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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330881/cocaine-and-hiv-1-tat-disrupt-cholesterol-homeostasis-in-astrocytes-implications-for-hiv-associated-neurocognitive-disorders-in-cocaine-user-patients
#1
Bianca Cotto, Kalimuthusamy Natarajaseenivasan, Kimberly Ferrero, Leroy Wesley, Matthew Sayre, Dianne Langford
Cholesterol synthesis and clearance by astrocytes are tightly regulated to maintain constant levels within the brain. In this context, liver X receptors (LXRs) are the master regulators of cholesterol homeostasis in the central nervous system (CNS). Increasing levels of cholesterol in astrocytes trigger LXR activation leading to the transcription of target genes involved in cholesterol trafficking and efflux, including apolipoprotein E, cytochrome P450 enzymes, sterol regulatory binding protein, and several ATP-binding cassette transporter proteins...
January 13, 2018: Glia
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330687/evaluation-of-the-mitochondria-related-redox-and-bioenergetics-effects-of-gastrodin-in-sh-sy5y-cells-exposed-to-hydrogen-peroxide
#2
Marcos Roberto de Oliveira, Flávia Bittencourt Brasil, Cristina Ribas Fürstenau
Mitochondrion is the main site of ATP production in animal cells and also orchestrates signaling pathways associated with cell survival and death. Mitochondrial dysfunction has been linked to bioenergetics and redox impairment in human diseases, such as neurodegeneration and cardiovascular disease. Protective agents able to attenuate mitochondrial impairment are of pharmacological interest. Gastrodin (GAS; 4-hydroxybenzyl alcohol 4-O-beta-D-glucoside) is a phenolic glucoside obtained from the Chinese herbal medicine Gastrodia elata Blume and exhibits antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antiapoptotic effects in several cell types...
January 12, 2018: Journal of Molecular Neuroscience: MN
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29330025/the-role-of-extracellular-and-intracellular-nicotinamide-phosphoribosyl-transferase-in-cancer-diagnostic-and-therapeutic-perspectives-and-challenges
#3
REVIEW
Maria Dalamaga, Gerasimos Socrates Christodoulatos, Christos S Mantzoros
Nicotinamide phosphoribosyl-transferase (Nampt) or pre-B cell colony-enhancing factor or visfatin represents a pleiotropic molecule acting as an enzyme, a cytokine and a growth factor. Intracellular Nampt plays an important role in cellular bioenergetics and metabolism, particularly NAD biosynthesis. NAD biosynthesis is critical in DNA repair, oncogenic signal transduction, transcription, genomic integrity and apoptosis. Although its insulin-mimetic function remains a controversial issue, extracellular Nampt presents proliferative, anti-apoptotic, pro-inflammatory, pro-angiogenic and metastatic properties...
January 9, 2018: Metabolism: Clinical and Experimental
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29326381/b1a-b-cells-require-autophagy-for-metabolic-homeostasis-and-self-renewal
#4
Alexander J Clarke, Thomas Riffelmacher, Daniel Braas, Richard J Cornall, Anna Katharina Simon
Specific metabolic programs are activated by immune cells to fulfill their functional roles, which include adaptations to their microenvironment. B1 B cells are tissue-resident, innate-like B cells. They have many distinct properties, such as the capacity to self-renew and the ability to rapidly respond to a limited repertoire of epitopes. The metabolic pathways that support these functions are unknown. We show that B1 B cells are bioenergetically more active than B2 B cells, with higher rates of glycolysis and oxidative phosphorylation, and depend on glycolysis...
January 11, 2018: Journal of Experimental Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29325722/effects-of-sirna-dependent-knock-down-of-cardiolipin-synthase-and-tafazzin-on-mitochondria-and-proliferation-of-glioma-cells
#5
Theresa Ohlig, Do Viet Le, Andreas Gardemann, Carmen Wolke, Sarah Gürtler, Daniela Peter, Lorenz Schild, Uwe Lendeckel
The mitochondrial phospholipid cardiolipin (CL) has been implicated with mitochondrial morphology, function, and cell proliferation. Changes in CL are often paralleled by changes in the lipid environment of mitochondria that may contribute to mitochondrial function and proliferation. This study aimed to separate the effects of CL content and CL composition from cellular free fatty acid distribution on bioenergetics and proliferation in C6 glioma cells. To this end, cardiolipin synthase and the CL remodelling enzyme, tafazzin, were knocked-down by siRNA in C6 cells...
