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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28809394/smad5-signaling-more-than-meets-the-nuclei
#1
John Orlowski
SMADs are essential transcriptional effectors of transforming growth factor-β (TGFβ)/TGFβ-related signaling that underlies embryonic development and adult homeostasis. A recent study by Fang et al. in Cell Research adds to this biological complexity by demonstrating an atypical cytoplasmic role for SMAD5 in modulating the bioenergetic homeostasis (i.e., glycolysis and mitochondrial respiration) of cells in response to fluctuations in intracellular pH that is independent of receptor signaling.
August 15, 2017: Cell Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807815/bcl-xl-knockout-attenuates-mitochondrial-respiration-and-causes-oxidative-stress-that-is-compensated-by-pentose-phosphate-pathway-activity
#2
Annika Pfeiffer, Julia Schneider, Diones Bueno, Amalia Dolga, Timo-Daniel Voss, Jan Lewerenz, Verena Wüllner, Axel Methner
Bcl-xL is an anti-apoptotic protein that localizes to the outer mitochondrial membrane and influences mitochondrial bioenergetics by controlling Ca(2+) influx into mitochondria. Here, we analyzed the effect of mitochondrial Bcl-xL on mitochondrial shape and function in knockout (KO), wildtype and rescued mouse embryonic fibroblast cell lines. Mitochondria of KO cells were more fragmented, exhibited a reduced ATP concentration, and reduced oxidative phosphorylation (OXPHOS) suggesting an increased importance of ATP generation by other means...
August 11, 2017: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28807772/streptococcus-agalactiae-impairs-cerebral-bioenergetics-in-experimentally-infected-silver-catfish
#3
Matheus D Baldissera, Carine F Souza, Belisa S Parmeggiani, Roberto C V Santos, Guilhian Leipnitz, Karen L S Moreira, Maria Izabel U M da Rocha, Marcelo L da Veiga, Bernardo Baldisserotto
It is becoming evident that bacterial infectious diseases affect brain energy metabolism, where alterations of enzymatic complexes of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and creatine kinase (CK) lead to an impairment of cerebral bioenergetics which contribute to disease pathogenesis in the central nervous system (CNS). Based on this evidence, the aim of this study was to evaluate whether alterations in the activity of complex IV of the respiratory chain and CK contribute to impairment of cerebral bioenergetics during Streptococcus agalactiae infection in silver catfish (Rhamdia quelen)...
August 11, 2017: Microbial Pathogenesis
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803856/bioenergetic-costs-and-state-influence-distance-perception
#4
David Francis Hunt, Heidi B N Hunt, Justin H Park
Bioenergetic resources and states have been found to influence visual perception, with greater expected energy expenditure being associated with perceptions of greater distances and steeper slopes. Here we tested whether resting metabolic rate (RMR), which can serve as a proxy for the bioenergetic costs of completing physical activity, is positively correlated with perceived distance. We also tested whether temporarily depleting bioenergetic resources through exercise would result in greater perceived distance...
August 10, 2017: Physiology & Behavior
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803751/insulin-prevents-aberrant-mitochondrial-phenotype-in-sensory-neurons-of-type-1-diabetic-rats
#5
Mohamad-Reza Aghanoori, Darrell R Smith, Subir Roy Chowdhury, Mohammad Golam Sabbir, Nigel A Calcutt, Paul Fernyhough
Diabetic neuropathy affects approximately 50% of diabetic patients. Down-regulation of mitochondrial gene expression and function has been reported in both human tissues and in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) from animal models of type 1 and type 2 diabetes. We hypothesized that loss of direct insulin signaling in diabetes contributes to loss of mitochondrial function in DRG neurons and to development of neuropathy. Sensory neurons obtained from age-matched adult control or streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 1 diabetic rats were cultured with or without insulin before determining mitochondrial respiration and expression of mitochondrial respiratory chain and insulin signaling-linked proteins...
August 10, 2017: Experimental Neurology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28803347/melatonin-mitochondria-and-the-skin
#6
REVIEW
Andrzej T Slominski, Michal A Zmijewski, Igor Semak, Tae-Kang Kim, Zorica Janjetovic, Radomir M Slominski, Jaroslaw W Zmijewski
The skin being a protective barrier between external and internal (body) environments has the sensory and adaptive capacity to maintain local and global body homeostasis in response to noxious factors. An important part of the skin response to stress is its ability for melatonin synthesis and subsequent metabolism through the indolic and kynuric pathways. Indeed, melatonin and its metabolites have emerged as indispensable for physiological skin functions and for effective protection of a cutaneous homeostasis from hostile environmental factors...
