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urinary sodium

Pawel Szulc, Ez Zoubir Amri, Annie Varennes, Patricia Panaia-Ferrari, Eric Fontas, Joëlle Goudable, Roland Chapurlat, Véronique Breuil
AIM: Oxytocin regulates food intake, carbohydrate and lipid metabolism, and urinary sodium excretion. We assessed the association between serum oxytocin levels and presence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) in older men. METHODS: Cross-sectional study was performed in 540 volunteer men aged 50-85yrs from the MINOS cohort. Oxytocin was measured in fasting serum by radioimmunoassay (Oxytocin RIA, Phoenix Pharmaceuticals). MetS was diagnosed using the harmonized definition...
October 1, 2016: Diabetes Research and Clinical Practice
Robert G Hahn, Nina Grankvist, Camilla Krizhanovskii
OBJECTIVE: Renal conservation (retention) of fluid might affect the outcome of hospital care and can be indicated by increased urinary concentrations of metabolic waste products. We obtained a reference material for further studies by exploring the prevalence of fluid retention in a healthy population. METHODS: Spot urine sampling was performed in 300 healthy hospital workers. A previously validated algorithm summarized the urine-specific gravity, osmolality, creatinine, and color to a fluid retention index (FRI), where 4...
2016: PloS One
Jia-Rong Wu, Terry A Lennie, Sandra B Dunbar, Susan J Pressler, Debra K Moser
Sodium intake in heart failure (HF) is a crucial but poorly understood phenomenon. Theoretical models promote understanding and provide a context for rational appraisal of complex situations. The purpose of this study was to determine which factors were associated with sodium intake in HF patients using theory of planned behavior (TPB). In this study, patients' (N = 244) attitudes, subjective norms, and perceived behavioral control (tenets of the TPB) were assessed using the Dietary Sodium Restriction Questionnaire...
October 18, 2016: Western Journal of Nursing Research
Hideaki Kaneto, Atsushi Obata, Tomohiko Kimura, Masashi Shimoda, Seizo Okauchi, Naoki Shimo, Taka-Aki Matsuoka, Kohei Kaku
Type 2 diabetes mellitus is characterized by insulin resistance in various insulin target tissues such as the liver, adipose tissue and skeletal muscle, and insufficient insulin secretion from pancreatic β-cells. Sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors which are newly developed anti-diabetic agents decrease blood glucose levels by enhancing urinary glucose excretion and thereby function in an insulin-independent manner. SGLT2 inhibitors exert beneficial effects for the reduction of insulin resistance as well as for the preservation of pancreatic β-cell function...
October 18, 2016: Journal of Diabetes
Zhiming Zhu
Management of hypertension in diabetes is critical for reducing cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. Dietary approaches for controlling high blood pressure have historically focused on sodium. Thus, many guidelines recommend that patients with type 2 diabetes reduce high sodium intake. Nonetheless, the potential benefits of sodium reduction are debatable. The kidney has a crucial role in glucose filtration and reabsorption in addition to its regulation of fluid and electrolyte homeostasis. A key factor linking sodium uptake and glucose transport is the sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) in renal proximal tubular cells...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Leonardo Sechi, GIanLuca Colussi, Marileda Novello, Cristiana Catena
OBJECTIVE: Primary aldosteronism is associated with increased left ventricular mass independent of blood pressure levels. Previous studies suggest that elevated aldosterone causes cardiac damage only in the presence of an inappropriate salt status. We examined the relevance of dietary salt intake on cardiac changes in patients with primary aldosteronism before and after treatment. DESIGN AND METHOD: Sixty-five patients with tumoral or idiopathic primary aldosteronism were recruited at a University medical center and followed after either surgical (n = 30) or medical (n = 35) treatment...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Yen-Hung Lin, Chi-Sheng Hung, Chia-Hung Chou, Vin-Cent Wu, Che-Wei Liao, Yi-Yao Chang, Xue-Ming Wu, Kwan-Dun Wu
OBJECTIVE: High dietary salt and high aldosterone levels may be deleterious to cardiac structure in patients with primary aldosteronism (PA) in samll studies. However the relation among them still unclear. We investigated the association among dietary sodium intake, aldosterone levela and cardiac structure in patients with PA and essential hypertension (EH). DESIGN AND METHOD: This cross-sectional study enrolled 158 patients with confirmed PA and 158 patients with EH...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Asadur Rahman, Yui Takeshige, Yoshihide Fujisawa, Hirofumi Hitomi, Daisuke Nakano, Akira Nishiyama
