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Blended feeds

Ruggeri Jessica, Foresti Fabio, Pavesi Roberta, Terrini Alessia, Giudici Francesca, Padoan Diego, Corradi Attilio, Ossiprandi Maria Cristina, Pasquali Paolo, Alborali Giovanni Loris
Salmonella Typhimurium (including S.Typhimurium 1,4,[5],12:i-) and other enteric pathogens cause acute infection in pigs during the weaning stage, often evolving into chronic infections responsible for the introduction of zoonotic bacteria into the slaughterhouse and thus determining carcass contamination. In addition to being zoonotic hazards, these pathogens are responsible for economic losses in affected farms. Traditionally, antibiotic treatments have been largely administered in order to reduce the infection burden but it favored, as a direct consequence, an increase in the number of multi-drug resistance strains...
May 22, 2018: Veterinary Research Communications
Les Greenberg, Christine A Johnson, James C Trager, J Steven McElfresh, Joshua Rodstein, Jocelyn G Millar
Species of the ant genus Polyergus are social parasites that steal brood from colonies of their hosts in the closely related genus Formica. Upon emergence as adults in a mixed population, host Formica workers carry out all the normal worker functions within the Polyergus colony, including foraging, feeding, grooming, and rearing brood of the parasitic Polyergus ants. Some unmated Polyergus gynes (queens) run in the raiding columns of their colonies and attract males by releasing a pheromone from their mandibular glands...
May 22, 2018: Journal of Chemical Ecology
Anne Breaks, Christina Smith, Steven Bloch, Sally Morgan
BACKGROUND: The present review aimed to identify what is known about the use of blended diets in gastrostomy fed children and young people (i.e. children and young people refers to those who are aged up to 25 years with special educational needs or a disability in accordance with Part 3 of the Children and Family Act 2014; within the review, the word children is used for simplicity but encompasses young people too) and to identify gaps in the literature on this topic to inform future research and policy...
May 15, 2018: Journal of Human Nutrition and Dietetics: the Official Journal of the British Dietetic Association
(no author information available yet)
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 2018: Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners
Holly Carter, Kelly Johnson, Teresa W Johnson, Amy Spurlock
BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: For most of human history, physicians used blended whole foods for patients who are unable to eat by mouth. However, by the 1960s and 1970s, advances in enteral nutrition resulted in the gradual displacement of blenderized tube feedings (BTFs) with commercial formulas. There are advantages and disadvantages to commercial formulas and BTFs. The purpose of this article was to review the literature for the incidence of blended tube feeding use and its safety, efficacy, and implications for clinical practice...
March 2018: Journal of the American Association of Nurse Practitioners
Samuel G Impey, Kelly M Hammond, Robert Naughton, Carl Langan-Evans, Sam O Shepherd, Adam P Sharples, Jessica Cegielski, Kenneth Smith, Stewart Jeromson, D Lee Hamilton, Graeme L Close, James P Morton
We examined the effects of whey versus collagen protein on skeletal muscle cell signalling responses associated with mitochondrial biogenesis and protein synthesis in recovery from an acute training session completed with low carbohydrate (CHO) availability. In a repeated measures design (after adhering to a 36-h exercise-dietary intervention to standardise pre-exercise muscle glycogen), eight males completed a 75-min non-exhaustive cycling protocol and consumed 22 g of a hydrolysed collagen blend (COLLAGEN) or whey (WHEY) protein 45 min prior to exercise, 22 g during exercise and 22 g immediately post-exercise...
May 14, 2018: International Journal of Sport Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism
Lorena S Grundy, Victoria E Lee, Nannan Li, Chris Sosa, William D Mulhearn, Rui Liu, Richard A Register, Arash Nikoubashman, Robert K Prud'homme, Athanassios Z Panagiotopoulos, Rodney D Priestley
Colloids with internally structured geometries have shown great promise in applications ranging from biosensors to optics to drug delivery, where the internal particle structure is paramount to performance. The growing demand for such nanomaterials necessitates the development of a scalable processing platform for their production. Flash NanoPrecipitation (FNP), a rapid and inherently scalable colloid precipitation technology, is used to prepare internally structured colloids from blends of block copolymers and homopolymers...
