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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115143/inclusion-levels-and-modes-of-whole-grain-incorporation-into-wheat-based-rations-differentially-influence-the-performance-of-broiler-chickens
#1
A F Moss, H H Truong, S Y Liu, P H Selle
1. The objective was to compare three whole grain inclusion levels (7.5, 15 and 30%) offered to broiler chickens by three modes of whole grain (WG) incorporation: (i) pre-pellet WG inclusion, (ii) post-pellet WG inclusion as a blend of WG and pelleted concentrate and (iii) post-pellet WG inclusion where WG and pelleted concentrate were provided in separate feed trays against a ground-grain, wheat-based control diet. 2. Ten dietary treatments was offered to 6 replicate cages (6 birds per cage) of male Ross 308 chickens from 7 to 28 d post-hatch...
November 8, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103727/effect-of-milk-replacer-feeding-rate-age-at-weaning-and-method-of-reducing-milk-replacer-to-weaning-on-digestion-performance-rumination-and-activity-in-dairy-calves-to-4-months-of-age
#2
T S Dennis, F X Suarez-Mena, T M Hill, J D Quigley, R L Schlotterbeck, L Hulbert
The objectives of this study were to evaluate calf performance, diet digestibility, and rumination activity when feeding 4 milk replacer (MR) feeding programs. Male Holstein calves (n = 96; 43 ± 1.2 kg of body weight; 1 to 2 d of age) were housed in individual pens for 56 d. Calves were fed a common MR [25% crude protein (CP), 17% fat, dry matter (DM) basis]. Feeding programs were (1) 0.66 kg of DM/d of MR and weaning at 42 d (MOD6); (2) up to 1.09 kg of DM/d of MR weaned at 42 d (HIGH6); (3) up to 1.09 kg of DM/d of MR weaned at 53 d (HIGH8); and (4) up to 1...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092882/complementary-feeding-with-cowpea-reduces-growth-faltering-in-rural-malawian-infants-a-blind-randomized-controlled-clinical-trial
#3
Kevin B Stephenson, Sophia E Agapova, Oscar Divala, Yankho Kaimila, Kenneth M Maleta, Chrissie Thakwalakwa, M Isabel Ordiz, Indi Trehan, Mark J Manary
Background: Growth faltering is common in rural African children and is attributed to inadequate dietary intake and environmental enteric dysfunction (EED).Objective: We tested the hypothesis that complementary feeding with cowpea or common bean flour would reduce growth faltering and EED in 6-mo-old rural Malawians compared with the control group receiving a corn-soy blend.Design: A prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in which children received daily feeding for 6 mo (200 kcal/d when 6-9 mo old and 300 kcal/d when 10-12 mo old)...
November 1, 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089626/anti-obesity-effect-of-a-traditional-chinese-dietary-habit-blending-lard-with-vegetable-oil-while-cooking
#4
Ji Wang, Sisi Yan, Haisi Xiao, Huijuan Zhou, Shuiping Liu, Yu Zeng, Biying Liu, Rongfang Li, Zhihang Yuan, Jing Wu, Jine Yi, Yarou Bao Sero Razack, Lixin Wen
Obesity, which is associated with dietary habits, has become a global social problem and causes many metabolic diseases. In China, both percentages of adult obesity and overweight are far lower compared to western countries. It was designed to increase the two levels of daily intake in human, namely 3.8% and 6.5%, which are recommendatory intake (25 g/d) and Chinese citizens' practical intake (41.4 g/d), respectively. The mice were respectively fed with feeds added with soybean oil, lard or the oil blended by both for 12 weeks...
October 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077962/influence-of-emulsifier-blends-having-different-hydrophilic-lipophilic-balance-value-on-growth-performance-nutrient-digestibility-serum-lipid-profiles-and-meat-quality-of-broilers
#5
S D Upadhaya, Ju Seong Lee, Kyoung Jin Jung, I H Kim
Energy is a major cost component in diets for poultry. We hypothesized that the supplementation of emulsifier blends in broiler diets may contribute to the efficient utilization of energy and in increasing fat digestibility, thereby improving performance. To test our hypothesis, an experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of a blend of emulsifiers on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, serum lipid profiles, and meat quality of broilers. A total of 768 1-d-old Ross 308 male broiler chicks with an average initial body weight of 45...