August 12, 2017: Cellular and Molecular Life Sciences: CMLS
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802916/brain-region-and-sex-specific-alterations-in-mitochondrial-function-and-nf-%C3%AE%C2%BAb-signaling-in-the-tgcrnd8-mouse-model-of-alzheimer-s-disease
#7
Jelena Djordjevic, Ella Thomson, Subir Roy Chowdhury, Wanda M Snow, Claudia Perez, Tak Pan Wong, Paul Fernyhough, Benedict C Albensi
Alzheimer's disease (AD) is the most common late onset neurodegenerative disorder with indications that women are disproportionally affected. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been one of the most discussed hypotheses associated with the early onset and progression of AD, and it has been attributed to intraneuronal accumulation of amyloid β (Aβ). It was suggested that one of the possible mediators for Aβ-impaired mitochondrial function is the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling pathway. NF-κB plays important roles in brain inflammation and antioxidant defense, as well as in the regulation of mitochondrial function, and studies have confirmed altered NF-κB signaling in AD brain...
August 9, 2017: Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28802138/inhibition-of-bioenergetic-metabolism-by-the-combination-of-metformin-and-2-deoxyglucose-highly-decreases-viability-of-feline-mammary-carcinoma-cells
#8
María Florencia Arbe, Chiara Fondello, Lucrecia Agnetti, Gabriel Martín Álvarez, Matías Nicolás Tellado, Gerardo Claudio Glikin, Liliana María Elena Finocchiaro, Marcela Solange Villaverde
Feline mammary carcinoma (FMC) is a highly aggressive pathology that has been proposed as an interesting model of breast cancer disease, especially for the hormone refractory subgroup. Recently, cancer cell metabolism has been described as a hallmark of cancer cells. Here, we investigate the effects and mechanism of metabolic modulation by metformin (MET, anti-diabetic drug), 2-deoxyglucose (2DG, hexokinase inhibitor) or a combination of both drugs, MET/2DG on two established FMC cells lines: AlRB (HER2 (3+) and Ki67<5%) and AlRATN (HER2 (-) and Ki67>15%)...
August 3, 2017: Research in Veterinary Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28800639/mitochondrial-impairment-and-melatonin-protection-in-parkinsonian-mice-do-not-depend-of-inducible-or-neuronal-nitric-oxide-synthases
#9
Ana López, Francisco Ortiz, Carolina Doerrier, Carmen Venegas, Marisol Fernández-Ortiz, Paula Aranda, María E Díaz-Casado, Beatriz Fernández-Gil, Eliana Barriocanal-Casado, Germaine Escames, Luis C López, Darío Acuña-Castroviejo
MPTP-mouse model constitutes a well-known model of neuroinflammation and mitochondrial failure occurring in Parkinson's disease (PD). Although it has been extensively reported that nitric oxide (NO●) plays a key role in the pathogenesis of PD, the relative roles of nitric oxide synthase isoforms iNOS and nNOS in the nigrostriatal pathway remains, however, unclear. Here, the participation of iNOS/nNOS isoforms in the mitochondrial dysfunction was analyzed in iNOS and nNOS deficient mice. Our results showed that MPTP increased iNOS activity in substantia nigra and striatum, whereas it sharply reduced complex I activity and mitochondrial bioenergetics in all strains...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28798141/characterization-of-macrophage-polarization-states-using-combined-measurement-of-2-deoxyglucose-and-glutamine-accumulation-implications-for-imaging-of-atherosclerosis
#10
Sina Tavakoli, Kevin Downs, John D Short, Huynh Nga Nguyen, Yanlai Lai, Paul A Jerabek, Beth Goins, Jakub Toczek, Mehran M Sadeghi, Reto Asmis
OBJECTIVE: Despite the early promising results of (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose positron emission tomography for assessment of vessel wall inflammation, its accuracy in prospective identification of vulnerable plaques has remained limited. Additionally, previous studies have indicated that (18)F-fluorodeoxyglucose uptake alone may not allow for accurate identification of specific macrophage activation states. We aimed to determine whether combined measurement of glucose and glutamine accumulation-the 2 most important bioenergetic substrates for macrophages-improves the distinction of macrophage inflammatory states and can be utilized to image atherosclerosis...
