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https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28432755/mitochondria-and-ageing-role-in-heart-skeletal-muscle-and-adipose-tissue
#1
REVIEW
Kerstin Boengler, Maik Kosiol, Manuel Mayr, Rainer Schulz, Susanne Rohrbach
Age is the most important risk factor for most diseases. Mitochondria play a central role in bioenergetics and metabolism. In addition, several lines of evidence indicate the impact of mitochondria in lifespan determination and ageing. The best-known hypothesis to explain ageing is the free radical theory, which proposes that cells, organs, and organisms age because they accumulate reactive oxygen species (ROS) damage over time. Mitochondria play a central role as the principle source of intracellular ROS, which are mainly formed at the level of complex I and III of the respiratory chain...
April 21, 2017: Journal of Cachexia, Sarcopenia and Muscle
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28431972/mitochondrial-energy-metabolism-of-rat-hippocampus-after-treatment-with-the-antidepressants-desipramine-and-fluoxetine
#2
Roberto Federico Villa, Federica Ferrari, Laura Bagini, Antonella Gorini, Nicoletta Brunello, Fabio Tascedda
Alterations in mitochondrial functions have been hypothesized to participate in the pathogenesis of depression, because brain bioenergetic abnormalities have been detected in depressed patients by neuroimaging in vivo studies. However, this hypothesis is not clearly demonstrated in experimental studies: some suggest that antidepressants are inhibitors of mitochondrial metabolism, while others observe the opposite. In this study, the effects of 21-day treatment with desipramine (15 mg/kg) and fluoxetine (10 mg/kg) were examined on the energy metabolism of rat hippocampus, evaluating the catalytic activity of regulatory enzymes of mitochondrial energy-yielding metabolic pathways...
April 18, 2017: Neuropharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429309/%C3%AE-ketoadipic-acid-and-%C3%AE-aminoadipic-acid-cause-disturbance-of-glutamatergic-neurotransmission-and-induction-of-oxidative-stress-in-vitro-in-brain-of-adolescent-rats
#3
Janaína Camacho da Silva, Alexandre Umpierrez Amaral, Cristiane Cecatto, Alessandro Wajner, Kálita Dos Santos Godoy, Rafael Teixeira Ribeiro, Aline de Mello Gonçalves, Ângela Zanatta, Mateus Struecker da Rosa, Samanta Oliveira Loureiro, Carmen Regla Vargas, Guilhian Leipnitz, Diogo Onofre Gomes de Souza, Moacir Wajner
Tissue accumulation of α-ketoadipic (KAA) and α-aminoadipic (AAA) acids is the biochemical hallmark of α-ketoadipic aciduria. This inborn error of metabolism is currently considered a biochemical phenotype with uncertain clinical significance. Considering that KAA and AAA are structurally similar to α-ketoglutarate and glutamate, respectively, we investigated the in vitro effects of these compounds on glutamatergic neurotransmission in the brain of adolescent rats. Bioenergetics and redox homeostasis were also investigated because they represent fundamental systems for brain development and functioning...
April 20, 2017: Neurotoxicity Research
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28429306/mitochondrial-function-in-allergic-disease
#4
REVIEW
Divyaanka Iyer, Navya Mishra, Anurag Agrawal
PURPOSE OF THE REVIEW: The connections between allergy, asthma and metabolic syndrome are becoming increasingly clear. Recent research suggests a unifying mitochondrial link between the diverse phenotypes of these interlinked morbidities. The scope of this review is to highlight cellular mechanisms, epidemiology and environmental allergens influencing mitochondrial function and its importance in allergy and asthma. We briefly also consider the potential of mitochondria-targeted therapies in prevention and cure...
May 2017: Current Allergy and Asthma Reports
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28427560/stress-adaptive-response-in-ovarian-cancer-drug-resistance-role-of-trap1-in-oxidative-metabolism-driven-inflammation
#5
Maria Rosaria Amoroso, Danilo Swann Matassa, Ilenia Agliarulo, Rosario Avolio, Francesca Maddalena, Valentina Condelli, Matteo Landriscina, Franca Esposito
Metabolic reprogramming is one of the most frequent stress-adaptive response of cancer cells to survive environmental changes and meet increasing nutrient requirements during their growth. These modifications involve cellular bioenergetics and cross talk with surrounding microenvironment, in a dynamic network that connect different molecular processes, such as energy production, inflammatory response, and drug resistance. Even though the Warburg effect has long been considered the main metabolic feature of cancer cells, recent reports identify mitochondrial oxidative metabolism as a driving force for tumor growth in an increasing number of cellular contexts...
