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Lilian Cristina Pereira, Murilo Pazin, Mariana Furio Franco-Bernardes, Airton da Cunha Martins, Gustavo Rafael Mazzaron Barcelos, Márcio Cesar Pereira, João Paulo Mesquita, Jairo Lisboa Rodrigues, Fernando Barbosa, Daniel Junqueira Dorta
Nanotechnology is a growing branch of science that deals with the development of structural features bearing at least one dimension in the nano range. More specifically, nanomaterials are defined as objects with dimensions that range from 1 to 100 nm, which give rise to interesting properties. In particular, silver and titanium nanoparticles (AgNPs and TiNPs, respectively) are known for their biological and biomedical properties and are often used in consumer products such as cosmetics, food additives, kitchen utensils, and toys...
May 2018: Journal of Trace Elements in Medicine and Biology
Jereme W Gaeta, Tyler D Ahrenstorff, James S Diana, William W Fetzer, Thomas S Jones, Zach J Lawson, Michael C McInerny, Victor J Santucci, M Jake Vander Zanden
Body size governs predator-prey interactions, which in turn structure populations, communities, and food webs. Understanding predator-prey size relationships is valuable from a theoretical perspective, in basic research, and for management applications. However, predator-prey size data are limited and costly to acquire. We quantified predator-prey total length and mass relationships for several freshwater piscivorous taxa: crappie (Pomoxis spp.), largemouth bass (Micropterus salmoides), muskellunge (Esox masquinongy), northern pike (Esox lucius), rock bass (Ambloplites rupestris), smallmouth bass (Micropterus dolomieu), and walleye (Sander vitreus)...
2018: PloS One
Graham P Holloway, Andrew M Holwerda, Paula M Miotto, Marlou L Dirks, Lex B Verdijk, Luc J C van Loon
It remains unknown if mitochondrial bioenergetics are altered with aging in humans. We established an in vitro method to simultaneously determine mitochondrial respiration and H2 O2 emission in skeletal muscle tissue across a range of biologically relevant ADP concentrations. Using this approach, we provide evidence that, although the capacity for mitochondrial H2 O2 emission is not increased with aging, mitochondrial ADP sensitivity is impaired. This resulted in an increase in mitochondrial H2 O2 and the fraction of electron leak to H2 O2 , in the presence of virtually all ADP concentrations examined...
March 13, 2018: Cell Reports
Marilena Lepretti, Stefania Martucciello, Mario Alberto Burgos Aceves, Rosalba Putti, Lillà Lionetti
Mitochondrial dysfunction and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress have been suggested to play a key role in insulin resistance development. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) production and lipid accumulation due to mitochondrial dysfunction seemed to be important mechanisms leading to cellular insulin resistance. Moreover, mitochondria are functionally and structurally linked to ER, which undergoes stress in conditions of chronic overnutrition, activating the unfolded protein response, which in turn activates the principal inflammatory pathways that impair insulin action...
March 14, 2018: Nutrients
David H Jang, Utsha G Khatri, Anita Mudan, Jennifer S Love, Shawn Owiredu, David M Eckmann
It is conservatively estimated that 5,000 deaths per year and 20,000 injuries in the USA are due to poisonings caused by chemical exposures (e.g., carbon monoxide, cyanide, hydrogen sulfide, phosphides) that are cellular inhibitors. These chemical agents result in mitochondrial inhibition resulting in cardiac arrest and/or shock. These cellular inhibitors have multi-organ effects, but cardiovascular collapse is the primary cause of death marked by hypotension, lactic acidosis, and cardiac arrest. The mitochondria play a central role in cellular metabolism where oxygen consumption through the electron transport system is tightly coupled to ATP production and regulated by metabolic demands...
March 13, 2018: Journal of Medical Toxicology: Official Journal of the American College of Medical Toxicology
Daniel Nicodemo, Fábio Ermínio Mingatto, Amanda de Carvalho, Paulo Francisco Veiga Bizerra, Marco Aurélio Tavares, Kamila Vilas Boas Balieira, William Cesar Bellini
Silkworm cocoon production has been reduced due to a number of problems other than those inherent in sericulture, such as diseases, malnutrition, and inappropriate management. The use of pesticides in areas surrounding mulberry fields can contaminate these plants and consequently harm caterpillars. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether the application of the fungicide pyraclostrobin in mulberry plants interferes with the mitochondrial bioenergetics and the productive performance of silkworms. Mulberry plants were treated with pyraclostrobin (0, 100, 200, and 300 g ha-1)...
March 9, 2018: Journal of Economic Entomology
Jon Shuman, Tyler Xavier Giles, Leslie Carroll, Kenji Tabata, Austin Powers, Sang-Jin Suh, Laura Silo-Suh
Pseudomonas aeruginosa causes acute and chronic human infections and is the major cause of morbidity and mortality in cystic fibrosis (CF) patients. We previously determined that the sn-glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase encoded by glpD plays a larger role in P. aeruginosa physiology beyond its role in glycerol metabolism. To better understand the effect of a glpD mutation on P. aeruginosa physiology we compared the transcriptomes of P. aeruginosa strain PAO1 and the PAO1ΔglpD mutant using RNA-seq analysis...