OBJECTIVE: Disrupted circadian rhythm of blood pressure is associated with cardiovascular events in metabolic syndrome and obesity. Experiments were conducted to examine the effects of sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors on circadian rhythm of blood pressure in a genetic model of obese metabolic syndrome (SHR/NDmcr-cp (+/+) (SHRcp)) and salt-treated obese Otsuka Long Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats. DESIGN AND METHOD: Luseogliflozin (10 mg/kg/day, p...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Toshifumi Nakamura, Isao Kurihara, Sakiko Kobayashi, Kenichi Yokota, Ayano Murai-Takeda, Yuko Mitsuishi, Mitsuha Morisaki, Nao Kohata, Yosuke Oshima, Gunther Schutz, Hirotaka Shibata, Hiroshi Itoh
OBJECTIVE: Recent studies have unveiled cardiovascular pathological roles of mineralocorticoid receptor (MR) in many types of cells. Although we have confirmed high expression of MR in intestinal epithelial cells (IEC), that role in progression of cardiovascular diseases is yet to be elucidated. As intestine is the first gate sensing sodium intake, MR of this organ is expected to have essential roles in blood pressure (BP) regulation. This study investigated the role of MR in IEC by using IEC-specific MR knockout mice (IEC-MR KO)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Graham MacGregor
High salt intake is the major cause of raised blood pressure and accordingly leads to cardiovascular diseases. Recently, it has been shown that high salt intake is associated with an increased risk of obesity through sugar-sweetened beverage consumption. Increasing evidence also suggests a direct link. Our study aimed to determine whether there was a direct association between salt intake and obesity independent of energy intake. We analyzed the data from the rolling cross-sectional study-the UK National Diet and Nutrition Survey 2008/2009 to 2011/2012...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Mitsuha Morisaki, Isao Kurihara, Sakiko Kobayashi, Kenichi Yokota, Ayano Murai-Takeda, Rie Jo, Yuko Mitsuishi, Toshifumi Nakamura, Nao Kohata, Yosuke Oshima, Hirotaka Shibata, Hiroshi Itoh
OBJECTIVE: It has been reported that obesity-related high blood pressure was partly associated with increased aldosterone secretion and/or activity, but detailed mechanisms are not known. Our previous study suggested that different salt contents in each diet would affect the aldosterone levels. In this study, we investigated the change of aldosterone secretion and MR sensitivity of obesity mice by high fat diet under equally-adjusted salt intake. DESIGN AND METHOD: We prepared normal fat diet (NFD, 10% lard) and high fat diet (HFD, 60% lard) with equal amount of salt based on the amount of food intake of C57BL/6J mice...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Chao Chu, Yumeng Cao, Jianjun Mu
BACKGROUND: Salt reduction are crucial in the management of hypertension. Over the past few decades, Series of national activities and studies focusing on salt reduction and salt intake education were promoted by the Chinese government. However, the current status of dietary sodium and potassium intake of Chinese population is unclear. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study is to analyze the status of dietary salt and potassium intake in the Chinese population through summarizing the previous studies from 1998 to 2011 and then propose appropriate initiatives...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Sarath Channavajjhala, Wenjing Jia, Mahli Jalland, Kevin OʼShaughnessy, Ian Hall, Mark Glover
OBJECTIVE: Thiazide diuretics are amongst most widely prescribed and effective anti-hypertensive medicines worldwide. Thiazides however cause Thiazide-Induced Hyponatremia (TIH), a novel and potentially important paradigm of dysregulated distal nephron sodium and water reabsorption. A priori TIH must result from excessive saliuresis and/or water reabsorption. The water and electrolyte transporter composition of Urinary Exosomes (UE) reflects their cellular origin and are a promising way to study renal dysfunction...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Steven Hunt, Paul Hopkins, Nazeem Nanjee, Karen Schwander, Donald Kohan, D C Rao, Gordon Williams
OBJECTIVE: Identify the earliest hormonal, electrolyte and gene expression responses to a saline infusion before compensatory mechanisms are activated and relate these responses to delayed sodium excretion. DESIGN AND METHOD: 233 normotensive subjects with a strong positive family history of hypertension, ages 21-65, were studied on a low sodium diet before, during and after a 2-hour, 2-liter saline infusion. Plasma and urine hormones of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone, catecholamine, uric acid, kallikrein, and cortisol pathways, microalbumin, and urine and plasma electrolytes were measured...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Wolley Mj, Wu A, Xu S, Gordon Rd, Fenton Ra, Stowasser M