August 10, 2017: Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28797310/maternal-intake-of-trans-unsaturated-or-interesterified-fatty-acids-during-pregnancy-and-lactation-modifies-mitochondrial-bioenergetics-in-the-liver-of-adult-offspring-in-mice
#11
Patricia C de Velasco, Gustavo Chicaybam, Dionizio M Ramos-Filho, Raísa M A R Dos Santos, Caroline Mairink, Fátima L C Sardinha, Tatiana El-Bacha, Antonio Galina, Maria das Graças Tavares-do-Carmo
The quality of dietary lipids in the maternal diet can programme the offspring to diseases in later life. We investigated whether the maternal intake of palm oil or interesterified fat, substitutes for trans-unsaturated fatty acids (FA), induces metabolic changes in the adult offspring. During pregnancy and lactation, C57BL/6 female mice received normolipidic diets containing partially hydrogenated vegetable fat rich in trans-unsaturated fatty acids (TG), palm oil (PG), interesterified fat (IG) or soyabean oil (CG)...
July 2017: British Journal of Nutrition
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28791878/role-of-ergothioneine-in-microbial-physiology-and-pathogenesis
#12
Bridgette M Cumming, Krishna C Chinta, Vineel P Reddy, Adrie Jc Steyn
SIGNIFICANCE: L-ergothioneine is synthesized in actinomycetes, cyanobacteria, methylobacteria and some fungi. In contrast to other low molecular weight redox buffers, glutathione and mycothiol, ergothioneine is primarily present as a thione rather than a thiol at physiological pH, which makes it resistant to autoxidation. Ergothioneine regulates microbial physiology and enables survival of the microbes under stressful conditions encountered in their natural environments. In particular, ergothioneine enables pathogenic microbes, such as Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb), to withstand hostile environments within the host to establish infection...
August 9, 2017: Antioxidants & Redox Signaling
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28790515/transient-receptor-potential-melastatin-channel-family-member-2-friend-or-foe
#13
Joseph Y Cheung, Barbara A Miller
Transient receptor potential melastatin 2 (Trpm2) channels are nonvoltage-activated channels permeable to monovalent and divalent cations, and are expressed in heart, brain, kidney, vasculature, and hematopoietic cells. Trpm2 is overexpressed in bladder, lung, breast, liver, head, and neck cancers. Classically, Trpm2 activation induces cell injury and death by Ca(2+) overload or enhanced inflammatory response. Recent studies show that Trpm2 protects lungs from endotoxin-induced injury by reducing reactive oxygen species production in phagocytes; and improves cardiac function after ischemia-reperfusion injury by preserving mitochondrial respiration and cellular adenosine triphosphate levels while decreasing reactive oxygen species levels...
2017: Transactions of the American Clinical and Climatological Association
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28783731/metabolic-control-of-th17-and-induced-treg-cell-balance-by-an-epigenetic-mechanism
#14
Tao Xu, Kelly M Stewart, Xiaohu Wang, Kai Liu, Min Xie, Jae Kyu Ryu, Ke Li, Tianhua Ma, Haixia Wang, Lu Ni, Saiyong Zhu, Nan Cao, Dongwei Zhu, Yu Zhang, Katerina Akassoglou, Chen Dong, Edward M Driggers, Sheng Ding
Metabolism has been shown to integrate with epigenetics and transcription to modulate cell fate and function. Beyond meeting the bioenergetic and biosynthetic demands of T-cell differentiation, whether metabolism might control T-cell fate by an epigenetic mechanism is unclear. Here, through the discovery and mechanistic characterization of a small molecule, (aminooxy)acetic acid, that reprograms the differentiation of T helper 17 (TH17) cells towards induced regulatory T (iTreg) cells, we show that increased transamination, mainly catalysed by GOT1, leads to increased levels of 2-hydroxyglutarate in differentiating TH17 cells...
August 2, 2017: Nature
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28782552/a-dynamic-bioenergetic-model-for-coral-symbiodinium-symbioses-and-coral-bleaching-as-an-alternate-stable-state
#15
Ross Cunning, Erik B Muller, Ruth D Gates, Roger M Nisbet
Coral reef ecosystems owe their ecological success - and vulnerability to climate change - to the symbiotic metabolism of corals and Symbiodinium spp. The urgency to understand and predict the stability and breakdown of these symbioses (i.e., coral 'bleaching') demands the development and application of theoretical tools. Here, we develop a dynamic bioenergetic model of coral-Symbiodinium symbioses that demonstrates realistic steady-state patterns in coral growth and symbiont abundance across gradients of light, nutrients, and feeding...