2017: Advances in Protein Chemistry and Structural Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426671/effect-of-mitochondrially-targeted-carboxy-proxyl-nitroxide-on-akt-mediated-survival-in-daudi-cells-significance-of-a-dual-mode-of-action
#6
Gokul Variar, Tarun Pant, Apoorva Singh, Abinaya Ravichandran, Sushant Swami, Balaraman Kalyanaraman, Anuradha Dhanasekaran
Vicious cycles of mutations and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation contribute to cancer progression. The use of antioxidants to inhibit ROS generation promotes cytostasis by affecting the mutation cycle and ROS-dependent survival signaling. However, cancer cells select mutations to elevate ROS albeit maintaining mitochondrial hyperpolarization (Δψm), even under hypoxia. From this perspective, the use of drugs that disrupt both ROS generation and Δψm is a viable anticancer strategy. Hence, we studied the effects of mitochondrially targeted carboxy proxyl nitroxide (Mito-CP) and a control ten carbon TPP moiety (Dec-TPP+) in the human Burkitt lymphoma cell line (Daudi) and normal peripheral blood mononuclear cells under hypoxia and normoxia...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28426667/bioenergetic-status-modulates-motor-neuron-vulnerability-and-pathogenesis-in-a-zebrafish-model-of-spinal-muscular-atrophy
#7
Penelope J Boyd, Wen-Yo Tu, Hannah K Shorrock, Ewout J N Groen, Roderick N Carter, Rachael A Powis, Sophie R Thomson, Derek Thomson, Laura C Graham, Anna A L Motyl, Thomas M Wishart, J Robin Highley, Nicholas M Morton, Thomas Becker, Catherina G Becker, Paul R Heath, Thomas H Gillingwater
Degeneration and loss of lower motor neurons is the major pathological hallmark of spinal muscular atrophy (SMA), resulting from low levels of ubiquitously-expressed survival motor neuron (SMN) protein. One remarkable, yet unresolved, feature of SMA is that not all motor neurons are equally affected, with some populations displaying a robust resistance to the disease. Here, we demonstrate that selective vulnerability of distinct motor neuron pools arises from fundamental modifications to their basal molecular profiles...
April 20, 2017: PLoS Genetics
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28424621/activation-of-sirtuin-3-by-silybin-attenuates-mitochondrial-dysfunction-in-cisplatin-induced-acute-kidney-injury
#8
Yin Li, Zengchun Ye, Weiyan Lai, Jialing Rao, Wanbing Huang, Xiaohao Zhang, Ziying Yao, Tanqi Lou
Silybin is a secondary metabolite isolated from the seeds of blessed milk thistle (Silybum marianum) that has anti-inflammatory, antioxidative, antifibrotic, and antitumor properties. Here, we showed that silybin protected against cisplatin-induced acute kidney injury (AKI) by improving mitochondrial function through the regulation of sirtuin 3 (SIRT3) expression. Male SV129 and SIRT3 knockout (KO) mice were administered a single intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of cisplatin with or without treatment with silybin...
2017: Frontiers in Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28421160/the-unfolded-protein-response-at-the-intersection-between-endoplasmic-reticulum-function-and-mitochondrial-bioenergetics
#9
REVIEW
Amado Carreras-Sureda, Philippe Pihán, Claudio Hetz
Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) to mitochondria communication has emerged in recent years as a signaling hub regulating cellular physiology with a relevant contribution to diseases including cancer and neurodegeneration. This functional integration is exerted through discrete interorganelle structures known as mitochondria-associated membranes (MAMs). At these domains, ER/mitochondria physically associate to dynamically adjust metabolic demands and the response to stress stimuli. Here, we provide a focused overview of how the ER shapes the function of the mitochondria, giving a special emphasis to the significance of local signaling of the unfolded protein response at MAMs...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28415782/glutaminase-inhibitor-cb-839-synergizes-with-carfilzomib-in-resistant-multiple-myeloma-cells
#10
Ravyn M Thompson, Dominik Dytfeld, Leticia Reyes, Reeder M Robinson, Brittany Smith, Yefim Manevich, Andrzej Jakubowiak, Mieczyslaw Komarnicki, Anna Przybylowicz-Chalecka, Tomasz Szczepaniak, Amit K Mitra, Brian G Van Ness, Magdalena Luczak, Nathan G Dolloff
Curative responses in the treatment of multiple myeloma (MM) are limited by the emergence of therapeutic resistance. To address this problem, we set out to identify druggable mechanisms that convey resistance to proteasome inhibitors (PIs; e.g., bortezomib), which are cornerstone agents in the treatment of MM. In isogenic pairs of PI sensitive and resistant cells, we observed stark differences in cellular bioenergetics between the divergent phenotypes. PI resistant cells exhibited increased mitochondrial respiration driven by glutamine as the principle fuel source...
