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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28437132/home-enteral-nutrition-updates-trends-and-challenges
#1
Karen Martin, Gabriela Gardner
The true prevalence of home enteral nutrition (HEN) utilization is unclear and requires further study. HEN therapy has remained virtually unchanged for several decades. However, new trends in HEN are evolving; enteral nutrition is undergoing changes ranging from enteral feeding devices, ingredients used, practice innovations, and challenges with reimbursement. A 2006 Joint Commission call to action that reported 2 sentinel events related to misconnections set things into motion for the transition of enteral device connectors to become specific for enteral nutrition use, which will affect patients who receive HEN...
April 1, 2017: Nutrition in Clinical Practice
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28434411/direct-and-indirect-resistance-of-sugarcane-to-diatraea-saccharalis-induced-by-jasmonic-acid
#2
P A Sanches, F Santos, M F G V Peñaflor, J M S Bento
Treating plants with synthetic jasmonic acid (JA) induces a defensive response similar to herbivore attack, and is a potential strategy for integrated pest management. Despite the importance of sugarcane, its JA-induced defences have not yet been studied. We investigated the effects of JA treatment on the direct and indirect resistance of sugarcane to the key-pest and specialist herbivore Diatraea saccharalis and the generalist Spodoptera frugiperda. Indirect defences were examined by testing the attraction of Cotesia flavipes, a sugarcane-borer parasitoid, to JA-induced volatile...
April 24, 2017: Bulletin of Entomological Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431295/clove-and-rosemary-essential-oils-and-encapsuled-active-principles-eugenol-thymol-and-vanillin-blend-on-meat-quality-of-feedlot-finished-heifers
#3
Jéssica de Oliveira Monteschio, Kennyson Alves de Souza, Ana Carolina Pelaes Vital, Ana Guerrero, Maribel Velandia Valero, Emília Maria Barbosa Carvalho Kempinski, Vinícius Cunha Barcelos, Karina Favoreto Nascimento, Ivanor Nunes do Prado
Forty Nellore heifers were fed (73days) with different diets: with or without essential oils (clove and/or rosemary essential oil) and/or active principle blend (eugenol, thymol and vanillin). The pH, fat thickness, marbling, muscle area and water losses (thawing and drip) were evaluated 24h post mortem on the Longissimus thoracis, and the effects of aging (14days) was evaluated on the meat cooking losses, color, texture and lipid oxidation. Antioxidant activity was also evaluated. Treatments had no effect (P>0...
April 5, 2017: Meat Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415497/modeling-and-optimization-of-gelatin-chitosan-micro-carriers-preparation-for-soft-tissue-engineering-using-response-surface-methodology
#4
Payam Radaei, Shohreh Mashayekhan, Saeid Vakilian
Electrospray ionization is a wide spread technique for producing polymeric microcarriers (MCs) by applying electrostatic force and ionic cross-linker, simultaneously. In this study, fabrication process of gelatin-chitosan MCs and its optimization using the Response Surface Methodology (RSM) is reported. Gelatin/chitosan (G/C) blend ratio, applied voltage and feeding flow rate, their individual and interaction effects on the diameter and mechanical strength of the MCs were investigated. The obtained models for diameter and mechanical strength of MCs have a quadratic relationship with G/C blend ratio, applied voltage and feeding flow rate...
June 1, 2017: Materials Science & Engineering. C, Materials for Biological Applications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405915/does-aphid-infestation-interfere-with-indirect-plant-defense-against-lepidopteran-caterpillars-in-wild-cabbage
#5
Yehua Li, Berhane T Weldegergis, Surachet Chamontri, Marcel Dicke, Rieta Gols
Attraction of parasitoids to plant volatiles induced by multiple herbivory depends on the specific combinations of attacking herbivore species, especially when their feeding modes activate different defense signalling pathways as has been reported for phloem feeding aphids and tissue feeding caterpillars. We studied the effects of pre-infestation with non-host aphids (Brevicoryne brassicae) for two different time periods on the ability of two parasitoid species to discriminate between volatiles emitted by plants infested by host caterpillars alone and those emitted by plants infested with host caterpillars plus aphids...