October 25, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077888/effects-of-direct-fed-microorganisms-and-enzyme-blend-co-administration-on-intestinal-bacteria-in-broilers-fed-diets-with-or-without-antibiotics
#6
T E Askelson, C A Flores, S L Dunn-Horrocks, Y Dersjant-Li, K Gibbs, A Awati, J T Lee, T Duong
Direct-fed microorganisms (DFM) and exogenous enzymes have been demonstrated to improve growth performance in poultry and are potentially important alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters (AGP). We investigated the administration of a feed additive composed of a DFM product containing spores of 3 Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strains and an enzyme blend of endo-xylanase, α-amylase, and serine-protease in diets with or without sub-therapeutic antibiotics in broiler chickens over a 42-d growth period. Evaluation of growth performance determined feed efficiency of broiler chickens which were administered the feed additive was comparable to those fed a diet containing AGPs...
October 25, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052769/terpenoid-biosynthesis-in-arabidopsis-attacked-by-caterpillars-and-aphids-effects-of-aphid-density-on-the-attraction-of-a-caterpillar-parasitoid
#7
Anneke Kroes, Berhane T Weldegergis, Francesco Cappai, Marcel Dicke, Joop J A van Loon
One of the responses of plants to insect attack is the production of volatile organic compounds that mediate indirect defence of plants by attracting natural enemies of the attacking herbivores. Herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) include terpenoids that play key roles in the attraction of natural enemies. Crosstalk between phytohormonal signalling pathways is well known to affect the regulation of plant defences, including the emission of HIPVs. Thus, simultaneous feeding on the same plant by caterpillars and aphids, can affect the attraction of parasitoids by the plant compared to single insect attack...
October 20, 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050427/brazil-nut-meal-and-spray-dried-egg-powders-as-alternatives-to-synthetic-methionine-in-organic-laying-hen-diets
#8
H K Burley, P H Patterson
The United States organic poultry industry is currently facing a limitation on dietary inclusion of synthetic methionine (Met). This study investigated Brazil nut protein powder (BNPP), spray-dried egg white (SDEW), and spray-dried egg blend (70:30 albumen: yolk) (SDEB) as alternatives to synthetic Met in organic laying hen diets. A total of 270 Hy-Line Brown laying hens was fed 5 diets from 22 to 38 wk of age, with 6 replicates of 3 adjacent cages per diet and 3 hens per cage. Diets included a commercial control (COM) (non-organic with standard CP and synthetic Met), an organic control (ORG) (with no synthetic Met, but higher CP to meet Met requirements), and 3 organic treatment diets with no synthetic Met, but including BNPP, SDEW, or SDEB at levels to meet Met requirements...
September 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044662/the-terpene-synthase-gene-family-in-gossypium-hirsutum-harbors-a-linalool-synthase-ghtps12-implicated-in-direct-defense-responses-against-herbivores
#9
Xin-Zheng Huang, Yu-Tao Xiao, Tobias G Köllner, Wei-Xia Jing, Jun-Feng Kou, Jie-Yin Chen, Dan-Feng Liu, Shao-Hua Gu, Jun-Xiang Wu, Yong-Jun Zhang, Yu-Yuan Guo
Herbivore-induced terpenes have been reported to function as ecological signals in plant-insect interactions. Here we showed that insect-induced cotton volatile blends contained 16 terpenoid compounds with a relatively high level of linalool. The high diversity of terpene production is derived from a large terpene synthase (TPS) gene family. The TPS gene family of Gossypium hirsutum and G. raimondii consist of 46 and 41 members, respectively. Twelve TPS genes (GhTPS4-15) could be isolated and protein expression in E...