BACKGROUND: Distal tubular sodium retention is a potent driver of hypertension, with the thiazide sensitive sodium-chloride cotransporter (NCC) a key player. The upstream modulators of NCC are unclear, but recent evidence has revealed the kinases 'with-no-lysine kinase 4' (WNK4) and 'STE20/SPS1-related, proline alanine-rich kinase' (SPAK) to be involved. The wider role of mineralocorticoids is poorly understood, but animal models implicate aldosterone as a potent regulator, possibly via effects on plasma potassium...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Ruohua Yan, Wei Li, Kun Hua, Hongqiu Gu, Yang Wang
OBJECTIVE: Evidence shows that a sodium intake between 3 g per day and 6 g per day was associated with the lowest risk of death and cardiovascular events in global population. However, the optimal range of sodium intake for cardiovascular health in China is still controversial. DESIGN AND METHOD: We enrolled individuals from 115 urban and rural communities in 12 areas across China mainland. Trained local staff recorded baseline information from 43034 participants with interview-based questionnaires, and obtained morning fasting urine samples to estimated 24-hour sodium (used as a surrogate for intake)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Hongye Zhang, Qing Wang, Yu Guo, Dongfeng Li, Buqiang Zhang, Yuehong Dong, Xiuxian Huang, Yongjuan Liu, JInguo Zhao, Weiwei Li, Hans R Brunner, Lisheng Liu
OBJECTIVE: To observe the long-term (3 years) consumption of enriched potassium salt (KCL/NaCL = 1:1 by weight) on all causes mortality and target organ damage in Chinese living in nursing houses. DESIGN AND METHOD: The study was designed as a single blind prospective intervention. Participants were living in 22 nursing houses in northern China. The nursing houses were randomized into 2 groups: normal salt (control group) and enriched potassium salt (intervention group)...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Yukio Yamori, Mari Mori, Miki Sagara, Fnshi Xu, Young Hyo Lim, Bo Youl Choi, Bee Keun Kim, Yong Gu Lee, Mi Kyung Kim, Jinho Shin
OBJECTIVE: Detection of individual difference in salt-induced blood pressure (BP) elevation is important to know who should reduce salt intake for preventing hypertension, but the diagnosis of salt sensitivity requires a time-consuming protocol for testing BP changes in response to salt loading and depletion. Since WHO-CARDIAC Study indicated BP was higher in the people excreting more 24-hour urinary (24U) salt with higher heart rate (HR), ambulatory BP was monitored in a Korean population to investigate the association of nighttime BP and HR with 24-hour urinary salt excretion for detecting salt sensitivity...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Lu Yin, Xinhua Zhang, Xingyu Wang, Yang Wang, Jian Bo, Wei Li
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the association of systolic blood pressure (SBP) and diastolic blood pressure (DBP) with ratio for urinary sodium versus potassium in a large prospective urban and rural epidemiological study in China (PURE-China). DESIGN AND METHOD: As the important part of global multi-center PURE study, a prospective cohort study was conducted to recruit 46,285 participants in urban and rural area of 12 provinces in China between 2005 and 2009. A single fasting morning urine specimen was collected to test sodium and potassium excretion, and the Kawasaki formula was used to estimate 24-hour urinary sodium and potassium excretion...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
Mari Mori, Miki Sagara, Fnshi Xu, Young Hyo Lim, Bo Youl Choi, Bee Keun Kim, Yong Gu Lee, Mi Kyung Kim, Yukio Yamori, Jinho Shin
OBJECTIVE: Objective: It is now established that "dippers" whose blood pressure (BP) falls at night have lower cardiovascular risks than nondippers without nocturnal BP fall. Our previous study on the middle-aged general population in Korea indicated increased 24-hour urinary (24U) sodium excretion was associated with increased nighttime BPs. Therefore, we further analyzed the association of salt intakes estimated by 24U analysis with dipping in nocturnal BP and heart rate. DESIGN AND METHOD: Design and method: In the rural area in South Korea 218 subjects aged 30 to 59 years were measured with casual and ambulatory BP monitoring (ABPM) (TM2430, A&D, Tokyo, Japan) and their 24U samples collected by aliquot cups were analyzed...
September 2016: Journal of Hypertension
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