January 8, 2018: Biochimica et Biophysica Acta
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29323772/the-role-of-nrf2-signaling-in-counteracting-neurodegenerative-diseases
#6
REVIEW
Albena T Dinkova-Kostova, Rumen V Kostov, Aleksey G Kazantsev
The transcription factor Nrf2 (nuclear factor erythroid 2 p45-related factor 2) functions at the interface of cellular redox and intermediary metabolism. Nrf2 target genes encode antioxidant enzymes, and proteins involved in xenobiotic detoxification, repair and removal of damaged proteins and organelles, inflammation, and mitochondrial bioenergetics. The function of Nrf2 is altered in many neurodegenerative disorders, such as Huntington's disease, Alzheimer's disease, amyotrophic lateral sclerosis and Friedreich's ataxia...
January 11, 2018: FEBS Journal
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317713/comparison-of-changes-in-mitochondrial-bioenergetics-between-keratinocytes-in-human-external-auditory-canal-skin-and-cholesteatomas-from-normoxia-to-hypoxia
#7
Cheng-Ping Shih, Jen-Tin Lee, Hang-Kang Chen, Yi-Chun Lin, Hsin-Chien Chen, Yuan-Yung Lin, Chao-Yin Kuo, Yu-Ting Chen, Chih-Hung Wang
Cholesteatoma has attracted many studies seeking to uncover its nature and the pathogenesis of related diseases. However, no researchers have explored the mitochondrial bioenergetics of cholesteatoma. The aim of this study was to investigate the energy demand and differential mitochondrial respiration profiles between keratinocytes in external auditory canal (EAC) skin and cholesteatoma samples cultured in normoxic (20% O2) and hypoxic (5% O2) conditions. Enhanced cellular proliferation of both types of keratinocytes was found in hypoxia compared to normoxia...
January 9, 2018: Scientific Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29317273/mitochondrial-network-responses-in-oxidative-physiology-and-disease
#8
REVIEW
Young-Mi Go, Jolyn Fernandes, Xin Hu, Karan Uppal, Dean P Jones
Mitochondrial activities are linked directly or indirectly to all cellular functions in aerobic eukaryotes. Omics methods enable new approaches to study functional organization of mitochondria and their adaptive and maladaptive network responses to bioenergetic fuels, physiologic demands, environmental challenges and aging. In this review, we consider mitochondria collectively within a multicellular organism as a macroscale "mitochondriome", functioning to organize bioenergetics and metabolism as an organism utilizes environmental resources and protects against environmental threats...
January 6, 2018: Free Radical Biology & Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316921/insights-into-metabolic-osmoadaptation-of-the-ectoines-producer-bacterium-chromohalobacter-salexigens-through-a-high-quality-genome-scale-metabolic-model
#9
Francine Piubeli, Manuel Salvador, Montserrat Argandoña, Joaquín J Nieto, Vicente Bernal, Jose M Pastor, Manuel Cánovas, Carmen Vargas
BACKGROUND: The halophilic bacterium Chromohalobacter salexigens is a natural producer of ectoines, compatible solutes with current and potential biotechnological applications. As production of ectoines is an osmoregulated process that draws away TCA intermediates, bacterial metabolism needs to be adapted to cope with salinity changes. To explore and use C. salexigens as cell factory for ectoine(s) production, a comprehensive knowledge at the systems level of its metabolism is essential...
January 9, 2018: Microbial Cell Factories
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316654/exercise-and-mitochondrial-dynamics-keeping-in-shape-with-ros-and-ampk
#10
REVIEW
Adam J Trewin, Brandon J Berry, Andrew P Wojtovich
Exercise is a robust stimulus for mitochondrial adaptations in skeletal muscle which consequently plays a central role in enhancing metabolic health. Despite this, the precise molecular events that underpin these beneficial effects remain elusive. In this review, we discuss molecular signals generated during exercise leading to altered mitochondrial morphology and dynamics. In particular, we focus on the interdependence between reactive oxygen species (ROS) and redox homeostasis, the sensing of cellular bioenergetic status via 5' adenosine monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPK), and the regulation of mitochondrial fission and fusion...