March 16, 2017: Oncotarget
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28414736/catchment-vegetation-and-temperature-mediating-trophic-interactions-and-production-in-plankton-communities
#11
Anders G Finstad, Erlend B Nilsen, Ditte K Hendrichsen, Niels Martin Schmidt
Climatic factors influence the interactions among trophic levels in an ecosystem in multiple ways. However, whereas most studies focus on single factors in isolation, mainly due to interrelation and correlation among drivers complicating interpretation and analyses, there are still only few studies on how multiple ecosystems respond to climate related factors at the same time. Here, we use a hierarchical Bayesian model with a bioenergetic predator-prey framework to study how different climatic factors affect trophic interactions and production in small Arctic lakes...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28410346/improved-survival-in-a-long-term-rat-model-of-sepsis-is-associated-with-reduced-mitochondrial-calcium-uptake-despite-increased-energetic-demand
#12
Bernardo B Pinto, Alex Dyson, Michele Umbrello, Jane E Carré, Cristiane Ritter, Innes Clatworthy, Michael R Duchen, Mervyn Singer
OBJECTIVES: To investigate the relationship between prognosis, changes in mitochondrial calcium uptake, and bioenergetic status in the heart during sepsis. DESIGN: In vivo and ex vivo controlled experimental studies. SETTING: University research laboratory. SUBJECTS: Male adult Wistar rats. INTERVENTIONS: Sepsis was induced by intraperitoneal injection of fecal slurry. Sham-operated animals served as controls...
April 13, 2017: Critical Care Medicine
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408494/o-glcnacylation-and-cardiovascular-disease
#13
REVIEW
JaLessa N Wright, Helen E Collins, Adam R Wende, John C Chatham
The post-translational modification of serine and threonine residues of proteins found in numerous subcellular locations by O-linked N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) is emerging as a key mediator of many cardiovascular pathophysiological processes. Early studies implicated increased protein O-GlcNAcylation as contributing to the cardiovascular complications associated with diabetes, whereas subsequent studies demonstrated that acute increases in O-GlcNAc levels were protective against ischemia/reperfusion injury...
April 15, 2017: Biochemical Society Transactions
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28408315/the-corr-hypothesis-for-genes-in-organelles
#14
John F Allen
Chloroplasts and mitochondria perform energy transduction in photosynthesis and respiration. These processes can be described in physico-chemical terms with no obvious requirement for co-located genetic systems, separated from those of the rest of the cell. Accordingly, biochemists once tended to regard endosymbiosis as untestable evolutionary speculation. Lynn Sagan's seminal 1967 paper "On the Origin of Mitosing Cells" outlined the evolution of eukaryotic cells by endosymbiosis of prokaryotes. The endosymbiont hypothesis is consistent with presence of DNA in chloroplasts and mitochondria, but does not assign it a function...
April 10, 2017: Journal of Theoretical Biology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405779/multidirectional-inhibition-of-cortico-hippocampal-neurodegeneration-by-kolaviron-treatment-in-rats
#15
Olayemi Joseph Olajide, Nnaemeka Tobechukwu Asogwa, Blessing Oluwapelumi Moses, Christiana Bidemi Oyegbola
Earliest signs of neurodegenerative cascades in the course of Alzheimer's disease (AD) are seen within the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and hippocampus, with pathological evidences in both cortical structures correlating with manifestation of behavioural and cognitive deficits. Despite the enormous problems associated with AD's clinical manifestations in sufferers, therapeutic advances for the disorder are still very limited. Therefore, this study examined cortico-hippocampal microstructures in models of AD, and evaluated the possible beneficial roles of kolaviron (Kv)-a biflavonoid complex in rats...
