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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316931/nutritional-adequacy-of-a-novel-human-milk-fortifier-from-donkey-milk-in-feeding-preterm-infants-study-protocol-of-a-randomized-controlled-clinical-trial
#1
Alessandra Coscia, Enrico Bertino, Paola Tonetto, Chiara Peila, Francesco Cresi, Sertac Arslanoglu, Guido E Moro, Elena Spada, Silvano Milani, Marzia Giribaldi, Sara Antoniazzi, Amedeo Conti, Laura Cavallarin
BACKGROUND: Fortification of human milk is a standard practice for feeding very low birth weight infants. However, preterm infants often still experience suboptimal growth and feeding intolerance. New fortification strategies and different commercially available fortifiers have been developed. Commercially available fortifiers are constituted by a blend of ingredients from different sources, including plant oils and bovine milk proteins, thus presenting remarkable differences in the quality of macronutrients with respect to human milk...
January 9, 2018: Nutrition Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278486/mesh-embedded-polysulfone-psu-sulfonated-polysulfone-spsu-supported-thin-film-composite-membranes-for-forward-osmosis
#2
Yuntao Zhao, Xiao Wang, Yiwei Ren, Desheng Pei
In this work, mesh-embedded polysulfone (PSU)/sulfonated polysulfone (sPSU) supported thin film composite (TFC) membranes were developed for forward osmosis (FO). The robust mesh integrated in PSU/sPSU sublayer imparts impressive mechanical durability. The blending of hydrophilic sPSU in PSU sublayer affects the hydrophilicity, porosity, pore structure and pore size of mesh-embedded PSU/sPSU substrates, and the total thickness, crosslinking degree and roughness of the corresponding TFC-FO membrane active layers...
December 26, 2017: ACS Applied Materials & Interfaces
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29278377/media-screening-for-obtaining-haematococcus-pluvialis-red-motile-macrozooids-rich-in-astaxanthin-and-fatty-acids
#3
Thomas O Butler, Gordon J McDougall, Raymond Campbell, Michele S Stanley, John G Day
Astaxanthin from Haematococcus pluvialis is commercially produced in a two-stage process, involving green vegetative (macrozooid) and red aplanospore stages. This approach has been scaled up to an industrial process but constraints limit its commercial success and profitability, including: contamination issues, high pigment extraction costs, requirements for high light levels and photo-bleaching in the red stage. However, in addition to the aplanospore stage, this alga can produce astaxanthin in vegetative palmelloid and motile macrozooid cells...
December 26, 2017: Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29277668/lubricant-based-determination-of-design-space-for-continuously-manufactured-high-dose-paracetamol-tablets
#4
Krista Taipale-Kovalainen, Anssi-Pekka Karttunen, Jarkko Ketolainen, Ossi Korhonen
The objective of this study was to devise robust and stable continuous manufacturing process settings, by exploring the design space after an investigation of the lubrication-based parameters influencing the continuous direct compression tableting of high dose paracetamol tablets. Experimental design was used to generate a structured study plan which involved 19 runs. The formulation variables studied were the type of lubricant (magnesium stearate or stearic acid) and its concentration (0.5, 1.0 and 1.5%). Process variables were total production feed rate (5, 10...
December 22, 2017: European Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29274122/zoophytophagous-mirids-provide-pest-control-by-inducing-direct-defences-antixenosis-and-attraction-to-parasitoids-in-sweet-pepper-plants
#5
Sarra Bouagga, Alberto Urbaneja, José L Rambla, Víctor Flors, Antonio Granell, Josep A Jaques, Meritxell Pérez-Hedo
BACKGROUND: In addition to their services as predators, mirid predators are able to induce plant defences by phytophagy. However, whether this induction occurs in sweet pepper and whether it could be an additional benefit to their role as biological control agent in this crop remains unknown. Here, these questions are investigated in two model insects, the mirids Nesidiocoris tenuis and Macrolophus pygmaeus. RESULTS: Plant feeding behaviour was observed in both N...
December 23, 2017: Pest Management Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29241701/production-of-cocrystals-in-an-excipient-matrix-by-spray-drying
#6
David Walsh, Dolores R Serrano, Zelalem Ayenew Worku, Brid A Norris, Anne Marie Healy
Spray drying is a well-established scale-up technique for the production of cocrystals. However, to the best of our knowledge, the effect of introducing a third component into the feed solution during the spray drying process has never been investigated. Cocrystal formation in the presence of a third component by a one-step spray drying process has the potential to reduce the number of unit operations which are required to produce a final pharmaceutical product (e.g. by eliminating blending with excipient)...
