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Yu Xue, Juanjuan Xie, Pan Fang, Jun Yao, Guoquan Yan, Huali Shen, Pengyuan Yang
Glycosylation is a crucial process in protein biosynthesis. However, the analysis of glycopeptides through MS remains challenging due to the microheterogeneity and macroheterogeneity of the glycoprotein. Selective enrichment of glycopeptides from complex samples prior to MS analysis is essential for successful glycoproteome research. In this work, we systematically investigated the behaviors and performances of boronic acid chemistry, ZIC-HILIC, and PGC of glycopeptide enrichment to promote understanding of these methods...
March 20, 2018: Analyst
Katsuji Haneda, Takefumi Oishi, Hiroshi Kimura, Toshiyuki Inazu
A microbioreactor immobilized with a synthase-type mutant enzyme, Endo-M-N175Q (glycosynthase) of endo-β-N-acetylglucosaminidase derived from Mucor hiemalis (Endo-M), was constructed and used for glycoconjugate synthesis. The transglycosylation was performed with a reaction mixture containing an oxazoline derivative of sialo complex-type glycoside (SG), which was prepared from a sialo complex-type glycopeptide SGP derived from hen egg yolk, as a glycosyl donor and N-Fmoc-N-acetylglucosaminyl-l-asparagine [Fmoc-Asn(GlcNAc)-OH] as an acceptor...
March 9, 2018: Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry
Yoshio Takesue, Shinya Kusachi, Hiroshige Mikamo, Junko Sato, Akira Watanabe, Hiroshi Kiyota, Satoshi Iwata, Mitsuo Kaku, Hideaki Hanaki, Yoshinobu Sumiyama, Yuko Kitagawa, Kazuhiko Nakajima, Takashi Ueda, Motoi Uchino, Toru Mizuguchi, Yoshiyasu Ambo, Masafumi Konosu, Keiichiro Ishibashi, Akihisa Matsuda, Kazuo Hase, Yasushi Harihara, Koji Okabayashi, Shiko Seki, Takuo Hara, Koshi Matsui, Yoichi Matsuo, Minako Kobayashi, Shoji Kubo, Kazuhisa Uchiyama, Junzo Shimizu, Ryohei Kawabata, Hiroki Ohge, Shinji Akagi, Masaaki Oka, Toshiro Wakatsuki, Katsunori Suzuki, Kohji Okamoto, Katsunori Yanagihara
The principle of empirical therapy for patients with intra-abdominal infections (IAI) should include antibiotics with activity against Enterobacteriaceae and Bacteroides fragilis group species. Coverage of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacter cloacae, and Enterococcus faecalis is also recommended for hospital-associated IAI. A nationwide survey was conducted to investigate the antimicrobial susceptibility of pathogens isolated from postoperative IAI. All 504 isolates were collected at 26 institutions and referred to a central laboratory for susceptibility testing...
March 16, 2018: Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy: Official Journal of the Japan Society of Chemotherapy
Daniela Fera, Matthew S Lee, Kevin Wiehe, R Ryan Meyerhoff, Alessandro Piai, Mattia Bonsignori, Baptiste Aussedat, William E Walkowicz, Therese Ton, Jeffrey O Zhou, Samuel Danishefsky, Barton F Haynes, Stephen C Harrison
HIV-1 envelope (Env) mimetics are candidate components of prophylactic vaccines and potential therapeutics. Here we use a synthetic V3-glycopeptide ("Man9 -V3") for structural studies of an HIV Env third variable loop (V3)-glycan directed, broadly neutralizing antibody (bnAb) lineage ("DH270"), to visualize the epitope on Env and to study how affinity maturation of the lineage proceeded. Unlike many previous V3 mimetics, Man9 -V3 encompasses two key features of the V3 region recognized by V3-glycan bnAbs-the conserved GDIR motif and the N332 glycan...
March 16, 2018: Nature Communications
Chunhua Wang, Dongmei Lin, Quan Chen, Shuqian Lin, Songsheng Shi, Chunmei Chen
The Ganoderma lucidum ( G. lucidum ) mushroom is one of the most extensively studied functional foods, known for its numerous health benefits, including the inhibition of tumor cell growth. The present study assessed the anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activity of a novel G. lucidum polysaccharide peptide (GL-PP) in human glioma U251 cells, which was purified from grass-cultured G. lucidum . GL-PP is a glycopeptide with an average molecular weight of 42,635 Da and a polysaccharide-to-peptide ratio of 88...
April 2018: Oncology Letters
Annika Wahl, Erik van den Akker, Lucija Klaric, Jerko Štambuk, Elisa Benedetti, Rosina Plomp, Genadij Razdorov, Irena Trbojević-Akmačić, Joris Deelen, Diana van Heemst, P Eline Slagboom, Frano Vučković, Harald Grallert, Jan Krumsiek, Konstantin Strauch, Annette Peters, Thomas Meitinger, Caroline Hayward, Manfred Wuhrer, Marian Beekman, Gordan Lauc, Christian Gieger
Immunoglobulin G (IgG), a glycoprotein secreted by plasma B-cells, plays a major role in the human adaptive immune response and are associated with a wide range of diseases. Glycosylation of the Fc binding region of IgGs, responsible for the antibody's effector function, is essential for prompting a proper immune response. This study focuses on the general genetic impact on IgG glycosylation as well as corresponding subclass specificities. To identify genetic loci involved in IgG glycosylation, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) on liquid chromatography electrospray mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS)-measured IgG glycopeptides of 1,823 individuals in the Cooperative Health Research in the Augsburg Region (KORA F4) study cohort...