April 12, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403232/an-oil-containing-epa-and-dha-from-transgenic-camelina-sativa-to-replace-marine-fish-oil-in-feeds-for-atlantic-salmon-salmo-salar-l-effects-on-intestinal-transcriptome-histology-tissue-fatty-acid-profiles-and-plasma-biochemistry
#6
Mónica B Betancor, Keshuai Li, Matthew Sprague, Tora Bardal, Olga Sayanova, Sarah Usher, Lihua Han, Kjell Måsøval, Ole Torrissen, Johnathan A Napier, Douglas R Tocher, Rolf Erik Olsen
New de novo sources of omega 3 (n-3) long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA) are required as alternatives to fish oil in aquafeeds in order to maintain adequate levels of the beneficial fatty acids, eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic (EPA and DHA, respectively). The present study investigated the use of an EPA+DHA oil derived from transgenic Camelina sativa in Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) feeds containing low levels of fishmeal (35%) and fish oil (10%), reflecting current commercial formulations, to determine the impacts on tissue fatty acid profile, intestinal transcriptome, and health of farmed salmon...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28399295/relatively-small-quantities-of-co2-ammonium-bicarbonate-and-a-blend-of-e-2-hexenal-plus-e-2-octenal-attract-bed-bugs-hemiptera-cimicidae
#7
John F Anderson, Francis J Ferrandino, Michael P Vasil, Robert H Bedoukian, Marie Maher, Karen Mckenzie
Bed bugs, Cimex lectularius L., feed on humans, have increased exponentially in the past two decades in many major cities throughout the world, have caused intense infestations, and have become a significant health concern. Improved traps are needed to detect early infestations, to assess control programs, and for control of bed bugs. Carbon dioxide released alone or simultaneously with other attractants into three types of traps at the relatively low rate of 1 ml/min caught significantly more bed bugs than untreated controls in a 183- by 183-cm arena...
March 1, 2017: Journal of Medical Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28380615/impact-of-feeding-de-oiled-wet-distillers-grains-plus-solubles-on-beef-shelf-life
#8
K I Domenech-Pérez, C R Calkins, M D Chao, M E Semler, K A Varnold, G E Erickson
Research was conducted to determine the effect of feeding de-oiled wet distillers grains plus solubles (WDGS) on beef fatty acid profile, retail shelf life and development of oxidation products during retail display (RD). A total of 336 crossbred yearling steers (initial BW = 351.08 ± 19.05 kg) were fed 1 of 7 dietary treatments: an all corn control (1:1 blend of dry rolled and high moisture corn), 35%, 50%, or 65% inclusion of WDGS, either full-fat or de-oiled. Within each treatment 15 Choice carcasses were randomly selected ( = 105), strip loins were obtained, aged 7 and 21 d, and representative steaks from each strip loin were placed in RD conditions for 7 d...
February 2017: Journal of Animal Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28369505/predator-preference-for-bt-fed-spodoptera-frugiperda-lepidoptera-noctuidae-prey-implications-for-insect-resistance-management-in-bt-maize-seed-blends
#9
Z Svobodová, E C Burkness, O Skoková Habuštová, W D Hutchison
Understanding indirect, trophic-level effects of genetically engineered plants, expressing insecticidal proteins derived from the bacterium, Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt), is essential to the ecological risk assessment process. In this study, we examine potential indirect, trophic-level effects of Bt-sensitive prey using the predator, Harmonia axyridis (Pallas), feeding upon Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith) larvae, which had delayed development (lower body mass) following ingestion of Cry1Ab maize leaves. We found no adverse effects on development and survival when H...
March 28, 2017: Journal of Economic Entomology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28364832/investigation-of-in-feed-organic-acids-as-a-low-cost-strategy-to-combat-salmonella-in-grower-pigs
#10
H Lynch, F C Leonard, K Walia, P G Lawlor, G Duffy, S Fanning, B K Markey, C Brady, G E Gardiner, H Argüello
Salmonella carriage in pigs is a significant food safety issue. Dietary supplementation with organic acids has previously been shown to reduce shedding and transmission of Salmonella. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the effect of three commercially available organic acid-based products on Salmonella levels in grower pigs, using a model of experimental infection that closely mimics natural exposure to the organism. Seven week old trial pigs (n=40) with a mean weight of 14.7kg were placed in one of four pens with 10 pigs/pen...