March 13, 2018: Microbiology
Patricia G Rosenstein, Brett S Tennent-Brown, Dez Hughes
OBJECTIVE: To review the current literature with respect to the physiology, pathophysiology, and measurement of lactate. DATA SOURCES: Data were sourced from veterinary and human clinical trials, retrospective studies, experimental studies, and review articles. Articles were retrieved without date restrictions and were sourced primarily via PubMed, Scopus, and CAB Abstracts as well as by manual selection. HUMAN AND VETERINARY DATA SYNTHESIS: Lactate is an important energy storage molecule, the production of which preserves cellular energy production and mitigates the acidosis from ATP hydrolysis...
March 2018: Journal of Veterinary Emergency and Critical Care
Daniela Mendes, Maria Manuel Oliveira, Paula I Moreira, João Coutinho, Fernando M Nunes, David M Pereira, Patrícia Valentão, Paula B Andrade, Romeu A Videira
The development of effective medicines to break or delay the progressive brain degeneration underlying cognitive decline and dementia that characterize Alzheimer's disease (AD) is one of the greatest challenges of our time. In the present work, a selective pool of polyphenols, obtained from the white wine by adsorption to polyvinylpyrrolidone polymer (PVPP), was used to prepare a polyphenols-enriched diet, supplementing the drinking water with 100 mg/L (expressed as gallic acid equivalent) of wine polyphenolic extract...
February 10, 2018: Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry
Francesca Martorana, Daniela Gaglio, Maria Rosaria Bianco, Federica Aprea, Assunta Virtuoso, Marcella Bonanomi, Lilia Alberghina, Michele Papa, Anna Maria Colangelo
Neuronal differentiation involves extensive modification of biochemical and morphological properties to meet novel functional requirements. Reorganization of the mitochondrial network to match the higher energy demand plays a pivotal role in this process. Mechanisms of neuronal differentiation in response to nerve growth factor (NGF) have been largely characterized in terms of signaling, however, little is known about its impact on mitochondrial remodeling and metabolic function. In this work, we show that NGF-induced differentiation requires the activation of autophagy mediated by Atg9b and Ambra1, as it is disrupted by their genetic knockdown and by autophagy blockers...
March 9, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Jennifer Rieusset
The contact sites that the endoplasmic reticulum (ER) forms with mitochondria, called mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs), are a hot topic in biological research, and both their molecular determinants and their numerous roles in several signaling pathways are is continuously evolving. MAMs allow the exchange between both organelles of lipids, calcium (Ca2+ ), and likely reactive oxygen species, allowing adaptations of both cellular bioenergetics and cell fate depending of cellular needs or stresses. Therefore, it is not surprising that MAMs affect cellular metabolism...
March 9, 2018: Cell Death & Disease
Li Gan, Delin Ma, Min Li, Fu-Chen Yang, Robert S Rogers, Joshua L Wheatley, Lauren G Koch, Steven L Britton, John P Thyfault, Paige C Geiger, John A Stanford
Aerobic capacity is a strong predictor of mortality. Low capacity runner (LCR) rats exhibit reduced mitochondrial function in peripheral organs. A high fat diet (HFD) can worsen metabolic phenotype in LCR rats. Little is known about metabolic changes in the brains of these rats, however. This study examined protein markers of mitochondrial function and metabolism as a function of aerobic running capacity and an acute HFD in four brain regions: the striatum, hippocampus, hypothalamus, and substantia nigra. After 3 days HFD or chow diets, we measured peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ coactivator 1α (PGC1-α), nuclear respiratory factors 1 (Nrf-1), mitochondrial transcription factor A (TFAM), and phosphorylated (activated) AMP-activated protein kinase (p-AMPK) protein levels in the four brain regions...
March 6, 2018: Neuroscience Letters
Dinakaran Murugesan, Peter C Ray, Tracy Bayliss, Gareth A Prosser, Justin R Harrison, Kirsteen Green, Candice Soares de Melo, Tzu-Shean Feng, Leslie J Street, Kelly Chibale, Digby F Warner, Valerie Mizrahi, Ola Epemolu, Paul Scullion, Lucy Ellis, Jennifer Riley, Yoko Shishikura, Liam Ferguson, Maria Osuna-Cabello, Kevin D Read, Simon R Green, Dirk A Lamprecht, Peter M Finin, Adrie J C Steyn, Thomas R Ioerger, Jim Sacchettini, Kyu Y Rhee, Kriti Arora, Clifton E Barry Iii, Paul G Wyatt, Helena Ingrid M Boshoff
Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTb) possesses two non-proton pumping type II NADH dehydrogenase (NDH-2) enzymes which are predicted to be jointly essential for respiratory metabolism.. Furthermore, the structure of a closely related bacterial NDH-2 has been reported recently, allowing for the structure-based design of small-molecule inhibitors. Herein, we disclose MTb whole-cell structure-activity relationships (SAR) for a series of 2-mercapto-quinazolinones which target the ndh encoded NDH-2 with nanomolar potencies...