October 18, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039295/effects-of-feeding-low-fishmeal-diets-with-increasing-soybean-meal-levels-on-growth-gut-histology-and-plasma-biochemistry-of-sea-bass
#10
E Bonvini, A Bonaldo, L Mandrioli, R Sirri, F Dondi, C Bianco, R Fontanillas, F Mongile, P P Gatta, L Parma
The aquaculture industry depends upon the development of sustainable protein sources to replace fishmeal (FM) in aquafeeds and the products derived from soybeans are some of the most studied plant feedstuffs. A key area of investigation for continuing to improve modern aquafeeds includes the evaluation of varying proportions and combinations of plant ingredients to identify mixtures that are more efficiently utilized by the fish. This study investigated the effects of increasing soybean meal (SBM) by replacing a mix of plant ingredients in low FM (20%) diets on growth, blood biochemistry profile and gut histology on European sea bass...
October 17, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29036935/laser-powder-cladding-of-ti-6al-4v-%C3%AE-%C3%AE-alloy
#11
Samar Reda Al-Sayed Ali, Abdel Hamid Ahmed Hussein, Adel Abdel Menam Saleh Nofal, Salah Elden Ibrahim Hasseb Elnaby, Haytham Abdelrafea Elgazzar, Hassan Abdel Sabour
Laser cladding process was performed on a commercial Ti-6Al-4V (α + β) titanium alloy by means of tungsten carbide-nickel based alloy powder blend. Nd:YAG laser with a 2.2-KW continuous wave was used with coaxial jet nozzle coupled with a standard powder feeding system. Four-track deposition of a blended powder consisting of 60 wt % tungsten carbide (WC) and 40 wt % NiCrBSi was successfully made on the alloy. The high content of the hard WC particles is intended to enhance the abrasion resistance of the titanium alloy...
October 15, 2017: Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29032622/harnessing-private-sector-expertise-to-improve-complementary-feeding-within-a-regulatory-framework-where-is-the-evidence
#12
Marti J van Liere, Dessie Tarlton, Ravi Menon, M Yellamanda, Ietje Reerink
Global recognition that the complex and multicausal problems of malnutrition require all players to collaborate and to invest towards the same objective has led to increased private sector engagement as exemplified through the Scaling Up Nutrition Business Network and mechanisms for blended financing and matched funding, such as the Global Nutrition for Growth Compact. The careful steps made over the past 5 to 10 years have however not taken away or reduced the hesitation and scepticism of the public sector actors towards commercial or even social businesses...
October 2017: Maternal & Child Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28992030/monensin-and-a-blend-of-castor-oil-and-cashew-nut-shell-liquid-used-in-a-high-concentrate-diet-abruptly-fed-to-nellore-cattle
#13
C A Zotti, A P Silva, R Carvalho, C T Marino, P H M Rodrigues, L F P Silva, T A McAllister, P R Leme
Monensin and functional oils (FO) were supplemented to a high-concentrate diet abruptly fed to 12 ruminally cannulated Zebu steers to study their effects on rumen fermentation, blood metabolites, and , , and relative population. A randomized complete block design with repeated measures over time within 2 experimental periods of 21 d each was used. Treatments were a control (CTR; with no additives), FO (included at 400 mg/kg), and monensin included at 30 mg/kg (M30) or 40 mg/kg (M40). All steers were fed the same high-concentrate basal diet, which consisted of 92...
September 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28954545/effects-of-dietary-sesame-oil-on-growth-performance-chemical-composition-lipid-oxidation-and-sensory-characteristics-of-rainbow-trout-oncorhynchus-mykiss
#14
Azar Hematzadeh, Mohamad Ali Jalali Sayed
The present study, the effects of dietary sesame oil (SO) on growth performance and fillet composition of rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) were investigated. Twenty-five fish were randomly allocated in three groups by three replication, in mean initial weight 53.3 g in each tank. Experimental diets consisted of fish oil (FO), sesame oil (SO) and 1:1 blends of two oils, fish oil and sesame oil (FOSO). Dietary sesame oil had no significant effect on growth rate or feed conversion ratio. Similarly, no significant differences were observed between dietary treatments for ash content in fillet of fish...
September 28, 2017: Natural Product Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28951999/response-of-a-predatory-ant-to-volatiles-emitted-by-aphid-and-caterpillar-infested-cucumber-and-potato-plants
#15
Mauro Schettino, Donato A Grasso, Berhane T Weldegergis, Cristina Castracani, Alessandra Mori, Marcel Dicke, Joop C Van Lenteren, Joop J A Van Loon
In response to herbivory by insects, various plants produce volatiles that attract enemies of the herbivores. Although ants are important components of natural and agro-ecosystems, the importance of herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) as cues for ants for finding food sources have received little attention. We investigated responses of the ant Formica pratensis to volatiles emitted by uninfested and insect-infested cucumber (Cucumis sativus) and potato (Solanum tuberosum) plants. Cucumber plants were infested by the phloem-feeding aphid Aphis gossypii, the leaf chewer Mamestra brassicae or simultaneously by both insects...
