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urinary sodium

Nahid Rafie, Sahar Golpour Hamedani, Noushin Mohammadifard, Awat Feizi, Sayyed Morteza Safavi
PURPOSE: There are epidemiologic studies indicating a positive correlation between high sodium and low potassium intake and body mass index. Therefore, this study was conducted in a cross-sectional sample of Iranian children and adolescents to evaluate the link between 24-h urinary Na:K ratio and risk of obesity. METHODS: In this cross-sectional study, 374 participants aged 11-18 years were included. One 24-h urine sample was collected by each participant to estimate Na:K ratio...
March 16, 2018: European Journal of Nutrition
Satoshi Murao, Yasunori Takata, Mitsugi Yasuda, Haruhiko Osawa, Fumikazu Kohi
Background: Considering sex differences, salt sensitivity and insulin resistance (IR), the effect of sodium restriction and increased potassium intake on blood pressure remains unclear in normotensive Asian individuals, compared to that in hypertensive patients. Methods: To assess the influence of sodium and potassium intake in normotensive individuals, we evaluated the estimated 24-hour urinary sodium and potassium excretion rate in 3,392 drug-naïve normotensive Japanese individuals (average age: 48...
March 14, 2018: American Journal of Hypertension
Pedro Moreira, Ana S Sousa, Rita S Guerra, Alejandro Santos, Nuno Borges, Cláudia Afonso, Teresa F Amaral, Patrícia Padrão
Background: We aimed to describe urinary sodium and potassium excretion and their ratio in a representative sample of Portuguese elderly population, according to sociodemographic characteristics and weight status. Methods: A cluster sampling approach was used, representing older Portuguese adults (≥65 years) according to age, sex, education level, and regional area within the Nutrition UP 65 study. This cross-sectional evaluation was conducted in 2015 and 2016...
2018: Food & Nutrition Research
Anne Munck, Rym Boulkedid, Laurence Weiss, Pierre Foucaud, Nathalie Wizla-Derambure, Philippe Reix, François Bremont, Jocelyne Derelle, Julien Schroedt, Corinne Alberti
OBJECTIVE: To evaluate nutritional status and associated factors in a cystic fibrosis (CF) cohort diagnosed by newborn screening and followed up to month 24. METHODS: A prospective longitudinal multicenter study assessing nutritional status according to pancreatic status, feeding modalities, prescriptions, pulmonary outcome and biological nutritional parameters. RESULTS: One-hundred-and-five infants were recruited and 99 completed the study...
March 14, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Gastroenterology and Nutrition
So Yoon Han, Nan Hee Kim, Do Hoon Kim, Kyungdo Han, Seon Mee Kim
BACKGROUND: The prevalence of childhood obesity has significantly increased in Korea. This study aimed to use data from the 2010 Korea National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (KNHANES) to investigate the association between sodium (Na) intake and insulin resistance in children and adolescents with obesity. METHODS: The study population consisted of 578 adolescents aged 12-18 years who were enrolled in the 2010 KNHANES. Subjects were classified into the following four groups based on their body mass index (BMI) and homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) values: normal BMI and HOMA-IR (Group 1), normal BMI and ≥75% HOMA-IR (Group 2), ≥85% BMI and normal HOMA-IR (Group 3) and ≥85% BMI and ≥75% HOMA-IR (Group 4)...
March 15, 2018: Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology & Metabolism: JPEM
Ning Wei, Michelle L Gumz, Anita T Layton
Major renal functions such as renal blood flow, glomerular filtration rate, and urinary excretion are known to exhibit circadian oscillations. However, the underlying mechanisms that govern these variations have yet to be fully elucidated. To better understand the impact of the circadian clock on renal solute and water transport, we have developed a computational model of the renal circadian clock, and coupled that model to an epithelial transport model of the proximal convoluted cell of the rat kidney. The activity of the Na$^+$-H$^+$ exchanger 3 (NHE3) is assumed to be regulated by changes in transcription of the NHE3 mRNA due to regulation by circadian clock proteins...
March 14, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Renal Physiology
Se Hee Min, Jeong-Hwa Yoon, Sun Joon Moon, Seokyung Hahn, Young Min Cho
Sodium glucose cotransporter 2 (SGLT2) inhibitors and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 (DPP4) inhibitors have complementary mode of action. For the meta-analysis comparing the efficacy and safety between SGLT2 inhibitor plus DPP4 inhibitor (SGLT2i/DPP4i) and placebo plus DPP4 inhibitor (PCB/DPP4i) in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM), we selected randomized controlled trials from electronic databases by predefined criteria. The primary outcome of interest was the change in glycated hemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) from baseline...