2018: Frontiers in Immunology
Na Chen, Juan Xie
Nucleic acids and carbohydrates are essential biomolecules involved in numerous biological and pathological processes. Development of multifunctional building blocks based on nucleosides and sugars is in high demand for the generation of novel oligonucleotide mimics and glycoconjugates for biomedical applications. Recently, aminooxyl-functionalized compounds have attracted increasing research interest because of their easy derivatization through oxime ligation or N -oxyamide formation reactions. Various biological applications have been reported for O -amino carbohydrate- and nucleoside-derived compounds...
March 12, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Misato Muro, Yoshihiko Soga, Tomoko Higuchi, Kota Kataoka, Daisuke Ekuni, Yoshinobu Maeda, Manabu Morita
Severe oral mucositis occurs frequently in patients receiving hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT). Oral mucosal bacteria can be associated with progression of oral mucositis, and systemic infection may occur via ulcerative oral mucositis. However, little information is available regarding the oral microbiota after HCT. Here, PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) was performed to characterize the oral mucosal microbiota, which can be affected by antibiotics, before and after HCT. Sixty reduced-intensity HCT patients were enrolled...
March 12, 2018: Folia Microbiologica
Mary K Phillips-Jones, Stephen E Harding
In this review, we discuss mechanisms of resistance identified in bacterial agents Staphylococcus aureus and the enterococci towards two priority classes of antibiotics-the fluoroquinolones and the glycopeptides. Members of both classes interact with a number of components in the cells of these bacteria, so the cellular targets are also considered. Fluoroquinolone resistance mechanisms include efflux pumps (MepA, NorA, NorB, NorC, MdeA, LmrS or SdrM in S. aureus and EfmA or EfrAB in the enterococci) for removal of fluoroquinolone from the intracellular environment of bacterial cells and/or protection of the gyrase and topoisomerase IV target sites in Enterococcus faecalis by Qnr-like proteins...
March 10, 2018: Biophysical Reviews
S S Almarzoky Abuhussain, K J Goodlet, M D Nailor, D P Nicolau
Skin and skin structure infections (SSSIs) refer to a collection of clinical infectious syndromes involving layers of skin and associated soft tissues. Although associated with less morbidity and mortality than other common skin infections, SSSIs represent a significant increasing source of healthcare expense, with a prevalence of 500 episodes per 10,000 patient-years in the United States resulting in burdening health care systems, of approximately $6 billion annually. Areas covered: Opportunities to reduce costs of care associated with SSSI are highlighted, including transitions of care and avoiding unnecessary hospital admissions...
March 9, 2018: Expert Review of Pharmacoeconomics & Outcomes Research
Katarzyna Talaga, Dalma Odrowąż-Konduracka, Beata Paradowska, Barbara Jagiencarz-Starzec, Zdzisław Wolak, Małgorzata Bulanda, Anna Szczypta
BACKGROUND: In the Małopolska province, the first case of vancomycin resistant enterococci (VRE) occurrence was an outbreak in 2001 caused by strains of the genus E. faecium carrying the vanA operon. OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study is to determine the antimicrobial resistance and the occurrence of virulence determinants among Enterococcus spp. in patients hospitalized in the Małopolska region in 2015. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Antimicrobial susceptibility was determined by disc diffusion and the E test...
January 2018: Advances in Clinical and Experimental Medicine: Official Organ Wroclaw Medical University
Thalita Bento Talizin, Meiry Sayuri Tsuda, Marcos Toshiyuki Tanita, Ivanil Aparecida Moro Kauss, Josiane Festti, Cláudia Maria Dantas de Maio Carrilho, Cintia Magalhães Carvalho Grion, Lucienne Tibery Queiroz Cardoso
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the frequency of intra-abdominal hypertension in major burn patients and its association with the occurrence of acute kidney injury. METHODS: This was a prospective cohort study of a population of burn patients hospitalized in a specialized intensive care unit. A convenience sample was taken of adult patients hospitalized in the period from 1 August 2015 to 31 October 2016. Clinical and burn data were collected, and serial intra-abdominal pressure measurements taken...
March 1, 2018: Revista Brasileira de Terapia Intensiva
Zidan Wang, Runqing Wu, Hemei Chen, Nianrong Sun, Chunhui Deng
A novel zwitterionic hydrophilic magnetic mesoporous silica was prepared for endogenous glycopeptide enrichment prior to MS analysis. For the first time, the material was successfully applied in capturing endogenous glycopeptides from human saliva, indicating great potential of this strategy for glycopeptidome analysis.