April 13, 2017: Metabolic Brain Disease
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405578/the-chaperone-trap1-as-a-modulator-of-the-mitochondrial-adaptations-in-cancer-cells
#16
REVIEW
Ionica Masgras, Carlos Sanchez-Martin, Giorgio Colombo, Andrea Rasola
Mitochondria can receive, integrate, and transmit a variety of signals to shape many biochemical activities of the cell. In the process of tumor onset and growth, mitochondria contribute to the capability of cells of escaping death insults, handling changes in ROS levels, rewiring metabolism, and reprograming gene expression. Therefore, mitochondria can tune the bioenergetic and anabolic needs of neoplastic cells in a rapid and flexible way, and these adaptations are required for cell survival and proliferation in the fluctuating environment of a rapidly growing tumor mass...
2017: Frontiers in Oncology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28405350/quantifying-the-energy-stores-of-capital-breeding-humpback-whales-and-income-breeding-sperm-whales-using-historical-whaling-records
#17
Lyn G Irvine, Michele Thums, Christine E Hanson, Clive R McMahon, Mark A Hindell
Cetacean energy stores are known to vary according to life history, reproductive status and time of year; however, the opportunity to quantify these relationships is rare. Using a unique set of historical whaling records from Western Australia (1952-1963), we investigated energy stores of large cetaceans with differing life histories, and quantified the relationship between total body lipid and length for humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) (n = 905) and sperm whales (Physeter macrocephalus) (n = 1961)...
March 2017: Royal Society Open Science
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28404377/h2s-induced-s-sulfhydration-of-lactate-dehydrogenase-a-ldha-stimulates-cellular-bioenergetics-in-hct116-colon-cancer-cells
#18
Ashley A Untereiner, Gabor Oláh, Katalin Módis, Mark R Hellmich, Csaba Szabo
Cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) is upregulated and hydrogen sulfide (H2S) production is increased in colon cancer cells. The functional consequence of this response is stimulation of cellular bioenergetics and tumor growth and proliferation. Lactate dehydrogenase A (LDHA) is also upregulated in various colon cancer cells and has been previously implicated in tumor cell bioenergetics and proliferation. In the present study, we sought to determine the potential interaction between the H2S pathway and LDH activity in the control of bioenergetics and proliferation of colon cancer, using the colon cancer line HCT116...
April 9, 2017: Biochemical Pharmacology
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28403142/melatonin-protects-rats-from-radiotherapy-induced-small-intestine-toxicity
#19
Beatriz Fernández-Gil, Ahmed E Abdel Moneim, Francisco Ortiz, Ying-Qiang Shen, Viviana Soto-Mercado, Miguel Mendivil-Perez, Ana Guerra-Librero, Darío Acuña-Castroviejo, María M Molina-Navarro, José M García-Verdugo, Ramy K A Sayed, Javier Florido, Juan D Luna, Luis Carlos López, Germaine Escames
Radiotherapy-induced gut toxicity is among the most prevalent dose-limiting toxicities following radiotherapy. Prevention of radiation enteropathy requires protection of the small intestine. However, despite the prevalence and burden of this pathology, there are currently no effective treatments for radiotherapy-induced gut toxicity, and this pathology remains unclear. The present study aimed to investigate the changes induced in the rat small intestine after external irradiation of the tongue, and to explore the potential radio-protective effects of melatonin gel...
2017: PloS One
https://www.readbyqxmd.com/read/28402325/the-bioenergetics-of-inflammation-insights-into-obesity-and-type-2-diabetes
#20
REVIEW
K N Keane, E K Calton, R Carlessi, P H Hart, P Newsholme
Diabetes mellitus is one of the most common chronic metabolic disorders worldwide, and its incidence in Asian countries is alarmingly high. Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is closely associated with obesity, and the staggering rise in obesity is one of the primary factors related to the increased frequency of T2DM. Low-grade chronic inflammation is also accepted as an integral metabolic adaption in obesity and T2DM, and is believed to be a major player in the onset of insulin resistance. However, the exact mechanism(s) that cause a persistent chronic low-grade infiltration of leukocytes into insulin-target tissues such as adipose, skeletal muscle and liver are not entirely known...
April 12, 2017: European Journal of Clinical Nutrition
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