April 1, 2017: Preventive Veterinary Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28323098/an-innovative-method-for-the-preparation-of-high-api-loaded-hollow-spherical-granules-for-use-in-controlled-release-formulation
#11
Takumi Asada, Mitsuaki Kobiki, Yasushi Ochiai, Yasunori Iwao, Shigeru Itai
The aim of this study was to prepare controlled-release (CR) granules with suitable particle strength, flowability, particle size distribution (PSD) and density characteristics for blending with other excipients. We also wanted these CR granules to contain large quantities of active pharmaceutical ingredient (API). A high shear mixer was used to mix an API with various polymers at various feed ratios, and the resulting granulated materials were sprayed with solvent. The wet granules were dried using a fluidized bed dryer to give CR granules...
March 18, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28315891/results-with-complementary-food-using-local-food-ingredients
#12
Tahmeed Ahmed, Munirul Islam, Nuzhat Choudhury, Iqbal Hossain, Sayeeda Huq, Mustafa Mahfuz, Shafiqul Alam Sarker
Appropriate complementary food is a must for optimum growth of infants and children. The food should be diverse and be given in sufficient quantities 2-4 times a day depending upon age. Poverty, food insecurity, and lack of awareness regarding the choice of nutritious food ingredients are deterrents to optimum complementary feeding. In Bangladesh, 77% of children do not receive appropriate complementary food and, hence, the high prevalence of childhood malnutrition. We developed ready-to-use complementary foods (RUCFs) using locally available food ingredients, rice/lentil and chickpea, which conform to standard specifications...
2017: Nestlé Nutrition Institute Workshop Series
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28314373/structured-nanoparticles-from-the-self-assembly-of-polymer-blends-through-rapid-solvent-exchange
#13
Nannan Li, Athanassios Z Panagiotopoulos, Arash Nikoubashman
Molecular dynamics simulations were performed to study systematically the rapid mixing of a polymer blend in solution with a miscible nonsolvent. In agreement with experiments, we observe that polymers self-assemble into complex nanoparticles, such as Janus and core-shell particles, when the good solvent is displaced by the poor solvent. The emerging structures can be predicted on the basis of the surface tensions between the polymers as well as between the polymers and the surrounding liquid. Furthermore, the size of the nanoparticles can be independently tuned through the mixing rate and the polymer concentration in the feed stream; meanwhile, the composition of the nanoparticles can be controlled by the polymer feed ratio...
March 27, 2017: Langmuir: the ACS Journal of Surfaces and Colloids
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28303046/antioxidant-activity-and-polyphenolic-compound-stability-of-lentil-orange-peel-powder-blend-in-an-extrusion-process
#14
Rahul P Rathod, Uday S Annapure
Lentil contains substantial amount of protein, carbohydrate, fibre and other nutrients and orange peels powder rich in carbohydrate and fiber content The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of extrusion processing parameter on the level of total phenolic content (TPC), total flavonoid content (TFC), total tannin content and antioxidant activity of lentil-orange peel powder blend, also to investigate the possibility of blend as a candidate for production of protein rich extruded product by using response surface methodology...
March 2017: Journal of Food Science and Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28285981/novel-budesonide-particles-for-dry-powder-inhalation-dpi-prepared-using-a-microfluidic-reactor-coupled-with-ultrasonic-spray-freeze-drying
#15
Denis Saboti, Uroš Maver, Hak-Kim Chan, Odon Planinšek
Budesonide is a potent active pharmaceutical ingredient, often administered using respiratory devices such as metered dose inhalers (MDI), nebulizers and dry powder inhalers (DPI). Inhalable drug particles are conventionally produced by crystallization followed by milling. This approach tends to generate partially amorphous materials that require post-processing to improve the formulations' stability. Other methods involve homogenization or precipitation and often require the use of stabilizers, mostly surfactants...