September 26, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28948236/combustion-behaviour-of-olive-pruning-animal-manure-blends-in-a-fluidized-bed-combustor
#16
Despina Vamvuka, Nicolaos Alloimonos
Olive pruning and animal manure blends were burned in a fluidized bed system, in order to investigate their valorization for thermal energy production. Combustion performance was studied in terms of efficiency and emissions under various operating conditions. Both fuels burned mostly within the bed. The maximum temperature of animal manure was 50 °C lower than that of olive pruning, however efficiency was nearly 99%. CO emissions were low, SO2 emissions were negligible, whereas NOx emissions of blends exceeded legislation limits, when excess air ratio was over 1...
September 2017: Heliyon
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28943720/host-plant-location-by-the-guatemalan-potato-moth-tecia-solanivora-is-assisted-by-floral-volatiles
#17
Miriam Frida Karlsson, Magali Proffit, Göran Birgersson
Insects locate their host plants using mainly visual and olfactory cues, generally of the exploited plant structure. However, when the resource is difficult to access, it could be beneficial to utilise indirect cues, which indicates the presence of reward (e.g., oviposition site or mate). In the present study, we investigated the host-plant location strategy of the monophagous Guatemalan potato moth Tecia solanivora (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae). The larva of the moth feed exclusively on potato Solanum spp. (Solanaceae) tubers usually hidden below ground...
2017: Chemoecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28942532/sterigmatocystin-and-aflatoxin-b1-contamination-of-corn-soybean-meal-and-formula-feed-in-japan
#18
Masayo Nomura, Koji Aoyama, Takayuki Ishibashi
Sterigmatocystin (STC) and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) were analyzed in 246 corn samples, 126 soybean meal samples, and 861 formula feed samples from the Japanese market between April 2010 and March 2015. The detection rate, the highest concentration, and the mean concentration of STC were respectively 14%, 6.4 μg/kg, and 1.2 μg/kg for corn; 14%, 1.1 μg/kg, and 0.63 μg/kg for soybean meal; and 43%, 9.1 μg/kg, and 0.97 μg/kg for formula feed. The detection rate, the highest concentration, and the mean concentration of AFB1 were respectively 46%, 24 μg/kg, and 3...
September 23, 2017: Mycotoxin Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28938776/meta-analytic-study-of-organic-acids-as-an-alternative-performance-enhancing-feed-additive-to-antibiotics-for-broiler-chickens
#19
G V Polycarpo, I Andretta, M Kipper, V C Cruz-Polycarpo, J C Dadalt, P H M Rodrigues, R Albuquerque
The effect of organic acids as an alternative to antibiotics on the performance of broiler chickens was evaluated by meta-analysis, identifying and quantifying the main factors that influence results. A total of 51,960 broilers from 121 articles published between 1991 and 2016 were used. Interactions of additives [non-supplemented group (control), organic acids, and growth promoter antibiotics] with microbial challenge (with or without inoculation of pathogenic microorganisms) were studied on performance variables...
October 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28903794/effect-of-dietary-nutrients-on-ileal-endogenous-losses-of-threonine-cysteine-methionine-lysine-leucine-and-protein-in-broiler-chicks
#20
S Cerrate, S K Vignale, R Ekmay, J England, C Coon
An isotope dose technique was utilized (i) to determine endogenous amino acid (AA) and protein losses and (ii) to propose adjusted values for AA requirements. The endogenous flow rate was calculated from the pool of enrichment in plasma AA, assuming similitude to enrichment of endogenous AA. In experiment 1, chicks were orally administered D4-lysine at 2% of estimated lysine intake from 16 to 24 days to find the isotopic steady state of the atom percent excess (APE) of lysine for plasma and jejunal and ileal digesta...
September 14, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
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