December 11, 2017: International Journal of Pharmaceutics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29185782/reemergence-of-blended-tube-feeding-and-parent-s-reported-experiences-in-their-tube-fed-children
#7
Teresa W Johnson, Amy L Spurlock, Lisa Epp, Ryan T Hurt, Manpreet S Mundi
OBJECTIVE: Healthcare providers (HCPs) report increased interest in blenderized tube feeding (BTF) as an alternative to commercial formula (CF) feeding-particularly in families of tube fed children. The objective of this study was to explore parents' reported experiences of CF and BTF in their children. DESIGN: Prospective descriptive study utilizing a convenience sample. SETTING/SUBJECTS: Parents (n = 433) of tube fed children in an online tube feeding support group completed an electronic survey to compare experiences of CF and BTF in their tube fed children...
November 29, 2017: Journal of Alternative and Complementary Medicine: Research on Paradigm, Practice, and Policy
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29177897/attraction-of-three-mirid-predators-to-tomato-infested-by-both-the-tomato-leaf-mining-moth-tuta-absoluta-and-the-whitefly-bemisia-tabaci
#8
Diego B Silva, Vanda H P Bueno, Joop J A Van Loon, Maria Fernanda G V Peñaflor, José Maurício S Bento, Joop C Van Lenteren
Plants emit volatile compounds in response to insect herbivory, which may play multiple roles as defensive compounds and mediators of interactions with other plants, microorganisms and animals. Herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) may act as indirect plant defenses by attracting natural enemies of the attacking herbivore. We report here the first evidence of the attraction of three Neotropical mirid predators (Macrolophus basicornis, Engytatus varians and Campyloneuropsis infumatus) toward plants emitting volatiles induced upon feeding by two tomato pests, the leaf miner Tuta absoluta and the phloem feeder Bemisia tabaci, in olfactometer bioassays...
November 25, 2017: Journal of Chemical Ecology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29152249/a-survey-of-feeding-activity-supplement-use-and-energy-consumption-in-north-american-agility-dogs
#9
Gina K Dinallo, Jennifer A Poplarski, Gretchen M Van Deventer, Laura A Eirmann, Joseph J Wakshlag
A survey was designed and administered at eighteen agility competitions across the Northeast and Midwest USA in 2015 to obtain information regarding competition level, training, feeding practices, owner-reported weight, body condition score (BCS) and supplement use. Average energy intake per d from reported consumption was assessed for all dogs in ideal body condition based on manufacturers' or US Department of Agriculture database information. To assess the respective parameters across competition levels (novice, open, master/elite), non-parametric or parametric ANOVA or χ(2) was used to determine significance...
2017: Journal of Nutritional Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29151385/the-compositional-and-metabolic-responses-of-gilthead-seabream-sparus-aurata-to-a-gradient-of-dietary-fish-oil-and-associated-n-3-long-chain-pufa-content
#10
Sam J S Houston, Vasileios Karalazos, John Tinsley, Mónica B Betancor, Samuel A M Martin, Douglas R Tocher, Oscar Monroig
The replacement of fish oil (FO) with vegetable oil (VO) in feed formulations reduces the availability of n-3 long-chain PUFA (LC-PUFA) to marine fish such as gilthead seabream. The aim of this study was to examine compositional and physiological responses to a dietary gradient of n-3 LC-PUFA. Six iso-energetic and iso-nitrogenous diets (D1-D6) were fed to seabream, with the added oil being a blend of FO and VO to achieve a dietary gradient of n-3 LC-PUFA. Fish were sampled after 4 months feeding, to determine biochemical composition, tissue fatty acid concentrations and lipid metabolic gene expression...
November 20, 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29115143/inclusion-levels-and-modes-of-whole-grain-incorporation-into-wheat-based-rations-differentially-influence-the-performance-of-broiler-chickens
#11
A F Moss, H H Truong, S Y Liu, P H Selle
1. The objective was to compare three whole grain inclusion levels (7.5, 15 and 30%) offered to broiler chickens by three modes of whole grain (WG) incorporation: (i) pre-pellet WG inclusion, (ii) post-pellet WG inclusion as a blend of WG and pelleted concentrate and (iii) post-pellet WG inclusion where WG and pelleted concentrate were provided in separate feed trays against a ground-grain, wheat-based control diet. 2. Ten dietary treatments was offered to 6 replicate cages (6 birds per cage) of male Ross 308 chickens from 7 to 28 d post-hatch...
