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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938776/meta-analytic-study-of-organic-acids-as-an-alternative-performance-enhancing-feed-additive-to-antibiotics-for-broiler-chickens
#1
G V Polycarpo, I Andretta, M Kipper, V C Cruz-Polycarpo, J C Dadalt, P H M Rodrigues, R Albuquerque
The effect of organic acids as an alternative to antibiotics on the performance of broiler chickens was evaluated by meta-analysis, identifying and quantifying the main factors that influence results. A total of 51,960 broilers from 121 articles published between 1991 and 2016 were used. Interactions of additives [non-supplemented group (control), organic acids, and growth promoter antibiotics] with microbial challenge (with or without inoculation of pathogenic microorganisms) were studied on performance variables...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903794/effect-of-dietary-nutrients-on-ileal-endogenous-losses-of-threonine-cysteine-methionine-lysine-leucine-and-protein-in-broiler-chicks
#2
S Cerrate, S K Vignale, R Ekmay, J England, C Coon
An isotope dose technique was utilized (i) to determine endogenous amino acid (AA) and protein losses and (ii) to propose adjusted values for AA requirements. The endogenous flow rate was calculated from the pool of enrichment in plasma AA, assuming similitude to enrichment of endogenous AA. In experiment 1, chicks were orally administered D4-lysine at 2% of estimated lysine intake from 16 to 24 days to find the isotopic steady state of the atom percent excess (APE) of lysine for plasma and jejunal and ileal digesta...
September 14, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28899434/effective-delivery-of-social-and-behavior-change-communication-through-a-care-group-model-in-a-supplementary-feeding-program
#3
Lauren Wilner, Devika J Suri, Breanne K Langlois, Shelley Marcus Walton, Beatrice Lorge Rogers
BACKGROUND: In 2014, an intervention aimed at increasing the oil in corn soy blend (CSB) porridge prepared by caregivers of children with moderate acute malnutrition was implemented in Southern Malawi. This analysis describes the flow of key messages delivered through the Care Group model during this intervention. METHODS: The intervention provided a supplementary food ration of CSB and oil and used a Care Group model in which healthcare workers were trained to deliver social and behavior change communication (SBCC) to care group volunteers who then delivered messages to caregivers of beneficiary children...
September 12, 2017: Journal of Health, Population, and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28888600/effects-of-egg-yolk-inclusion-milk-replacer-feeding-rate-and-low-starch-pelleted-or-high-starch-texturized-starter-on-holstein-calf-performance-through-4-months-of-age
#4
T S Dennis, F X Suarez-Mena, T M Hill, J D Quigley, R L Schlotterbeck
The objectives of this research were to evaluate milk replacer (MR) feeding rates, alternative protein and fat sources in MR, and calf starter starch concentration and their effects on calf performance to 4 mo of age. Male Holstein calves (42.6 ± 1.2 kg of body weight; n = 192) were assigned at 3 d of age to 1 of 8 treatments in a randomized complete block design with a 2 × 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments. Factors tested from d 0 to 56 (nursery) were low or high MR feeding rates, 0 or 10% inclusion of spray-dried egg yolks in MR, and low- or high-starch calf starter...
September 6, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28882791/effects-of-organic-acids-and-essential-oils-blend-on-growth-gut-microbiota-immune-response-and-disease-resistance-of-pacific-white-shrimp-litopenaeus-vannamei-against-vibrio-parahaemolyticus
#5
Wangquan He, Samad Rahimnejad, Ling Wang, Kai Song, Kangle Lu, Chunxiao Zhang
An 8-week feeding trial was undertaken to evaluate supplemental effects of AviPlus(®) (AP), a blend of organic acids [citric acid, 25%; sorbic acid, 16.7%] and essential oils [thymol, 1.7%; vanillin, 1.0%], on growth, gut microbiota, innate immunity and disease resistance of Pacific white shrimp (Litopenaeus vannamei) against Vibrio parahaemolyticus. A basal experimental diet was formulated and supplemented with 0, 0.3, 0.6, 0.9 and 1.2 g kg(-1) AP to produce five test diets (Con, AP0.3, AP0.6, AP0.9 and AP1...