January 6, 2018: Antioxidants (Basel, Switzerland)
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29316496/native-metals-electron-bifurcation-and-co2-reduction-in-early-biochemical-evolution
#11
REVIEW
Filipa L Sousa, Martina Preiner, William F Martin
Molecular hydrogen is an ancient source of energy and electrons. Anaerobic autotrophs that harness the H2/CO2 redox couple harbour ancient biochemical traits that trace back to the universal common ancestor. Aspects of their physiology, including the abundance of transition metals, radical reaction mechanisms, and their main exergonic bioenergetic reactions, forge links between ancient microbes and geochemical reactions at hydrothermal vents. The midpoint potential of H2 however requires anaerobes that reduce CO2 with H2 to use flavin based electron bifurcation-a mechanism to conserve energy as low potential reduced ferredoxins via soluble proteins-for CO2 fixation...
January 6, 2018: Current Opinion in Microbiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29315239/mangiferin-accelerates-glycolysis-and-enhances-mitochondrial-bioenergetics
#12
Zhongbo Liu, Pasha Apontes, Ekaterina V Fomenko, Nan Chi, Victor L Schuster, Irwin J Kurland, Jeffrey E Pessin, Yuling Chi
One of the main causes of hyperglycemia is inefficient or impaired glucose utilization by skeletal muscle, which can be exacerbated by chronic high caloric intake. Previously, we identified a natural compound, mangiferin (MGF) that improved glucose utilization in high fat diet (HFD)-induced insulin resistant mice. To further identify the molecular mechanisms of MGF action on glucose metabolism, we conducted targeted metabolomics and transcriptomics studies of glycolyic and mitochondrial bioenergetics pathways in skeletal muscle...
January 9, 2018: International Journal of Molecular Sciences
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29311554/oxidation-of-atg3-and-atg7-mediates-inhibition-of-autophagy
#13
Karen Frudd, Thomas Burgoyne, Joseph Robert Burgoyne
Macroautophagy (autophagy) is a crucial cellular stress response for degrading defective macromolecules and organelles, as well as providing bioenergetic intermediates during hypoxia and nutrient deprivation. Here we report a thiol-dependent process that may account for impaired autophagy during aging. This is through direct oxidation of key autophagy-related (Atg) proteins Atg3 and Atg7. When inactive Atg3 and Atg7 are protected from oxidation due to stable covalent interaction with their substrate LC3. This interaction becomes transient upon activation of Atg3 and Atg7 due to transfer of LC3 to phosphatidylethanolamine (lipidation), a process crucial for functional autophagy...
January 8, 2018: Nature Communications
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29306548/disrupting-the-warburg-effect-re-routes-cancer-cells-to-oxphos-offering-a-vulnerability-point-via-ferroptosis-induced-cell-death
#14
REVIEW
Maša Ždralević, Milica Vučetić, Boutaina Daher, Ibtissam Marchiq, Scott K Parks, Jacques Pouysségur
The evolution of life from extreme hypoxic environments to an oxygen-rich atmosphere has progressively selected for successful metabolic, enzymatic and bioenergetic networks through which a myriad of organisms survive the most extreme environmental conditions. From the two lethal environments anoxia/high O2, cells have developed survival strategies through expression of the transcriptional factors ATF4, HIF1 and NRF2. Cancer cells largely exploit these factors to thrive and resist therapies. In this review, we report and discuss the potential therapeutic benefit of disrupting the major Myc/Hypoxia-induced metabolic pathway, also known as fermentative glycolysis or "Warburg effect", in aggressive cancer cell lines...
December 28, 2017: Advances in Biological Regulation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297947/loss-of-function-mutations-in-isca2-disrupt-4fe-4s-cluster-machinery-and-cause-a-fatal-leukodystrophy-with-hyperglycinemia-and-mtdna-depletion
#15
Joseph T Alaimo, Arnaud Besse, Charlotte L Alston, Ki Pang, Vivek Appadurai, Monisha Samanta, Patroula Smpokou, Robert McFarland, Robert W Taylor, Penelope E Bonnen
Iron-sulfur (Fe-S) clusters are essential co-factors for proteins that participate in fundamental cellular processes including metabolism, DNA replication and repair, transcriptional regulation, and the mitochondrial electron transport chain (ETC). ISCA2 plays a role in the biogenesis of Fe-S clusters and a recent report described subjects displaying infantile-onset leukodystrophy due to bi-allelic mutation of ISCA2. We present two additional unrelated cases, and provide a more complete clinical description that includes hyperglycinemia, leukodystrophy of the brainstem with longitudinally extensive spinal cord involvement, and mtDNA deficiency...