March 9, 2017: Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28273579/novel-modified-poly-vinyl-chloride-blend-membranes-for-removal-of-heavy-metals-from-mixed-ion-feed-sample
#16
Vignesh Nayak, M S Jyothi, R Geetha Balakrishna, Mahesh Padaki, Sebastien Deon
Herein, an attempt has been made to prepare a novel membrane with good efficiency for removal of heavy metal ions namely lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd) and chromium (Cr). 4-amino benzoic acid (ABA) was covalently grafted onto the poly vinyl chloride (PVC) backbone by CN bond to enhance the hydrophilicity. (1)H NMR and ATR-IR spectroscopy analysis confirmed the chemical modification of PVC. Further the modified polymer was blended in different compositions with polysulfone (PSf) for optimization. Morphological changes that occurred in blend membranes, due to the incorporation of modified PVC was studied by AFM and SEM techniques...
February 27, 2017: Journal of Hazardous Materials
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249605/cultivable-gut-bacteria-provide-a-pathway-for-adaptation-of-chrysolina-herbacea-to-mentha-aquatica-volatiles
#17
Graziano Pizzolante, Chiara Cordero, Salvatore M Tredici, Davide Vergara, Paola Pontieri, Luigi Del Giudice, Andrea Capuzzo, Patrizia Rubiolo, Chidananda N Kanchiswamy, Simon A Zebelo, Carlo Bicchi, Massimo E Maffei, Pietro Alifano
BACKGROUND: A chemical cross-talk between plants and insects is required in order to achieve a successful co-adaptation. In response to herbivory, plants produce specific compounds, and feeding insects respond adequately7 to molecules produced by plants. Here we show the role of the gut microbial community of the mint beetle Chrysolina herbacea in the chemical cross-talk with Mentha aquatica (or watermint). RESULTS: By using two-dimensional gas chromatography-mass spectrometry we first evaluated the chemical patterns of both M...
March 2, 2017: BMC Plant Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28249376/effects-of-a-specific-blend-of-essential-oils-on-apparent-nutrient-digestion-rumen-fermentation-and-rumen-microbial-populations-in-sheep-fed-a-50-50-alfalfa-hay-concentrate-diet
#18
N Khateri, O Azizi, H Jahani-Azizabadi
OBJECTIVE: An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of a specific mixture of essential oils (MEO), containing thyme, clove and cinnamon EO, on rumen microbial fermentation, nutrient apparent digestibility and blood metabolites in fistulated sheep. METHODS: Six sheep fitted with ruminal fistulas were used in a repeated measurement design with two 24-d periods to investigate the effect of adding MEO at 0 (control), 0.8, and 1.6 mL/d on apparent nutrient digestibility, rumen fermentation characteristics, rumen microbial population and blood chemical metabolites...
March 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28237592/enteric-methane-production-in-lactating-dairy-cows-with-continuous-feeding-of-essential-oils-or-rotational-feeding-of-essential-oils-and-lauric-acid
#19
G Klop, J Dijkstra, K Dieho, W H Hendriks, A Bannink
Rumen microbes can adapt to feed additives, which may make the decrease in enteric CH4 production upon feeding an additive a transient response only. This study investigated alternate feeding of 2 CH4 mitigating feed additives with a different mode of action on persistency of lowering CH4 production compared with feeding a single additive over a period of 10 wk. Four pairs of cows were selected, and within pairs, cows were randomly assigned to either the control (AR-AR) or the alternating (AR-LA) concentrate treatment...
May 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28231698/effect-of-feeding-of-blend-of-essential-oils-on-methane-production-growth-nutrient-utilization-in-growing-buffaloes
#20
M A Yatoo, L C Chaudhary, Neeta Agarwal, V B Chaturvedi, D N Kamra
Objective: An experiment was conducted to study the effect of a blend of essential oils (BEO) on enteric methane emission and growth performance of buffaloes (Bubalus bubalis). Methods: Twenty one growing male buffaloes (average body weight of 279 ± 9.3 kg) were divided in to three groups. The animals of all the three groups were fed on a ration consisting of wheat straw and concentrate mixture targeting 500g daily live weight gain. The three dietary groups were; Group1: control without additive, Group 2 and 3: supplemented with BEO @ 0...
February 23, 2017: Asian-Australasian Journal of Animal Sciences
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