September 4, 2017: Fish & Shellfish Immunology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28881947/bacterial-inoculant-treatment-of-bermudagrass-alters-ovipositional-behavior-larval-and-pupal-weights-of-the-fall-armyworm-lepidoptera-noctuidae
#6
Richard Murphey Coy, David W Held, Joseph W Kloepper
Nonpathogenic soil bacteria can colonize the rhizosphere and induce unique plant phenotypes that may influence plant-insect interactions. However, few studies have considered the influences of bacteria-plant interactions on insect feeding and oviposition. The objective of this study was to determine how rhizobacterial inoculation of bermudagrass affects larval development and ovipositional behaviors of the fall armyworm (Spodoptera frugiperda J.E. Smith). Eight blends of rhizobacteria known to induce root or shoot growth in grasses were applied weekly to hybrid bermudagrass for 5 wk...
August 1, 2017: Environmental Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859691/effect-of-oregano-essential-oil-and-benzoic-acid-supplementation-to-a-low-protein-diet-on-meat-quality-fatty-acid-composition-and-lipid-stability-of-longissimus-thoracis-muscle-in-pigs
#7
Chuanshang Cheng, Xiaming Zhang, Mao Xia, Zuhong Liu, Hongkui Wei, Zhao Deng, Chao Wang, Siwen Jiang, Jian Peng
BACKGROUND: Consumers are becoming increasingly interested in food containing appropriately high concentration of intramuscular fat (IMF) and polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA). The supplementation of feed with antioxidants decreases degradation of lipids in muscles thereby enhances nutritional and sensory properties of meat. Two experiments were conducted to determine the effects of adding oregano essential oil (OEO) and benzoic acid (BA) to low-protein, amino acid-supplemented diets on meat quality, sensory profile, fatty acid composition, and lipid oxidation of longissimus thoracis (LT) muscle in pigs...
August 31, 2017: Lipids in Health and Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28859525/influence-of-essential-oils-in-diet-and-life-stage-on-gut-microbiota-and-fillet-quality-of-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#8
Florencia Ceppa, Filippo Faccenda, Carlotta De Filippo, Davide Albanese, Massimo Pindo, Roberta Martelli, Paola Marconi, Fernando Lunelli, Francesca Fava, Giuliana Parisi
Developing fish farming to meet the demands of food security and sustainability in the 21st century will require new farming systems and improved feeds. Diet and microbe interactions in the gut is an important variable with the potential to make a significant impact on future fish farming diets and production systems. It was monitored the gut microbiota of farmed rainbow trout using 16S rRNA profiling over 51 weeks during standard rearing conditions and feeding diet with supplementation of an essential oils (MixOil) mixture from plants (at a concentration in diet of 200 mg/kg)...
August 31, 2017: International Journal of Food Sciences and Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28841035/evaluation-of-ground-grain-versus-pre-and-post-pellet-whole-grain-additions-to-poultry-diets-via-a-response-surface-design
#9
Amy F Moss, Peter V Chrystal, Ha H Truong, Peter H Selle, Sonia Yun Liu
1. The objective of this study was to compare the effects of pre- and post-pellet whole grain wheat additions to diets on growth performance, gizzard and pancreas development, nutrient utilisation and starch and protein (N) digestibility coefficients in broiler chickens via an equilateral triangle response surface design. 2. The three apical treatments of the equilateral triangle comprised (1A) a standard diet containing 600 g/kg ground wheat, (2B) the same diet containing 600 g/kg pre-pellet whole wheat, and (3C) the same diet containing 300 g/kg ground wheat and 300 g/kg post-pellet whole wheat...
August 25, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805922/use-of-a-complete-starter-feed-in-grain-adaptation-programs-for-feedlot-cattle
#10
C J Schneider, B L Nuttelman, A L Shreck, D B Burken, W A Griffin, J L Gramkow, R A Stock, T J Klopfenstein, G E Erickson
Four experiments evaluated the use of a complete starter feed (RAMP; Cargill Corn Milling, Blair, NE) for grain adaptation. In Exp. 1, 229 yearling steers (397 ± 28.4 kg BW) were used to compare a traditional adaptation program (CON) with adapting cattle with RAMP in either a 1- (RAMP-1RS) or 2- (RAMP-2RS) ration system. From d 23 to slaughter, cattle were fed a common finishing diet. In Exp. 2, 390 yearling steers (341 ± 14 kg BW) were used to compare accelerated grain adaptation programs with RAMP with 2 control treatments where RAMP was blended with a finishing diet containing either 25 (CON25) or 47...