March 6, 2018: Nanoscale
Peter Both, Michel Riese, Christopher J Gray, Kun Huang, Edward G Pallister, Iaroslav Kosov, Louis P Conway, Josef Voglmeir, Sabine L Flitsch
Within human biology, combinations of regioisomeric motifs of α2,6- or α2,3-sialic acids linked to galactose are frequently observed attached to glycoconjugates. These include glycoproteins and glycolipids, with each linkage carrying distinct biological information and function. Microbial linkage-specific sialidases have become important tools for studying the role of these sialosides in complex biological settings, as well as being used as biocatalysts for glycoengineering. However, currently, there is no α2,6-specific sialidase available...
February 28, 2018: Glycobiology
Guinevere Stevina Margaretha Kammeijer, Jan Nouta, Jean de la Rosette, Theo M de Reijke, Manfred Wuhrer
The concentration of prostate specific antigen (PSA) in serum is used as an early detection method of prostate cancer (PCa) showing, however, low sensitivity, specificity and a poor predictive value. Initial studies suggested the glycosylation of PSA to be a promising marker for a more specific yet non-invasive PCa diagnosis. Recent studies on the molecular features of PSA glycosylation (such as antenna modification and core fucosylation) were not successful in demonstrating its potential for an improved PCa diagnosis, probably due to the lack of analytical sensitivity and specificity of the applied assays...
March 4, 2018: Analytical Chemistry
Hyojin Chae, Jeong Joong Lee, Kyoungho Cha, Su Hyun Her, Hyo-Young Kim, Eunhee Han, Myungshin Kim, Yonggoo Kim, Sung-Yeon Cho, Dong-Gun Lee
BACKGROUND: Teicoplanin is a glycopeptide antibiotic that has become increasingly popular with the spread of methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The aim of the study was to develop and validate a UHPLC-MS/MS (ultra-high performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry) method for teicoplanin, and analyze trough teicoplanin concentrations achieved in patients with hematological diseases. METHODS: The UHPLC-MS/MS method for teicoplanin was developed, validated, and applied in a retrospective analysis of trough plasma teicoplanin concentrations from 305 patients receiving standard dose, and 17 patients receiving TDM-guided individualized dose...
February 27, 2018: Therapeutic Drug Monitoring
Sandra Fournier, Laure Desenfant, Catherine Monteil, Michèle Nion-Huang, Christian Richard, Vincent Jarlier, The Ap-Hp Outbreaks Control Group
An infection control programme was implemented in a 21,000-bed multihospital institution for controlling the spread of carbapenemase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (CPE) and glycopeptide-resistant Enterococcus faecium (GRE), classified as 'emergent extensively drug-resistant bacteria' (eXDR) in France. We evaluated factors associated with outbreaks occurrence (n = 103), which followed 901 eXDR introductions (index case followed or not by secondary cases) from 2010 to 2015. In univariate analysis, knowing that patients had been hospitalised abroad, bacterial species (GRE vs CPE, as well as the CPE Klebsiella pneumoniae compared with the other Enterobacteriaceae species) and type of measures implemented within the first 2 days of hospitalisation were associated with outbreaks occurrence, but not the type of wards where carriers were hospitalised, nor the eXDR colonisation or infection status...
February 2018: Euro Surveillance: Bulletin Européen sur les Maladies Transmissibles, European Communicable Disease Bulletin
Timothy D Shaw, D J Fairley, T Schneiders, M Pathiraja, R L R Hill, G Werner, J S Elborn, R McMullan
High-throughput sequencing (HTS) has successfully identified novel resistance genes in enterococci and determined clonal relatedness in outbreak analysis. We report the use of HTS to investigate two concurrent outbreaks of glycopeptide-resistant Enterococcus faecium (GRE) with an uncharacterised resistance mechanism to quinupristin-dalfopristin (QD). Seven QD-resistant and five QD-susceptible GRE isolates from a two-centre outbreak were studied. HTS was performed to identify genes or predicted proteins that were associated with the QD-resistant phenotype...
February 24, 2018: European Journal of Clinical Microbiology & Infectious Diseases
Anouk E Muller, Benedikt Huttner, Angela Huttner
Antibiotics are among the medications most frequently administered to the critically ill, a population with high levels of intra- and inter-individual pharmacokinetic variability. Our knowledge of the relationships among antibiotic dosing, exposure and clinical effect in this population has increased in recent decades. Therapeutic drug monitoring (TDM) of serum antibiotic concentrations is the most practical means of assessing adequate antibiotic exposure, though until recently, it has been underutilised for this end...
February 23, 2018: Drugs
François Lebreton, Michael D Valentino, Katharina Schaufler, Ashlee M Earl, Vincent Cattoir, Michael S Gilmore
Objectives: Vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium is a leading cause of MDR hospital infection. Two genetically definable populations of E. faecium have been identified: hospital-adapted MDR isolates (clade A) and vancomycin-susceptible commensal strains (clade B). VanN-type vancomycin resistance was identified in two isolates of E. faecium recovered from blood and faeces of an immunocompromised patient. To understand the genomic context in which VanN occurred in the hospitalized patient, the risk it posed for transmission in the hospital and its origins, it was of interest to determine where these strains placed within the E...
February 14, 2018: Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy
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