March 13, 2018: Scientific Reports
Milton Packer
Three classes of anti-hyperglycaemic medications are distinguished by their urinary sodium excretion-enhancing and blood pressure-lowering actions: long-acting glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists, dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors and sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors. Yet, these drugs exert different effects on macrovascular risk. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists reduce atherosclerotic thromboembolic events, but have little effect on heart failure; sodium-glucose co-transporter-2 inhibitors decrease the occurrence of heart failure, but have minimal effect on myocardial infarction and stroke; and dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitors do not ameliorate either atherosclerotic thromboembolic events or heart failure...
March 12, 2018: Diabetic Medicine: a Journal of the British Diabetic Association
Susanne Sütterlin, Carlos J Téllez-Castillo, Leticia Anselem, Hong Yin, James E Bray, Martin C J Maiden
Antimicrobial resistance is a major health care problem, with the intensive use of heavy metals and biocides recently being identified as potential contributing factors to the aggravation of this situation. This study investigated heavy metal susceptibility and genetic resistance determinants in Escherichia coli isolated from clinical urine samples from Sweden, Germany and Spain. A total of 186 isolates were tested for minimal inhibition concentration to sodium arsenite, silver nitrate and copper (II) sulphate...
March 12, 2018: Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy
Toy Lee, Derrick Sanderson, Paula Doyle, Gunhilde Buchsbaum
BACKGROUND: Rates of administration of intravenous sodium fluorescein during cystoscopy have increased since indigotindisulfonate sodium was removed from the market in 2014. Although sodium fluorescein has been extensively evaluated and found to be safe, side effects including anaphylaxis have been observed, with an incidence between 0.05% and 1.0%. CASE: We present a case of anaphylactic shock after administration of intravenous sodium fluorescein for the assessment of ureteral efflux in a patient with a history of frequent severe allergic reactions undergoing urethral lysis and cystoscopy for urinary retention...
March 8, 2018: Obstetrics and Gynecology
Mai Hazekawa, Kazuhiko Ono, Takuya Nishinakagawa, Tomoyo Kawakubo-Yasukochi, Manabu Nakashima
Sodium 4-phenylbutyrate (PBA), which exerts a wide range of anti-inflammatory effects, is rapidly cleared from the body (approximately 98%) by urinary excretion by 24 h after oral treatment in humans. PBA was almost entirely excreted to urine as phenylacetyl glutamine (PAGln). However, no data describe the potential anti-inflammatory effects of PAGln. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of PAGln on mouse spleen cells and peritoneal cavity cells, and explore the potential mechanism underlying this effect...
March 10, 2018: Biological & Pharmaceutical Bulletin
Özcan Örsçelik, Buğra Özkan, Ayça Arslan, Emre Ertan Şahin, Ozan Sakarya, Orçun Ali Sürmeli, Şenay Balcı Fidancı, Ahmet Çelik, Burak Yavuz Çimen, İsmail Türkay Özcan
OBJECTIVE: Heart failure (HF) is a clinical syndrome resulting from structural or functional damages. Although clinical trials have shown that the plasma renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activation decreases HF functional status and increases hospitalization for HF patients, the effect of intrarenal RAS activity is still unknown. In this study, we investigated the relationship between the New York Heart Association (NYHA) class, duration, and number of hospitalizations in the previous year and urinary angiotensinogen (UAGT) in patients with HF with reduced ejection fraction (HFrEF)...
March 2018: Anatolian Journal of Cardiology
Shiori Ito, Toshio Hosaka, Wataru Yano, Takahiro Itou, Misako Yasumura, Yukari Shimizu, Hideyuki Kobayashi, Takashi Nakagawa, Keisuke Inoue, Sohei Tanabe, Takuma Kondo, Hitoshi Ishida
Sodium-glucose cotransporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) exert their antidiabetic effects by promoting urinary glucose excretion. Nutrition therapy is obviously important, but little is known about the interactions between SGLT2i agents and carbohydrate restriction. Therefore, we studied these interactions using an obese diabetic animal model. KK-Ay mice were pair-fed normal chow [NC; carbohydrate: fat: protein = 65:15:20], low carbohydrate [LC; 43:42:15] or severely carbohydrate restricted diets [SR; 12:45:43] for 12 weeks...
March 2018: Physiological Reports
Mary E Cogswell, Catherine M Loria, Ana L Terry, Lixia Zhao, Chia-Yih Wang, Te-Ching Chen, Jacqueline D Wright, Christine M Pfeiffer, Robert Merritt, Claudia S Moy, Lawrence J Appel
Importance: In 2010, the Institute of Medicine (now the National Academy of Medicine) recommended collecting 24-hour urine to estimate US sodium intake because previous studies indicated 90% of sodium consumed was excreted in urine. Objective: To estimate mean population sodium intake and describe urinary potassium excretion among US adults. Design, Setting, and Participants: In a nationally representative cross-sectional survey of the US noninstitutionalized population, 827 of 1103 (75%) randomly selected, nonpregnant participants aged 20 to 69 years in the examination component of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) collected at least one 24-hour urine specimen in 2014...