January 3, 2018: Human Mutation
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29297363/critical-illness-and-flat-batteries
#16
REVIEW
Mervyn Singer
An exaggerated, dysregulated host response to insults such as infection (i.e. sepsis), trauma and ischaemia-reperfusion injury can result in multiple organ dysfunction and death. While the focus of research in this area has largely centred on inflammation and immunity, a crucial missing link is the precise identification of mechanisms at the organ level that cause this physiological-biochemical failure. Any hypothesis must reconcile this functional organ failure with minimal signs of cell death, availability of oxygen, and (often) minimal early local inflammatory cell infiltrate...
December 28, 2017: Critical Care: the Official Journal of the Critical Care Forum
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29295823/the-stress-induced-transcription-factor-nr4a1-adjusts-mitochondrial-function-and-synapse-number-in-prefrontal-cortex
#17
Freddy Jeanneteau, Christian Barrère, Mariska Vos, Carlie Jm De Vries, Claude Rouillard, Daniel Levesque, Yann Dromard, Marie-Pierre Moisan, Vanja Duric, Tina C Franklin, Ronald S Duman, David A Lewis, Stephen D Ginsberg, Margarita Arango-Lievano
The energetic costs of behavioral chronic stress are unlikely to be sustainable without neuronal plasticity. Mitochondria have the capacity to handle synaptic activity up to a limit before energetic depletion occurs. Protective mechanisms driven by the induction of neuronal genes likely evolved to buffer the consequences of chronic stress on excitatory neurons in prefrontal cortex (PFC), as this circuitry is vulnerable to excitotoxic insults. Little is known about the genes involved in mitochondrial adaptation to the build up of chronic stress...
January 2, 2018: Journal of Neuroscience: the Official Journal of the Society for Neuroscience
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29289511/opening-of-voltage-dependent-anion-channels-promotes-reactive-oxygen-species-generation-mitochondrial-dysfunction-and-cell-death-in-cancer-cells
#18
David N DeHart, Diana Fang, Kareem Heslop, Li Li, John J Lemasters, Eduardo N Maldonado
Enhancement of aerobic glycolysis and suppression of mitochondrial metabolism characterize the pro-proliferative Warburg phenotype of cancer cells. High free tubulin in cancer cells closes voltage dependent anion channels (VDAC) to decrease mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ), an effect antagonized by erastin, the canonical promotor of ferroptosis. Previously, we identified six compounds (X1-X6) that also block tubulin-dependent mitochondrial depolarization. Here, we hypothesized that VDAC opening after erastin and X1-X6 increases mitochondrial metabolism and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation, leading to ROS-dependent mitochondrial dysfunction, bioenergetic failure and cell death...
December 28, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29288234/recovery-from-n-deprivation-is-a-transcriptionally-and-functionally-distinct-state-in-chlamydomonas
#19
Chia-Hong Tsai, Sahra Uygun, Rebecca Roston, Shin-Han Shiu, Christoph Benning
Facing adverse conditions such as nitrogen (N) deprivation, microalgae enter cellular quiescence, a reversible cell cycle arrest with drastic changes in metabolism allowing cells to remain viable. Recovering from N deprivation and quiescence is an active and orderly process as we are showing here for Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. We conducted comparative transcriptomics on this alga to discern processes relevant to quiescence in the context of N deprivation and recovery following refeeding. A mutant with slow recovery from N deprivation, compromised hydrolysis of triacylglycerols 7 (cht7), was included to better define the regulatory processes governing the respective transitions...
December 29, 2017: Plant Physiology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/29287955/remodeling-of-ca2-signaling-in-cancer-regulation-of-inositol-1-4-5-trisphosphate-receptors-through-oncogenes-and-tumor-suppressors
#20
REVIEW
Hideaki Ando, Katsuhiro Kawaai, Benjamin Bonneau, Katsuhiko Mikoshiba
The calcium ion (Ca2+) is a ubiquitous intracellular signaling molecule that regulates diverse physiological and pathological processes, including cancer. Increasing evidence indicates that oncogenes and tumor suppressors regulate the Ca2+ transport systems. Inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3) receptors (IP3Rs) are IP3-activated Ca2+ release channels located on the endoplasmic reticulum (ER). They play pivotal roles in the regulation of cell death and survival by controlling Ca2+ transfer from the ER to mitochondria through mitochondria-associated ER membranes (MAMs)...
December 20, 2017: Advances in Biological Regulation
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