November 8, 2017: British Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29103727/effect-of-milk-replacer-feeding-rate-age-at-weaning-and-method-of-reducing-milk-replacer-to-weaning-on-digestion-performance-rumination-and-activity-in-dairy-calves-to-4-months-of-age
#12
T S Dennis, F X Suarez-Mena, T M Hill, J D Quigley, R L Schlotterbeck, L Hulbert
The objectives of this study were to evaluate calf performance, diet digestibility, and rumination activity when feeding 4 milk replacer (MR) feeding programs. Male Holstein calves (n = 96; 43 ± 1.2 kg of body weight; 1 to 2 d of age) were housed in individual pens for 56 d. Calves were fed a common MR [25% crude protein (CP), 17% fat, dry matter (DM) basis]. Feeding programs were (1) 0.66 kg of DM/d of MR and weaning at 42 d (MOD6); (2) up to 1.09 kg of DM/d of MR weaned at 42 d (HIGH6); (3) up to 1.09 kg of DM/d of MR weaned at 53 d (HIGH8); and (4) up to 1...
November 2, 2017: Journal of Dairy Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29092882/complementary-feeding-with-cowpea-reduces-growth-faltering-in-rural-malawian-infants-a-blind-randomized-controlled-clinical-trial
#13
RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL
Kevin B Stephenson, Sophia E Agapova, Oscar Divala, Yankho Kaimila, Kenneth M Maleta, Chrissie Thakwalakwa, M Isabel Ordiz, Indi Trehan, Mark J Manary
Background: Growth faltering is common in rural African children and is attributed to inadequate dietary intake and environmental enteric dysfunction (EED).Objective: We tested the hypothesis that complementary feeding with cowpea or common bean flour would reduce growth faltering and EED in 6-mo-old rural Malawians compared with the control group receiving a corn-soy blend.Design: A prospective, double-blind, randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted in which children received daily feeding for 6 mo (200 kcal/d when 6-9 mo old and 300 kcal/d when 10-12 mo old)...
December 2017: American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29089626/anti-obesity-effect-of-a-traditional-chinese-dietary-habit-blending-lard-with-vegetable-oil-while-cooking
#14
Ji Wang, Sisi Yan, Haisi Xiao, Huijuan Zhou, Shuiping Liu, Yu Zeng, Biying Liu, Rongfang Li, Zhihang Yuan, Jing Wu, Jine Yi, Yarou Bao Sero Razack, Lixin Wen
Obesity, which is associated with dietary habits, has become a global social problem and causes many metabolic diseases. In China, both percentages of adult obesity and overweight are far lower compared to western countries. It was designed to increase the two levels of daily intake in human, namely 3.8% and 6.5%, which are recommendatory intake (25 g/d) and Chinese citizens' practical intake (41.4 g/d), respectively. The mice were respectively fed with feeds added with soybean oil, lard or the oil blended by both for 12 weeks...
October 31, 2017: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077962/influence-of-emulsifier-blends-having-different-hydrophilic-lipophilic-balance-value-on-growth-performance-nutrient-digestibility-serum-lipid-profiles-and-meat-quality-of-broilers
#15
S D Upadhaya, Ju Seong Lee, Kyoung Jin Jung, I H Kim
Energy is a major cost component in diets for poultry. We hypothesized that the supplementation of emulsifier blends in broiler diets may contribute to the efficient utilization of energy and in increasing fat digestibility, thereby improving performance. To test our hypothesis, an experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of a blend of emulsifiers on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, serum lipid profiles, and meat quality of broilers. A total of 768 1-d-old Ross 308 male broiler chicks with an average initial body weight of 45...