August 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28805907/evaluation-of-essential-oils-and-prebiotics-for-newborn-dairy-calves
#11
K A Froehlich, K W Abdelsalam, C Chase, J Koppien-Fox, D P Casper
A blend of essential oils (EO; carvacrol, caryophyllene, -cymene, cineole, terpinene, and thymol) and prebiotics (arabinogalactans; Stay Strong; Ralco, Inc., Marshall, MN) was designed to promote immunity and stimulate appetite to diminish health challenges and stresses experienced by newborn calves. It was hypothesized that calves supplemented with the medium dose (2.5 g/feeding) of the commercial EO would demonstrate the optimal response. The study objective was to determine the optimal feeding rate of EO when added to a milk replacer (MR) compared with feeding a control or a yeast cell wall additive (YCW)...
August 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28804459/metabolic-variability-of-a-multispecies-probiotic-preparation-impacts-on-the-anti-inflammatory-activity
#12
Michele Biagioli, Luca Laghi, Adriana Carino, Sabrina Cipriani, Eleonora Distrutti, Silvia Marchianò, Carola Parolin, Paolo Scarpelli, Beatrice Vitali, Stefano Fiorucci
Background: In addition to strain taxonomy, the ability of probiotics to confer beneficial effects on the host rely on a number of additional factors including epigenetic modulation of bacterial genes leading to metabolic variability and might impact on probiotic functionality. Aims: To investigate metabolism and functionality of two different batches of a probiotic blend commercialized under the same name in Europe in models of intestinal inflammation. Methods: Boxes of VSL#3, a probiotic mixture used in the treatment of pouchitis, were obtained from pharmacies in UK subjected to metabolomic analysis and their functionality tested in mice rendered colitis by treatment with DSS or TNBS...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28794462/fear-of-predation-alters-clone-specific-performance-in-phloem-feeding-prey
#13
Mouhammad Shadi Khudr, Oksana Y Buzhdygan, Jana S Petermann, Susanne Wurst
Fear of predation has been shown to affect prey fitness and behaviour, however, to date little is known about the underlying genetics of responses to predator-associated risk. In an effort to fill this gap we exposed four naïve clones of green peach aphid (Myzus persicae), maintained on the model crop Brassica oleracea, to different types of cues from aphid lion (Chrysoperla carnea). The respective predation risks, we termed Fear Factors, were either lethal (consumption by predator), or non-lethal (non-consumptive predator-associated cues: plant-tethered predator cadavers and homogenised shoot-sprayed or soil-infused blends of predator remains)...
August 9, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28769965/silicon-supplementation-alters-the-composition-of-herbivore-induced-plant-volatiles-and-enhances-attraction-of-parasitoids-to-infested-rice-plants
#14
Jian Liu, Jiwei Zhu, Pengjun Zhang, Liwei Han, Olivia L Reynolds, Rensen Zeng, Jinhong Wu, Yue Shao, Minsheng You, Geoff M Gurr
Silicon (Si) is important in plant defenses that operate in a direct manner against herbivores, and work in rice (Oryza sativa) has established that this is mediated by the jasmonate signaling pathway. Plant defenses also operate indirectly, by the production of herbivore induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) that attract predators and parasitoids of herbivores. These indirect defenses too are mediated by the jasmonate pathway but no earlier work has demonstrated an effect of Si on HIPVs. In this study, we tested the effect of Si supplementation versus Si deprivation to rice plants on subsequent HIPV production following feeding by the important pest, rice leaffolder (Cnaphalocrocis medinalis)...
2017: Frontiers in Plant Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28758728/development-of-near-infrared-spectroscopy-based-process-monitoring-methodology-for-pharmaceutical-continuous-manufacturing-using-an-offline-calibration-approach
#15
Evan M Hetrick, Zhenqi Shi, Lukas E Barnes, Aaron W Garrett, Robert G Rupard, Timothy T Kramer, Tony M Cooper, David P Myers, Bryan C Castle
A near-infrared (NIR) calibration was developed using an efficient offline approach to enable a quantitative partial least-squares (PLS) chemometric model to measure and monitor the concentration of active pharmaceutical ingredients (API) in powder blends in the feed frame (FF) of a tablet press. The approach leveraged an offline "feed frame table," which was designed to mimic the full process from a NIR measurement perspective, thereby facilitating a more robust model by allowing more sources of variability to be included in the calibration by minimizing the consumption of API and other raw materials...