March 9, 2018: ACS Infectious Diseases
A R Ramirez, O L Acosta, M B Maya, M El-Hafidi
In metabolic diseases such as obesity, metabolic syndrome and type II diabetes, the over-expression of uncoupling proteins (UCPs) in a response to increased reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation by mitochondrial respiratory complexes, and to the excess of free fatty acid (FFA) supply from adipose tissue, may protect cells from oxidative stress, lipotoxicity and in turn from death. UCPs by reducing superoxide anion and H2O2 generation trigger several signals to cell for their adaptation to the lipotoxic microenvironment...
March 7, 2018: Current Molecular Medicine
Omar Federico Ordoñez, María Cecilia Rasuk, Mariana Noelia Soria, Manuel Contreras, María Eugenia Farías
Biofilms, microbial mats, and microbialites dwell under highly limiting conditions (high salinity, extreme aridity, pH, and elevated arsenic concentration) in the Andean Puna. Only recent pioneering studies have described the microbial diversity of different Altiplano lakes and revealed their unexpectedly diverse microbial communities. Arsenic metabolism is proposed to be an ancient mechanism to obtain energy by microorganisms. Members of Bacteria and Archaea are able to exploit arsenic as a bioenergetic substrate in either anaerobic arsenate respiration or chemolithotrophic growth on arsenite...
March 8, 2018: Microbial Ecology
Nathalia F F de Sales, Leandro Silva da Costa, Talita I A Carneiro, Daniela A Minuzzo, Felipe L Oliveira, Lourdes M C Cabral, Alexandre G Torres, Tatiana El-Bacha
Cancer cells demand high ATP provisions to support proliferation, and targeting of energy metabolism is a good strategy to increase their sensitivity to treatments. In Brazil, wine manufacture is expanding, increasing the amount of pomace that is produced. We determined the phenolic composition and antioxidant properties of a dark skin Grape Pomace Extract and its effects on metabolism and redox state in human hepatocarcinoma HepG2 cells. The material and the methods used represented the industrial process since pomace derived from white wine production and the extract concentrated by pilot plant scale reverse osmosis...
March 8, 2018: Molecules: a Journal of Synthetic Chemistry and Natural Product Chemistry
Brent M Kious, Douglas G Kondo, Perry F Renshaw
After participating in this activity, learners should be better able to:• Assess epidemiologic evidence that increased altitude of residence is linked to increased risk of depression and suicide• Evaluate strategies to address hypoxia-related depression and suicidal ideation ABSTRACT: Suicide and major depressive disorder (MDD) are complex conditions that almost certainly arise from the influences of many interrelated factors. There are significant regional variations in the rates of MDD and suicide in the United States, suggesting that sociodemographic and environmental conditions contribute...
March 2018: Harvard Review of Psychiatry
Josefine Reber, Monja Willershäuser, Angelos Karlas, Korbinian Paul-Yuan, Gael Diot, Daniela Franz, Tobias Fromme, Saak V Ovsepian, Nicolas Bézière, Elena Dubikovskaya, Dimitrios C Karampinos, Christina Holzapfel, Hans Hauner, Martin Klingenspor, Vasilis Ntziachristos
Metabolism is a fundamental process of life. However, non-invasive measurement of local tissue metabolism is limited today by a deficiency in adequate tools for in vivo observations. We designed a multi-modular platform that explored the relation between local tissue oxygen consumption, determined by label-free optoacoustic measurements of hemoglobin, and concurrent indirect calorimetry obtained during metabolic activation of brown adipose tissue (BAT). By studying mice and humans, we show how video-rate handheld multi-spectral optoacoustic tomography (MSOT) in the 700-970 nm spectral range enables non-invasive imaging of BAT activation, consistent with positron emission tomography findings...
March 6, 2018: Cell Metabolism
Cynthia M F Monaco, Paula M Miotto, Jason S Huber, Luc J C van Loon, Jeremy A Simpson, Graham P Holloway
Supplementation with dietary inorganic nitrate (NO3 - ) is increasingly recognized to confer cardioprotective effects in both healthy and clinical populations. While the mechanism(s) remain ambiguous, in skeletal muscle, the oral consumption of sodium nitrate has been shown to improve mitochondrial efficiency. Whether sodium nitrate has similar effects on mitochondria within the heart is unknown. Therefore, we comprehensively investigated the effect of sodium nitrate supplementation on in vivo left ventricular (LV) function and mitochondrial bioenergetics...
March 7, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
Paula M Miotto, Chris McGlory, Tanya M Holloway, Stuart M Phillips, Graham P Holloway
Mitochondrial bioenergetic contributions to sex-differences in human skeletal muscle metabolism remain poorly defined. The primary aim of this study was to determine if mitochondrial respiratory kinetics differed between healthy young men and women in permeabilized skeletal muscle fibres. While men and women displayed similar (P>0.05) maximal respiration rates and abundance of mitochondrial/adenosine diphosphate (ADP) transport proteins, women had lower (P<0.05) mitochondrial ADP sensitivity (+30% apparent Km) and absolute respiration rates at a physiologically relevant ADP concentration (100M)...
March 7, 2018: American Journal of Physiology. Regulatory, Integrative and Comparative Physiology
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