feeding support group completed an electronic survey to compare experiences of CF and BTF in their tube fed children...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
Diego B Silva, Vanda H P Bueno, Joop J A Van Loon, Maria Fernanda G V Peñaflor, José Maurício S Bento, Joop C Van Lenteren
Plants emit volatile compounds in response to insect herbivory, which may play multiple roles as defensive compounds and mediators of interactions with other plants, microorganisms and animals. Herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) may act as indirect plant defenses by attracting natural enemies of the attacking herbivore. We report here the first evidence of the attraction of three Neotropical mirid predators (Macrolophus basicornis, Engytatus varians and Campyloneuropsis infumatus) toward plants emitting volatiles induced upon feeding by two tomato pests, the leaf miner Tuta absoluta and the phloem feeder Bemisia tabaci, in olfactometer bioassays...
January 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
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