September 5, 2017: Analytical Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28734847/noise-optimized-virtual-monoenergetic-dual-energy-ct-improves-diagnostic-accuracy-for-the-detection-of-active-arterial-bleeding-of-the-abdomen
#16
Simon S Martin, Julian L Wichmann, Jan-Erik Scholtz, Doris Leithner, Tommaso D'Angelo, Hendrik Weyer, Christian Booz, Lukas Lenga, Thomas J Vogl, Moritz H Albrecht
PURPOSE: To evaluate diagnostic accuracy of a noise-optimized virtual monoenergetic imaging (VMI+) reconstruction technique for detection of active arterial abdominal bleeding on dual-energy (DE) CT angiography compared with standard image reconstruction. MATERIALS AND METHODS: DE CT angiography data sets of 71 patients (46 men; age 63.6 y ± 13.3) with suspected arterial bleeding of the abdomen or pelvis were reconstructed with standard linearly blended (F_0.5), VMI+, and traditional virtual monoenergetic imaging (VMI) algorithms in 10-keV increments from 40 to 100 keV...
September 2017: Journal of Vascular and Interventional Radiology: JVIR
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28727056/effects-of-protein-and-fat-concentration-in-coproduct-based-growing-calf-diets-on-adipogenic-and-lipogenic-gene-expression-blood-metabolites-and-carcass-composition
#17
J R Segers, J J Loor, S J Moisá, D Gonzalez, D W Shike
Crossbred calves ( = 30; age = 95 ± 1.7 d; BW = 179 ± 18 kg) were fed 1 of 5 growing diets: 1) corn-based control, 2) low-fat, low-protein coproduct blend, 3) high-fat, low-protein coproduct blend, 4) low-fat, high-protein coproduct blend, and 5) high-fat, high-protein coproduct blend for 112 d (growing phase) followed by a common corn-based finishing diet (additional 112 d; finishing phase). Calves were biopsied at 0, 112, and 224 d for transcriptional analysis via real-time quantitative PCR of 14 genes associated with adipogenesis and lipogenesis within the muscle...
June 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28722406/possible-molecular-mechanisms-by-which-an-essential-oil-blend-from-star-anise-rosemary-thyme-and-oregano-and-saponins-increase-the-performance-and-ileal-protein-digestibility-of-growing-broilers
#18
Henry Reyer, Jürgen Zentek, Klaus Männer, Ibrahim M I Youssef, Tobias Aumiller, Julian Weghuber, Klaus Wimmers, Andreas S Mueller
Phytogenic feed additives represent a potential alternative to antibiotics with attributed health and growth-promoting effects. Chickens supplemented with an essential oil blend, a Quillaja saponin blend, or a combination of both phytogenic preparations showed a comprehensively and significantly improved apparent ileal digestibility of crude protein and amino acids compared to control birds. Accordingly, holistic transcriptomic analyses of jejunum and liver samples indicated alterations of macromolecule transporters and processing pathways likely culminating in an increased uptake and metabolizing of carbohydrates and fatty acids...
August 16, 2017: Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28711248/the-effect-of-source-of-supplemental-dietary-calcium-and-magnesium-in-the-peripartum-period-and-level-of-dietary-magnesium-postpartum-on-mineral-status-performance-and-energy-metabolites-in-multiparous-holstein-cows
#19
B M Leno, S E LaCount, C M Ryan, D Briggs, M Crombie, T R Overton
The objective of this study was to determine the effects of feeding different supplemental sources of Ca and Mg in the peripartum period, and different dietary levels of Mg postpartum, on plasma mineral status, performance, and aspects of energy metabolism in transition dairy cows. Multiparous Holstein cows (n = 41) were used in a completely randomized design with a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement of treatments starting at 28 d before expected parturition. Main effects were source assignments (CS = common sources of supplemental Ca and Mg, or MA = a blend of common and commercial mineral sources with supplemental minerals primarily from a commercial Ca-Mg dolomite source; MIN-AD, Papillon Agricultural Company Inc...
September 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28695387/the-role-of-leaf-volatiles-of-ludwigia-octovalvis-jacq-raven-in-the-attraction-of-altica-cyanea-weber-coleoptera-chrysomelidae
#20
Saubhik Mitra, Amarnath Karmakar, Abhishek Mukherjee, Anandamay Barik
Larvae and adults of Altica cyanea (Weber) (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae) feed on the rice-field weed Ludwigia octovalvis (Jacq.) Raven (Onagraceae), commonly known as willow primrose, which is considered a biocontrol agent of the weed. Volatile organic compounds from undamaged plants, plants after 4, 12, and 36 h of continuous feeding by A. cyanea larvae or adult females and after mechanical damaging were identified by GC-MS and GC-FID analyses. Twenty nine compounds were identified from undamaged plants. 2Z-Penten-1-ol, geraniol, and 1-tridecanol were present in all plants damaged by larvae...
July 10, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
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