May 3, 2018: ACS Nano
Daniel Blackwood, William Ketterhagen, John Kresevic, Joseph Kushner, Jeffrey Moriarty, Matthew P Mullarney
The purpose of this work was to develop a methodology that quantifies the extent of shear induced during an encapsulation process and show how formulation composition and manufacturing process designs can be changed to reduce the negative impact on drug product quality attributes. The powder feed system used in a dosing disk type pharmaceutical capsule filling machine induced additional shear of the powder prior to slug formation. The shear occurred both in the hopper portion, via the rotation of the feed auger and impeller, and in the powder bowl via the tamping pin agitation and/or shear against the stationary surfaces such as the powder level scraper...
May 1, 2018: Drug Development and Industrial Pharmacy
Juan María Díaz Carrasco, Enzo Alejandro Redondo, Natalia Daniela Pin Viso, Leandro Martin Redondo, Marisa Diana Farber, Mariano Enrique Fernández Miyakawa
Antibiotic growth promoters have been used for decades in poultry farming as a tool to maintain bird health and improve growth performance. Global concern about the recurrent emergence and spreading of antimicrobial resistance is challenging the livestock producers to search for alternatives to feed added antibiotics. The use of phytogenic compounds appears as a feasible option due to their ability to emulate the bioactive properties of antibiotics. However, detailed description about the effects of in-feed antibiotics and alternative natural products on chicken intestinal microbiota is lacking...
2018: BioMed Research International
T Williams, B Rude, S Liao, C Mochal-King, M Nicodemus
The objective of this study was to observe how fat incorporated into an equine forage-based diet through supplementation altered levels of plasma glucose, insulin and fatty acids. Five Shetland/Hackney cross pony mares were fed alfalfa pellet diets top dressed with commercially available vegetable oil (blend of soya bean, canola and corn oils) at 0%, 5%, 10% or 15% of diet. Ponies were randomly assigned one of four diets to start, with a 14-day adjustment period between transitioning to another one of the four diets...
April 19, 2018: Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition
M M Y Elghandour, M Z M Salem, R Greiner, A Z M Salem
BACKGROUND: This study explored the effect of garlic and/or eucalyptus oils on biogas production during in vitro ruminal fermentation of four agro industry byproducts. 0 to 180 mg of the oils per litre incubation medium was added and the gas volumes were recorded from 2 to 48 h of incubation. Dry matter substrate degradability and neutral as well as acid detergent fibre were determined after 72 h. RESULT: Gas production and nutrients degradability was oil type dependent...
April 16, 2018: Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture
VÍctor H Guevara-Oquendo, Peiqiang Yu
To date, advanced synchrotron-based and globar-sourced techniques are almost unknown to food and feed scientists. There has been little application of these advanced techniques to study blend pellet products at a molecular level. This article aims to provide recent research on advanced synchrotron and globar vibrational molecular spectroscopy contributions to advances in blend pellet products research on molecular structure and molecular nutrition interaction. How processing induced molecular structure changes in relation to nutrient availability and utilization of the blend pellet products...
April 13, 2018: Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition
Poonam Singha, Kasiviswanathan Muthukumarappan
Response surface methodology was used to investigate the single screw extrusion of apple pomace-defatted soy flour-corn grits blends and the product properties. Five different blends at a level of 0-20% w/w apple pomace were extrusion cooked with varied barrel and die temperature (100-140℃), screw speed (100-200 rpm), and feed moisture content (14-20% wet basis). Increasing apple pomace content in the blends significantly ( P < 0.05) increased the bulk density, the total phenolic content, and the antioxidant activity of the extrudates...
January 1, 2018: Food Science and Technology International, Ciencia y Tecnología de Los Alimentos Internacional
D Ye, S K R Karnati, B Wagner, J L Firkins, M L Eastridge, J M Aldrich
The interaction of monensin and essential oil was hypothesized to suppress protozoa and methane production while maintaining normal rumen function. The objective of this study was to determine the effects of feeding monensin (MON) and CinnaGar (CIN, a commercial blend of cinnamaldehyde and garlic oil) on ruminal fermentation characteristics. Continuous culture fermentors (n = 4) were maintained in 4 experimental periods in a 4 × 4 Latin square design. Four dietary treatments were arranged in a 2 × 2 factorial: (1) control diet, 37 g/d of dry matter (40 g/d at ∼92...