January 1, 2018: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29077888/effects-of-direct-fed-microorganisms-and-enzyme-blend-co-administration-on-intestinal-bacteria-in-broilers-fed-diets-with-or-without-antibiotics
#16
T E Askelson, C A Flores, S L Dunn-Horrocks, Y Dersjant-Li, K Gibbs, A Awati, J T Lee, T Duong
Direct-fed microorganisms (DFM) and exogenous enzymes have been demonstrated to improve growth performance in poultry and are potentially important alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters (AGP). We investigated the administration of a feed additive composed of a DFM product containing spores of 3 Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strains and an enzyme blend of endo-xylanase, α-amylase, and serine-protease in diets with or without sub-therapeutic antibiotics in broiler chickens over a 42-d growth period. Evaluation of growth performance determined feed efficiency of broiler chickens which were administered the feed additive was comparable to those fed a diet containing AGPs...
October 25, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29052769/terpenoid-biosynthesis-in-arabidopsis-attacked-by-caterpillars-and-aphids-effects-of-aphid-density-on-the-attraction-of-a-caterpillar-parasitoid
#17
Anneke Kroes, Berhane T Weldegergis, Francesco Cappai, Marcel Dicke, Joop J A van Loon
One of the responses of plants to insect attack is the production of volatile organic compounds that mediate indirect defence of plants by attracting natural enemies of the attacking herbivores. Herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) include terpenoids that play key roles in the attraction of natural enemies. Crosstalk between phytohormonal signalling pathways is well known to affect the regulation of plant defences, including the emission of HIPVs. Thus, simultaneous feeding on the same plant by caterpillars and aphids, can affect the attraction of parasitoids by the plant compared to single insect attack...
December 2017: Oecologia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29050427/brazil-nut-meal-and-spray-dried-egg-powders-as-alternatives-to-synthetic-methionine-in-organic-laying-hen-diets
#18
H K Burley, P H Patterson
The United States organic poultry industry is currently facing a limitation on dietary inclusion of synthetic methionine (Met). This study investigated Brazil nut protein powder (BNPP), spray-dried egg white (SDEW), and spray-dried egg blend (70:30 albumen: yolk) (SDEB) as alternatives to synthetic Met in organic laying hen diets. A total of 270 Hy-Line Brown laying hens was fed 5 diets from 22 to 38 wk of age, with 6 replicates of 3 adjacent cages per diet and 3 hens per cage. Diets included a commercial control (COM) (non-organic with standard CP and synthetic Met), an organic control (ORG) (with no synthetic Met, but higher CP to meet Met requirements), and 3 organic treatment diets with no synthetic Met, but including BNPP, SDEW, or SDEB at levels to meet Met requirements...
September 1, 2017: Poultry Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29044662/the-terpene-synthase-gene-family-in-gossypium-hirsutum-harbors-a-linalool-synthase-ghtps12-implicated-in-direct-defense-responses-against-herbivores
#19
Xin-Zheng Huang, Yu-Tao Xiao, Tobias G Köllner, Wei-Xia Jing, Jun-Feng Kou, Jie-Yin Chen, Dan-Feng Liu, Shao-Hua Gu, Jun-Xiang Wu, Yong-Jun Zhang, Yu-Yuan Guo
Herbivore-induced terpenes have been reported to function as ecological signals in plant-insect interactions. Here we showed that insect-induced cotton volatile blends contained 16 terpenoid compounds with a relatively high level of linalool. The high diversity of terpene production is derived from a large terpene synthase (TPS) gene family. The TPS gene family of Gossypium hirsutum and G. raimondii consist of 46 and 41 members, respectively. Twelve TPS genes (GhTPS4-15) could be isolated and protein expression in E...
October 18, 2017: Plant, Cell & Environment
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29039295/effects-of-feeding-low-fishmeal-diets-with-increasing-soybean-meal-levels-on-growth-gut-histology-and-plasma-biochemistry-of-sea-bass
#20
E Bonvini, A Bonaldo, L Mandrioli, R Sirri, F Dondi, C Bianco, R Fontanillas, F Mongile, P P Gatta, L Parma
The aquaculture industry depends upon the development of sustainable protein sources to replace fishmeal (FM) in aquafeeds and the products derived from soybeans are some of the most studied plant feedstuffs. A key area of investigation for continuing to improve modern aquafeeds includes the evaluation of varying proportions and combinations of plant ingredients to identify mixtures that are more efficiently utilized by the fish. This study investigated the effects of increasing soybean meal (SBM) by replacing a mix of plant ingredients in low FM (20%) diets on growth, blood biochemistry profile and gut histology on European sea bass...
October 17, 2017: Animal: An International Journal of Animal Bioscience
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