March 7, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Joachim H Ix, Cheryl A M Anderson
No abstract text is available yet for this article.
March 7, 2018: JAMA: the Journal of the American Medical Association
Daniel Lemogoum, William Ngatchou, Claude Bika Lele, Cecile Okalla, Marc Leeman, Jean-Paul Degaute, Philippe van de Borne
BACKGROUND: High salt intake increases blood pressure (BP) and hypertension risk. This study aimed to examine association of urinary sodium excretion with BP and hypertension correlates among Cameroonian pygmies under hunter-gatherer subsistence mode and Bantus, living in urban area under unhealthy behavioral habits. METHODS: In this cross-sectional cluster sampling study, we randomly enrolled rural pygmies living in Lolodorf and urban Bantus living in Douala. The World Health Organization steps questionnaire was used to collect socio-demographic and lifestyle data...
March 7, 2018: BMC Cardiovascular Disorders
Maria-Eleni Roumelioti, Todd S Ing, Helbert Rondon-Berrios, Robert H Glew, Zeid J Khitan, Yijuan Sun, Deepak Malhotra, Dominic S Raj, Emmanuel I Agaba, Glen H Murata, Joseph I Shapiro, Antonios H Tzamaloukas
Osmotic diuresis results from urine loss of large amounts of solutes distributed either in total body water or in the extracellular compartment. Replacement solutions should reflect the volume and monovalent cation (sodium and potassium) content of the fluid lost. Whereas the volume of the solutions used to replace losses that occurred prior to the diagnosis of osmotic diuresis is guided by the clinical picture, the composition of these solutions is predicated on serum sodium concentration and urinary sodium and potassium concentrations at presentation...
March 6, 2018: International Urology and Nephrology
Hiroko Hashimoto, Naohiro Nomura, Wakana Shoda, Kiyoshi Isobe, Hiroaki Kikuchi, Kouhei Yamamoto, Takuya Fujimaru, Fumiaki Ando, Takayasu Mori, Tomokazu Okado, Tatemitsu Rai, Shinichi Uchida, Eisei Sohara
OBJECTIVE: Metformin is an antidiabetic drug that is widely used to treat patients with diabetes mellitus. Recent studies have reported that treatment with metformin not only improved blood glucose levels but also reduced blood pressure. However, it remains unclear how metformin reduces blood pressure. We hypothesized that metformin affects sodium reabsorption in the kidneys. METHODS: Urinary sodium excretion and expression of renal sodium transporters were examined in 8-week-old male C57BL/6 mice with acute and chronic treatment of metformin...
March 3, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
Michitsugu Kamezaki, Tetsuro Kusaba, Kazumi Komaki, Yohei Fushimura, Noriko Watanabe, Kisho Ikeda, Takashi Kitani, Noriyuki Yamashita, Masahiro Uehara, Yuhei Kirita, Yayoi Shiotsu, Ryosuke Sakai, Takuya Fukuda, Masahiro Yamazaki, Michiaki Fukui, Satoaki Matoba, Keiichi Tamagaki
Clinical and experimental studies have shown that sodium glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitors (SGLT2i) contribute to the prevention of diabetic kidney disease progression. In order to clarify its pharmacological effects on the molecular mechanisms underlying the development of diabetic kidney disease, we administered different doses of the SGLT2i, ipragliflozin, to type 2 diabetic mice. A high-dose ipragliflozin treatment for 8 weeks lowered blood glucose levels and reduced urinary albumin excretion. High- and low-dose ipragliflozin both inhibited renal and glomerular hypertrophy, and reduced NADPH oxidase 4 expression and subsequent oxidative stress...
March 5, 2018: Scientific Reports
Jeremiah Stamler, Queenie Chan, Martha L Daviglus, Alan R Dyer, Linda Van Horn, Daniel B Garside, Katsuyuki Miura, Yangfeng Wu, Hirotsugu Ueshima, Liancheng Zhao, Paul Elliott
Available data indicate that dietary sodium (as salt) relates directly to blood pressure (BP). Most of these findings are from studies lacking dietary data; hence, it is unclear whether this sodium-BP relationship is modulated by other dietary factors. With control for multiple nondietary factors, but not body mass index, there were direct relations to BP of 24-hour urinary sodium excretion and the urinary sodium/potassium ratio among 4680 men and women 40 to 59 years of age (17 population samples in China, Japan, United Kingdom, and United States) in the INTERMAP (International Study on Macro/Micronutrients and Blood Pressure), and among its 2195 American participants, for example, 2 SD higher 24-hour urinary sodium excretion (118...
March 5, 2018: Hypertension
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