August 3, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28780268/chlorella-minutissima-cultivation-with-co2-and-pentoses-effects-on-kinetic-and-nutritional-parameters
#16
B C B Freitas, M G Morais, J A V Costa
CO2 emissions and the large quantity of lignocellulosic waste generated by industrialized nations constitute problems that may affect human health as well as the global economy. The objective of this work was to evaluate the effects of using CO2 and pentoses on the growth, protein profile, carbohydrate content and potential ethanol production by fermentation of Chlorella minutissima biomass. CO2 and pentose supplementation can induce changes in the microalgal protein profile. A biomass production of 1.84g.L(-1) and a CO2 biofixation rate of 274...
July 25, 2017: Bioresource Technology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28777255/endogenous-and-agonist-induced-opening-of-mitochondrial-big-vs-small-ca2-sensitive-k-channels-on-cardiac-cell-and-mitochondrial-protection
#17
David F Stowe, Meiying Yang, James S Heisner, Amadou K S Camara
Both big (BKCa) and small (SKCa) conductance Ca-sensitive K channels are present in mammalian cardiac cell mitochondria (m). We used pharmacological agonists and antagonists of BKCa and SKCa channels to examine the importance of endogenous opening of these channels and the relative contribution of either or both of these channels to protect against contractile dysfunction and reduce infarct size after ischemia reperfusion (IR) injury through a mitochondrial protective mechanism. Following global cardiac IR injury of ex vivo perfused guinea pig hearts we found the following: both agonists NS1619 (for BKCa) and DCEB (for SKCa) improved contractility; BKCa antagonist paxilline (PAX) alone or with SKCa antagonist NS8593 worsened contractility and enhanced infarct size; both antagonists PAX and NS8593 obliterated protection by their respective agonists; BKCa and SKCa antagonists did not block protection afforded by SKCa and BKCa agonists, respectively; and all protective effects by the agonists were blocked by scavenging superoxide anions (O2) with TBAP...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Cardiovascular Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776675/dissociating-external-power-from-intramuscular-exercise-intensity-during-intermittent-bilateral-knee-extension-in-humans
#18
Matthew J Davies, Alan P Benson, Daniel T Cannon, Simon Marwood, Graham J Kemp, Harry B Rossiter, Carrie Ferguson
Compared with work-matched high-intensity continuous exercise, intermittent exercise dissociates pulmonary oxygen uptake (V̇O2 ) from the accumulated work. The extent to which this reflects differences in O2 storage fluctuations and/or contributions from oxidative and substrate-level bioenergetics is unknown. Using pulmonary gas-exchange and intramuscular (31) P magnetic resonance spectroscopy, we tested the hypotheses that at the same power: ATP synthesis rates are similar; but peak V̇O2 amplitude is lower in intermittent vs...
August 4, 2017: Journal of Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28776185/modulation-of-cellular-energetics-by-galactose-and-pioglitazone
#19
David Grimm, Leonardo Altamirano, Sudip Paudel, Leah Welker, Mary E Konkle, Nilay Chakraborty, Michael A Menze
The Warburg effect is ameliorated by culturing transformed cells in the presence of galactose instead of glucose as the primary carbon source. However, metabolic consequences may occur in addition to sensitizing the cells to mitochondrial toxins. The screening of pharmaceutical agents against transformed cells while using galactose must therefore be carefully evaluated. Pioglitazone is employed in clinical applications to treat type-2 diabetes but clearly has other off-target effects. Human hepatocellular carcinoma cells (HepG2) were cultured in glucose or galactose-containing medium to investigate the role of pioglitazone on cellular bioenergetics by calorimetry and respirometry...
August 3, 2017: Cell and Tissue Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28774384/overcoming-the-roadblocks-to-cardiac-cell-therapy-using-tissue-engineering
#20
REVIEW
Mounica Yanamandala, Wuqiang Zhu, Daniel J Garry, Timothy J Kamp, Joshua M Hare, Ho-Wook Jun, Young-Sup Yoon, Nenad Bursac, Sumanth D Prabhu, Gerald W Dorn, Roberto Bolli, Richard N Kitsis, Jianyi Zhang
Transplantations of various stem cells or their progeny have repeatedly improved cardiac performance in animal models of myocardial injury; however, the benefits observed in clinical trials have been generally less consistent. Some of the recognized challenges are poor engraftment of implanted cells and, in the case of human cardiomyocytes, functional immaturity and lack of electrical integration, leading to limited contribution to the heart's contractile activity and increased arrhythmogenic risks. Advances in tissue and genetic engineering techniques are expected to improve the survival and integration of transplanted cells, and to support structural, functional, and bioenergetic recovery of the recipient hearts...
August 8, 2017: Journal of the American College of Cardiology
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