March 28, 2018: Journal of Dairy Science
Nobel O Sierra-Vega, Adriluz Sánchez-Paternina, Nadja Maldonado, Vanessa Cárdenas, Rodolfo J Romañach, Rafael Méndez
Near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy was used to determine the drug concentration in 3% (w/w) acetaminophen blends within the complex flow regime of the tablet press feed frame just before tablet compaction. NIR spectra also provided valuable information on the powder flow behavior within the feed frame and were used to track when a process enters or leaves the steady state. A partial least squares regression calibration model was developed with powder mixtures that varied from 1.5 to 4.5% (w/w) by obtaining 135 spectra after steady state for each concentration while the feed frame and die disc operated at 30...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Analysis
Bindi Borg, Seema Mihrshahi, Mark Griffin, Daream Sok, Chamnan Chhoun, Arnaud Laillou, Jacques Berger, Frank T Wieringa
BACKGROUND: Existing ready-to-use supplementary and therapeutic foods (RUSFs and RUTFs) have had limited acceptance and effectiveness in Cambodia. This has hampered the treatment and prevention of child malnutrition. An innovative, locally produced, multiple micronutrient fortified lipid-based nutrient supplement (LNS) has been developed for use as an RUSF. Unlike most RUSFs, which contain milk, this product contains fish as the animal protein. Few RUSFs have been formulated using non-milk animal-source foods and they have not been widely tested...
March 16, 2018: Nutrition Journal
P E Eusebio-Balcazar, S Purdum, K Hanford, M M Beck
This study was conducted to evaluate limestone particle size (LPS) in 2 strains of laying hens housed in conventional cages or aviaries on bone integrity. Lohmann Brown and Bovan White pullet chicks were started in equal numbers on the floor or in battery brooders and were intermingled throughout all subsequent housing systems. At 5 wk of age, 432 floor-raised pullets were moved to 8 aviary cages. At 10 wk, 256 battery-raised pullets were transferred to 64 conventional layer cages. Pullets were given diets containing fine (LPS-FINE, 0...
May 1, 2018: Poultry Science
Sophia E Agapova, Kevin B Stephenson, Oscar Divala, Yankho Kaimila, Kenneth M Maleta, Chrissie Thakwalakwa, M Isabel Ordiz, Indi Trehan, Mark J Manary
Background: Chronic malnutrition, as manifested by linear growth faltering, is pervasive among rural African children. Improvements in complementary feeding may decrease the burden of environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) and thus improve growth in children during the critical first 1000 d of development. Objective: We tested the hypothesis that systematically including common bean or cowpea into complementary feeding would reduce EED and growth faltering among children in rural Malawi...
February 1, 2018: Journal of Nutrition
Ricardo Mitsuo Hayashi, Mariana Camargo Lourenço, Antônio Leonardo Kraieski, Raquel Bighetti Araujo, Ricardo Gonzalez-Esquerra, Eduardo Leonardecz, Anderson Ferreira da Cunha, Marcelo Falsarella Carazzolle, Paulo Sérgio Monzani, Elizabeth Santin
Salmonellosis is a poultry industry and public health concern worldwide. Recently, Salmonella enterica serovar Heidelberg (SH) has been reported in broilers in Brazil. The effect of feeding a blend of three strains of Bacillus subtilis (PRO) was studied in broilers orally challenged (107 CFU/chick) or not with a SH isolated in south of Brazil (UFPR1 strain). Twelve male Cobb 500 broilers per pen were randomly assigned to six treatments in a 3 × 2 factorial experiment where PRO was added at 0, 250, or 500 g/ton of broiler feed and fed to either SH-challenged (SH Control, SH + PRO 250, and SH + PRO 500) or non-challenged birds (Control, PRO 250, and PRO 500)...
2018: Frontiers in Veterinary Science
C L Faiola, A Buchholz, E Kari, P Yli-Pirilä, J K Holopainen, M Kivimäenpää, P Miettinen, D R Worsnop, K E J Lehtinen, A B Guenther, A Virtanen
Secondary organic aerosol (SOA) impact climate by scattering and absorbing radiation and contributing to cloud formation. SOA models are based on studies of simplified chemical systems that do not account for the chemical complexity in the atmosphere. This study investigated SOA formation from a mixture of real Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris) emissions including a variety of monoterpenes and sesquiterpenes. SOA generation was characterized from different combinations of volatile compounds as the plant emissions were altered with an herbivore stress treatment...
February 14, 2018: Scientific Reports
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